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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



8234
New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 7.9


εἰ δὲ οὐκ ἐγκρατεύονται, γαμησάτωσαν, κρεῖττον γάρ ἐστιν γαμεῖν ἢ πυροῦσθαι.But if they don't have self-control, let them marry. Forit's better to marry than to burn.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

42 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 23.1 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

23.1. לֹא־יִקַּח אִישׁ אֶת־אֵשֶׁת אָבִיו וְלֹא יְגַלֶּה כְּנַף אָבִיו׃ 23.1. כִּי־תֵצֵא מַחֲנֶה עַל־אֹיְבֶיךָ וְנִשְׁמַרְתָּ מִכֹּל דָּבָר רָע׃ 23.1. A man shall not take his father’s wife, and shall not uncover his father’s skirt."
2. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 2.24, 29.19 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

2.24. עַל־כֵּן יַעֲזָב־אִישׁ אֶת־אָבִיו וְאֶת־אִמּוֹ וְדָבַק בְּאִשְׁתּוֹ וְהָיוּ לְבָשָׂר אֶחָד׃ 29.19. וַיֹּאמֶר לָבָן טוֹב תִּתִּי אֹתָהּ לָךְ מִתִּתִּי אֹתָהּ לְאִישׁ אַחֵר שְׁבָה עִמָּדִי׃ 2.24. Therefore shall a man leave his father and his mother, and shall cleave unto his wife, and they shall be one flesh." 29.19. And Laban said: ‘It is better that I give her to thee, than that I should give her to another man; abide with me.’"
3. Hebrew Bible, Job, 24.15 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

24.15. וְעֵין נֹאֵף שָׁמְרָה נֶשֶׁף לֵאמֹר לֹא־תְשׁוּרֵנִי עָיִן וְסֵתֶר פָּנִים יָשִׂים׃ 24.15. The eye also of the adulterer waiteth for the twilight, Saying: ‘No eye shall see me’; And he putteth a covering on his face. ."
4. Hebrew Bible, Proverbs, 6.32 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

6.32. נֹאֵף אִשָּׁה חֲסַר־לֵב מַשְׁחִית נַפְשׁוֹ הוּא יַעֲשֶׂנָּה׃ 6.32. He that committeth adultery with a woman lacketh understanding; He doeth it that would destroy his own soul."
5. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 7.9 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

7.9. הֲגָנֹב רָצֹחַ וְנָאֹף וְהִשָּׁבֵעַ לַשֶּׁקֶר וְקַטֵּר לַבָּעַל וְהָלֹךְ אַחֲרֵי אֱלֹהִים אֲחֵרִים אֲשֶׁר לֹא־יְדַעְתֶּם׃ 7.9. Will ye steal, murder, and commit adultery, and swear falsely, and offer unto Baal, and walk after other gods whom ye have not known,"
6. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 16.32 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

16.32. הָאִשָּׁה הַמְּנָאָפֶת תַּחַת אִישָׁהּ תִּקַּח אֶת־זָרִים׃ 16.32. Thou wife that committest adultery, that takest strangers instead of thy husband—"
7. Xenophon, Memoirs, 2.2.4-2.2.5 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

2.2.4. of course you don’t suppose that lust provokes men to beget children, when the streets and the stews are full of means to satisfy that? We obviously select for wives the women who will bear us the best children, and then marry them to raise a family. 2.2.5. The man supports the woman who is to share with him the duty of parentage and provides for the expected children whatever he thinks will contribute to their benefit in life, and accumulates as much of it as he can. The woman conceives and bears her burden in travail, risking her life, and giving of her own food; and, with much labour, having endured to the end and brought forth her child, she rears and cares for it, although she has not received any good thing, and the babe neither recognises its benefactress nor can make its wants known to her: still she guesses what is good for it and what it likes, and seeks to supply these things, and rears it for a long season, enduring toil day and night, nothing knowing what return she will get.
8. Philo of Alexandria, On The Decalogue, 114-118, 113 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

9. Philo of Alexandria, On The Special Laws, 3.9 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

3.9. Therefore, even that pleasure which is in accordance with nature is often open to blame, when any one indulges in it immoderately and insatiably, as men who are unappeasably voracious in respect of eating, even if they take no kind of forbidden or unwholesome food; and as men who are madly devoted to association with women, and who commit themselves to an immoderate degree not with other men's wives, but with their own.
10. Clement of Rome, 2 Clement, 12.2 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

12.2. ἐπερωτηθεὶς γὰρ αὐτὸς ὁ κύριος ὑπό τινος, Ev Aegypt. (1) πότε ἥξει αὐτοῦ ἡ βασιλεία, εἶπεν: Ὅταν ἔσται τὰ δύο ἕν, καὶ τὸ ἔξω ὡς τὸ ἔσω, καὶ τὸ ἄρσεν μετὰ τῆς θηλείας οὔτε ἅρσεν οὔτε θῆλυ.
11. Dio Chrysostom, Orations, 14.18 (1st cent. CE

14.18.  Dio. Therefore we are forced to define freedom as the knowledge of what is allowable and what is forbidden, and slavery as ignorance of what is allowed and what is not. According to this definition there is nothing to prevent the Great King, while wearing a very tall tiara upon his head, from being a slave and not being allowed to do anything that he does; for every act that he performs will bring a penalty and be unprofitable. But some other man who is regarded as a slave and is so called, who has not once but often, if it so chance, been sold, and if it should so happen, wears very heavy fetters, will be more free than the Great King.
12. Epictetus, Discourses, 1.1.21 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

13. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 2.119-2.161 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.119. 2. For there are three philosophical sects among the Jews. The followers of the first of which are the Pharisees; of the second, the Sadducees; and the third sect, which pretends to a severer discipline, are called Essenes. These last are Jews by birth, and seem to have a greater affection for one another than the other sects have. 2.121. They do not absolutely deny the fitness of marriage, and the succession of mankind thereby continued; but they guard against the lascivious behavior of women, and are persuaded that none of them preserve their fidelity to one man. 2.122. 3. These men are despisers of riches, and so very communicative as raises our admiration. Nor is there anyone to be found among them who hath more than another; for it is a law among them, that those who come to them must let what they have be common to the whole order,—insomuch that among them all there is no appearance of poverty, or excess of riches, but every one’s possessions are intermingled with every other’s possessions; and so there is, as it were, one patrimony among all the brethren. 2.123. They think that oil is a defilement; and if anyone of them be anointed without his own approbation, it is wiped off his body; for they think to be sweaty is a good thing, as they do also to be clothed in white garments. They also have stewards appointed to take care of their common affairs, who every one of them have no separate business for any, but what is for the use of them all. 2.124. 4. They have no one certain city, but many of them dwell in every city; and if any of their sect come from other places, what they have lies open for them, just as if it were their own; and they go in to such as they never knew before, as if they had been ever so long acquainted with them. 2.125. For which reason they carry nothing at all with them when they travel into remote parts, though still they take their weapons with them, for fear of thieves. Accordingly, there is, in every city where they live, one appointed particularly to take care of strangers, and to provide garments and other necessaries for them. 2.126. But the habit and management of their bodies is such as children use who are in fear of their masters. Nor do they allow of the change of garments, or of shoes, till they be first entirely torn to pieces or worn out by time. 2.127. Nor do they either buy or sell anything to one another; but every one of them gives what he hath to him that wanteth it, and receives from him again in lieu of it what may be convenient for himself; and although there be no requital made, they are fully allowed to take what they want of whomsoever they please. 2.128. 5. And as for their piety towards God, it is very extraordinary; for before sunrising they speak not a word about profane matters, but put up certain prayers which they have received from their forefathers, as if they made a supplication for its rising. 2.129. After this every one of them are sent away by their curators, to exercise some of those arts wherein they are skilled, in which they labor with great diligence till the fifth hour. After which they assemble themselves together again into one place; and when they have clothed themselves in white veils, they then bathe their bodies in cold water. And after this purification is over, they every one meet together in an apartment of their own, into which it is not permitted to any of another sect to enter; while they go, after a pure manner, into the dining-room, as into a certain holy temple 2.131. but a priest says grace before meat; and it is unlawful for anyone to taste of the food before grace be said. The same priest, when he hath dined, says grace again after meat; and when they begin, and when they end, they praise God, as he that bestows their food upon them; after which they lay aside their [white] garments, and betake themselves to their labors again till the evening; 2.132. then they return home to supper, after the same manner; and if there be any strangers there, they sit down with them. Nor is there ever any clamor or disturbance to pollute their house, but they give every one leave to speak in their turn; 2.133. which silence thus kept in their house appears to foreigners like some tremendous mystery; the cause of which is that perpetual sobriety they exercise, and the same settled measure of meat and drink that is allotted to them, and that such as is abundantly sufficient for them. 2.134. 6. And truly, as for other things, they do nothing but according to the injunctions of their curators; only these two things are done among them at everyone’s own free will, which are to assist those that want it, and to show mercy; for they are permitted of their own accord to afford succor to such as deserve it, when they stand in need of it, and to bestow food on those that are in distress; but they cannot give any thing to their kindred without the curators. 2.135. They dispense their anger after a just manner, and restrain their passion. They are eminent for fidelity, and are the ministers of peace; whatsoever they say also is firmer than an oath; but swearing is avoided by them, and they esteem it worse than perjury for they say that he who cannot be believed without [swearing by] God is already condemned. 2.136. They also take great pains in studying the writings of the ancients, and choose out of them what is most for the advantage of their soul and body; and they inquire after such roots and medicinal stones as may cure their distempers. 2.137. 7. But now, if anyone hath a mind to come over to their sect, he is not immediately admitted, but he is prescribed the same method of living which they use, for a year, while he continues excluded; and they give him also a small hatchet, and the fore-mentioned girdle, and the white garment. 2.138. And when he hath given evidence, during that time, that he can observe their continence, he approaches nearer to their way of living, and is made a partaker of the waters of purification; yet is he not even now admitted to live with them; for after this demonstration of his fortitude, his temper is tried two more years; and if he appear to be worthy, they then admit him into their society. 2.139. And before he is allowed to touch their common food, he is obliged to take tremendous oaths, that, in the first place, he will exercise piety towards God, and then that he will observe justice towards men, and that he will do no harm to any one, either of his own accord, or by the command of others; that he will always hate the wicked, and be assistant to the righteous; 2.141. that he will be perpetually a lover of truth, and propose to himself to reprove those that tell lies; that he will keep his hands clear from theft, and his soul from unlawful gains; and that he will neither conceal anything from those of his own sect, nor discover any of their doctrines to others, no, not though anyone should compel him so to do at the hazard of his life. 2.142. Moreover, he swears to communicate their doctrines to no one any otherwise than as he received them himself; that he will abstain from robbery, and will equally preserve the books belonging to their sect, and the names of the angels [or messengers]. These are the oaths by which they secure their proselytes to themselves. 2.143. 8. But for those that are caught in any heinous sins, they cast them out of their society; and he who is thus separated from them does often die after a miserable manner; for as he is bound by the oath he hath taken, and by the customs he hath been engaged in, he is not at liberty to partake of that food that he meets with elsewhere, but is forced to eat grass, and to famish his body with hunger, till he perish; 2.144. for which reason they receive many of them again when they are at their last gasp, out of compassion to them, as thinking the miseries they have endured till they came to the very brink of death to be a sufficient punishment for the sins they had been guilty of. 2.145. 9. But in the judgments they exercise they are most accurate and just, nor do they pass sentence by the votes of a court that is fewer than a hundred. And as to what is once determined by that number, it is unalterable. What they most of all honor, after God himself, is the name of their legislator [Moses], whom, if anyone blaspheme, he is punished capitally. 2.146. They also think it a good thing to obey their elders, and the major part. Accordingly, if ten of them be sitting together, no one of them will speak while the other nine are against it. 2.147. They also avoid spitting in the midst of them, or on the right side. Moreover, they are stricter than any other of the Jews in resting from their labors on the seventh day; for they not only get their food ready the day before, that they may not be obliged to kindle a fire on that day, but they will not remove any vessel out of its place, nor go to stool thereon. 2.148. Nay, on theother days they dig a small pit, a foot deep, with a paddle (which kind of hatchet is given them when they are first admitted among them); and covering themselves round with their garment, that they may not affront the Divine rays of light, they ease themselves into that pit 2.149. after which they put the earth that was dug out again into the pit; and even this they do only in the more lonely places, which they choose out for this purpose; and although this easement of the body be natural, yet it is a rule with them to wash themselves after it, as if it were a defilement to them. 2.151. They are long-lived also, insomuch that many of them live above a hundred years, by means of the simplicity of their diet; nay, as I think, by means of the regular course of life they observe also. They condemn the miseries of life, and are above pain, by the generosity of their mind. And as for death, if it will be for their glory, they esteem it better than living always; 2.152. and indeed our war with the Romans gave abundant evidence what great souls they had in their trials, wherein, although they were tortured and distorted, burnt and torn to pieces, and went through all kinds of instruments of torment, that they might be forced either to blaspheme their legislator, or to eat what was forbidden them, yet could they not be made to do either of them, no, nor once to flatter their tormentors, or to shed a tear; 2.153. but they smiled in their very pains, and laughed those to scorn who inflicted the torments upon them, and resigned up their souls with great alacrity, as expecting to receive them again. 2.154. 11. For their doctrine is this: That bodies are corruptible, and that the matter they are made of is not permanent; but that the souls are immortal, and continue forever; and that they come out of the most subtile air, and are united to their bodies as to prisons, into which they are drawn by a certain natural enticement; 2.155. but that when they are set free from the bonds of the flesh, they then, as released from a long bondage, rejoice and mount upward. And this is like the opinions of the Greeks, that good souls have their habitations beyond the ocean, in a region that is neither oppressed with storms of rain or snow, or with intense heat, but that this place is such as is refreshed by the gentle breathing of a west wind, that is perpetually blowing from the ocean; while they allot to bad souls a dark and tempestuous den, full of never-ceasing punishments. 2.156. And indeed the Greeks seem to me to have followed the same notion, when they allot the islands of the blessed to their brave men, whom they call heroes and demigods; and to the souls of the wicked, the region of the ungodly, in Hades, where their fables relate that certain persons, such as Sisyphus, and Tantalus, and Ixion, and Tityus, are punished; which is built on this first supposition, that souls are immortal; and thence are those exhortations to virtue, and dehortations from wickedness collected; 2.157. whereby good men are bettered in the conduct of their life by the hope they have of reward after their death; and whereby the vehement inclinations of bad men to vice are restrained, by the fear and expectation they are in, that although they should lie concealed in this life, they should suffer immortal punishment after their death. 2.158. These are the Divine doctrines of the Essenes about the soul, which lay an unavoidable bait for such as have once had a taste of their philosophy. 2.159. 12. There are also those among them who undertake to foretell things to come, by reading the holy books, and using several sorts of purifications, and being perpetually conversant in the discourses of the prophets; and it is but seldom that they miss in their predictions. 2.161. However, they try their spouses for three years; and if they find that they have their natural purgations thrice, as trials that they are likely to be fruitful, they then actually marry them. But they do not use to accompany with their wives when they are with child, as a demonstration that they do not marry out of regard to pleasure, but for the sake of posterity. Now the women go into the baths with some of their garments on, as the men do with somewhat girded about them. And these are the customs of this order of Essenes.
14. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, None (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.10. Now Ibeg you, brothers, through the name of our Lord, Jesus Christ, that youall speak the same thing and that there be no divisions among you, butthat you be perfected together in the same mind and in the samejudgment.
15. New Testament, 1 Thessalonians, 1.1, 1.9, 4.8-4.12 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.1. Paul, Silvanus, and Timothy, to the assembly of the Thessalonians in God the Father and the Lord Jesus Christ: Grace to you and peace from God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ. 1.9. For they themselves report concerning us what kind of a reception we had from you; and how you turned to God from idols, to serve a living and true God 4.8. Therefore he who rejects doesn't reject man, but God, who has also given his Holy Spirit to you. 4.9. But concerning brotherly love, you have no need that one write to you. For you yourselves are taught by God to love one another 4.10. for indeed you do it toward all the brothers who are in all Macedonia. But we exhort you, brothers, that you abound more and more; 4.11. and that you make it your ambition to lead a quiet life, and to do your own business, and to work with your own hands, even as we charged you; 4.12. that you may walk properly toward those who are outside, and may have need of nothing.
16. New Testament, 1 Timothy, 2.9-2.12, 2.15, 3.1-3.7, 3.9, 3.11-3.12, 4.1-4.5, 5.3-5.15 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.9. In the same way, that women also adorn themselves in decent clothing, with modesty and propriety; not just with braided hair, gold, pearls, or expensive clothing; 2.10. but (which becomes women professing godliness) with good works. 2.11. Let a woman learn in quietness with all subjection. 2.12. But I don't permit a woman to teach, nor to exercise authority over a man, but to be in quietness. 2.15. but she will be saved through her child-bearing, if they continue in faith, love, and sanctification with sobriety. 3.1. This is a faithful saying: if a man seeks the office of an overseer, he desires a good work. 3.2. The overseer therefore must be without reproach, the husband of one wife, temperate, sensible, modest, hospitable, good at teaching; 3.3. not a drinker, not violent, not greedy for money, but gentle, not quarrelsome, not covetous; 3.4. one who rules his own house well, having children in subjection with all reverence; 3.5. (but if a man doesn't know how to rule his own house, how will he take care of the assembly of God?) 3.6. not a new convert, lest being puffed up he fall into the same condemnation as the devil. 3.7. Moreover he must have good testimony from those who are outside, to avoid falling into reproach and the snare of the devil. 3.9. holding the mystery of the faith in a pure conscience. 3.11. Their wives in the same way must be reverent, not slanderers, temperate, faithful in all things. 3.12. Let deacons be husbands of one wife, ruling their children and their own houses well. 4.1. But the Spirit says expressly that in later times some will fall away from the faith, paying attention to seducing spirits and doctrines of demons 4.2. through the hypocrisy of men who speak lies, branded in their own conscience as with a hot iron; 4.3. forbidding marriage and commanding to abstain from foods which God created to be received with thanksgiving by those who believe and know the truth. 4.4. For every creature of God is good, and nothing is to be rejected, if it is received with thanksgiving. 4.5. For it is sanctified through the word of God and prayer. 5.3. Honor widows who are widows indeed. 5.4. But if any widow has children or grandchildren, let them learn first to show piety towards their own family, and to repay their parents, for this is acceptable in the sight of God. 5.5. Now she who is a widow indeed, and desolate, has her hope set on God, and continues in petitions and prayers night and day. 5.6. But she who gives herself to pleasure is dead while she lives. 5.7. Also command these things, that they may be without reproach. 5.8. But if anyone doesn't provide for his own, and especially his own household, he has denied the faith, and is worse than an unbeliever. 5.9. Let no one be enrolled as a widow under sixty years old, having been the wife of one man 5.10. being approved by good works, if she has brought up children, if she has been hospitable to strangers, if she has washed the saints' feet, if she has relieved the afflicted, and if she has diligently followed every good work. 5.11. But refuse younger widows, for when they have grown wanton against Christ, they desire to marry; 5.12. having condemnation, because they have rejected their first pledge. 5.13. Besides, they also learn to be idle, going about from house to house. Not only idle, but also gossips and busybodies, saying things which they ought not. 5.14. I desire therefore that the younger widows marry, bear children, rule the household, and give no occasion to the adversary for reviling. 5.15. For already some have turned aside after Satan.
17. New Testament, 2 Corinthians, 1.1-2.13, 2.14-6.13, 6.14-7.1, 6.16, 6.17, 6.18, 7.1, 7.2, 7.3, 7.4, 7.5, 7.6, 7.7, 7.8, 7.9, 7.10, 7.11, 7.12, 7.13, 7.14, 7.15, 7.16, 7.17, 7.18, 7.19, 7.20, 7.21, 7.22, 7.23, 7.24, 7.25, 7.26, 7.27, 7.28, 7.29, 7.30, 7.31, 7.32, 7.33, 7.34, 7.35, 7.36, 7.37, 7.38, 7.39, 7.40, 8, 9, 10.1-13.13, 11.2, 11.3, 11.5, 11.24, 11.25 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

18. New Testament, 2 Timothy, 2.18, 3.6-3.8 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.18. men who have erred concerning the truth, saying that the resurrection is already past, and overthrowing the faith of some. 3.6. For of these are those who creep into houses, and take captive gullible women loaded down with sins, led away by various lusts 3.7. always learning, and never able to come to the knowledge of the truth. 3.8. Even as Jannes and Jambres opposed Moses, so do these also oppose the truth; men corrupted in mind, reprobate concerning the faith.
19. New Testament, Acts, 9.4, 14.23, 20.35, 22.2, 22.7, 26.14 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

9.4. He fell on the earth, and heard a voice saying to him, "Saul, Saul, why do you persecute me? 14.23. When they had appointed elders for them in every assembly, and had prayed with fasting, they commended them to the Lord, on whom they had believed. 20.35. In all things I gave you an example, that so laboring you ought to help the weak, and to remember the words of the Lord Jesus, that he himself said, 'It is more blessed to give than to receive.' 22.2. When they heard that he spoke to them in the Hebrew language, they were even more quiet. He said 22.7. I fell to the ground, and heard a voice saying to me, 'Saul, Saul, why do you persecute me?' 26.14. When we had all fallen to the earth, I heard a voice saying to me in the Hebrew language, 'Saul, Saul, why do you persecute me? It is hard for you to kick against the goads.'
20. New Testament, Apocalypse, 3.20 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.20. Behold, I stand at the door and knock. If anyone hears my voice and opens the door, then I will come in to him, and will dine with him, and he with me.
21. New Testament, Philemon, 11-20, 10 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

22. New Testament, Colossians, 3.11 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.11. where there can't be Greek and Jew, circumcision and uncircumcision, barbarian, Scythian, bondservant, freeman; but Christ is all, and in all.
23. New Testament, Ephesians, 2.21-2.22, 4.24, 5.15-5.33 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.21. in whom the whole building, fitted together, grows into a holy temple in the Lord; 2.22. in whom you also are built together for a habitation of God in the Spirit. 4.24. and put on the new man, who in the likeness of God has been created in righteousness and holiness of truth. 5.15. Therefore watch carefully how you walk, not as unwise, but as wise; 5.16. redeeming the time, because the days are evil. 5.17. Therefore don't be foolish, but understand what the will of the Lord is. 5.18. Don't be drunken with wine, in which is dissipation, but be filled with the Spirit 5.19. speaking to one another in psalms, hymns, and spiritual songs; singing, and singing praises in your heart to the Lord; 5.20. giving thanks always concerning all things in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, to God, even the Father; 5.21. subjecting yourselves one to another in the fear of Christ. 5.22. Wives, be subject to your own husbands, as to the Lord. 5.23. For the husband is the head of the wife, and Christ also is the head of the assembly, being himself the savior of the body. 5.24. But as the assembly is subject to Christ, so let the wives also be to their own husbands in everything. 5.25. Husbands, love your wives, even as Christ also loved the assembly, and gave himself up for it; 5.26. that he might sanctify it, having cleansed it by the washing of water with the word 5.27. that he might present the assembly to himself gloriously, not having spot or wrinkle or any such thing; but that it should be holy and without blemish. 5.28. Even so ought husbands also to love their own wives as their own bodies. He who loves his own wife loves himself. 5.29. For no man ever hated his own flesh; but nourishes and cherishes it, even as the Lord also does the assembly; 5.30. because we are members of his body, of his flesh and bones. 5.31. For this cause a man will leave his father and mother, and will be joined to his wife. The two will become one flesh. 5.32. This mystery is great, but I speak concerning Christ and of the assembly. 5.33. Nevertheless each of you must also love his own wife even as himself; and let the wife see that she respects her husband.
24. New Testament, Galatians, 2.3, 2.6-2.10, 3.1-3.5, 3.26-3.28, 4.8, 4.19, 5.6, 6.2, 6.15 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.3. But not even Titus, whowas with me, being a Greek, was compelled to be circumcised. 2.6. But from those who were reputed to beimportant (whatever they were, it makes no difference to me; Goddoesn't show partiality to man) -- they, I say, who were respectedimparted nothing to me 2.7. but to the contrary, when they saw that Ihad been entrusted with the gospel for the uncircumcision, even asPeter with the gospel for the circumcision 2.8. (for he who appointedPeter to the apostleship of the circumcision appointed me also to theGentiles); 2.9. and when they perceived the grace that was given tome, James and Cephas and John, they who were reputed to be pillars,gave to me and Barnabas the right hand of fellowship, that we should goto the Gentiles, and they to the circumcision. 2.10. They only askedus to remember the poor -- which very thing I was also zealous to do. 3.1. Foolish Galatians, who has bewitched you not to obey thetruth, before whose eyes Jesus Christ was openly set forth among you as crucified? 3.2. I just want to learn this from you. Did you receivethe Spirit by the works of the law, or by hearing of faith? 3.3. Areyou so foolish? Having begun in the Spirit, are you now completed inthe flesh? 3.4. Did you suffer so many things in vain, if it is indeedin vain? 3.5. He therefore who supplies the Spirit to you, and worksmiracles among you, does he do it by the works of the law, or byhearing of faith? 3.26. For you are all sons ofGod, through faith in Christ Jesus. 3.27. For as many of you as werebaptized into Christ have put on Christ. 3.28. There is neither Jewnor Greek, there is neither slave nor free man, there is neither malenor female; for you are all one in Christ Jesus. 4.8. However at that time, not knowing God, youwere in bondage to those who by nature are not gods. 4.19. My little children, of whom I am again in travail untilChrist is formed in you-- 5.6. For in Christ Jesusneither circumcision amounts to anything, nor uncircumcision, but faithworking through love. 6.2. Bear one another'sburdens, and so fulfill the law of Christ. 6.15. For in Christ Jesus neitheris circumcision anything, nor uncircumcision, but a new creation.
25. New Testament, Hebrews, 13.4 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

13.4. Let marriage be held in honor among all, and let the bed be undefiled: but God will judge the sexually immoral and adulterers.
26. New Testament, Philippians, 3.20-3.21, 4.2-4.3 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.20. For our citizenship is in heaven, from where we also wait for a Savior, the Lord Jesus Christ; 3.21. who will change the body of our humiliation to be conformed to the body of his glory, according to the working by which he is able even to subject all things to himself. 4.2. I exhort Euodia, and I exhort Syntyche, to think the same way in the Lord. 4.3. Yes, I beg you also, true yoke-fellow, help these women, for they labored with me in the gospel, with Clement also, and the rest of my fellow workers, whose names are in the book of life.
27. New Testament, Romans, 1.16, 2.9-2.10, 7.18, 15.25-15.27, 16.1-16.16 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.16. For I am not ashamed of the gospel of Christ, for it is the power of God for salvation for everyone who believes; for the Jew first, and also for the Greek. 2.9. oppression and anguish, on every soul of man who works evil, on the Jew first, and also on the Greek. 2.10. But glory and honor and peace to every man who works good, to the Jew first, and also to the Greek. 7.18. For I know that in me, that is, in my flesh, dwells no good thing. For desire is present with me, but I don't find it doing that which is good. 15.25. But now, I say, I am going to Jerusalem, serving the saints. 15.26. For it has been the good pleasure of Macedonia and Achaia to make a certain contribution for the poor among the saints who are at Jerusalem. 15.27. Yes, it has been their good pleasure, and they are their debtors. For if the Gentiles have been made partakers of their spiritual things, they owe it to them also to serve them in fleshly things. 16.1. I commend to you Phoebe, our sister, who is a servant of the assembly that is at Cenchreae 16.2. that you receive her in the Lord, in a way worthy of the saints, and that you assist her in whatever matter she may need from you, for she herself also has been a helper of many, and of my own self. 16.3. Greet Prisca and Aquila, my fellow workers in Christ Jesus 16.4. who for my life, laid down their own necks; to whom not only I give thanks, but also all the assemblies of the Gentiles. 16.5. Greet the assembly that is in their house. Greet Epaenetus, my beloved, who is the first fruits of Achaia to Christ. 16.6. Greet Mary, who labored much for us. 16.7. Greet Andronicus and Junias, my relatives and my fellow prisoners, who are notable among the apostles, who also were in Christ before me. 16.8. Greet Amplias, my beloved in the Lord. 16.9. Greet Urbanus, our fellow worker in Christ, and Stachys, my beloved. 16.10. Greet Apelles, the approved in Christ. Greet those who are of the household of Aristobulus. 16.11. Greet Herodion, my kinsman. Greet them of the household of Narcissus, who are in the Lord. 16.12. Greet Tryphaena and Tryphosa, who labor in the Lord. Greet Persis, the beloved, who labored much in the Lord. 16.13. Greet Rufus, the chosen in the Lord, and his mother and mine. 16.14. Greet Asyncritus, Phlegon, Hermes, Patrobas, Hermas, and the brothers who are with them. 16.15. Greet Philologus and Julia, Nereus and his sister, and Olympas, and all the saints who are with them. 16.16. Greet one another with a holy kiss. The assemblies of Christ greet you.
28. New Testament, Titus, 1.5-1.9, 2.3-2.8 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.5. I left you in Crete for this reason, that you would set in order the things that were lacking, and appoint elders in every city, as I directed you; 1.6. if anyone is blameless, the husband of one wife, having children who believe, who are not accused of loose or unruly behavior. 1.7. For the overseer must be blameless, as God's steward; not self-pleasing, not easily angered, not given to wine, not violent, not greedy for dishonest gain; 1.8. but given to hospitality, as a lover of good, sober-minded, fair, holy, self-controlled; 1.9. holding to the faithful word which is according to the teaching, that he may be able to exhort in the sound doctrine, and to convict those who contradict him. 2.3. and that older women likewise be reverent in behavior, not slanderers nor enslaved to much wine, teachers of that which is good; 2.4. that they may train the young women to love their husbands, to love their children 2.5. to be sober-minded, chaste, workers at home, kind, being in subjection to their own husbands, that God's word may not be blasphemed. 2.6. Likewise, exhort the younger men to be sober-minded; 2.7. in all things showing yourself an example of good works; in your teaching showing integrity, seriousness, incorruptibility 2.8. and soundness of speech that can't be condemned; that he who opposes you may be ashamed, having no evil thing to say about us.
29. New Testament, Luke, 1.54, 8.14, 8.19-8.21, 8.24, 11.27-11.28, 12.11, 12.22-12.26, 13.34, 14.26-14.27, 16.18, 17.2, 18.18-18.30, 20.34-20.36, 21.34, 22.26-22.27, 22.31 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.54. He has given help to Israel, his servant, that he might remember mercy 8.14. That which fell among the thorns, these are those who have heard, and as they go on their way they are choked with cares, riches, and pleasures of life, and bring no fruit to maturity. 8.19. His mother and brothers came to him, and they could not come near him for the crowd. 8.20. It was told him by some saying, "Your mother and your brothers stand outside, desiring to see you. 8.21. But he answered them, "My mother and my brothers are these who hear the word of God, and do it. 8.24. They came to him, and awoke him, saying, "Master, master, we are dying!" He awoke, and rebuked the wind and the raging of the water, and they ceased, and it was calm. 11.27. It came to pass, as he said these things, a certain woman out of the multitude lifted up her voice, and said to him, "Blessed is the womb that bore you, and the breasts which nursed you! 11.28. But he said, "On the contrary, blessed are those who hear the word of God, and keep it. 12.11. When they bring you before the synagogues, the rulers, and the authorities, don't be anxious how or what you will answer, or what you will say; 12.22. He said to his disciples, "Therefore I tell you, don't be anxious for your life, what you will eat, nor yet for your body, what you will wear. 12.23. Life is more than food, and the body is more than clothing. 12.24. Consider the ravens: they don't sow, they don't reap, they have no warehouse or barn, and God feeds them. How much more valuable are you than birds! 12.25. Which of you by being anxious can add a cubit to his height? 12.26. If then you aren't able to do even the least things, why are you anxious about the rest? 13.34. Jerusalem, Jerusalem, that kills the prophets, and stones those who are sent to her! How often I wanted to gather your children together, like a hen gathers her own brood under her wings, and you refused! 14.26. If anyone comes to me, and doesn't hate his own father, mother, wife, children, brothers, and sisters, yes, and his own life also, he can't be my disciple. 14.27. Whoever doesn't bear his own cross, and come after me, can't be my disciple. 16.18. Everyone who divorces his wife, and marries another, commits adultery. He who marries one who is divorced from a husband commits adultery. 17.2. It would be better for him if a millstone were hung around his neck, and he were thrown into the sea, rather than that he should cause one of these little ones to stumble. 18.18. A certain ruler asked him, saying, "Good Teacher, what shall I do to inherit eternal life? 18.19. Jesus asked him, "Why do you call me good? No one is good, except one -- God. 18.20. You know the commandments: 'Don't commit adultery,' 'Don't murder,' 'Don't steal,' 'Don't give false testimony,' 'Honor your father and your mother.' 18.21. He said, "I have observed all these things from my youth up. 18.22. When Jesus heard these things, he said to him, "You still lack one thing. Sell all that you have, and distribute it to the poor. You will have treasure in heaven. Come, follow me. 18.23. But when he heard these things, he became very sad, for he was very rich. 18.24. Jesus, seeing that he became very sad, said, "How hard it is for those who have riches to enter into the Kingdom of God! 18.25. For it is easier for a camel to enter in through a needle's eye, than for a rich man to enter into the Kingdom of God. 18.26. Those who heard it said, "Then who can be saved? 18.27. But he said, "The things which are impossible with men are possible with God. 18.28. Peter said, "Look, we have left everything, and followed you. 18.29. He said to them, "Most assuredly I tell you, there is no one who has left house, or wife, or brothers, or parents, or children, for the Kingdom of God's sake 18.30. who will not receive many times more in this time, and in the world to come, eternal life. 20.34. Jesus said to them, "The sons of this age marry, and are given in marriage. 20.35. But those who are considered worthy to attain to that age and the resurrection from the dead, neither marry, nor are given in marriage. 20.36. For they can't die any more, for they are like the angels, and are sons of God, being sons of the resurrection. 21.34. So be careful, or your hearts will be loaded down with carousing, drunkenness, and cares of this life, and that day will come on you suddenly. 22.26. But not so with you. But one who is the greater among you, let him become as the younger, and one who is governing, as one who serves. 22.27. For who is greater, one who sits at the table, or one who serves? Isn't it he who sits at the table? But I am in the midst of you as one who serves. 22.31. The Lord said, "Simon, Simon, behold, Satan asked to have you, that he might sift you as wheat
30. New Testament, Mark, 3.31-3.35, 10.10-10.12, 10.17-10.31, 12.25 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.31. His mother and his brothers came, and standing outside, they sent to him, calling him. 3.32. A multitude was sitting around him, and they told him, "Behold, your mother, your brothers, and your sisters are outside looking for you. 3.33. He answered them, "Who are my mother and my brothers? 3.34. Looking around at those who sat around him, he said, "Behold, my mother and my brothers! 3.35. For whoever does the will of God, the same is my brother, and my sister, and mother. 10.10. In the house, his disciples asked him again about the same matter. 10.11. He said to them, "Whoever divorces his wife, and marries another, commits adultery against her. 10.12. If a woman herself divorces her husband, and marries another, she commits adultery. 10.17. As he was going out into the way, one ran to him, knelt before him, and asked him, "Good Teacher, what shall I do that I may inherit eternal life? 10.18. Jesus said to him, "Why do you call me good? No one is good except one -- God. 10.19. You know the commandments: 'Do not murder,' 'Do not commit adultery,' 'Do not steal,' 'Do not give false testimony,' 'Do not defraud,' 'Honor your father and mother.' 10.20. He said to him, "Teacher, I have observed all these things from my youth. 10.21. Jesus looking at him loved him, and said to him, "One thing you lack. Go, sell whatever you have, and give to the poor, and you will have treasure in heaven; and come, follow me, taking up the cross. 10.22. But his face fell at that saying, and he went away sorrowful, for he was one who had great possessions. 10.23. Jesus looked around, and said to his disciples, "How difficult it is for those who have riches to enter into the Kingdom of God! 10.24. The disciples were amazed at his words. But Jesus answered again, "Children, how hard is it for those who trust in riches to enter into the Kingdom of God! 10.25. It is easier for a camel to go through a needle's eye than for a rich man to enter into the Kingdom of God. 10.26. They were exceedingly astonished, saying to him, "Then who can be saved? 10.27. Jesus, looking at them, said, "With men it is impossible, but not with God, for all things are possible with God. 10.28. Peter began to tell him, "Behold, we have left all, and have followed you. 10.29. Jesus said, "Most assuredly I tell you, there is no one who has left house, or brothers, or sisters, or father, or mother, or wife, or children, or land, for my sake, and for the gospel's sake 10.30. but he will receive one hundred times more now in this time, houses, brothers, sisters, mothers, children, and land, with persecutions; and in the age to come eternal life. 10.31. But many who are first will be last; and the last first. 12.25. For when they will rise from the dead, they neither marry, nor are given in marriage, but are like angels in heaven.
31. New Testament, Matthew, 5.31-5.32, 10.35-10.37, 12.46-12.49, 19.9-19.12, 19.16-19.30, 22.14, 22.30 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

5.31. It was also said, 'Whoever shall put away his wife, let him give her a writing of divorce,' 5.32. but I tell you that whoever who puts away his wife, except for the cause of sexual immorality, makes her an adulteress; and whoever marries her when she is put away commits adultery. 10.35. For I came to set a man at odds against his father, and a daughter against her mother, and a daughter-in-law against her mother-in-law. 10.36. A man's foes will be those of his own household. 10.37. He who loves father or mother more than me is not worthy of me; and he who loves son or daughter more than me isn't worthy of me. 12.46. While he was yet speaking to the multitudes, behold, his mother and his brothers stood outside, seeking to speak to him. 12.47. One said to him, "Behold, your mother and your brothers stand outside, seeking to speak to you. 12.48. But he answered him who spoke to him, "Who is my mother? Who are my brothers? 12.49. He stretched out his hand towards his disciples, and said, "Behold, my mother and my brothers! 19.9. I tell you that whoever divorces his wife, except for sexual immorality, and marries another, commits adultery; and he who marries her when she is divorced commits adultery. 19.10. His disciples said to him, "If this is the case of the man with his wife, it is not expedient to marry. 19.11. But he said to them, "Not all men can receive this saying, but those to whom it is given. 19.12. For there are eunuchs who were born that way from their mother's womb, and there are eunuchs who were made eunuchs by men; and there are eunuchs who made themselves eunuchs for the Kingdom of Heaven's sake. He who is able to receive it, let him receive it. 19.16. Behold, one came to him and said, "Good teacher, what good thing shall I do, that I may have eternal life? 19.17. He said to him, "Why do you call me good? No one is good but one, that is, God. But if you want to enter into life, keep the commandments. 19.18. He said to him, "Which ones?"Jesus said, "'You shall not murder.' 'You shall not commit adultery.' 'You shall not steal.' 'You shall not offer false testimony.' 19.19. 'Honor your father and mother.' And, 'You shall love your neighbor as yourself.' 19.20. The young man said to him, "All these things I have observed from my youth. What do I still lack? 19.21. Jesus said to him, "If you want to be perfect, go, sell what you have, and give to the poor, and you will have treasure in heaven; and come, follow me. 19.22. But when the young man heard the saying, he went away sad, for he was one who had great possessions. 19.23. Jesus said to his disciples, "Most assuredly I say to you, a rich man will enter into the Kingdom of Heaven with difficulty. 19.24. Again I tell you, it is easier for a camel to go through a needle's eye, than for a rich man to enter into the Kingdom of God. 19.25. When the disciples heard it, they were exceedingly astonished, saying, "Who then can be saved? 19.26. Looking at them, Jesus said, "With men this is impossible, but with God all things are possible. 19.27. Then Peter answered, "Behold, we have left everything, and followed you. What then will we have? 19.28. Jesus said to them, "Most assuredly I tell you that you who have followed me, in the regeneration when the Son of Man will sit on the throne of his glory, you also will sit on twelve thrones, judging the twelve tribes of Israel. 19.29. Everyone who has left houses, or brothers, or sisters, or father, or mother, or wife, or children, or lands, for my name's sake, will receive one hundred times, and will inherit eternal life. 19.30. But many will be last who are first; and first who are last. 22.14. For many are called, but few chosen. 22.30. For in the resurrection they neither marry, nor are given in marriage, but are like God's angels in heaven.
32. Athenagoras, Apology Or Embassy For The Christians, 33 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

33. Therefore, having the hope of eternal life, we despise the things of this life, even to the pleasures of the soul, each of us reckoning her his wife whom he has married according to the laws laid down by us, and that only for the purpose of having children. For as the husbandman throwing the seed into the ground awaits the harvest, not sowing more upon it, so to us the procreation of children is the measure of our indulgence in appetite. Nay, you would find many among us, both men and women, growing old unmarried, in hope of living in closer communion with God. But if the remaining in virginity and in the state of an eunuch brings nearer to God, while the indulgence of carnal thought and desire leads away from Him, in those cases in which we shun the thoughts, much more do we reject the deeds. For we bestow our attention, not on the study of words, but on the exhibition and teaching of actions, - that a person should either remain as he was born, or be content with one marriage; for a second marriage is only a specious adultery. For whosoever puts away his wife, says He, and marries another, commits adultery; Matthew 19:9 not permitting a man to send her away whose virginity he has brought to an end, nor to marry again. For he who deprives himself of his first wife, even though she be dead, is a cloaked adulterer, resisting the hand of God, because in the beginning God made one man and one woman, and dissolving the strictest union of flesh with flesh, formed for the intercourse of the race.
33. Clement of Alexandria, Miscellanies, 3.4, 3.6.47, 3.11.76, 3.14.95, 3.74, 3.82 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

34. Irenaeus, Refutation of All Heresies, 1.28.1 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

35. Sextus, Against The Mathematicians, 7.157 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

36. Tertullian, On Monogamy, 3 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

37. Theophilus, To Autolycus, 2.28 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

2.28. And Adam having been cast out of Paradise, in this condition knew Eve his wife, whom God had formed into a wife for him out of his rib. And this He did, not as if He were unable to make his wife separately, but God foreknew that man would call upon a number of gods. And having this prescience, and knowing that through the serpent error would introduce a number of gods which had no existence - for there being but one God, even then error was striving to disseminate a multitude of gods, saying, You shall be as gods;- lest, then, it should be supposed that one God made the man and another the woman, therefore He made them both; and God made the woman together with the man, not only that thus the mystery of God's sole government might be exhibited, but also that their mutual affection might be greater. Therefore said Adam to Eve, This is now bone of my bones, and flesh of my flesh. And besides, he prophesied, saying, For this cause shall a man leave his father and his mother, and shall cleave unto his wife; and they two shall be one flesh; which also itself has its fulfilment in ourselves. For who that marries lawfully does not despise mother and father, and his whole family connection, and all his household, cleaving to and becoming one with his own wife, fondly preferring her? So that often, for the sake of their wives, some submit even to death. This Eve, on account of her having been in the beginning deceived by the serpent, and become the author of sin, the wicked demon, who also is called Satan, who then spoke to her through the serpent, and who works even to this day in those men that are possessed by him, invokes as Eve. And he is called demon and dragon, on account of his [ἀποδεδρακέναι] revolting from God. For at first he was an angel. And concerning his history there is a great deal to be said; wherefore I at present omit the relation of it, for I have also given an account of him in another place.
38. Diogenes Laertius, Lives of The Philosophers, 7.122, 7.125 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

7.122. though indeed there is also a second form of slavery consisting in subordination, and a third which implies possession of the slave as well as his subordination; the correlative of such servitude being lordship; and this too is evil. Moreover, according to them not only are the wise free, they are also kings; kingship being irresponsible rule, which none but the wise can maintain: so Chrysippus in his treatise vindicating Zeno's use of terminology. For he holds that knowledge of good and evil is a necessary attribute of the ruler, and that no bad man is acquainted with this science. Similarly the wise and good alone are fit to be magistrates, judges, or orators, whereas among the bad there is not one so qualified. 7.125. Furthermore, the wise man does all things well, just as we say that Ismenias plays all airs on the flute well. Also everything belongs to the wise. For the law, they say, has conferred upon them a perfect right to all things. It is true that certain things are said to belong to the bad, just as what has been dishonestly acquired may be said, in one sense, to belong to the state, in another sense to those who are enjoying it.They hold that the virtues involve one another, and that the possessor of one is the possessor of all, inasmuch as they have common principles, as Chrysippus says in the first book of his work On Virtues, Apollodorus in his Physics according to the Early School, and Hecato in the third book of his treatise On Virtues.
39. Nag Hammadi, The Gospel of Thomas, 22 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

40. Council of Elvira, Can., 65

41. Orphic Hymns., Fragments, 576, 1

42. Stobaeus, Eclogues, 2.7.5



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
acts of the apostles, prophets in Falcetta, Early Christian Teachers: The 'Didaskaloi' From Their Origins to the Middle of the Second Century (2020) 59
acts of the apostles, teachers in Falcetta, Early Christian Teachers: The 'Didaskaloi' From Their Origins to the Middle of the Second Century (2020) 59
adultery Pevarello, The Sentences of Sextus and the Origins of Christian Ascetiscism (2013) 84
advantage (sumpheron, utilitas) Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 134
alms-giving van 't Westeinde, Roman Nobilitas in Jerome's Letters: Roman Values and Christian Asceticism for Socialites (2021) 78
antinomian Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová, Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria (2016) 332
arius didymus Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 134
ascetic, radical ascetics Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová, Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria (2016) 332
asceticism, christian encouragement Monnickendam, Jewish Law and Early Christian Identity: Betrothal, Marriage, and Infidelity in the Writings of Ephrem the Syrian (2020) 40
asceticism, christian rejection Monnickendam, Jewish Law and Early Christian Identity: Betrothal, Marriage, and Infidelity in the Writings of Ephrem the Syrian (2020) 40
asceticism, female Monnickendam, Jewish Law and Early Christian Identity: Betrothal, Marriage, and Infidelity in the Writings of Ephrem the Syrian (2020) 40
asceticism Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 206
augustus Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 287
authority Papaioannou et al., Rhetoric and Religion in Ancient Greece and Rome (2021) 180; Papaioannou, Serafim and Demetriou, Rhetoric and Religion in Ancient Greece and Rome (2021) 180
authority of ~ Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 402
authors, authorship Nasrallah, Archaeology and the Letters of Paul (2019) 249
authors relationship with audience, theological questions deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 289
baptism Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 370
barnabas Falcetta, Early Christian Teachers: The 'Didaskaloi' From Their Origins to the Middle of the Second Century (2020) 59
body, as temple Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová, Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria (2016) 332
body Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 295; Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 206; Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová, Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria (2016) 332
boundary Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 370, 380
canon law Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 402
celibacy, and essenes Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 69
celibacy, and notion of manliness' Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 69
celibacy Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 206; Pevarello, The Sentences of Sextus and the Origins of Christian Ascetiscism (2013) 84; Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 69; Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová, Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria (2016) 332
celsus deJauregui, Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity (2010), 346
chastity van 't Westeinde, Roman Nobilitas in Jerome's Letters: Roman Values and Christian Asceticism for Socialites (2021) 78
churches/tradition of paul pauline Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 402
circumcision Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 380
clergy, regulations Monnickendam, Jewish Law and Early Christian Identity: Betrothal, Marriage, and Infidelity in the Writings of Ephrem the Syrian (2020) 42
continence Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová, Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria (2016) 332
continence (enkrateia) Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 206
corinth, community of Falcetta, Early Christian Teachers: The 'Didaskaloi' From Their Origins to the Middle of the Second Century (2020) 59
covetousness Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 591
create, creation, creator Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová, Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria (2016) 332
creation Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 370, 380
culture, cultural affiliations in galilee Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 187
delphi Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 295
desires Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová, Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria (2016) 332
dibelius, martin Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 287
divorce, adultery Monnickendam, Jewish Law and Early Christian Identity: Betrothal, Marriage, and Infidelity in the Writings of Ephrem the Syrian (2020) 42
divorce, reasons Monnickendam, Jewish Law and Early Christian Identity: Betrothal, Marriage, and Infidelity in the Writings of Ephrem the Syrian (2020) 42
divorce Pevarello, The Sentences of Sextus and the Origins of Christian Ascetiscism (2013) 84
dreams Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 295
ehrman, bart Nasrallah, Archaeology and the Letters of Paul (2019) 249
eleusis deJauregui, Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity (2010), 346
enkrateia Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová, Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria (2016) 332
epistolary narrative Nasrallah, Archaeology and the Letters of Paul (2019) 249
eschatology Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 591
exegesis, of paul Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová, Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria (2016) 332
exegesis Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová, Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria (2016) 332
exegetical debates/conversations Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová, Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria (2016) 332
exousia Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 133, 134
faith Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 370
flesh Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 295
foucault, michel Nasrallah, Archaeology and the Letters of Paul (2019) 249
freedom (eleutheria) Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 133, 134
furia van 't Westeinde, Roman Nobilitas in Jerome's Letters: Roman Values and Christian Asceticism for Socialites (2021) 78
gender, in christian sources Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 206
gender, overcoming Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 206
gender Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 206
glory Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 591
god, praise/thanks of Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 295
god, temple of Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 295
good (agathos) Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 134
greek (language), philosophy/philosophers Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová, Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria (2016) 332
head, christ as deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 289
heterodox christians ixf Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová, Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria (2016) 332
historical reconstruction, ancient Nasrallah, Archaeology and the Letters of Paul (2019) 249
historical tradition Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 402
holy spirit Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 591
household Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 287
household relations, wives and husbands deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 289
immorality Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 591
initiators deJauregui, Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity (2010), 346
inspiration Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 295
instruction Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 591
jerome Monnickendam, Jewish Law and Early Christian Identity: Betrothal, Marriage, and Infidelity in the Writings of Ephrem the Syrian (2020) 40
jew/jewish, literature/ authors Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 295
jew Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 370
jewish practices/torah observance, circumcision Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 134
josephus Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 69
josephus essenes, and celibacy Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 69
josephus essenes, marriage and children Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 69
josephus essenes Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 69
julius cassianus Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 206
kuefler, m. Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 69
lactantius" Monnickendam, Jewish Law and Early Christian Identity: Betrothal, Marriage, and Infidelity in the Writings of Ephrem the Syrian (2020) 40
law, god's" '151.0_295.0@law, lawful Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 295
law, lawsuits Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 295
law, unlawful Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 295
letters, epistolary novels, narrative Nasrallah, Archaeology and the Letters of Paul (2019) 249
letters of paul and seneca Nasrallah, Archaeology and the Letters of Paul (2019) 249
literature Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 295
love deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 289
luke-acts, martha in Ernst, Martha from the Margins: The Authority of Martha in Early Christian Tradition (2009) 199
lust van 't Westeinde, Roman Nobilitas in Jerome's Letters: Roman Values and Christian Asceticism for Socialites (2021) 78
marcion Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 206
marriage, continence within Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová, Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria (2016) 332
marriage, goodness of Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová, Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria (2016) 332
marriage, in new testament Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 411
marriage, renunciation of Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 206
marriage, second van 't Westeinde, Roman Nobilitas in Jerome's Letters: Roman Values and Christian Asceticism for Socialites (2021) 78
marriage Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 295; Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 591; Nasrallah, Archaeology and the Letters of Paul (2019) 249; Pevarello, The Sentences of Sextus and the Origins of Christian Ascetiscism (2013) 84; van 't Westeinde, Roman Nobilitas in Jerome's Letters: Roman Values and Christian Asceticism for Socialites (2021) 78; Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová, Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria (2016) 332
marriage (see also divorce) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 402
martha anxious, worried, troubled Ernst, Martha from the Margins: The Authority of Martha in Early Christian Tradition (2009) 199
martha contrasted with mary, diakonia of Ernst, Martha from the Margins: The Authority of Martha in Early Christian Tradition (2009) 199
martha lazarus), lukan portrait of Ernst, Martha from the Margins: The Authority of Martha in Early Christian Tradition (2009) 199
matrimony, necessity for the masses Monnickendam, Jewish Law and Early Christian Identity: Betrothal, Marriage, and Infidelity in the Writings of Ephrem the Syrian (2020) 40
matrimony, new testament Monnickendam, Jewish Law and Early Christian Identity: Betrothal, Marriage, and Infidelity in the Writings of Ephrem the Syrian (2020) 40
matrimony, second marriage Monnickendam, Jewish Law and Early Christian Identity: Betrothal, Marriage, and Infidelity in the Writings of Ephrem the Syrian (2020) 42
moralists Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 591
morality Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 591
neither/nothing (oudeteros/ouden) Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 134
non-jew Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 370
old testament Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová, Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria (2016) 332
origen Monnickendam, Jewish Law and Early Christian Identity: Betrothal, Marriage, and Infidelity in the Writings of Ephrem the Syrian (2020) 40, 42
paraenesis Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 591
pastoral epistles Nasrallah, Archaeology and the Letters of Paul (2019) 249
paul, apostle, self-mastery Nasrallah, Archaeology and the Letters of Paul (2019) 249
paul, apostle, stoic philosophy Nasrallah, Archaeology and the Letters of Paul (2019) 249
paul, attitudes to women Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 187, 191
paul, missionary activity Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 187, 188
paul, st. Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 69
paul, the apostle/st. paul, apostle divine apostle) Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová, Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria (2016) 332
paul, the apostle/st. paul, interpretation of paul Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová, Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria (2016) 332
paul (saul) Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 295; Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 402
pauline Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 591
pauline letters/epistles Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová, Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria (2016) 332
pharisees Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 69
philo Pevarello, The Sentences of Sextus and the Origins of Christian Ascetiscism (2013) 84
physical Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová, Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria (2016) 332
physical description, senex Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 287
plato Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová, Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria (2016) 332
plato / (neo-)platonism deJauregui, Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity (2010), 346
pleasure Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 287
poverty van 't Westeinde, Roman Nobilitas in Jerome's Letters: Roman Values and Christian Asceticism for Socialites (2021) 78
presbyter, appointment of Falcetta, Early Christian Teachers: The 'Didaskaloi' From Their Origins to the Middle of the Second Century (2020) 59
property/-ies van 't Westeinde, Roman Nobilitas in Jerome's Letters: Roman Values and Christian Asceticism for Socialites (2021) 78
protestant Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 402
punishment Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 591
rites deJauregui, Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity (2010), 346
roman empire, resistance to Nasrallah, Archaeology and the Letters of Paul (2019) 249
rosenmeyer, patricia Nasrallah, Archaeology and the Letters of Paul (2019) 249
sanctification Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 591
second sophistic Nasrallah, Archaeology and the Letters of Paul (2019) 249
self-control Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 287
seneca, paul and Nasrallah, Archaeology and the Letters of Paul (2019) 249
servants/slaves van 't Westeinde, Roman Nobilitas in Jerome's Letters: Roman Values and Christian Asceticism for Socialites (2021) 78
sex, sexual behavior Falcetta, Early Christian Teachers: The 'Didaskaloi' From Their Origins to the Middle of the Second Century (2020) 59
sex/sexuality Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 295
sexual relations, (mis)behaviour Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 402
sexual relations Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 402
sexuality, new testament perspectives Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 411
slave Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 370, 380
slavery Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 134
space v Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 380
spirit, characterizations as, breath (life itself) Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 295
spirit, characterizations as, holy Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 295
spirit, modes of presence, indwelling Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 295
spirit, modes of presence, receiving of Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 295
stoicism, stoic philosophy, of paul Nasrallah, Archaeology and the Letters of Paul (2019) 249
stowers, stanley Nasrallah, Archaeology and the Letters of Paul (2019) 249
teacher, appointment of Falcetta, Early Christian Teachers: The 'Didaskaloi' From Their Origins to the Middle of the Second Century (2020) 59
teacher, in antioch Falcetta, Early Christian Teachers: The 'Didaskaloi' From Their Origins to the Middle of the Second Century (2020) 59
temple Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 295
tertullian Monnickendam, Jewish Law and Early Christian Identity: Betrothal, Marriage, and Infidelity in the Writings of Ephrem the Syrian (2020) 40
theophilus Monnickendam, Jewish Law and Early Christian Identity: Betrothal, Marriage, and Infidelity in the Writings of Ephrem the Syrian (2020) 40
thessalonians Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 591
tradition, jewish Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 591
triad, the Falcetta, Early Christian Teachers: The 'Didaskaloi' From Their Origins to the Middle of the Second Century (2020) 59
vice Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 133
virtue Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 287; Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 133
weapon Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 287
widowhood, second marriage Monnickendam, Jewish Law and Early Christian Identity: Betrothal, Marriage, and Infidelity in the Writings of Ephrem the Syrian (2020) 42
wife Pevarello, The Sentences of Sextus and the Origins of Christian Ascetiscism (2013) 84
will, of god Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 591
women, and christianity Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 206
women, duties Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 287
women Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 206; Nasrallah, Archaeology and the Letters of Paul (2019) 249
zeus deJauregui, Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity (2010), 346