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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



8234
New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 7.5


μὴ ἀποστερεῖτε ἀλλήλους, εἰ μήτι [ἂν] ἐκ συμφώνου πρὸς καιρὸν ἵνα σχολάσητε τῇ προσευχῇ καὶ πάλιν ἐπὶ τὸ αὐτὸ ἦτε, ἵνα μὴ πειράζῃ ὑμᾶς ὁ Σατανᾶς διὰ τὴν ἀκρασίαν [ὑμῶν].Don't deprive one another, unless it is by consent for aseason, that you may give yourselves to fasting and prayer, and may betogether again, that Satan doesn't tempt you because of your lack ofself-control.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

73 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 23.1 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

23.1. לֹא־יִקַּח אִישׁ אֶת־אֵשֶׁת אָבִיו וְלֹא יְגַלֶּה כְּנַף אָבִיו׃ 23.1. כִּי־תֵצֵא מַחֲנֶה עַל־אֹיְבֶיךָ וְנִשְׁמַרְתָּ מִכֹּל דָּבָר רָע׃ 23.1. A man shall not take his father’s wife, and shall not uncover his father’s skirt."
2. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 19.15, 21.10, 21.22 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

19.15. וַיֹּאמֶר אֶל־הָעָם הֱיוּ נְכֹנִים לִשְׁלֹשֶׁת יָמִים אַל־תִּגְּשׁוּ אֶל־אִשָּׁה׃ 21.22. וְכִי־יִנָּצוּ אֲנָשִׁים וְנָגְפוּ אִשָּׁה הָרָה וְיָצְאוּ יְלָדֶיהָ וְלֹא יִהְיֶה אָסוֹן עָנוֹשׁ יֵעָנֵשׁ כַּאֲשֶׁר יָשִׁית עָלָיו בַּעַל הָאִשָּׁה וְנָתַן בִּפְלִלִים׃ 19.15. And he said unto the people: ‘Be ready against the third day; come not near a woman.’" 21.10. If he take him another wife, her food, her raiment, and her conjugal rights, shall he not diminish." 21.22. And if men strive together, and hurt a woman with child, so that her fruit depart, and yet no harm follow, he shall be surely fined, according as the woman’s husband shall lay upon him; and he shall pay as the judges determine."
3. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 1.3, 2.22, 2.24 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.3. וּלְכָל־חַיַּת הָאָרֶץ וּלְכָל־עוֹף הַשָּׁמַיִם וּלְכֹל רוֹמֵשׂ עַל־הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר־בּוֹ נֶפֶשׁ חַיָּה אֶת־כָּל־יֶרֶק עֵשֶׂב לְאָכְלָה וַיְהִי־כֵן׃ 1.3. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים יְהִי אוֹר וַיְהִי־אוֹר׃ 2.22. וַיִּבֶן יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הַצֵּלָע אֲשֶׁר־לָקַח מִן־הָאָדָם לְאִשָּׁה וַיְבִאֶהָ אֶל־הָאָדָם׃ 2.24. עַל־כֵּן יַעֲזָב־אִישׁ אֶת־אָבִיו וְאֶת־אִמּוֹ וְדָבַק בְּאִשְׁתּוֹ וְהָיוּ לְבָשָׂר אֶחָד׃ 1.3. And God said: ‘Let there be light.’ And there was light." 2.22. And the rib, which the LORD God had taken from the man, made He a woman, and brought her unto the man." 2.24. Therefore shall a man leave his father and his mother, and shall cleave unto his wife, and they shall be one flesh."
4. Hebrew Bible, Hosea, 6.10 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

6.10. In the house of Israel I have seen a horrible thing; There harlotry is found in Ephraim, Israel is defiled."
5. Hebrew Bible, Job, 1 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

6. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 15.2-15.30 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

15.2. דַּבְּרוּ אֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וַאֲמַרְתֶּם אֲלֵהֶם אִישׁ אִישׁ כִּי יִהְיֶה זָב מִבְּשָׂרוֹ זוֹבוֹ טָמֵא הוּא׃ 15.2. וְכֹל אֲשֶׁר תִּשְׁכַּב עָלָיו בְּנִדָּתָהּ יִטְמָא וְכֹל אֲשֶׁר־תֵּשֵׁב עָלָיו יִטְמָא׃ 15.3. וְעָשָׂה הַכֹּהֵן אֶת־הָאֶחָד חַטָּאת וְאֶת־הָאֶחָד עֹלָה וְכִפֶּר עָלֶיהָ הַכֹּהֵן לִפְנֵי יְהוָה מִזּוֹב טֻמְאָתָהּ׃ 15.3. וְזֹאת תִּהְיֶה טֻמְאָתוֹ בְּזוֹבוֹ רָר בְּשָׂרוֹ אֶת־זוֹבוֹ אוֹ־הֶחְתִּים בְּשָׂרוֹ מִזּוֹבוֹ טֻמְאָתוֹ הִוא׃ 15.4. כָּל־הַמִּשְׁכָּב אֲשֶׁר יִשְׁכַּב עָלָיו הַזָּב יִטְמָא וְכָל־הַכְּלִי אֲשֶׁר־יֵשֵׁב עָלָיו יִטְמָא׃ 15.5. וְאִישׁ אֲשֶׁר יִגַּע בְּמִשְׁכָּבוֹ יְכַבֵּס בְּגָדָיו וְרָחַץ בַּמַּיִם וְטָמֵא עַד־הָעָרֶב׃ 15.6. וְהַיֹּשֵׁב עַל־הַכְּלִי אֲשֶׁר־יֵשֵׁב עָלָיו הַזָּב יְכַבֵּס בְּגָדָיו וְרָחַץ בַּמַּיִם וְטָמֵא עַד־הָעָרֶב׃ 15.7. וְהַנֹּגֵעַ בִּבְשַׂר הַזָּב יְכַבֵּס בְּגָדָיו וְרָחַץ בַּמַּיִם וְטָמֵא עַד־הָעָרֶב׃ 15.8. וְכִי־יָרֹק הַזָּב בַּטָּהוֹר וְכִבֶּס בְּגָדָיו וְרָחַץ בַּמַּיִם וְטָמֵא עַד־הָעָרֶב׃ 15.9. וְכָל־הַמֶּרְכָּב אֲשֶׁר יִרְכַּב עָלָיו הַזָּב יִטְמָא׃ 15.11. וְכֹל אֲשֶׁר יִגַּע־בּוֹ הַזָּב וְיָדָיו לֹא־שָׁטַף בַּמָּיִם וְכִבֶּס בְּגָדָיו וְרָחַץ בַּמַּיִם וְטָמֵא עַד־הָעָרֶב׃ 15.12. וּכְלִי־חֶרֶשׂ אֲשֶׁר־יִגַּע־בּוֹ הַזָּב יִשָּׁבֵר וְכָל־כְּלִי־עֵץ יִשָּׁטֵף בַּמָּיִם׃ 15.13. וְכִי־יִטְהַר הַזָּב מִזּוֹבוֹ וְסָפַר לוֹ שִׁבְעַת יָמִים לְטָהֳרָתוֹ וְכִבֶּס בְּגָדָיו וְרָחַץ בְּשָׂרוֹ בְּמַיִם חַיִּים וְטָהֵר׃ 15.14. וּבַיּוֹם הַשְּׁמִינִי יִקַּח־לוֹ שְׁתֵּי תֹרִים אוֹ שְׁנֵי בְּנֵי יוֹנָה וּבָא לִפְנֵי יְהוָה אֶל־פֶּתַח אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד וּנְתָנָם אֶל־הַכֹּהֵן׃ 15.15. וְעָשָׂה אֹתָם הַכֹּהֵן אֶחָד חַטָּאת וְהָאֶחָד עֹלָה וְכִפֶּר עָלָיו הַכֹּהֵן לִפְנֵי יְהוָה מִזּוֹבוֹ׃ 15.16. וְאִישׁ כִּי־תֵצֵא מִמֶּנּוּ שִׁכְבַת־זָרַע וְרָחַץ בַּמַּיִם אֶת־כָּל־בְּשָׂרוֹ וְטָמֵא עַד־הָעָרֶב׃ 15.17. וְכָל־בֶּגֶד וְכָל־עוֹר אֲשֶׁר־יִהְיֶה עָלָיו שִׁכְבַת־זָרַע וְכֻבַּס בַּמַּיִם וְטָמֵא עַד־הָעָרֶב׃ 15.18. וְאִשָּׁה אֲשֶׁר יִשְׁכַּב אִישׁ אֹתָהּ שִׁכְבַת־זָרַע וְרָחֲצוּ בַמַּיִם וְטָמְאוּ עַד־הָעָרֶב׃ 15.19. וְאִשָּׁה כִּי־תִהְיֶה זָבָה דָּם יִהְיֶה זֹבָהּ בִּבְשָׂרָהּ שִׁבְעַת יָמִים תִּהְיֶה בְנִדָּתָהּ וְכָל־הַנֹּגֵעַ בָּהּ יִטְמָא עַד־הָעָרֶב׃ 15.21. וְכָל־הַנֹּגֵעַ בְּמִשְׁכָּבָהּ יְכַבֵּס בְּגָדָיו וְרָחַץ בַּמַּיִם וְטָמֵא עַד־הָעָרֶב׃ 15.22. וְכָל־הַנֹּגֵעַ בְּכָל־כְּלִי אֲשֶׁר־תֵּשֵׁב עָלָיו יְכַבֵּס בְּגָדָיו וְרָחַץ בַּמַּיִם וְטָמֵא עַד־הָעָרֶב׃ 15.23. וְאִם עַל־הַמִּשְׁכָּב הוּא אוֹ עַל־הַכְּלִי אֲשֶׁר־הִוא יֹשֶׁבֶת־עָלָיו בְּנָגְעוֹ־בוֹ יִטְמָא עַד־הָעָרֶב׃ 15.24. וְאִם שָׁכֹב יִשְׁכַּב אִישׁ אֹתָהּ וּתְהִי נִדָּתָהּ עָלָיו וְטָמֵא שִׁבְעַת יָמִים וְכָל־הַמִּשְׁכָּב אֲשֶׁר־יִשְׁכַּב עָלָיו יִטְמָא׃ 15.25. וְאִשָּׁה כִּי־יָזוּב זוֹב דָּמָהּ יָמִים רַבִּים בְּלֹא עֶת־נִדָּתָהּ אוֹ כִי־תָזוּב עַל־נִדָּתָהּ כָּל־יְמֵי זוֹב טֻמְאָתָהּ כִּימֵי נִדָּתָהּ תִּהְיֶה טְמֵאָה הִוא׃ 15.26. כָּל־הַמִּשְׁכָּב אֲשֶׁר־תִּשְׁכַּב עָלָיו כָּל־יְמֵי זוֹבָהּ כְּמִשְׁכַּב נִדָּתָהּ יִהְיֶה־לָּהּ וְכָל־הַכְּלִי אֲשֶׁר תֵּשֵׁב עָלָיו טָמֵא יִהְיֶה כְּטֻמְאַת נִדָּתָהּ׃ 15.27. וְכָל־הַנּוֹגֵעַ בָּם יִטְמָא וְכִבֶּס בְּגָדָיו וְרָחַץ בַּמַּיִם וְטָמֵא עַד־הָעָרֶב׃ 15.28. וְאִם־טָהֲרָה מִזּוֹבָהּ וְסָפְרָה לָּהּ שִׁבְעַת יָמִים וְאַחַר תִּטְהָר׃ 15.29. וּבַיּוֹם הַשְּׁמִינִי תִּקַּח־לָהּ שְׁתֵּי תֹרִים אוֹ שְׁנֵי בְּנֵי יוֹנָה וְהֵבִיאָה אוֹתָם אֶל־הַכֹּהֵן אֶל־פֶּתַח אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד׃ 15.2. Speak unto the children of Israel, and say unto them: When any man hath an issue out of his flesh, his issue is unclean." 15.3. And this shall be his uncleanness in his issue: whether his flesh run with his issue, or his flesh be stopped from his issue, it is his uncleanness." 15.4. Every bed whereon he that hath the issue lieth shall be unclean; and every thing whereon he sitteth shall be unclean. ." 15.5. And whosoever toucheth his bed shall wash his clothes, and bathe himself in water, and be unclean until the even." 15.6. And he that sitteth on any thing whereon he that hath the issue sat shall wash his clothes, and bathe himself in water, and be unclean until the even." 15.7. And he that toucheth the flesh of him that hath the issue shall wash his clothes, and bathe himself in water, and be unclean until the even." 15.8. And if he that hath the issue spit upon him that is clean, then he shall wash his clothes, and bathe himself in water, and be unclean until the even." 15.9. And what saddle soever he that hath the issue rideth upon shall be unclean." 15.10. And whosoever toucheth any thing that was under him shall be unclean until the even; and he that beareth those things shall wash his clothes, and bathe himself in water, and be unclean until the even." 15.11. And whomsoever he that hath the issue toucheth, without having rinsed his hands in water, he shall wash his clothes, and bathe himself in water, and be unclean until the even." 15.12. And the earthen vessel, which he that hath the issue toucheth, shall be broken; and every vessel of wood shall be rinsed in water." 15.13. And when he that hath an issue is cleansed of his issue, then he shall number to himself seven days for his cleansing, and wash his clothes; and he shall bathe his flesh in running water, and shall be clean." 15.14. And on the eighth day he shall take to him two turtle-doves, or two young pigeons, and come before the LORD unto the door of the tent of meeting, and give them unto the priest." 15.15. And the priest shall offer them, the one for a sin-offering, and the other for a burnt-offering; and the priest shall make atonement for him before the LORD for his issue." 15.16. And if the flow of seed go out from a man, then he shall bathe all his flesh in water, and be unclean until the even." 15.17. And every garment, and every skin, whereon is the flow of seed, shall be washed with water, and be unclean until the even." 15.18. The woman also with whom a man shall lie carnally, they shall both bathe themselves in water, and be unclean until the even." 15.19. And if a woman have an issue, and her issue in her flesh be blood, she shall be in her impurity seven days; and whosoever toucheth her shall be unclean until the even." 15.20. And every thing that she lieth upon in her impurity shall be unclean; every thing also that she sitteth upon shall be unclean." 15.21. And whosoever toucheth her bed shall wash his clothes, and bathe himself in water, and be unclean until the even." 15.22. And whosoever toucheth any thing that she sitteth upon shall wash his clothes, and bathe himself in water, and be unclean until the even." 15.23. And if he be on the bed, or on any thing whereon she sitteth, when he toucheth it, he shall be unclean until the even." 15.24. And if any man lie with her, and her impurity be upon him, he shall be unclean seven days; and every bed whereon he lieth shall be unclean. ." 15.25. And if a woman have an issue of her blood many days not in the time of her impurity, or if she have an issue beyond the time of her impurity; all the days of the issue of her uncleanness she shall be as in the days of her impurity: she is unclean." 15.26. Every bed whereon she lieth all the days of her issue shall be unto her as the bed of her impurity; and every thing whereon she sitteth shall be unclean, as the uncleanness of her impurity." 15.27. And whosoever toucheth those things shall be unclean, and shall wash his clothes, and bathe himself in water, and be unclean until the even." 15.28. But if she be cleansed of her issue, then she shall number to herself seven days, and after that she shall be clean." 15.29. And on the eighth day she shall take unto her two turtle-doves, or two young pigeons, and bring them unto the priest, to the door of the tent of meeting." 15.30. And the priest shall offer the one for a sin-offering, and the other for a burnt-offering; and the priest shall make atonement for her before the LORD for the issue of her uncleanness."
7. Hebrew Bible, Proverbs, 19.14 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

19.14. בַּיִת וָהוֹן נַחֲלַת אָבוֹת וּמֵיְהוָה אִשָּׁה מַשְׂכָּלֶת׃ 19.14. House and riches are the inheritance of fathers; But a prudent wife is from the LORD."
8. Hebrew Bible, 1 Kings, 3.16 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

3.16. אָז תָּבֹאנָה שְׁתַּיִם נָשִׁים זֹנוֹת אֶל־הַמֶּלֶךְ וַתַּעֲמֹדְנָה לְפָנָיו׃ 3.16. Then came there two women, that were harlots, unto the king, and stood before him."
9. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 6.9-6.10, 44.6 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

6.9. וַיֹּאמֶר לֵךְ וְאָמַרְתָּ לָעָם הַזֶּה שִׁמְעוּ שָׁמוֹעַ וְאַל־תָּבִינוּ וּרְאוּ רָאוֹ וְאַל־תֵּדָעוּ׃ 44.6. כֹּה־אָמַר יְהוָה מֶלֶךְ־יִשְׂרָאֵל וְגֹאֲלוֹ יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת אֲנִי רִאשׁוֹן וַאֲנִי אַחֲרוֹן וּמִבַּלְעָדַי אֵין אֱלֹהִים׃ 6.9. And He said: ‘Go, and tell this people: Hear ye indeed, but understand not; and see ye indeed, but perceive not." 6.10. Make the heart of this people fat, and make their ears heavy, and shut their eyes; lest they, seeing with their eyes, and hearing with their ears, and understanding with their heart, return, and be healed.’" 44.6. Thus saith the LORD, the King of Israel, And his Redeemer the LORD of hosts: I am the first, and I am the last, And beside Me there is no God."
10. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 16.3, 18.6 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

16.3. מָה אֲמֻלָה לִבָּתֵךְ נְאֻם אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה בַּעֲשׂוֹתֵךְ אֶת־כָּל־אֵלֶּה מַעֲשֵׂה אִשָּׁה־זוֹנָה שַׁלָּטֶת׃ 16.3. וְאָמַרְתָּ כֹּה־אָמַר אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה לִירוּשָׁלִַם מְכֹרֹתַיִךְ וּמֹלְדֹתַיִךְ מֵאֶרֶץ הַכְּנַעֲנִי אָבִיךְ הָאֱמֹרִי וְאִמֵּךְ חִתִּית׃ 18.6. אֶל־הֶהָרִים לֹא אָכָל וְעֵינָיו לֹא נָשָׂא אֶל־גִּלּוּלֵי בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאֶת־אֵשֶׁת רֵעֵהוּ לֹא טִמֵּא וְאֶל־אִשָּׁה נִדָּה לֹא יִקְרָב׃ 16.3. and say: Thus saith the Lord GOD unto Jerusalem: Thine origin and thy nativity is of the land of the Canaanite; the Amorite was thy father, and thy mother was a Hittite." 18.6. and hath not eaten upon the mountains, neither hath lifted up his eyes to the idols of the house of Israel, neither hath defiled his neighbour’s wife, neither hath come near to a woman in her impurity;"
11. Hebrew Bible, 1 Chronicles, 21.1 (5th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

21.1. וַיַּעֲמֹד שָׂטָן עַל־יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיָּסֶת אֶת־דָּוִיד לִמְנוֹת אֶת־יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 21.1. לֵךְ וְדִבַּרְתָּ אֶל־דָּוִיד לֵאמֹר כֹּה אָמַר יְהוָה שָׁלוֹשׁ אֲנִי נֹטֶה עָלֶיךָ בְּחַר־לְךָ אַחַת מֵהֵנָּה וְאֶעֱשֶׂה־לָּךְ׃ 21.1. And Satan stood up against Israel, and moved David to number Israel."
12. Anon., 1 Enoch, 93.1-93.2, 103.2, 104.5, 108.7, 108.10-108.11, 108.14 (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

93.1. And at its close shall be elected The elect righteous of the eternal plant of righteousness, To receive sevenfold instruction concerning all His creation. 103.2. Mighty One in dominion, and by His greatness I swear to you. I know a mystery And have read the heavenly tablets, And have seen the holy books, And have found written therein and inscribed regarding them: 108.7. of the prophets-(even) the things that shall be. For some of them are written and inscribed above in the heaven, in order that the angels may read them and know that which shall befall the sinners, and the spirits of the humble, and of those who have afflicted their bodies, and been recompensed 108.11. yet they blessed Me. And now I will summon the spirits of the good who belong to the generation of light, and I will transform those who were born in darkness, who in the flesh were not recompensed 108.14. He will give faithfulness in the habitation of upright paths. And they shall see those who were
13. Anon., Jubilees, 17.18 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

17.18. and his mother took him a wife from among the daughters of Egypt. brAnd she bare him a son, and he called his name Nebaioth; for she said, "The Lord was nigh to me when I called upon him.
14. Cicero, Tusculan Disputations, 4.6.12, 4.26.57 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

15. Dead Sea Scrolls, Damascus Covenant, 4.19 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

16. Dead Sea Scrolls, (Cairo Damascus Covenant) Cd-A, 4.19 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

17. Hebrew Bible, Daniel, 6.22 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

6.22. אֱדַיִן דָּנִיֶּאל עִם־מַלְכָּא מַלִּל מַלְכָּא לְעָלְמִין חֱיִי׃ 6.22. Then said Daniel unto the king: ‘O king, live for ever!"
18. Septuagint, 1 Maccabees, 2.52 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

2.52. Was not Abraham found faithful when tested, and it was reckoned to him as righteousness?
19. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 15.11-15.12, 33.1 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

15.11. Do not say, "Because of the Lord I left the right way";for he will not do what he hates. 15.12. Do not say, "It was he who led me astray";for he had no need of a sinful man. 33.1. No evil will befall the man who fears the Lord,but in trial he will deliver him again and again. 33.1. All men are from the ground,and Adam was created of the dust.
20. Septuagint, Wisdom of Solomon, 2.20 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

2.20. Let us condemn him to a shameful death,for, according to what he says, he will be protected.
21. Philo of Alexandria, On The Special Laws, 3.36, 4.80-4.81 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

3.36. But those who marry women who have been previously tested by other men and ascertained to be barren, do merely covet the carnal enjoyment like so many boars or goats, and deserve to be inscribed among the lists of impious men as enemies to God; for God, as being friendly to all the animals that exist, and especially to man, takes all imaginable care to secure preservation and duration to every kind of creature. But those who seek to waste all their power at the very moment of putting it forth are confessedly enemies of nature.VII. 4.80. But of all the passions there is not one so grievous as a covetous desire of what one has not got, of things which are in appearance good, but not in reality; a desire which produces grievous anxieties which are hard to satisfy; for such a passion puts the reason to flight, and banishes it to a great distance, involving the soul in great difficulties, while the object which is desired flies away contemptuously, retreating not with its back but with its face to one; 4.81. for when a person perceives this passion of covetousness after having started up rapidly, then resting for a short time, either with a view to spread out its alluring toils, or because it has learnt to entertain a hope of succeeding in its object, he then retires to a longer distance uttering reproaches against it; but the passion itself, being left behind and coming too late to succeed, struggles, bearing a Tantalus-like punishment in its miserable future; for it is said that Tantalus, when he desired to obtain any liquor to drink, was not able to do so, as the water retreated from his lips, {14}{the story of Tantalus is told in Homer, Od. 11.581 (as it is translated by Pope
22. Anon., Didache, 9.4, 10.5 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

23. Clement of Rome, 2 Clement, 12.2 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

12.2. ἐπερωτηθεὶς γὰρ αὐτὸς ὁ κύριος ὑπό τινος, Ev Aegypt. (1) πότε ἥξει αὐτοῦ ἡ βασιλεία, εἶπεν: Ὅταν ἔσται τὰ δύο ἕν, καὶ τὸ ἔξω ὡς τὸ ἔσω, καὶ τὸ ἄρσεν μετὰ τῆς θηλείας οὔτε ἅρσεν οὔτε θῆλυ.
24. Ignatius, To The Ephesians, 3.2 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

3.2. But, since love doth not suffer me to be silent concerning you, therefore was I forward to exhort you, that ye run in harmony with the mind of God: for Jesus Christ also, our inseparable life, is the mind of the Father, even as the bishops that are settled in the farthest parts of the earth are in the mind of Jesus Christ.
25. Ignatius, To The Magnesians, 15 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

26. Ignatius, To The Smyrnaeans, 1.2, 8.2 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

27. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 4.278 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4.278. He that kicks a woman with child, so that the woman miscarry, let him pay a fine in money, as the judges shall determine, as having diminished the multitude by the destruction of what was in her womb; and let money also be given the woman’s husband by him that kicked her; but if she die of the stroke, let him also be put to death, the law judging it equitable that life should go for life.
28. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 2.119-2.161 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.119. 2. For there are three philosophical sects among the Jews. The followers of the first of which are the Pharisees; of the second, the Sadducees; and the third sect, which pretends to a severer discipline, are called Essenes. These last are Jews by birth, and seem to have a greater affection for one another than the other sects have. 2.121. They do not absolutely deny the fitness of marriage, and the succession of mankind thereby continued; but they guard against the lascivious behavior of women, and are persuaded that none of them preserve their fidelity to one man. 2.122. 3. These men are despisers of riches, and so very communicative as raises our admiration. Nor is there anyone to be found among them who hath more than another; for it is a law among them, that those who come to them must let what they have be common to the whole order,—insomuch that among them all there is no appearance of poverty, or excess of riches, but every one’s possessions are intermingled with every other’s possessions; and so there is, as it were, one patrimony among all the brethren. 2.123. They think that oil is a defilement; and if anyone of them be anointed without his own approbation, it is wiped off his body; for they think to be sweaty is a good thing, as they do also to be clothed in white garments. They also have stewards appointed to take care of their common affairs, who every one of them have no separate business for any, but what is for the use of them all. 2.124. 4. They have no one certain city, but many of them dwell in every city; and if any of their sect come from other places, what they have lies open for them, just as if it were their own; and they go in to such as they never knew before, as if they had been ever so long acquainted with them. 2.125. For which reason they carry nothing at all with them when they travel into remote parts, though still they take their weapons with them, for fear of thieves. Accordingly, there is, in every city where they live, one appointed particularly to take care of strangers, and to provide garments and other necessaries for them. 2.126. But the habit and management of their bodies is such as children use who are in fear of their masters. Nor do they allow of the change of garments, or of shoes, till they be first entirely torn to pieces or worn out by time. 2.127. Nor do they either buy or sell anything to one another; but every one of them gives what he hath to him that wanteth it, and receives from him again in lieu of it what may be convenient for himself; and although there be no requital made, they are fully allowed to take what they want of whomsoever they please. 2.128. 5. And as for their piety towards God, it is very extraordinary; for before sunrising they speak not a word about profane matters, but put up certain prayers which they have received from their forefathers, as if they made a supplication for its rising. 2.129. After this every one of them are sent away by their curators, to exercise some of those arts wherein they are skilled, in which they labor with great diligence till the fifth hour. After which they assemble themselves together again into one place; and when they have clothed themselves in white veils, they then bathe their bodies in cold water. And after this purification is over, they every one meet together in an apartment of their own, into which it is not permitted to any of another sect to enter; while they go, after a pure manner, into the dining-room, as into a certain holy temple 2.131. but a priest says grace before meat; and it is unlawful for anyone to taste of the food before grace be said. The same priest, when he hath dined, says grace again after meat; and when they begin, and when they end, they praise God, as he that bestows their food upon them; after which they lay aside their [white] garments, and betake themselves to their labors again till the evening; 2.132. then they return home to supper, after the same manner; and if there be any strangers there, they sit down with them. Nor is there ever any clamor or disturbance to pollute their house, but they give every one leave to speak in their turn; 2.133. which silence thus kept in their house appears to foreigners like some tremendous mystery; the cause of which is that perpetual sobriety they exercise, and the same settled measure of meat and drink that is allotted to them, and that such as is abundantly sufficient for them. 2.134. 6. And truly, as for other things, they do nothing but according to the injunctions of their curators; only these two things are done among them at everyone’s own free will, which are to assist those that want it, and to show mercy; for they are permitted of their own accord to afford succor to such as deserve it, when they stand in need of it, and to bestow food on those that are in distress; but they cannot give any thing to their kindred without the curators. 2.135. They dispense their anger after a just manner, and restrain their passion. They are eminent for fidelity, and are the ministers of peace; whatsoever they say also is firmer than an oath; but swearing is avoided by them, and they esteem it worse than perjury for they say that he who cannot be believed without [swearing by] God is already condemned. 2.136. They also take great pains in studying the writings of the ancients, and choose out of them what is most for the advantage of their soul and body; and they inquire after such roots and medicinal stones as may cure their distempers. 2.137. 7. But now, if anyone hath a mind to come over to their sect, he is not immediately admitted, but he is prescribed the same method of living which they use, for a year, while he continues excluded; and they give him also a small hatchet, and the fore-mentioned girdle, and the white garment. 2.138. And when he hath given evidence, during that time, that he can observe their continence, he approaches nearer to their way of living, and is made a partaker of the waters of purification; yet is he not even now admitted to live with them; for after this demonstration of his fortitude, his temper is tried two more years; and if he appear to be worthy, they then admit him into their society. 2.139. And before he is allowed to touch their common food, he is obliged to take tremendous oaths, that, in the first place, he will exercise piety towards God, and then that he will observe justice towards men, and that he will do no harm to any one, either of his own accord, or by the command of others; that he will always hate the wicked, and be assistant to the righteous; 2.141. that he will be perpetually a lover of truth, and propose to himself to reprove those that tell lies; that he will keep his hands clear from theft, and his soul from unlawful gains; and that he will neither conceal anything from those of his own sect, nor discover any of their doctrines to others, no, not though anyone should compel him so to do at the hazard of his life. 2.142. Moreover, he swears to communicate their doctrines to no one any otherwise than as he received them himself; that he will abstain from robbery, and will equally preserve the books belonging to their sect, and the names of the angels [or messengers]. These are the oaths by which they secure their proselytes to themselves. 2.143. 8. But for those that are caught in any heinous sins, they cast them out of their society; and he who is thus separated from them does often die after a miserable manner; for as he is bound by the oath he hath taken, and by the customs he hath been engaged in, he is not at liberty to partake of that food that he meets with elsewhere, but is forced to eat grass, and to famish his body with hunger, till he perish; 2.144. for which reason they receive many of them again when they are at their last gasp, out of compassion to them, as thinking the miseries they have endured till they came to the very brink of death to be a sufficient punishment for the sins they had been guilty of. 2.145. 9. But in the judgments they exercise they are most accurate and just, nor do they pass sentence by the votes of a court that is fewer than a hundred. And as to what is once determined by that number, it is unalterable. What they most of all honor, after God himself, is the name of their legislator [Moses], whom, if anyone blaspheme, he is punished capitally. 2.146. They also think it a good thing to obey their elders, and the major part. Accordingly, if ten of them be sitting together, no one of them will speak while the other nine are against it. 2.147. They also avoid spitting in the midst of them, or on the right side. Moreover, they are stricter than any other of the Jews in resting from their labors on the seventh day; for they not only get their food ready the day before, that they may not be obliged to kindle a fire on that day, but they will not remove any vessel out of its place, nor go to stool thereon. 2.148. Nay, on theother days they dig a small pit, a foot deep, with a paddle (which kind of hatchet is given them when they are first admitted among them); and covering themselves round with their garment, that they may not affront the Divine rays of light, they ease themselves into that pit 2.149. after which they put the earth that was dug out again into the pit; and even this they do only in the more lonely places, which they choose out for this purpose; and although this easement of the body be natural, yet it is a rule with them to wash themselves after it, as if it were a defilement to them. 2.151. They are long-lived also, insomuch that many of them live above a hundred years, by means of the simplicity of their diet; nay, as I think, by means of the regular course of life they observe also. They condemn the miseries of life, and are above pain, by the generosity of their mind. And as for death, if it will be for their glory, they esteem it better than living always; 2.152. and indeed our war with the Romans gave abundant evidence what great souls they had in their trials, wherein, although they were tortured and distorted, burnt and torn to pieces, and went through all kinds of instruments of torment, that they might be forced either to blaspheme their legislator, or to eat what was forbidden them, yet could they not be made to do either of them, no, nor once to flatter their tormentors, or to shed a tear; 2.153. but they smiled in their very pains, and laughed those to scorn who inflicted the torments upon them, and resigned up their souls with great alacrity, as expecting to receive them again. 2.154. 11. For their doctrine is this: That bodies are corruptible, and that the matter they are made of is not permanent; but that the souls are immortal, and continue forever; and that they come out of the most subtile air, and are united to their bodies as to prisons, into which they are drawn by a certain natural enticement; 2.155. but that when they are set free from the bonds of the flesh, they then, as released from a long bondage, rejoice and mount upward. And this is like the opinions of the Greeks, that good souls have their habitations beyond the ocean, in a region that is neither oppressed with storms of rain or snow, or with intense heat, but that this place is such as is refreshed by the gentle breathing of a west wind, that is perpetually blowing from the ocean; while they allot to bad souls a dark and tempestuous den, full of never-ceasing punishments. 2.156. And indeed the Greeks seem to me to have followed the same notion, when they allot the islands of the blessed to their brave men, whom they call heroes and demigods; and to the souls of the wicked, the region of the ungodly, in Hades, where their fables relate that certain persons, such as Sisyphus, and Tantalus, and Ixion, and Tityus, are punished; which is built on this first supposition, that souls are immortal; and thence are those exhortations to virtue, and dehortations from wickedness collected; 2.157. whereby good men are bettered in the conduct of their life by the hope they have of reward after their death; and whereby the vehement inclinations of bad men to vice are restrained, by the fear and expectation they are in, that although they should lie concealed in this life, they should suffer immortal punishment after their death. 2.158. These are the Divine doctrines of the Essenes about the soul, which lay an unavoidable bait for such as have once had a taste of their philosophy. 2.159. 12. There are also those among them who undertake to foretell things to come, by reading the holy books, and using several sorts of purifications, and being perpetually conversant in the discourses of the prophets; and it is but seldom that they miss in their predictions. 2.161. However, they try their spouses for three years; and if they find that they have their natural purgations thrice, as trials that they are likely to be fruitful, they then actually marry them. But they do not use to accompany with their wives when they are with child, as a demonstration that they do not marry out of regard to pleasure, but for the sake of posterity. Now the women go into the baths with some of their garments on, as the men do with somewhat girded about them. And these are the customs of this order of Essenes.
29. Josephus Flavius, Against Apion, 2.202 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.202. The law, moreover enjoins us to bring up all our offspring, and forbids women to cause abortion of what is begotten, or to destroy it afterward; and if any woman appears to have so done, she will be a murderer of her child, by destroying a living creature, and diminishing human kind: if any one, therefore, proceeds to such fornication or murder, he cannot be clean.
30. Mishnah, Ketuvot, 7.1 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

7.1. If a man forbade his wife by vow to have any benefit from him, for thirty days, he may appoint a provider, but if for a longer period he must divorce her and give her the ketubah. Rabbi Judah ruled: if he was an Israelite he may keep her [as his wife, if the vow was] for one month, but must divorce her and give her the ketubah [if it was for] two months. If he was a priest he may keep her [as his wife, if the vow was] for two months, but must divorce her and give her the ketubah [if it was for] three."
31. New Testament, 1 John, 5.4 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

5.4. For whatever is born of God overcomes the world. This is the victory that has overcome the world: your faith.
32. New Testament, 1 Peter, 1.7, 3.7, 5.8, 5.10 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.7. that the proof of your faith, which is more precious than gold that perishes even though it is tested by fire, may be found to result in praise, glory, and honor at the revelation of Jesus Christ -- 3.7. You husbands, in like manner, live with your wives according to knowledge, giving honor to the woman, as to the weaker vessel, as being also joint heirs of the grace of life; that your prayers may not be hindered. 5.8. Be sober and self-controlled. Be watchful. Your adversary the devil, walks around like a roaring lion, seeking whom he may devour. 5.10. But may the God of all grace (who called you to his eternal glory by Christ Jesus), after you have suffered a while, perfect, establish, strengthen, and settle you.
33. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, None (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.10. Now Ibeg you, brothers, through the name of our Lord, Jesus Christ, that youall speak the same thing and that there be no divisions among you, butthat you be perfected together in the same mind and in the samejudgment.
34. New Testament, 1 Thessalonians, 1.9, 2.18, 3.1-3.5, 4.4, 4.6-4.7, 5.8, 5.17 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.9. For they themselves report concerning us what kind of a reception we had from you; and how you turned to God from idols, to serve a living and true God 2.18. because we wanted to come to you -- indeed, I, Paul, once and again -- but Satan hindered us. 3.1. Therefore, when we couldn't stand it any longer, we thought it good to be left behind at Athens alone 3.2. and sent Timothy, our brother and God's servant in the gospel of Christ, to establish you, and to comfort you concerning your faith; 3.3. that no one be moved by these afflictions. For you know that we are appointed to this task. 3.4. For most assuredly, when we were with you, we told you beforehand that we are to suffer affliction, even as it happened, and you know. 3.5. For this cause I also, when I couldn't stand it any longer, sent that I might know your faith, for fear that by any means the tempter had tempted you, and our labor would have been in vain. 4.4. that each one of you know how to possess himself of his own vessel in sanctification and honor 4.6. that no one should take advantage of and wrong a brother or sister in this matter; because the Lord is an avenger in all these things, as also we forewarned you and testified. 4.7. For God called us not for uncleanness, but in sanctification. 5.8. But let us, since we belong to the day, be sober, putting on the breastplate of faith and love, and, for a helmet, the hope of salvation. 5.17. Pray without ceasing.
35. New Testament, 1 Timothy, 2.11-2.12, 2.15, 3.2, 3.12, 4.1-4.5, 5.3-5.7, 5.9, 5.11-5.15 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.11. Let a woman learn in quietness with all subjection. 2.12. But I don't permit a woman to teach, nor to exercise authority over a man, but to be in quietness. 2.15. but she will be saved through her child-bearing, if they continue in faith, love, and sanctification with sobriety. 3.2. The overseer therefore must be without reproach, the husband of one wife, temperate, sensible, modest, hospitable, good at teaching; 3.12. Let deacons be husbands of one wife, ruling their children and their own houses well. 4.1. But the Spirit says expressly that in later times some will fall away from the faith, paying attention to seducing spirits and doctrines of demons 4.2. through the hypocrisy of men who speak lies, branded in their own conscience as with a hot iron; 4.3. forbidding marriage and commanding to abstain from foods which God created to be received with thanksgiving by those who believe and know the truth. 4.4. For every creature of God is good, and nothing is to be rejected, if it is received with thanksgiving. 4.5. For it is sanctified through the word of God and prayer. 5.3. Honor widows who are widows indeed. 5.4. But if any widow has children or grandchildren, let them learn first to show piety towards their own family, and to repay their parents, for this is acceptable in the sight of God. 5.5. Now she who is a widow indeed, and desolate, has her hope set on God, and continues in petitions and prayers night and day. 5.6. But she who gives herself to pleasure is dead while she lives. 5.7. Also command these things, that they may be without reproach. 5.9. Let no one be enrolled as a widow under sixty years old, having been the wife of one man 5.11. But refuse younger widows, for when they have grown wanton against Christ, they desire to marry; 5.12. having condemnation, because they have rejected their first pledge. 5.13. Besides, they also learn to be idle, going about from house to house. Not only idle, but also gossips and busybodies, saying things which they ought not. 5.14. I desire therefore that the younger widows marry, bear children, rule the household, and give no occasion to the adversary for reviling. 5.15. For already some have turned aside after Satan.
36. New Testament, 2 Peter, 2.9 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.9. the Lord knows how to deliver the godly out of temptation and to keep the unrighteous under punishment for the day of judgment;
37. New Testament, 2 Corinthians, 1.1-2.13, 2.11, 2.14-6.13, 6.14-7.1, 6.16, 6.17, 6.18, 7.1, 7.2, 7.3, 7.4, 7.5, 7.6, 7.7, 7.8, 7.9, 7.10, 7.11, 7.12, 7.13, 7.14, 7.15, 7.16, 7.17, 7.18, 7.19, 7.20, 7.21, 7.22, 7.23, 7.24, 7.25, 7.26, 7.27, 7.28, 7.29, 7.30, 7.31, 7.32, 7.33, 7.34, 7.35, 7.36, 7.37, 7.38, 7.39, 7.40, 8, 9, 10.1-13.13, 10.4, 11.2, 11.3, 11.5, 11.24, 11.25, 12.7, 13.11 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

38. New Testament, 2 Thessalonians, 2.9-2.12, 2.15 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.9. even he whose coming is according to the working of Satan with all power and signs and lying wonders 2.10. and with all deception of wickedness for those who are being lost, because they didn't receive the love of the truth, that they might be saved. 2.11. Because of this, God sends them a working of error, that they should believe a lie; 2.12. that they all might be judged who didn't believe the truth, but had pleasure in unrighteousness. 2.15. So then, brothers, stand firm, and hold the traditions which you were taught by us, whether by word, or by letter.
39. New Testament, 2 Timothy, 2.18 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.18. men who have erred concerning the truth, saying that the resurrection is already past, and overthrowing the faith of some.
40. New Testament, Acts, 1.14, 2.46, 4.24, 5.12, 14.1-14.2, 14.4, 14.23, 15.21, 15.25, 16.6-16.12, 17.1-17.15, 17.32, 18.12, 18.27, 19.21-19.22, 20.2-20.6, 27.2, 28.17-28.31 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

1.14. All these with one accord continued steadfastly in prayer and supplication, with the women, and Mary the mother of Jesus, and with his brothers. 2.46. Day by day, continuing steadfastly with one accord in the temple, and breaking bread at home, they took their food with gladness and singleness of heart 4.24. They, when they heard it, lifted up their voice to God with one accord, and said, "O Lord, you are God, who made the heaven, the earth, the sea, and all that is in them; 5.12. By the hands of the apostles many signs and wonders were done among the people. They were all with one accord in Solomon's porch. 14.1. It happened in Iconium that they entered together into the synagogue of the Jews, and so spoke that a great multitude both of Jews and of Greeks believed. 14.2. But the disobedient Jews stirred up and embittered the souls of the Gentiles against the brothers. 14.4. But the multitude of the city was divided. Part sided with the Jews, and part with the apostles. 14.23. When they had appointed elders for them in every assembly, and had prayed with fasting, they commended them to the Lord, on whom they had believed. 15.21. For Moses from generations of old has in every city those who preach him, being read in the synagogues every Sabbath. 15.25. it seemed good to us, having come to one accord, to choose out men and send them to you with our beloved Barnabas and Paul 16.6. When they had gone through the region of Phrygia and Galatia, they were forbidden by the Holy Spirit to speak the word in Asia. 16.7. When they had come opposite Mysia, they tried to go into Bithynia, but the Spirit didn't allow them. 16.8. Passing by Mysia, they came down to Troas. 16.9. A vision appeared to Paul in the night. There was a man of Macedonia standing, begging him, and saying, "Come over into Macedonia and help us. 16.10. When he had seen the vision, immediately we sought to go out to Macedonia, concluding that the Lord had called us to preach the gospel to them. 16.11. Setting sail therefore from Troas, we made a straight course to Samothrace, and the day following to Neapolis; 16.12. and from there to Philippi, which is a city of Macedonia, the first of the district, a Roman colony. We were staying some days in this city. 17.1. Now when they had passed through Amphipolis and Apollonia, they came to Thessalonica, where there was a synagogue of the Jews. 17.2. Paul, as was his custom, went in to them, and for three Sabbath days reasoned with them from the Scriptures 17.3. explaining and demonstrating that the Christ had to suffer, and to rise again from the dead, and saying, "This Jesus, whom I proclaim to you, is the Christ. 17.4. Some of them were persuaded, and joined Paul and Silas, of the devout Greeks a great multitude, and not a few of the chief women. 17.5. But the disobedient Jews gathered some wicked men from the marketplace, and gathering a crowd, set the city in an uproar. Assaulting the house of Jason, they sought to bring them out to the people. 17.6. When they didn't find them, they dragged Jason and certain brothers before the rulers of the city, crying, "These who have turned the world upside down have come here also 17.7. whom Jason has received. These all act contrary to the decrees of Caesar, saying that there is another king, Jesus! 17.8. The multitude and the rulers of the city were troubled when they heard these things. 17.9. When they had taken security from Jason and the rest, they let them go. 17.10. The brothers immediately sent Paul and Silas away by night to Beroea. When they arrived, they went into the Jewish synagogue. 17.11. Now these were more noble than those in Thessalonica, in that they received the word with all readiness of the mind, examining the Scriptures daily, whether these things were so. 17.12. Many of them therefore believed; also of the Greek women of honorable estate, and not a few men. 17.13. But when the Jews of Thessalonica had knowledge that the word of God was proclaimed by Paul at Beroea also, they came there likewise, agitating the multitudes. 17.14. Then the brothers immediately sent out Paul to go as far as to the sea, and Silas and Timothy still stayed there. 17.15. But those who escorted Paul brought him as far as Athens. Receiving a commandment to Silas and Timothy that they should come to him with all speed, they departed. 17.32. Now when they heard of the resurrection of the dead, some mocked; but others said, "We want to hear you yet again concerning this. 18.12. But when Gallio was proconsul of Achaia, the Jews with one accord rose up against Paul and brought him before the judgment seat 18.27. When he had determined to pass over into Achaia, the brothers encouraged him, and wrote to the disciples to receive him. When he had come, he helped them much, who had believed through grace; 19.21. Now after these things had ended, Paul determined in the spirit, when he had passed through Macedonia and Achaia, to go to Jerusalem, saying, "After I have been there, I must also see Rome. 19.22. Having sent into Macedonia two of those who ministered to him, Timothy and Erastus, he himself stayed in Asia for a while. 20.2. When he had gone through those parts, and had encouraged them with many words, he came into Greece. 20.3. When he had spent three months there, and a plot was made against him by Jews as he was about to set sail for Syria, he determined to return through Macedonia. 20.4. These accompanied him as far as Asia: Sopater of Beroea; Aristarchus and Secundus of the Thessalonians; Gaius of Derbe; Timothy; and Tychicus and Trophimus of Asia. 20.5. But these had gone ahead, and were waiting for us at Troas. 20.6. We sailed away from Philippi after the days of Unleavened Bread, and came to them at Troas in five days, where we stayed seven days. 27.2. Embarking in a ship of Adramyttium, which was about to sail to places on the coast of Asia, we put to sea; Aristarchus, a Macedonian of Thessalonica, being with us. 28.17. It happened that after three days Paul called together those who were the leaders of the Jews. When they had come together, he said to them, "I, brothers, though I had done nothing against the people, or the customs of our fathers, still was delivered prisoner from Jerusalem into the hands of the Romans 28.18. who, when they had examined me, desired to set me free, because there was no cause of death in me. 28.19. But when the Jews spoke against it, I was constrained to appeal to Caesar, not that I had anything about which to accuse my nation. 28.20. For this cause therefore I asked you to see and to speak with me. For because of the hope of Israel I am bound with this chain. 28.21. They said to him, "We neither received letters from Judea concerning you, nor did any of the brothers come here and report or speak any evil of you. 28.22. But we desire to hear from you what you think. For, as concerning this sect, it is known to us that everywhere it is spoken against. 28.23. When they had appointed him a day, they came to him into his lodging in great number. He explained to them, testifying about the Kingdom of God, and persuading them concerning Jesus, both from the law of Moses and from the prophets, from morning until evening. 28.24. Some believed the things which were spoken, and some disbelieved. 28.25. When they didn't agree among themselves, they departed after Paul had spoken one word, "The Holy Spirit spoke well through Isaiah, the prophet, to our fathers 28.26. saying, 'Go to this people, and say, In hearing, you will hear, And will in no way understand. In seeing, you will see, And will in no way perceive. 28.27. For this people's heart has grown callous. Their ears are dull of hearing. Their eyes they have closed. Lest they should see with their eyes, Hear with their ears, Understand with their heart, And would turn again, And I would heal them.' 28.28. Be it known therefore to you, that the salvation of God is sent to the Gentiles. They will also hear. 28.29. When he had said these words, the Jews departed, having a great dispute among themselves. 28.30. Paul stayed two whole years in his own rented house, and received all who went in to him 28.31. preaching the Kingdom of God, and teaching the things concerning the Lord Jesus Christ with all boldness, without hinderance.
41. New Testament, Apocalypse, 1.5, 2.2, 2.10, 2.13, 2.19, 3.8, 14.1-14.5, 19.11, 20.4 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.5. and from Jesus Christ, the faithful witness, the firstborn of the dead, and the ruler of the kings of the earth. To him who loves us, and washed us from our sins by his blood; 2.2. I know your works, and your toil and perseverance, and that you can't tolerate evil men, and have tested those who call themselves apostles, and they are not, and found them false. 2.10. Don't be afraid of the things which you are about to suffer. Behold, the devil is about to throw some of you into prison, that you may be tested; and you will have oppression for ten days. Be faithful to death, and I will give you the crown of life. 2.13. I know your works and where you dwell, where Satan's throne is. You hold firmly to my name, and didn't deny my faith in the days of Antipas my witness, my faithful one, who was killed among you, where Satan dwells. 2.19. I know your works, your love, faith, service, patient endurance, and that your last works are more than the first. 3.8. I know your works (behold, I have set before you an open door, which no one can shut), that you have a little power, and kept my word, and didn't deny my name. 14.1. I saw, and behold, the Lamb standing on Mount Zion, and with him a number, one hundred forty-four thousand, having his name, and the name of his Father, written on their foreheads. 14.2. I heard a sound from heaven, like the sound of many waters, and like the sound of a great thunder. The sound which I heard was like that of harpers playing on their harps. 14.3. They sing a new song before the throne, and before the four living creatures and the elders. No one could learn the song except the one hundred forty-four thousand, those who had been redeemed out of the earth. 14.4. These are those who were not defiled with women, for they are virgins. These are those who follow the Lamb wherever he goes. These were redeemed by Jesus from among men, the first fruits to God and to the Lamb. 14.5. In their mouth was found no lie, for they are blameless. 19.11. I saw the heaven opened, and behold, a white horse, and he who sat on it is called Faithful and True. In righteousness he judges and makes war. 20.4. I saw thrones, and they sat on them, and judgment was given to them. I saw the souls of those who had been beheaded for the testimony of Jesus, and for the word of God, and such as didn't worship the beast nor his image, and didn't receive the mark on their forehead and on their hand. They lived, and reigned with Christ for the thousand years.
42. New Testament, James, 1.13-1.15, 4.7 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.13. Let no man say when he is tempted, "I am tempted by God," for God can't be tempted by evil, and he himself tempts no one. 1.14. But each one is tempted, when he is drawn away by his own lust, and enticed. 1.15. Then the lust, when it has conceived, bears sin; and the sin, when it is full grown, brings forth death. 4.7. Be subject therefore to God. But resist the devil, and he will flee from you.
43. New Testament, Philemon, 11-20, 10 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

44. New Testament, Colossians, 1.3, 1.7-1.8, 1.10-1.11, 1.13, 3.11 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.3. We give thanks to God the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, praying always for you 1.7. even as you learned of Epaphras our beloved fellow servant, who is a faithful minister of Christ on our behalf 1.8. who also declared to us your love in the Spirit. 1.10. that you may walk worthily of the Lord, to please him in all respects, bearing fruit in every good work, and increasing in the knowledge of God; 1.11. strengthened with all power, according to the might of his glory, for all endurance and perseverance with joy; 1.13. who delivered us out of the power of darkness, and translated us into the Kingdom of the Son of his love; 3.11. where there can't be Greek and Jew, circumcision and uncircumcision, barbarian, Scythian, bondservant, freeman; but Christ is all, and in all.
45. New Testament, Ephesians, 1.18-1.22, 2.2, 2.21-2.22, 4.4, 4.24, 6.11, 6.13-6.17 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.18. having the eyes of your hearts enlightened, that you may know what is the hope of his calling, and what are the riches of the glory of his inheritance in the saints 1.19. and what is the exceeding greatness of his power toward us who believe, according to that working of the strength of his might 1.20. which he worked in Christ, when he raised him from the dead, and made him to sit at his right hand in the heavenly places 1.21. far above all rule, and authority, and power, and dominion, and every name that is named, not only in this world, but also in that which is to come. 1.22. He put all things in subjection under his feet, and gave him to be head over all things for the assembly 2.2. in which you once walked according to the course of this world, according to the prince of the powers of the air, the spirit who now works in the sons of disobedience; 2.21. in whom the whole building, fitted together, grows into a holy temple in the Lord; 2.22. in whom you also are built together for a habitation of God in the Spirit. 4.4. There is one body, and one Spirit, even as you also were called in one hope of your calling; 4.24. and put on the new man, who in the likeness of God has been created in righteousness and holiness of truth. 6.11. Put on the whole armor of God, that you may be able to stand against the wiles of the devil. 6.13. Therefore, put on the whole armor of God, that you may be able to withstand in the evil day, and, having done all, to stand. 6.14. Stand therefore, having the utility belt of truth buckled around your waist, and having put on the breastplate of righteousness 6.15. and having fitted your feet with the preparation of the gospel of peace; 6.16. above all, taking up the shield of faith, with which you will be able to quench all the fiery darts of the evil one. 6.17. And take the helmet of salvation, and the sword of the Spirit, which is the word of God;
46. New Testament, Galatians, 2.3, 2.6-2.10, 3.1-3.5, 3.14, 3.26-3.28, 4.5, 4.8, 4.19, 5.6, 6.2, 6.15 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.3. But not even Titus, whowas with me, being a Greek, was compelled to be circumcised. 2.6. But from those who were reputed to beimportant (whatever they were, it makes no difference to me; Goddoesn't show partiality to man) -- they, I say, who were respectedimparted nothing to me 2.7. but to the contrary, when they saw that Ihad been entrusted with the gospel for the uncircumcision, even asPeter with the gospel for the circumcision 2.8. (for he who appointedPeter to the apostleship of the circumcision appointed me also to theGentiles); 2.9. and when they perceived the grace that was given tome, James and Cephas and John, they who were reputed to be pillars,gave to me and Barnabas the right hand of fellowship, that we should goto the Gentiles, and they to the circumcision. 2.10. They only askedus to remember the poor -- which very thing I was also zealous to do. 3.1. Foolish Galatians, who has bewitched you not to obey thetruth, before whose eyes Jesus Christ was openly set forth among you as crucified? 3.2. I just want to learn this from you. Did you receivethe Spirit by the works of the law, or by hearing of faith? 3.3. Areyou so foolish? Having begun in the Spirit, are you now completed inthe flesh? 3.4. Did you suffer so many things in vain, if it is indeedin vain? 3.5. He therefore who supplies the Spirit to you, and worksmiracles among you, does he do it by the works of the law, or byhearing of faith? 3.14. that the blessing of Abraham might come on the Gentilesthrough Christ Jesus; that we might receive the promise of the Spiritthrough faith. 3.26. For you are all sons ofGod, through faith in Christ Jesus. 3.27. For as many of you as werebaptized into Christ have put on Christ. 3.28. There is neither Jewnor Greek, there is neither slave nor free man, there is neither malenor female; for you are all one in Christ Jesus. 4.5. thathe might redeem those who were under the law, that we might receive theadoption of sons. 4.8. However at that time, not knowing God, youwere in bondage to those who by nature are not gods. 4.19. My little children, of whom I am again in travail untilChrist is formed in you-- 5.6. For in Christ Jesusneither circumcision amounts to anything, nor uncircumcision, but faithworking through love. 6.2. Bear one another'sburdens, and so fulfill the law of Christ. 6.15. For in Christ Jesus neitheris circumcision anything, nor uncircumcision, but a new creation.
47. New Testament, Hebrews, 2.8, 2.14, 11.33 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.8. You have put all things in subjection under his feet."For in that he subjected all things to him, he left nothing that is not subject to him. But now we don't see all things subjected to him, yet. 2.14. Since then the children have shared in flesh and blood, he also himself in like manner partook of the same, that through death he might bring to nothing him who had the power of death, that is, the devil 11.33. who, through faith subdued kingdoms, worked out righteousness, obtained promises, stopped the mouths of lions
48. New Testament, Philippians, 3.7-3.10, 3.12-3.17, 3.20-3.21, 4.2-4.3 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.7. However, what things were gain to me, these have I counted loss for Christ. 3.8. Yes most assuredly, and I count all things to be loss for the excellency of the knowledge of Christ Jesus, my Lord, for whom I suffered the loss of all things, and count them nothing but refuse, that I may gain Christ 3.9. and be found in him, not having a righteousness of my own, that which is of the law, but that which is through faith in Christ, the righteousness which is from God by faith; 3.10. that I may know him, and the power of his resurrection, and the fellowship of his sufferings, becoming conformed to his death; 3.12. Not that I have already obtained, or am already made perfect; but I press on, if it is so that I may take hold of that for which also I was taken hold of by Christ Jesus. 3.13. Brothers, I don't regard myself as yet having taken hold, but one thing I do. Forgetting the things which are behind, and stretching forward to the things which are before 3.14. I press on toward the goal for the prize of the high calling of God in Christ Jesus. 3.15. Let us therefore, as many as are perfect, think this way. If in anything you think otherwise, God will also reveal that to you. 3.16. Nevertheless, to the extent that we have already attained, let us walk by the same rule. Let us be of the same mind. 3.17. Brothers, be imitators together of me, and note those who walk this way, even as you have us for an example. 3.20. For our citizenship is in heaven, from where we also wait for a Savior, the Lord Jesus Christ; 3.21. who will change the body of our humiliation to be conformed to the body of his glory, according to the working by which he is able even to subject all things to himself. 4.2. I exhort Euodia, and I exhort Syntyche, to think the same way in the Lord. 4.3. Yes, I beg you also, true yoke-fellow, help these women, for they labored with me in the gospel, with Clement also, and the rest of my fellow workers, whose names are in the book of life.
49. New Testament, Romans, 1.16, 1.20, 1.26, 2.9-2.10, 4.16-4.22, 7.2, 7.18, 7.21-7.25, 8.38, 13.12, 14.23, 15.25-15.27, 16.1-16.16, 16.20, 16.23 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.16. For I am not ashamed of the gospel of Christ, for it is the power of God for salvation for everyone who believes; for the Jew first, and also for the Greek. 1.20. For the invisible things of him since the creation of the world are clearly seen, being perceived through the things that are made, even his everlasting power and divinity; that they may be without excuse. 1.26. For this reason, God gave them up to vile passions. For their women changed the natural function into that which is against nature. 2.9. oppression and anguish, on every soul of man who works evil, on the Jew first, and also on the Greek. 2.10. But glory and honor and peace to every man who works good, to the Jew first, and also to the Greek. 4.16. For this cause it is of faith, that it may be according to grace, to the end that the promise may be sure to all the seed, not to that only which is of the law, but to that also which is of the faith of Abraham, who is the father of us all. 4.17. As it is written, "I have made you a father of many nations." This is in the presence of him whom he believed: God, who gives life to the dead, and calls the things that are not, as though they were. 4.18. Who in hope believed against hope, to the end that he might become a father of many nations, according to that which had been spoken, "So will your seed be. 4.19. Without being weakened in faith, he didn't consider his own body, already having been worn out, (he being about a hundred years old), and the deadness of Sarah's womb. 4.20. Yet, looking to the promise of God, he didn't waver through unbelief, but grew strong through faith, giving glory to God 4.21. and being fully assured that what he had promised, he was able also to perform. 4.22. Therefore it also was "reckoned to him for righteousness. 7.2. For the woman that has a husband is bound by law to the husband while he lives, but if the husband dies, she is discharged from the law of the husband. 7.18. For I know that in me, that is, in my flesh, dwells no good thing. For desire is present with me, but I don't find it doing that which is good. 7.21. I find then the law, that, to me, while I desire to do good, evil is present. 7.22. For I delight in God's law after the inward man 7.23. but I see a different law in my members, warring against the law of my mind, and bringing me into captivity under the law of sin which is in my members. 7.24. What a wretched man I am! Who will deliver me out of the body of this death? 7.25. I thank God through Jesus Christ, our Lord! So then with the mind, I myself serve God's law, but with the flesh, the sin's law. 8.38. For I am persuaded, that neither death, nor life, nor angels, nor principalities, nor things present, nor things to come, nor powers 13.12. The night is far gone, and the day is near. Let's therefore throw off the works of darkness, and let's put on the armor of light. 14.23. But he who doubts is condemned if he eats, because it isn't of faith; and whatever is not of faith is sin. 15.25. But now, I say, I am going to Jerusalem, serving the saints. 15.26. For it has been the good pleasure of Macedonia and Achaia to make a certain contribution for the poor among the saints who are at Jerusalem. 15.27. Yes, it has been their good pleasure, and they are their debtors. For if the Gentiles have been made partakers of their spiritual things, they owe it to them also to serve them in fleshly things. 16.1. I commend to you Phoebe, our sister, who is a servant of the assembly that is at Cenchreae 16.2. that you receive her in the Lord, in a way worthy of the saints, and that you assist her in whatever matter she may need from you, for she herself also has been a helper of many, and of my own self. 16.3. Greet Prisca and Aquila, my fellow workers in Christ Jesus 16.4. who for my life, laid down their own necks; to whom not only I give thanks, but also all the assemblies of the Gentiles. 16.5. Greet the assembly that is in their house. Greet Epaenetus, my beloved, who is the first fruits of Achaia to Christ. 16.6. Greet Mary, who labored much for us. 16.7. Greet Andronicus and Junias, my relatives and my fellow prisoners, who are notable among the apostles, who also were in Christ before me. 16.8. Greet Amplias, my beloved in the Lord. 16.9. Greet Urbanus, our fellow worker in Christ, and Stachys, my beloved. 16.10. Greet Apelles, the approved in Christ. Greet those who are of the household of Aristobulus. 16.11. Greet Herodion, my kinsman. Greet them of the household of Narcissus, who are in the Lord. 16.12. Greet Tryphaena and Tryphosa, who labor in the Lord. Greet Persis, the beloved, who labored much in the Lord. 16.13. Greet Rufus, the chosen in the Lord, and his mother and mine. 16.14. Greet Asyncritus, Phlegon, Hermes, Patrobas, Hermas, and the brothers who are with them. 16.15. Greet Philologus and Julia, Nereus and his sister, and Olympas, and all the saints who are with them. 16.16. Greet one another with a holy kiss. The assemblies of Christ greet you. 16.20. And the God of peace will quickly crush Satan under your feet. The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with you. 16.23. Gaius, my host and host of the whole assembly, greets you. Erastus, the treasurer of the city, greets you, as does Quartus, the brother.
50. New Testament, Titus, 2.3-2.8, 2.13-2.14 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.3. and that older women likewise be reverent in behavior, not slanderers nor enslaved to much wine, teachers of that which is good; 2.4. that they may train the young women to love their husbands, to love their children 2.5. to be sober-minded, chaste, workers at home, kind, being in subjection to their own husbands, that God's word may not be blasphemed. 2.6. Likewise, exhort the younger men to be sober-minded; 2.7. in all things showing yourself an example of good works; in your teaching showing integrity, seriousness, incorruptibility 2.8. and soundness of speech that can't be condemned; that he who opposes you may be ashamed, having no evil thing to say about us. 2.13. looking for the blessed hope and appearing of the glory of our great God and Savior, Jesus Christ; 2.14. who gave himself for us, that he might redeem us from all iniquity, and purify for himself a people for his own possession, zealous for good works.
51. New Testament, Luke, 1.1, 2.34, 12.51, 14.26, 18.29, 22.3 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.1. Since many have undertaken to set in order a narrative concerning those matters which have been fulfilled among us 2.34. and Simeon blessed them, and said to Mary, his mother, "Behold, this child is set for the falling and the rising of many in Israel, and for a sign which is spoken against. 12.51. Do you think that I have come to give peace in the earth? I tell you, no, but rather division. 14.26. If anyone comes to me, and doesn't hate his own father, mother, wife, children, brothers, and sisters, yes, and his own life also, he can't be my disciple. 18.29. He said to them, "Most assuredly I tell you, there is no one who has left house, or wife, or brothers, or parents, or children, for the Kingdom of God's sake 22.3. Satan entered into Judas, who was surnamed Iscariot, who was numbered with the twelve.
52. New Testament, Mark, 1.13 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.13. He was there in the wilderness forty days tempted by Satan. He was with the wild animals; and the angels ministered to him.
53. New Testament, Matthew, 4.1-4.3, 6.13, 6.24, 10.34, 15.11, 15.17, 18.19-18.20 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4.1. Then Jesus was led up by the Spirit into the wilderness to be tempted by the devil. 4.2. When he had fasted forty days and forty nights, he was hungry afterward. 4.3. The tempter came and said to him, "If you are the Son of God, command that these stones become bread. 6.13. Bring us not into temptation, but deliver us from the evil one. For yours is the kingdom, the power, and the glory forever. Amen.' 6.24. No one can serve two masters, for either he will hate the one and love the other; or else he will be devoted to one and despise the other. You can't serve both God and Mammon. 10.34. Don't think that I came to send peace on the earth. I didn't come to send peace, but a sword. 15.11. That which enters into the mouth doesn't defile the man; but that which proceeds out of the mouth, this defiles the man. 15.17. Don't you understand that whatever goes into the mouth passes into the belly, and then out of the body? 18.19. Again, assuredly I tell you, that if two of you will agree on earth concerning anything that they will ask, it will be done for them by my Father who is in heaven. 18.20. For where two or three are gathered together in my name, there I am in the midst of them.
54. Tosefta, Ketuvot, 8.3 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

8.3. A man who takes possession of his wife's property and [then] decides to divorce her, if he goes first and plucks any amount from the ground [i.e. uses up any amount of the property], behold he is rewarded by his haste [i.e. he gets to keep anything he \"plucked\"]. One who takes possession of the property of captives and hears about them that they are slowly approaching, if he goes first and plucks any amount from the ground, behold he is rewarded by his haste. This is the property of captives: Anyone whose father or brother or one of his inheritors went to the land beyond the sea, and he heard about them that they died, and he took possession of it as an inheritance [and he may get to keep what he takes]. This is the property of fugitives: Anyone who did not hear about them [his relatives that went to the land beyond the sea] that they died, but he took possession as an inheritance [but he won't get to keep what he took]. Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: I heard that fugitives' [property] is the same as captives' [property, in that he gets to keep both, whatever he took]. One who took possession of the property of exiles, they take it from him."
55. Anon., Marytrdom of Polycarp, 5.1, 8.1, 14.1, 19.2 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

5.1. 1 But the most wonderful Polycarp, when he first heard it, was not disturbed, but wished to remain in the city; but the majority persuaded him to go away quietly, and he went out quietly to a farm, not far distant from the city, and stayed with a few friends, doing nothing but pray night and day for all, and for the Churches throughout the world, as was his custom. 8.1. 1 Now when he had at last finished his prayer, after remembering all who had ever even come his way, both small and great, high and low, and the whole Catholic Church throughout the world, the hour came for departure, and they set him on an ass, and led him into the city, on a "great Sabbath day. 14.1. 1 So they did not nail him, but bound him, and he put his hands behind him and was bound, as a noble ram out of a great flock, for an oblation, a whole burnt offering made ready and acceptable to God; and he looked up to heaven and said: "O Lord God Almighty, Father of thy beloved and blessed Child, Jesus Christ, through Whom we have received full knowledge of thee, the God of Angels and powers, and of all creation, and of the whole family of the righteous, who live before thee! 19.2. 2 By his endurance he overcame the unrighteous ruler, and thus gained the crown of immortality, and he is glorifying God and the Almighty Father, rejoicing with the Apostles and all the righteous, and he is blessing our Lord Jesus Christ, the Saviour of our souls, and Governor of our bodies, and the Shepherd of the Catholic Church throughout the world.
56. Clement of Alexandria, Miscellanies, 3.4, 3.6.47, 3.11.76, 3.14.95, 3.74, 3.82 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

57. Hermas, Similitudes, 9.13.7-9.13.8, 9.17.4-9.17.5, 9.18.3-9.18.4 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

58. Hermas, Visions, 2.2.3 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

59. Irenaeus, Refutation of All Heresies, 1.28, 1.28.1 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

60. Sextus, Against The Mathematicians, 7.157 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

61. Tertullian, On Monogamy, 3 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

62. Theophilus, To Autolycus, 2.28 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

2.28. And Adam having been cast out of Paradise, in this condition knew Eve his wife, whom God had formed into a wife for him out of his rib. And this He did, not as if He were unable to make his wife separately, but God foreknew that man would call upon a number of gods. And having this prescience, and knowing that through the serpent error would introduce a number of gods which had no existence - for there being but one God, even then error was striving to disseminate a multitude of gods, saying, You shall be as gods;- lest, then, it should be supposed that one God made the man and another the woman, therefore He made them both; and God made the woman together with the man, not only that thus the mystery of God's sole government might be exhibited, but also that their mutual affection might be greater. Therefore said Adam to Eve, This is now bone of my bones, and flesh of my flesh. And besides, he prophesied, saying, For this cause shall a man leave his father and his mother, and shall cleave unto his wife; and they two shall be one flesh; which also itself has its fulfilment in ourselves. For who that marries lawfully does not despise mother and father, and his whole family connection, and all his household, cleaving to and becoming one with his own wife, fondly preferring her? So that often, for the sake of their wives, some submit even to death. This Eve, on account of her having been in the beginning deceived by the serpent, and become the author of sin, the wicked demon, who also is called Satan, who then spoke to her through the serpent, and who works even to this day in those men that are possessed by him, invokes as Eve. And he is called demon and dragon, on account of his [ἀποδεδρακέναι] revolting from God. For at first he was an angel. And concerning his history there is a great deal to be said; wherefore I at present omit the relation of it, for I have also given an account of him in another place.
63. Babylonian Talmud, Berachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

62b. תניא בן עזאי אומר על כל משכב שכב חוץ מן הקרקע על כל מושב שב חוץ מן הקורה אמר שמואל שינה בעמוד השחר כאסטמא לפרזלא יציאה בעמוד השחר כאסטמא לפרזלא,בר קפרא הוה מזבן מילי בדינרי עד דכפנת אכול עד דצחית שתי עד דרתחא קדרך שפוך קרנא קריא ברומי בר מזבין תאני תאני דאבוך זבין,אמר להו אביי לרבנן כי עייליתו בשבילי דמחוזא למיפק ביה בחקלא לא תחזו לא להך גיסא ולא להך גיסא דלמא יתבי נשי ולאו אורח ארעא לאסתכולי בהו,רב ספרא על לבית הכסא אתא רבי אבא נחר ליה אבבא אמר ליה ליעול מר בתר דנפק אמר ליה עד השתא לא עיילת לשעיר וגמרת לך מילי דשעיר לאו הכי תנן מדורה היתה שם ובית הכסא של כבוד וזה היה כבודו מצאו נעול בידוע שיש שם אדם מצאו פתוח בידוע שאין שם אדם אלמא לאו אורח ארעא הוא,והוא סבר מסוכן הוא דתניא רבן שמעון בן גמליאל אומר עמוד החוזר מביא את האדם לידי הדרוקן סילון החוזר מביא את האדם לידי ירקון,רבי אלעזר על לבית הכסא אתא ההוא פרסאה דחקיה קם ר' אלעזר ונפק אתא דרקונא שמטיה לכרכשיה קרי עליה רבי אלעזר (ישעיהו מג, ד) ואתן אדם תחתיך אל תקרי אדם אלא אדום:,(שמואל א כד, יא) ואמר להרגך ותחס עליך,ואמר ואמרתי מיבעי ליה ותחס וחסתי מיבעי ליה אמר רבי אלעזר אמר לו דוד לשאול מן התורה בן הריגה אתה שהרי רודף אתה והתורה אמרה בא להרגך השכם להרגו אלא צניעות שהיתה בך היא חסה עליך,ומאי היא דכתיב (שמואל א כד, ד) ויבא אל גדרות הצאן על הדרך ושם מערה ויבא שאול להסך את רגליו תנא גדר לפנים מן גדר ומערה לפנים ממערה להסך אמר ר' אלעזר מלמד שסכך עצמו כסוכה:,(שמואל א כד, ה) ויקם דוד ויכרת את כנף המעיל אשר לשאול בלט אמר ר' יוסי בר' חנינא כל המבזה את הבגדים סוף אינו נהנה מהם שנאמר (מלכים א א, א) והמלך דוד זקן בא בימים ויכסוהו בבגדים ולא יחם לו:,(שמואל א כו, יט) אם ה' הסיתך בי ירח מנחה אמר רבי אלעזר אמר ליה הקב"ה לדוד מסית קרית לי הרי אני מכשילך בדבר שאפי' תינוקות של בית רבן יודעים אותו דכתיב (שמות ל, יב) כי תשא את ראש בני ישראל לפקודיהם ונתנו איש כפר נפשו וגו' מיד (דברי הימים א כא, א) ויעמוד שטן על ישראל וכתיב (שמואל ב כד, א) ויסת את דוד בהם לאמר לך מנה את ישראל וכיון דמנינהו לא שקל מינייהו כופר דכתיב (שמואל ב כד, טו) ויתן ה' דבר בישראל מהבקר ועד עת מועד,מאי עת מועד אמר שמואל סבא חתניה דרבי חנינא משמיה דרבי חנינא משעת שחיטת התמיד עד שעת זריקתו רבי יוחנן אמר עד חצות ממש:,(שמואל ב כד, טז) ויאמר למלאך המשחית בעם רב אמר רבי אלעזר אמר ליה הקב"ה למלאך טול לי רב שבהם שיש בו ליפרע מהם כמה חובות באותה שעה מת אבישי בן צרויה ששקול כרובה של סנהדרין:,(דברי הימים א כא, טו) ובהשחית ראה ה' וינחם מאי ראה,אמר רב ראה יעקב אבינו דכתיב (בראשית לב, ג) ויאמר יעקב כאשר ראם ושמואל אמר אפרו של יצחק ראה שנאמר (בראשית כב, ח) אלהים יראה לו השה,רבי יצחק נפחא אמר כסף כפורים ראה שנאמר (שמות ל, טז) ולקחת את כסף הכפורים מאת בני ישראל וגו' רבי יוחנן אמר בית המקדש ראה דכתיב (בראשית כב, יד) בהר ה' יראה,פליגי בה ר' יעקב בר אידי ורבי שמואל בר נחמני חד אמר כסף הכפורים ראה וחד אמר בית המקדש ראה ומסתברא כמאן דאמר בית המקדש ראה שנאמר (בראשית כב, יד) אשר יאמר היום בהר ה' יראה:,לא יכנס אדם להר הבית במקלו וכו': מאי קפנדריא אמר רבא קפנדריא כשמה ורב חנא בר אדא משמיה דרב סמא בריה דרב מרי אמר כמאן דאמר אינש אדמקיפנא אדרי איעול בהא אמר רב נחמן אמר רבה בר אבוה הנכנס לבית הכנסת על מנת שלא לעשותו קפנדריא מותר לעשותו קפנדריא,רבי אבהו אמר אם היה שביל מעיקרו מותר אמר ר' חלבו אמר רב הונא הנכנס לבית הכנסת להתפלל מותר לעשותו קפנדריא שנאמר (יחזקאל מו, ט) ובבא עם הארץ לפני ה' במועדים וגו':,ורקיקה מקל וחומר: אמר רב ביבי אמר ר' יהושע בן לוי כל הרוקק בהר הבית בזמן הזה כאילו רוקק בבת עינו שנאמר (מלכים א ט, ג) והיה עיני ולבי שם כל הימים,אמר רבא רקיקה בבית הכנסת שריא מידי דהוה אמנעל מה מנעל בהר הבית אסור בבית הכנסת מותר אף רקיקה בהר הבית הוא דאסור בבית הכנסת שרי,אמר ליה רב פפא לרבא ואמרי לה רבינא לרבא ואמרי לה רב אדא בר מתנא לרבא אדיליף ממנעל נילף מקפנדריא,אמר ליה תנא יליף ממנעל ואת אמרת מקפנדריא מאי היא דתניא לא יכנס אדם להר הבית לא במקלו שבידו ולא במנעלו שברגלו ולא במעות הצרורים לו בסדינו ובפונדתו מופשלת לאחוריו ולא יעשנה קפנדריא ורקיקה מקל וחומר ממנעל ומה מנעל שאין בו דרך בזיון אמרה תורה (שמות ג, ה) של נעליך מעל רגליך רקיקה שהיא דרך בזיון לא כל שכן,רבי יוסי בר יהודה אומר אינו צריך הרי הוא אומר (אסתר ד, ב) כי אין לבא אל שער המלך בלבוש שק והלא דברים קל וחומר ומה שק שאינו מאוס לפני בשר ודם כך רקיקה שהיא מאוסה לפני מלך מלכי המלכים לא כל שכן,אמר ליה אנא הכי קאמינא נימא הכא לחומרא והכא לחומרא 62b. Continuing with the subject of health, bit was taughtin a ibaraita /i: bBen Azzai says: On all beds, lie, except for the ground. On all seats, sit, except for a beam,lest you fall off. bShmuel said: Sleeping at dawn isas effective bas forging [ iistema /i]is bto iron. Abowel bmovement at dawnis as beneficial bas forgingis bto iron. /b,Similarly, the Gemara relates: bBar Kappara would sell sayings for dinars;he would express his ideas in brief maxims. For example: bIf you are hungry, eat;do not delay eating, as the hunger may pass and your food will be of no benefit. So too, bif you are thirsty, drink; while the pot is still boiling, pour itout before it cools off. This is a metaphor for relieving oneself. Bar Kappara also said: bWhen the horn is sounded in Rome,signifying that there is demand for figs in the Roman market, bson of a fig seller, sell your father’s figs,even without his permission, so as not to miss the opportunity., bAbaye said to the Sages: When you enter the pathsof the city of bMeḥoza in order to go outand defecate bin a field, look neither to one side nor to the other, as perhaps women are sitting there and it is improper to look at them. /b,The Gemara relates: bRav Safra once entered a bathroom,when bRabbi Abba came along.To determine if he could enter, Rabbi Abba bcoughed next to the door.Rav Safra bsaid to him: Enter, master. When he came out, Rabbi Abba said to him: Until now, you never entered Seir,the land of the Edomites, who are not strict in their practice of modesty, bandyet byoualready blearned thecustoms of bSeir? Didn’t we learnin the mishna concerning the Temple: bThere was a firenext to the ritual bath, band a bathroom of honor. And this was its honor: If one found it locked, it was known that someone was inside;if bhe found it open, it was known that no one was inside.Speaking in the bathroom bis not a desired mode of behavior /b.,The Gemara explains the opinion of Rav Safra, who told Rabbi Abba that he could enter while in the bathroom: Rav Safra bheld that it was dangerousfor Rabbi Abba. If he waited and was uncertain whether or not he could enter, he would endanger himself. bAs it was taughtin a ibaraita /i: bRabbi Shimon ben Gamliel says: A columnof feces bthat is held backbecause one cannot relieve himself bcauses dropsy [ ihidrokan /i]. A stream [ isilon /i]of urine bthat is held back causes jaundice. /b,The Gemara relates that bRabbi Elazar entered a bathroom. This Roman came and pushed himaway. bRabbi Elazar stood and left,and ba serpent came and ripped out the intestinesof the Roman. bRabbi Elazar recited thefollowing bverse aboutthe Roman: b“Therefore I will give man [ iadam /i] for you”(Isaiah 43:4); bdo not readit as iadam /i, but rather readit as bEdom,meaning a Roman.,With regard to modesty in a bathroom, the Gemara cites an additional biblical allusion. When David found Saul in the cave and spared him, tearing the corner of his coat, he said to him: “Behold this day, your eyes have seen how the Lord has delivered you today into my hand in the cave, band he said to kill you; and you spared you”(I Samuel 24:10).,The Gemara asks: Why does the verse say: bAnd he said? It shouldsay: bAnd I said.Why does the verse say: bAnd you spared? It shouldsay: bAnd I spared.Rather, bRabbi Elazar said: David said to Saul: By Torah law, you should be killed, as you are a pursuerwho seeks to kill me, band the Torah says: If one comes to kill you, kill him first. But it was the modesty that you displayed that spared you. /b, bAnd what is thismodesty? bAs it is written: “And he came to the sheepcotes by the way, where there was a cave, and Saul went in to cover his feet,to defecate. Now David and his men were sitting in the innermost parts of the cave” (I Samuel 24:3). bIt was taughtthat the Sages said: bThere was a fence within a fence, and a cave within a cave,and Saul entered to defecate in the interest of modesty. With regard to the use of the term, bto coverhis feet, bRabbi Elazar said:This bteaches that,even there, bhe covered himselfwith his garment blike a isukka /i. /b,The Gemara continues with a homiletic interpretation of the verse: b“Then David arose, and cut off the corner of Saul’s robe privily”(I Samuel 24:4). bRabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, said: Anyone who treats clothing with contempt,like David who tore Saul’s robe for no reason, will be punished in that bultimately he will not benefit fromhis garments, bas it is stated: “Now King David was old and stricken in years; and they covered him with clothes, but he could get no heat”(I Kings 1:1).,As for David’s statement to Saul: b“If it be the Lord that has incited you against me, let Him accept an offering”(I Samuel 26:19), bRabbi Elazar saidthat bthe Holy One, Blessed be He, said to David: Do you call Me an inciter?In retribution, bI will cause you to fail in a matter that even schoolchildren know, as it is written: “When you take the sum of the children of Israel, according to their number, then shall they give every man a ransom for his soulunto the Lord, when you number them; that there be no plague among them, when you number them” (Exodus 30:12). bImmediatelyafter God said this to David, b“Satan stood up against Israeland incited David to number Israel” (I Chronicles 21:1). Moreover, bit is written:“And again the anger of the Lord was kindled against Israel, band He incited David against them, saying: Go, number Israel and Judea”(II Samuel 24:1). The proportional response to David’s calling God an inciter was that He incited David. bAnd when he counted them, he did not take a ransom from them,and he was punished, bas it is written: “So the Lord sent a pestilence upon Israel from the morning even to the appointed time”(II Samuel 24:15).,The Gemara asks: bWhatis the meaning of bthe appointed time? Shmuel the elder, father-in-law of Rabbi Ḥanina, said in the name of Rabbi Ḥanina:It means bfrom when the daily offering is slaughtered until whenits blood bis sprinkled. Rabbi Yoḥa said:It means bprecisely until noon. /b,It is also stated there: “The Lord repented Him of the evil band said to the angel that destroyed the many [ irav /i] people:It is enough; now stay your hand” (II Samuel 24:16). Explaining the meaning of the word irav /i, bRabbi Elazar saidthat bthe Holy One, Blessed be He, said to the angel: Take for me a great one [ irav /i] from among them, who is worthy of defraying severalof Israel’s bdebts.As a result, bat that moment Avishai ben Tzeruya, who was equivalent to the majority of the Sanhedrin, died.His death atoned for the entire nation.,On a parallel note, it is said: b“The Lord beheld, and He repented himof the evil” (I Chronicles 21:15). The Gemara asks: bWhat did the Lord behold? /b, bRav said: He sawand remembered bthe patriarch, Jacob,about whom the term seeing is used: b“And Jacob said when he saw them [ ira’am /i]:This is God’s camp” (Genesis 32:3). bAnd Shmuel said: He sawand remembered bIsaac’s ashes, as it is saidin the portion of the binding of Isaac: b“God will provide [ iyireh /i] Himself the lamb for a burnt-offering”(Genesis 22:8)., bRabbi Yitzḥak Nappaḥa said: He saw the money of atonementthat Israel gave when they were counted during the Exodus from Egypt, bas it is stated: “And you shall take the atonement money from the children of Israel,and shall appoint it for the service of the tent of meeting, that it may be a memorial for the children of Israel before the Lord, to make atonement for your souls” (Exodus 30:16). bRabbi Yoḥa said: He saw the Temple, as it is written: “On the mount where the Lord is seen [ iyera’e /i]”(Genesis 22:14).,Additional iamora’im /i, bRabbi Ya’akov bar Idi and Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani, differedin their opinions of what God saw. bOne said: He saw the money of atonement, and one said: He saw the Temple. And /bitstands to reason like the one who says /bthathe saw the Temple, as it is stated:“And Abraham called the name of that place: The Lord will see; bas it is said to this day: On the mount where the Lord is seen”(Genesis 22:14); generations later, they will recall the initial revelation on Mount Moria, as the angel also appeared to David on this mountain.,We learned in the mishna that, in deference to the Temple, ba person may not enter the Temple Mount with his staffand his shoes. He may not make it a ikappandarya /i. The Gemara asks: bWhatis the meaning of ikappandarya /i? Rava said: iKappandarya,as its nameimplies; a shortcut. bRav Ḥana bar Adda in the name of Rav Sama, son of Rav Mari, said:One may interpret this as an acrostic, bas people say: Instead of circumventing the rowsof houses b[ iademakifna adarei /i], I will enter this [ iei’ol beha /i]one. bRav Naḥman saidthat bRabba bar Avuh said:This ihalakhaapplies in a synagogue as well. However, bone who enters a synagogue notintending bto make it a shortcut is permitted to make it a shortcutif he later changed his mind.,Similarly, bRabbi Abbahu said: If it was originally a paththat passed through the site where the synagogue was erected, bone is permittedto pass through, as the public right of passage is not negated by the construction of a synagogue. bRabbi Ḥelbo saidthat bRav Huna said: One who enters a synagogue to pray is permitted to make it a shortcut, as it is stated: “But when the people of the land shall come before the Lord in the appointed seasons,he that enters by way of the north gate to worship shall go forth by the way of the south gate” (Ezekiel 46:9).,We learned in the mishna that bspittingon the Temple Mount is prohibited bthrough an ia fortioriinference. Rav Beivai saidthat bRabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: Anyone who spits on the Temple Mount,even btoday, it is as if he spit in the pupil ofGod’s beye, as it is stated: “And My eyes and My heart shall be there perpetually”(I Kings 9:3)., bRava said: Spitting in a synagogue is permitted, just as in the case of shoes. Just as wearing shoes is prohibited on the Temple Mountbut bpermitted in a synagogue, so, too, spitting is prohibited on the Temple Mountbut bpermitted in a synagogue. /b, bRav Pappa said to Rava, and some saythat bRavina said to Rava, and some say that Rav Adda bar Mattana said to Rava: Instead of derivingthis bfromthe case of wearing ba shoe, derive it fromthe case of ba shortcut.Just as a shortcut through a synagogue is prohibited, so too is spitting prohibited.,Rava bsaid to him:The itannaderivesthe prohibition of spitting bfromthe case of ba shoe, and you saythat it should be derived bfromthe case of ba shortcut?The Gemara elaborates: bWhat is thisderivation from the case of a shoe? bAs it was taughtin a ibaraita /i: bOne may neither enter the Temple Mount with his staff in his hand, nor with his shoes on his feet, nor with money tied in his cloth and with his money-belt slung behind him, norshould one bmake it a shortcut. All the more so, spittingis prohibited ia fortiorifromthe ihalakhawith regard to wearing ba shoe. Just aswith regard to ba shoe, which is generally not considered contemptuous, the Torah said: “Put off your shoes from off your feet, for the place upon which you stand is holy ground”(Exodus 3:5), ball the more so spitting, which is considered contemptuous,should be prohibited., bRabbi Yosei bar Yehuda, says: This ia fortioriinference bis unnecessary.It could be otherwise derived. bIt says: “For none may enter within the king’s gate clothed with sackcloth”(Esther 4:2). bThis mattercan be inferred ia fortiori /i: Just as sackcloth, which isgenerally bnotconsidered brepulsive beforeone who is bflesh and blood, isforbidden within the king’s gate, ball the more so spitting, which is repulsive,should be forbidden bbefore the King of Kings. /b,The one who challenged him, Rav Pappa or Ravina, bsaid to Rava: Iintended to bsay the following: Let us say, be stringent here,with regard to the Temple Mount, band be stringent here,with regard to the synagogue
64. Babylonian Talmud, Kiddushin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

81b. bSit properlyand do not act in a revolting manner. Satan then bsaid to him: Give me a cup. They gave him a cup. He coughed up his phlegm and spat it intothe cup. bThey berated himfor acting this way, at which point Satan pretended to bsinkdown band die. They heardpeople around them bsaying: Peleimu killed a man! Peleimu killed a man!Peleimu bfled and hid himself in the bathroom.Satan bfollowed himand bfell before him. Upon seeing thatPeleimu bwas suffering, he revealed himself to him.Satan bsaid to him: What is the reason that you spoke this way,provoking me by saying: An arrow in the eye of Satan? He replied: bBut what then should I say?Satan bsaid to him: Let the Master,i.e., Peleimu, bsay:Let bthe Merciful One rebuke the Satan. /b,The Gemara relates: bRabbi Ḥiyya bar Ashi was accustomed to say, whenever he would fall on his facein prayer: bMay the Merciful One save us from the evil inclination. One day his wife heard himsaying this prayer. bShe said: After all, it has been several years since he has withdrawn fromengaging in intercourse with bmedue to his advanced years. bWhat is the reason that he says thisprayer, as there is no concern that he will engage in sinful sexual behavior?, bOne day,while bhe was studying in his garden, she adorned herself and repeatedly walked past him. He said: Who are you? She said: I am Ḥaruta,a well-known prostitute, breturning from my dayat work. bHe propositioned her. She said to him: Give me that pomegranate from the top of the treeas payment. bHe leapt up, went,and bbrought it to her,and they engaged in intercourse., bWhen he came home, his wife was lightinga fire in the boven. He went and sat inside it. She said to him: What is this? He said to her: Such and such an incidentoccurred; he told her that he engaged in intercourse with a prostitute. bShe said to him: It was I. He paid no attention to her,thinking she was merely trying to comfort him, buntil she gave him signsthat it was indeed she. bHe said to her: I, in any event, intended to transgress.The Gemara relates: bAll the days of that righteous man he would fastfor the transgression he intended to commit, buntil he died by that deathin his misery.,The Gemara explains the source that one who intended to transgress is punished even though he did not actually sin. bAs it is taughtin a ibaraitaconcerning a husband who nullified the vow of his wife: b“Her husband has made them null; and the Lord will forgive her”(Numbers 30:13). bWith regard to whatcase bis the verse speaking?Why would the woman require forgiveness if her husband has nullified her vow? It is referring bto a woman who vowedto bbe a nazirite, and her husband heard and nullified hervow. bAnd she did not know that her husband had nullified hervow, band she drank wine and contracted impurity from a corpse,violating her presumed vow.,The Gemara relates: bWhen Rabbi Akiva came to this verse he would cry. He said: And ifwith regard to bone who intended to eat pork, andkosher blamb came up in his hand,like this woman who intended to violate her vow but in fact did not, bthe Torahnevertheless bsays: She requires atonement and forgiveness, all the more sodoes bone who intended to eat pork and pork came up in his handrequire atonement and forgiveness., bIn a similar manner, youcan bsaythat the same lesson can be derived from the verse: b“Though he know it not, yet is he guilty, and shall bear his iniquity”(Leviticus 5:17). bWhen Rabbi Akiva came to this verse he would cry.He said: bAnd ifwith regard to bone who intended to eatpermitted bfat, andforbidden bfatmistakenly bcame up in his hand, the Torah states: “Though he know it not, yet is he guilty, and shall bear his iniquity,” all the more sois this true for bone who intended to eatforbidden bfat andforbidden bfat came up in his hand. Isi ben Yehuda sayswith regard to the verse b“Though he know it not, yet is he guilty, and shall bear his iniquity”: With regard to this matter all sufferers shall grieve,since the verse teaches that one is punished even for sinning unawares.,§ The mishna teaches that ba man may be secluded with his mother. Rav Yehuda saysthat bRav Asi says: A man may be secluded with his sister, and live with his mother or with his daughterin a permanent arrangement, without concern. bWhen he said this before Shmuel,the latter bsaid: It is prohibited to be secluded with all those with whom relations are forbidden by the Torah, and even with an animal,as it is prohibited to engage in intercourse with an animal as well., bWe learnedin the mishna: bA man may be secluded with his mother, and with his daughter, and sleep alongside them with bodily contact, andthis appears to be ba conclusive refutation ofthe statement of bShmuel.The Gemara answers: bShmuelcould have bsaid to you: And according to your reasoning,how should one explain bthat which is taughtin a ibaraita /i: With regard to bhis sister, and his mother-in-law, and all those with whom relations are forbidden,including his mother and daughter, bone may be secluded with them onlyin the presence bof witnesses,from which it can be inferred: In the presence bof witnesses, yes; withoutthe presence bof witnesses, no.This ibaraitasupports the opinion of Shmuel that one may not be secluded with his mother or sister., bRather,it bisa dispute between itanna’im /ias to whether one may be secluded with his mother or sister. bAs it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bRabbi Meir said: Be careful with me because of my daughter,i.e., make sure I am not left secluded with her. Similarly, bRabbi Tarfon said: Be careful with me because of my daughter-in-law. A certain student mocked himfor being wary of the possibility of sinning with his daughter-in-law. bRabbi Abbahu said in the name of Rabbi Ḥanina ben Gamliel: Not many days passed until that student stumbledinto sin bwith his mother-in-law. /b,The Gemara stated that according to Shmuel it is prohibited for one to be alone beven with an animal.The Gemara relates: bAbaye removedthe animals bfrom the entire fieldhe was in. bRav Sheshet transferredthe animals to the other side bof the fence. Rav Ḥa from Neharde’a happenedto come bto Rav Kahana in Pum Nahara. He saw thathe bwas sitting and studying, and an animal was standing before him.Rav Ḥa bsaid to him: Doesn’t the Master holdthat one may not be secluded beven with an animal?Rav Kahana bsaid to him: Itdid bnotenter bmy mindthat an animal was before me., bRava says: A man may be secluded with two sisters-in-law and with two rival wives,i.e., two women who share a husband; bwith a woman and her mother-in-law;and bwith a woman and her husband’s daughter.Since these women typically dislike each other, each fears that the other will publicize her sins, and they will be careful not to transgress. Similarly, a man may be secluded bwith a woman and a girl who knows the meaning of sexual intercourse,i.e., one who is old enough to understand the nature of intercourse, bbutis still young enough that bshe does not submit herself to intercourse,since she does not yet desire it. In such a situation, the woman is concerned that the child will reveal her behavior.,§ The mishna teaches that bwhenone’s children bhave grown up, this one sleeps in his garmentand that one sleeps in her garment, but they may share a bed. The Gemara asks: bAnd howold must a child be to be considered grown up for the purposes of this ihalakha /i? bRav Adda bar Rav Azza saysthat bRav Asi says: A girlmust reach the bageof bnine years and one day; a boymust reach the bageof btwelve years and one day. There arethose bwho say: A girlmust reach the bageof btwelve years and one day; a boymust reach the bageof bthirteenyears band one day. Andaccording to bthis and that,according to both opinions, the girl is considered a child buntilshe has reached the stage of: b“Your breasts were fashioned, and your hair was grown”(Ezekiel 16:7), meaning the onset of puberty., bRafram bar Pappa saysthat bRav Ḥisda says: They taughtthat a man may sleep in close proximity to his minor daughter bonly if she is not ashamed to stand naked before him, butif she is bashamed to stand naked before him, it is prohibitedfor him to sleep close to her, regardless of her age. bWhat is the reason?It is that the binclination has a hold upon her,as otherwise she would not be ashamed.,The Gemara relates: bRav Aḥa bar Abba arrived at the house of Rav Ḥisda, his son-in-law. He took his daughter’s daughter and placed her on his lap.Rav Ḥisda bsaid to him: Doesn’t the Master think that shemight already be bbetrothed?Rav Aḥa bsaid to him:If that is true, byou have transgressedthe ruling bof Rav, as Rav Yehuda saysthat bRav says, and some sayit was said by bRabbi Elazar: It is prohibited for a man to betroth his daughter when she is a minor, until she grows up and says: I wantto marry bso-and-so,as otherwise she might reject the designated husband and ultimately sin by committing adultery. Rav Ḥisda replied: bThe Master has likewise transgressedthe words bof Shmuel. As Shmuel says: One may not make use of a woman,so how can you hold her on your lap? bHe said to him: I hold in accordance with anotherstatement bof Shmuel, as Shmuel says: /b
65. Babylonian Talmud, Qiddushin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

81a. לאתרויי ביה,אמר רב יהודה אמר רב ל"ש אלא בעיר אבל בדרך עד שיהיו שלשה שמא יצטרך אחד מהם להשתין ונמצא אחד מתייחד עם הערוה נימא מסייע ליה מוסרים לו שני תלמידי חכמים שמא יבא עליה בדרך תרי ואיהו הא תלתא התם כי היכי דניהוו עליה סהדי,רב ורב יהודה הוו קאזלי באורחא הוה קאזלא ההיא אתתא קמייהו א"ל רב לרב יהודה דל כרעיך מקמי גיהנם אמר ליה והא מר הוא דאמר בכשרים שפיר דמי א"ל מי יימר דבכשרים כגון אנא ואת אלא כגון מאי כגון רבי חנינא בר פפי וחביריו,אמר רב מלקין על ייחוד ואין אוסרין על הייחוד אמר רב אשי לא אמרן אלא בייחוד פנויה אבל בייחוד דאשת איש לא שלא תהא מוציא לעז על בניה,מר זוטרא מלקי ומכריז א"ל רב נחמן מפרהטיא לרב אשי מר נמי לילקי ולכריז א"ל איכא דשמע בהא ולא שמע בהא,אמר רב מלקין על לא טובה השמועה שנאמר (שמואל א ב, כד) אל בני כי לא טובה השמועה מר זוטרא מותיב לה אפסירה על כתפיה ומקרי ליה אל בני,אמר רבה בעלה בעיר אין חוששין משום ייחוד אמר רב יוסף פתח פתוח לרשות הרבים אין חוששין משום ייחוד רב ביבי איקלע לבי רב יוסף בתר דכרך ריפתא אמר להו שקולי דרגא מתותי ביבי והא אמר רבה בעלה בעיר אין חוששין משום ייחוד שאני רב ביבי דשושבינתיה הואי וגייסא ביה,אמר רב כהנא אנשים מבחוץ ונשים מבפנים אין חוששין משום ייחוד אנשים מבפנים ונשים מבחוץ חוששין משום ייחוד,במתניתא תנא איפכא אמר אביי השתא דאמר רב כהנא הכי ותנא מתניתא איפכא אנא נעביד לחומרא,אביי דייר גולפי רבא דייר קנה אמר אבין סקבא דשתא ריגלא,הנך שבוייתא דאתאי לנהרדעא אסקינהו לבי רב עמרם חסידא אשקולו דרגא מקמייהו בהדי דקא חלפה חדא מנייהו נפל נהורא באיפומא שקליה רב עמרם לדרגא דלא הוו יכלין בי עשרה למדלייא דלייא לחודיה סליק ואזיל,כי מטא לפלגא דרגא איפשח רמא קלא נורא בי עמרם אתו רבנן אמרו ליה כסיפתינן אמר להו מוטב תיכספו בי עמרם בעלמא הדין ולא תיכספו מיניה לעלמא דאתי אשבעיה דינפק מיניה נפק מיניה כי עמודא דנורא אמר ליה חזי דאת נורא ואנא בישרא ואנא עדיפנא מינך,רבי מאיר הוה מתלוצץ בעוברי עבירה יומא חד אידמי ליה שטן כאיתתא בהך גיסא דנהרא לא הוה מברא נקט מצרא וקא עבר כי מטא פלגא מצרא שבקיה אמר אי לאו דקא מכרזי ברקיעא הזהרו בר' מאיר ותורתו שויתיה לדמך תרתי מעי,ר' עקיבא הוה מתלוצץ בעוברי עבירה יומא חד אידמי ליה שטן כאיתתא בריש דיקלא נקטיה לדיקלא וקסליק ואזיל כי מטא לפלגיה דדיקלא שבקיה אמר אי לאו דמכרזי ברקיעא הזהרו ברבי עקיבא ותורתו שויתיה לדמך תרתי מעי,פלימו הוה רגיל למימר כל יומא גירא בעיניה דשטן יומא חד מעלי יומא דכיפורי הוה אידמי ליה כעניא אתא קרא אבבא אפיקו ליה ריפתא אמר ליה יומא כי האידנא כולי עלמא גואי ואנא אבראי עייליה וקריבו ליה ריפתא אמר ליה יומא כי האידנא כולי עלמא אתכא ואנא לחודאי אתיוהו אותבוהו אתכא הוה יתיב מלא נפשיה שיחנא וכיבי עליה והוה קעביד ביה מילי דמאיס א"ל 81a. how bto warn himnot to engage in intercourse with her, since that would neutralize the effectiveness of the examination of the waters., bRav Yehuda saysthat bRav says:The Sages btaughtthat two men may seclude themselves with one woman bonly in a city,where others are present, bbut on the roadit is not permitted bunless there are three.Why are two men insufficient on the road? bPerhaps one of them will need to urinateand will walk away, band it will turn out that oneperson bwill be secluded with a woman forbidden to him.The Gemara suggests: Shall bwe saythe mishna quoted above bsupports him: They provide him with two Torah scholarsto accompany them blest he engage in sexual intercourse with her along the way? He and twoTorah scholars bare three,which indicates that there is a requirement for three men when they are traveling. The Gemara answers: That is no proof, as bthere,in the case of the isota /i, there is a requirement for an additional two men bin order that they shouldserve as bwitnesses about him,to testify whether or not he engaged in intercourse with her along the way.,The Gemara relates: bRav and Rav Yehuda were walking along the way,and ba certain woman was walking ahead of them. Rav said to Rav Yehuda: Raise your feetand walk quickly baway from Gehennaso that we do not remain secluded with her. Rav Yehuda bsaid to him: But wasn’t ityou, bMaster, who said thatit is bpermittedin the case bofmen of bfitmorals? Rav bsaid to him: Who saysthat I referred btomen of bfitmorals bsuch as you and me?Rav Yehuda responded: bRather, such as whom?Rav answered: bSuch as Rabbi Ḥanina bar Pappi and his colleagues,who have proven that they can withstand temptation (see 39b). All other people are not trusted in this matter., bRav says:The court bflogsa man bdue tohis being bsecludedwith a woman. But a wife bis not forbiddento her husband, and an unmarried woman is not prohibited from marrying a priest bdue tobeing bsecluded,as it cannot be stated definitively that the secluded pair engaged in sexual intercourse. bRav Ashi says: We statedthe ihalakhathat one is flogged bdue tobeing bsecluded onlywith ban unmarriedwoman, bbut forbeing bsecludedwith ba married woman,one is bnotflogged. Why not? It is bso that there should not be rumors spread concerning her children.If the secluded pair is flogged, everyone will assume that they engaged in intercourse, and people will consider her children to be imamzerim /i, whereas in fact they were flogged only for being secluded.,The Gemara relates: bMar Zutra wouldeven bflogone who was secluded with a married woman, band he would proclaimthe reason for the punishment. bRav Naḥman from Parhatya said to Rav Ashi: Let the Master also flog and proclaimthe reason. Rav Ashi bsaid to him:I am hesitant to do so, in case bthere are those who hear about this,i.e., the flogging, band do not hear about that,i.e., the reason for the flogging., bRav says:The court bflogsone bdue tohis being the subject of ba bad rumor,meaning that not only is a person flogged when the facts have been ascertained, but even when he has only reportedly committed transgressions he may be flogged. bAs it is stated: “No, my sons, for it is no good report”(I Samuel 2:24). When bMar Zutrawould flog a person for being the subject of a bad rumor, bhe would placethe bbridleof a donkey bonthe person’s bshoulders and recite before himwhen administering lashes: b“No, my sons,for it is no good report,” so that people would know why he was being flogged., bRabba says:If a woman’s bhusband is in town, there is no concern due toher being bsecludedwith a man. People are afraid to sin with her, since they cannot be sure when her husband will return. bRav Yosef says:If there is ban open entrance to the public domain there is no concern due tobeing bsecluded.The Gemara relates: bRav Beivai arrived at Rav Yosef’s house. After he wrappedhis bbread,i.e., ate his meal, he bsaid tothe members of the household: bRemove the ladder from beneath Beivai,who was going to sleep in the upper story, so that he not be able to climb down, due to the prohibition of being secluded with Rav Yosef’s wife. The Gemara asks: bBut doesn’t Rabba say:If bher husband is in town, there is no concern due toher being bsecludedwith a man? The Gemara answers: bRav Beivai is different, sinceRav Yosef’s wife bwas his friend and she was familiar with him,and therefore there was more cause for concern., bRav Kahana says:If the bmenare located bon the outside,i.e., in the outer room, band the women in the inside,i.e., in the inner room, bthere is no concern due tobeing bsecluded.Even if one of the men were to enter the inner room, he would be seen by the other men. By contrast, if there were bmen in the inside and women on the outside, there is a concern due tobeing bsecluded,since one of the men can claim that he is leaving and in fact join the women.,The Gemara comments: bThe opposite was taught in a ibaraita /i,that if the men are on the outside and the women are inside there is concern due to being secluded, as one of the men might venture inside without being noticed, but if the men are inside and the women are outside, he knows that one of the other men might go out through the women’s quarters at any time, and therefore there is no concern due to being secluded. bAbaye said: Now that Rav Kahana has saidthe ihalakhain bthismanner band a ibaraitateaches the opposite, we shall act stringentlyin both cases., bAbayewould barrange rowsof bpitchersbetween the men and women, so that they would not be able to cross from one area to the other without making noise. bRavawould barrange rowsof breedsto prevent passage. bAvin said: The wound [ isakva /i],i.e., the vulnerable point, bof the yearis bthe Festival,since men and women would come together on these joyous occasions, and this would lead to sin.,§ The Gemara relates: bThose captivewomen bwho were brought to Neharde’a,where they were redeemed, bwere brought up to the house of Rav Amram the Pious. They removed the ladder from before themto prevent men from climbing up after them to the attic where they were to sleep. bWhen one of them passedby the entrance to the upper chamber, it was as though ba light shone in the aperturedue to her great beauty. Out of his desire for her, bRav Amram grabbed a ladder that tenmen btogether could not lift, lifted it on his ownand bbegan climbing. /b, bWhen he was halfwayup bthe ladder, he strengthenedhis legs against the sides of the ladder to stop himself from climbing further, braised his voice,and cried out: There is ba fire in the house of Amram.Upon hearing this, bthe Sages cameand found him in that position. bThey said to him: You have embarrassed us,since everyone sees what you had intended to do. Rav Amram bsaid to them: It is better that you be shamed in Amram’s house in this world, and not be ashamed of him in the World-to-Come. He took an oath thathis evil inclination bshould emerge from him, andan apparition bsimilar to a pillar of fire emerged from him. He said tohis evil inclination: bSee, as you are fire and I ammere bflesh, andyet, bI amstill bsuperior to you,as I was able to overcome you.,The Gemara relates: bRabbi Meir would ridicule transgressorsby saying it is easy to avoid temptation. bOne day, Satan appeared to him as a womanstanding bon the other side of the river.Since bthere was no ferryto cross the river, bhe took hold of a rope bridge and crossedthe river. bWhen he reached halfwayacross bthe rope bridge,the evil inclination bleft him and saidto him: bWere it not forthe fact that bthey proclaim about you in heaven: Be careful with regard to Rabbi Meir and his Torah, I would have made your blood like two ima’a /i,i.e., completely worthless, since you would have fallen completely from your spiritual level., bRabbi Akiva wouldlikewise bridicule transgressors. One day, Satan appeared to him as a woman at the top of a palm tree.Rabbi Akiva bgrabbed hold of the palm tree and began climbing. When he was halfway up the palm tree,the evil inclination bleft him and saidto him: bWere it not forthe fact that bthey proclaim about you in heaven: Be careful with regard to Rabbi Akiva and his Torah, I would have made your blood like two ima’a /i. /b,The Sage bPeleimu had the habit to say every day: An arrow in the eye of Satan,mocking the temptations of the evil inclination. bOne day, it was the eve of Yom Kippur,and Satan bappeared to him as a pauperwho bcame and calledhim bto the door,requesting alms. Peleimu bbrought out bread to him.Satan bsaid to him: On a day like today, everyone is insideeating, bandshall bIstand boutsideand eat? Peleimu bbrought him inside and gave him bread. He said to him: On a day like today, everyoneis sitting bat the table, andshall bIsit bby myself? They brought him and sat him at the table. He was sittingand had bcovered himself with boils and pus, and he was doing repulsive thingsat the table. Peleimu bsaid tothe pauper:
66. Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

107a. אוכל לחמי הגדיל עלי עקב,אמר רב יהודה אמר רב לעולם אל יביא אדם עצמו לידי נסיון שהרי דוד מלך ישראל הביא עצמו לידי נסיון ונכשל אמר לפניו רבש"ע מפני מה אומרים אלהי אברהם אלהי יצחק ואלהי יעקב ואין אומרים אלהי דוד אמר אינהו מינסו לי ואת לא מינסית לי אמר לפניו רבש"ע בחנני ונסני שנאמר (תהלים כו, ב) בחנני ה' ונסני וגו',אמר מינסנא לך ועבידנא מילתא בהדך דלדידהו לא הודעתינהו ואילו אנא קא מודענא לך דמנסינא לך בדבר ערוה מיד (שמואל ב יא, ב) ויהי לעת הערב ויקם דוד מעל משכבו וגו',אמר רב יהודה שהפך משכבו של לילה למשכבו של יום ונתעלמה ממנו הלכה אבר קטן יש באדם משביעו רעב ומרעיבו שבע,(שמואל ב יא, ב) ויתהלך על גג בית המלך וירא אשה רוחצת מעל הגג והאשה טובת מראה מאד בת שבע הוה קא חייפא רישא תותי חלתא אתא שטן אידמי ליה כציפרתא פתק ביה גירא פתקה לחלתא איגליה וחזייה,מיד (שמואל ב יא, ג) וישלח דוד וידרוש לאשה ויאמר הלא זאת בת שבע בת אליעם אשת אוריה החתי וישלח דוד מלאכים ויקחה ותבא אליו וישכב עמה והיא מתקדשת מטומאתה ותשב אל ביתה והיינו דכתיב (תהלים יז, ג) בחנת לבי פקדת לילה צרפתני בל תמצא זמותי בל יעבר פי אמר איכו זממא נפל בפומיה דמאן דסני לי ולא אמר כי הא מילתא,דרש רבא מאי דכתיב (תהלים יא, א) למנצח לדוד בה' חסיתי איך תאמרו לנפשי נודי הרכם צפור אמר דוד לפני הקב"ה רבש"ע מחול לי על אותו עון שלא יאמרו הר שבכם צפור נדדתו,דרש רבא מאי דכתיב (תהלים נא, ו) לך לבדך חטאתי והרע בעיניך עשיתי למען תצדק בדברך תזכה בשפטך אמר דוד לפני הקב"ה גליא וידיעא קמך דאי בעיא למכפייה ליצרי הוה כייפינא אלא אמינא דלא לימרו עבדא זכי למריה,דרש רבא מאי דכתיב (תהלים לח, יח) כי אני לצלע נכון ומכאובי נגדי תמיד ראויה היתה בת שבע בת אליעם לדוד מששת ימי בראשית אלא שבאה אליו במכאוב וכן תנא דבי רבי ישמעאל ראויה היתה לדוד בת שבע בת אליעם אלא שאכלה פגה,דרש רבא מאי דכתיב (תהלים לה, טו) ובצלעי שמחו ונאספו נאספו עלי נכים [ולא ידעתי] קרעו ולא דמו אמר דוד לפני הקב"ה רבש"ע גלוי וידוע לפניך שאם היו קורעין בשרי לא היה דמי שותת,ולא עוד אלא בשעה שהם עוסקין בארבע מיתות ב"ד פוסקין ממשנתן ואומרים לי דוד הבא על אשת איש מיתתו במה אמרתי להם הבא על אשת איש מיתתו בחנק ויש לו חלק לעוה"ב אבל המלבין פני חבירו ברבים אין לו חלק לעולם הבא,אמר רב יהודה אמר רב אפילו בשעת חליו של דוד קיים שמנה עשרה עונות שנאמר (תהלים ו, ז) יגעתי באנחתי אשחה בכל לילה מטתי בדמעתי ערשי אמסה ואמר רב יהודה אמר רב בקש דוד לעבוד ע"ז שנאמר (שמואל ב טו, לב) ויהי דוד בא עד הראש אשר ישתחוה שם לאלהים ואין ראש אלא ע"ז שנאמר (דניאל ב, לב) והוא צלמא רישיה די דהב טב,(שמואל ב טו, לב) והנה לקראתו חושי הארכי קרוע כתנתו ואדמה על ראשו אמר לו לדוד יאמרו מלך שכמותך יעבוד ע"ז אמר לו מלך שכמותי יהרגנו בנו מוטב יעבוד ע"ז ואל יתחלל שם שמים בפרהסיא,אמר מאי טעמא קנסיבת יפת תואר א"ל יפת תואר רחמנא שרייה א"ל לא דרשת סמוכין דסמיך ליה (דברים כא, יח) כי יהיה לאיש בן סורר ומורה כל הנושא יפת תואר יש לו בן סורר ומורה,דרש ר' דוסתאי דמן בירי למה דוד דומה לסוחר כותי אמר דוד לפני הקב"ה רבש"ע (תהלים יט, יג) שגיאות מי יבין [א"ל] שביקי לך ומנסתרות נקני שביקי לך גם מזדים חשוך עבדך שביקי לך אל ימשלו בי אז איתם דלא לישתעו בי רבנן שביקי לך,ונקיתי מפשע רב שלא יכתב סרחוני אמר לו א"א ומה יו"ד שנטלתי משרי עומד וצווח כמה שנים עד שבא יהושע והוספתי לו שנאמר (במדבר יג, טז) ויקרא משה להושע בן נון יהושע כל הפרשה כולה עאכ"ו,ונקיתי מפשע רב אמר לפניו רבש"ע מחול לי על אותו עון כולו אמר כבר עתיד שלמה בנך לומר בחכמתו (משלי ו, כז) היחתה איש אש בחיקו ובגדיו לא תשרפנה אם יהלך איש על הגחלים ורגליו לא תכוינה כן הבא על אשת רעהו לא ינקה כל הנוגע בה א"ל כל הכי נטרד ההוא גברא א"ל קבל עליך יסורין קבל עליו,אמר רב יהודה אמר רב ששה חדשים נצטרע דוד ונסתלקה הימנו שכינה ופירשו ממנו סנהדרין נצטרע דכתיב (תהלים נא, ט) תחטאני באזוב ואטהר תכבסני ומשלג אלבין נסתלקה הימנו שכינה דכתיב (תהלים נא, יד) השיבה לי ששון ישעך ורוח נדיבה תסמכני ופרשו ממנו סנהדרין דכתי' (תהלים קיט, עט) ישובו לי יראיך וגו' ששה חדשים מנלן דכתי' (מלכים א ב, יא) והימים אשר מלך דוד על ישראל ארבעים שנה 107a. bwho did eat of my bread, has lifted his heel against me”(Psalms 41:10). Bread is a metaphor for Torah knowledge.,§ Apropos Ahithophel, the Gemara relates the events that led to his death. bRav Yehuda saysthat bRav says: A person should never bring himself toundergo ban ordeal, as David, king of Israel, brought himself toundergo ban ordeal and failed.David bsaid beforeGod: bMaster of the Universe, for whatreason bdoes one sayin prayer: bGod of Abraham, God of Isaac, and God of Jacob, and one does not say: God of David?God bsaidto David: bThey have undergone ordeals before Me, and you have not undergone an ordeal before Me.David bsaid before Him: Examine me and subject me to an ordeal, as it is stated: “Examine me, Lord, and subject me to an ordeal;try my kidneys and my heart” (Psalms 26:2).,God bsaidto him: bI will subject you to an ordeal, and I will perform a matter for youthat I did not perform for the Patriarchs, bas for them, I did not inform themof the nature of the ordeal, bwhile I am informing you that I will subject you to an ordeal involving a matter ofa married woman, with whom brelationsare bforbidden. Immediately,it is written: b“And it came to pass one evening that David rose from his bed”(II Samuel 11:2)., bRav Yehuda says:Once David heard the nature of his ordeal, he sought to prevent himself from experiencing lust. bHe transformed his nighttime bed into his daytime bed,i.e., he engaged in intercourse with his wives during the day, in an attempt to quell his lust. bBut a ihalakha /i,i.e., a Torah statement, bescaped him: There is a small limb in manthat he employs in sexual intercourse. If bhe starvesthe limb, and does not overindulge, it bis satiated; butif bhe satiatesthe limb and overindulges in sexual intercourse, it bis starving,and desires more. Therefore, his plan had the opposite effect.,The verse states: b“And he walked upon the roof of the king’s house; from the roof he saw a woman bathing, and the woman was very fair to look upon”(II Samuel 11:2). bBathsheba was shampooing her head behind a beehive,which concealed her from sight. bSatan came and appeared toDavid bas a bird.David bshot an arrow atthe bird, the arrow bsevered the beehive,Bathsheba bwas exposed, andDavid bsaw her. /b, bImmediately,it is written: b“And David sent and inquired after the woman. And one said: Is not this Bathsheba, daughter of Eliam, the wife of Uriah the Hittite? And David sent messengers, and took her, and she came to him, and he lay with her, for she was purified from her impurity, and then she returned to her house”(II Samuel 11:3–4). bAnd that isthe meaning of that bwhich is written: “You have proved my heart; You have visited me in the night: You have tried me, but You find nothing; let no presumptuous thought pass my lips”(Psalms 17:3). David bsaid: Oh, that a muzzle would have fallen upon the mouth of the one who hates me,a euphemism for his own mouth, band I would not have said anything like thatand I would have withstood the ordeal., bRava taught: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “To the leader, of David. In the Lord I put my trust; how can you say to my soul: Flee like a bird to your mountain”(Psalms 11:1)? bDavid said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe, pardon me for that sinwith Bathsheba so bthatthe wicked people bwill not say: The mountain that is among you,i.e., the luminary of the generation, David, bwas drivenfrom the world due to ba birdthat led to his transgression., bRava taught: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “Against You, only You, have I sinned, and done what is evil in Your eyes; that You are justified when You speak, and right when You judge”(Psalms 51:6)? bDavid said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: It is revealed and known before You that if I sought to suppress myevil binclination, I would have suppressed it; but I said:I will sin, so bthat they will not say a servant overcame his masterand withstood the ordeal even though God said that he would not., bRava taught: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “For I am ready to stumble [ iletzela /i] and my pain is always before me”(Psalms 38:18)? bBathsheba, daughter of Eliam, wasdesignated as bfit for David from the six days of Creation.Rava interprets that the term iletzelais referring to Eve, who was taken from the side [ itzela /i] of Adam, the first man, and explains that she was destined for him, just as Eve was destined for Adam. bBut she came to him through pain. And likewise, the school of Rabbi Yishmael taught: Bathsheba, daughter of Eliam, wasdesignated as bfit for David, but he partook of her unripe,before the appointed time. David would have ultimately married her in a permitted manner after the death of Uriah., bRava taught: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “And when I limped they rejoiced and gathered, the wretched gather themselves together against me, and those whom I know not; they tore and did not cease [ idammu /i]”(Psalms 35:15)? bDavid said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe. It is revealed and known before you that ifmy enemies bwere to tear my flesh, my blood [ idami /i] would not flow to the ground,due to excessive fasting (see II Samuel 12:16–17).,David continued: bMoreover,my enemies torment me to the extent that bat the time when they are engaged inthe public study of the ihalakhotof the bfour court-imposed death penalties they interrupt their study and say to me: David,concerning bone who engages in intercourse with a married woman, his deathis effected bwith whatform of execution? And bI said to them:Concerning bone who engages in intercourse with a married womanbefore witnesses and with forewarning, bhis death is by strangulation, and he has a share in the World-to-Come. But one who humiliates another before the multitudes has no share in the World-to-Come.The transgression of those who humiliated David is clearly more severe than the transgression of David himself., bRav Yehuda saysthat bRav says: Even during the time of his illness he fulfilledthe mitzva of bconjugal rights for eighteenwives, bas it is stated: “I am weary with my groaning; every night I speak in my bed; I melt away my couch with tears”(Psalms 6:7). Even when he was weary and groaning he still spoke in his bed, a euphemism for sexual intercourse. bAnd Rav Yehuda saysthat bRav says: David sought to engage in idol worshipduring Absalom’s coup, bas it is stated: “And it came to pass when David was at the top [ irosh /i] of the ascent, where he would bow to God”(II Samuel 15:32), band irosh /imeans bnothing other than idol worship, as it is stated: “As for that image, its head [ ireishei /i] was of fine gold”(Daniel 2:32).,It is written: b“Behold Hushai the Archite came to meet him with his coat rent and earth upon his head”(II Samuel 15:32). Hushai bsaid to David: Shall they say a king like you will engage in idol worship?David bsaid to him:Is it preferable that they say with regard to ba king like me,known to be righteous, that bhis son will kill him?David continued, referring to himself in third person: bIt is preferable that he shall engage in idol worship and the name of Heaven shall not be desecrated in publicthrough the murder of a righteous king in this manner.,Hushai bsaidto him: bWhat is the reasonthat byou married a beautiful woman,the mother of Absalom? David bsaid to him:With regard to ba beautiful woman, the Merciful One permittedmarrying bher.Hushai bsaid to him:But byou did not interpret the juxtaposedverses, bas juxtaposed tothe portion of the beautiful woman is the portion beginning: b“If a man has a stubborn and rebellious son”(Deuteronomy 21:18). From that juxtaposition it is derived: bAnyone who marries a beautiful woman has a stubborn and rebellious son.Therefore, even if Absalom kills you, there will be no desecration of God’s name, as the people will attribute his actions to his mother., bRabbi Dostai from Biri taught: To what is David comparable?He is comparable bto a Samaritan merchant,who incrementally lowers the price until the buyer agrees to purchase the merchandise. bDavid said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe: “Who can discern his errors”(Psalms 19:13), i.e., forgive me for the unwitting sins that I committed. God bsaid to him: They are forgiven for you.David asked more: b“Cleanse me from hidden faults”(Psalms 19:13), i.e., pardon me for transgressions that I committed in private, even if I performed them intentionally. God said to him: bThey are forgiven for you.David requested: b“Keep back your servant also from intentional sins”(Psalms 19:14). God said to him: bThey are forgiven for you.David requested: b“Let them not have dominion over me, then I shall be faultless”(Psalms 19:14), and I further request bthat the Sages will not speak of meand condemn me. God said to him: bThey are forgiven for you. /b,David requested: b“And I shall be clear from great transgression”(Psalms 19:14), meaning bthat my transgressionwith Bathsheba and Uriah bwill not be writtenin the Bible. God bsaid to him:That is bimpossible. And just asthe letter iyodthat I removed fromthe name of bSarai,wife of Abraham, when I changed her name to Sarah, was bstanding and screaming several yearsover its omission from the Bible buntil Joshua came and I addedthe iyod bto hisname, bas it is stated: “And Moses called Hosea, son of Nun, Joshua [ iYehoshua /i]”(Numbers 13:16); bthe entire portionof your transgression, which is fit to be included in the Bible, ball the more soit cannot be omitted.,The verse states: b“And I shall be clear from great transgression”(Psalms 19:14). David bsaid beforeGod: bMaster of the Universe, pardon me for that entire sin.God bsaidto him: bYour son Solomon is already destined to say with his wisdom: “Can a man take fire in his lap and his garments not be burned? Can one walk on hot coals and his feet not be scorched? So too one who lies with his neighbor’s wife; anyone who touches her shall not go unpunished”(Proverbs 6:27–29). David bsaid to Him: Will that man,David, bbe expelledfor bthat entiretransgression, with no remedy? God bsaid toDavid: bAccept upon yourself afflictions,and that will atone for your sins. bHe acceptedafflictions bupon himself. /b, bRav Yehuda saysthat bRav says:For bsix months David was afflicted with leprosy and the Divine Presence abandoned him andthe members of bthe Sanhedrin dissociatedthemselves bfrom him. He was afflicted with leprosy, as it is stated: “Purge me with hyssop and I shall be clean; wash me, and I shall be whiter than snow”(Psalms 51:9), indicating that he required purification like a leper. bThe Divine Presence abandoned him, as it is stated: “Restore me to joy of Your salvation; and uphold me with a willing spirit”(Psalms 51:14). bAndthe members of bthe Sanhedrin dissociatedthemselves bfrom him, as it is stated: “Let those who fear You turn to me,and those who have known Your testimonies” (Psalms 119:79). bFrom where do wederive that this lasted for bsix months?It is derived bas it is written: “And the days that David reigned over Israel were forty years; /b
67. Nag Hammadi, The Gospel of Thomas, 22 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

68. Origen, Commentary On Matthew, 10.25, 14.2 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

10.25. After this the word says, And when even had come, His disciples came to Him, saying, The place is desert and the time is already past; send, therefore, the multitudes away, that they may go into the villages and buy themselves food. Matthew 14:15 And first observe that when about to give to the disciples the loaves of blessing, that they might set them before the multitudes, He healed the sick, in order that, having been restored to health, they might participate in the loaves of blessing; for while they are yet sickly, they are not able to receive the loaves of the blessing of Jesus. But if any one, when he ought to listen to the precept, But let each prove himself, and so let him eat of the bread, etc., 1 Corinthians 11:28 does not obey these words, but in haphazard fashion participates in the bread of the Lord and His cup, he becomes weak or sickly, or even - if I may use the expression - on account of being stupefied by the power of the bread, asleep. 14.2. So much then for the more common understanding of the two or three whom the Word exhorts to be in agreement. But now let us also touch upon another interpretation which was uttered by some one of our predecessors, exhorting those who were married to sanctity and purity; for by the two, he says, whom the Word desires to agree on earth, we must understand the husband and wife, who by agreement defraud each other of bodily intercourse that they may give themselves unto prayer; 1 Corinthians 7:5 when if they pray for anything whatever that they shall ask, they shall receive it, the request being granted to them by the Father in heaven of Jesus Christ on the ground of such agreement. And this interpretation does not appear to me to cause dissolution of marriage, but to be an incitement to agreement, so that if the one wished to be pure, but the other did not desire it, and on this account he who willed and was able to fulfil the better part, condescended to the one who had not the power or the will, they would not both have the accomplishment from the Father in heaven of Jesus Christ, of anything whatever that they might ask.
69. Origen, Against Celsus, 8.33 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

8.33. From this it is evident that we have already met the next statement of Celsus, which is as follows: We must either not live, and indeed not come into this life at all, or we must do so on condition that we give thanks and first-fruits and prayers to demons, who have been set over the things of this world: and that we must do as long as we live, that they may prove good and kind. We must surely live, and we must live according to the word of God, as far as we are enabled to do so. And we are thus enabled to live, when, whether we eat or drink, we do all to the glory of God; and we are not to refuse to enjoy those things which have been created for our use, but must receive them with thanksgiving to the Creator. And it is under these conditions, and not such as have been imagined by Celsus, that we have been brought into life by God; and we are not placed under demons, but we are under the government of the Most High God, through Him who has brought us to God - Jesus Christ. It is not according to the law of God that any demon has had a share in worldly affairs, but it was by their own lawlessness that they perhaps sought out for themselves places destitute of the knowledge of God and of the divine life, or places where there are many enemies of God. Perhaps also, as being fit to rule over and punish them, they have been set by the Word, who governs all things, to rule over those who subjected themselves to evil and not to God. For this reason, then, let Celsus, as one who knows not God, give thank-offerings to demons. But we give thanks to the Creator of all, and, along with thanksgiving and prayer for the blessings we have received, we also eat the bread presented to us; and this bread becomes by prayer a sacred body, which sanctifies those who sincerely partake of it.
70. Origen, On Prayer, 2.2 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

71. Origen, Fragments On 1 Corinthians, 34 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

72. Augustine, De Natura Et Gratia Ad Timasium Et Jacobum Contra Pelagium, 77 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

73. Stobaeus, Eclogues, 2.7.5



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abortion Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 60
abraham Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 727
abstinence Pevarello, The Sentences of Sextus and the Origins of Christian Ascetiscism (2013) 24, 74, 80, 96
achaea Breytenbach and Tzavella, Early Christianity in Athens, Attica, and Adjacent Areas (2022) 12
acts of the apostles, prophets in Falcetta, Early Christian Teachers: The 'Didaskaloi' From Their Origins to the Middle of the Second Century (2020) 59
acts of the apostles, teachers in Falcetta, Early Christian Teachers: The 'Didaskaloi' From Their Origins to the Middle of the Second Century (2020) 59
adam Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 221
advantage (sumpheron, utilitas) Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 134
afterlife, reward Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 727
agency, divine Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 85
agency, human Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 85
akrasia (weakness of will) Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 85
alexandria, alexandrian Pevarello, The Sentences of Sextus and the Origins of Christian Ascetiscism (2013) 96
alexandria Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 60
amphipolis, christian community Ogereau, Early Christianity in Macedonia: From Paul to the Late Sixth Century (2023) 142
amphipolis, city Ogereau, Early Christianity in Macedonia: From Paul to the Late Sixth Century (2023) 142
antinomian Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová, Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria (2016) 332
apostasy Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 727
apostles decree Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 335
aramaic Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 335
arius didymus Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 134
ascetic, radical ascetics Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová, Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria (2016) 332
asceticism, christian encouragement Monnickendam, Jewish Law and Early Christian Identity: Betrothal, Marriage, and Infidelity in the Writings of Ephrem the Syrian (2020) 40
asceticism, christian rejection Monnickendam, Jewish Law and Early Christian Identity: Betrothal, Marriage, and Infidelity in the Writings of Ephrem the Syrian (2020) 40
asceticism, female Monnickendam, Jewish Law and Early Christian Identity: Betrothal, Marriage, and Infidelity in the Writings of Ephrem the Syrian (2020) 40
asceticism Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 206; Pevarello, The Sentences of Sextus and the Origins of Christian Ascetiscism (2013) 24, 80, 96
astray, to lead/go/wander Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 727
augustine Pevarello, The Sentences of Sextus and the Origins of Christian Ascetiscism (2013) 24
authority Papaioannou et al., Rhetoric and Religion in Ancient Greece and Rome (2021) 180; Papaioannou, Serafim and Demetriou, Rhetoric and Religion in Ancient Greece and Rome (2021) 180
authority of ~ Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 402
background information/knowledge Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 319, 320
baptism Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 105; Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 370
barnabas, letter of Stanton, Unity and Disunity in Greek and Christian Thought under the Roman Peace (2021) 185
barnabas Falcetta, Early Christian Teachers: The 'Didaskaloi' From Their Origins to the Middle of the Second Century (2020) 59
basil of caesarea Larsen and Rubenson, Monastic Education in Late Antiquity: The Transformation of Classical 'Paideia' (2018) 17
beneficial exchange Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 325
benefit Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 325
beroea, city Ogereau, Early Christianity in Macedonia: From Paul to the Late Sixth Century (2023) 77
biblical studies Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 320
birth Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 221
blessing Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 727
body, as temple Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová, Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria (2016) 332
body Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 295; Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 206; Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová, Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria (2016) 332
body (human), xv Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 319, 325
body as temple Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 152
body borders of Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 152
body inherent defilement of Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 221
books, by enoch Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 727
books, heavenly Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 727
boundary Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 370
breastplate of trust Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 119, 120
canon law Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 402
cassian Larsen and Rubenson, Monastic Education in Late Antiquity: The Transformation of Classical 'Paideia' (2018) 17
celibacy, and essenes Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 69
celibacy, and notion of manliness Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 69
celibacy Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 206; Pevarello, The Sentences of Sextus and the Origins of Christian Ascetiscism (2013) 74; Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 69; Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová, Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria (2016) 332
children Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 325
chin Larsen and Rubenson, Monastic Education in Late Antiquity: The Transformation of Classical 'Paideia' (2018) 17
christian, believers/faithful Breytenbach and Tzavella, Early Christianity in Athens, Attica, and Adjacent Areas (2022) 12
christian church, unity of the Stanton, Unity and Disunity in Greek and Christian Thought under the Roman Peace (2021) 185
christian message Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 105
church, universal Stanton, Unity and Disunity in Greek and Christian Thought under the Roman Peace (2021) 185
church Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 105
churches/tradition of paul pauline Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 402
cicero Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 159
clement of alexandria, reduction of diverse heresies to common errors Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 362
clement of alexandria Pevarello, The Sentences of Sextus and the Origins of Christian Ascetiscism (2013) 96
cognitive science Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 319
community, borders of Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 152
continence Pevarello, The Sentences of Sextus and the Origins of Christian Ascetiscism (2013) 96; Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová, Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria (2016) 332
continence (enkrateia) Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 206
corinth, community of Falcetta, Early Christian Teachers: The 'Didaskaloi' From Their Origins to the Middle of the Second Century (2020) 59
cosmic conflict Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 119, 120
create, creation, creator Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová, Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria (2016) 332
creation Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 370
cultural clues/codes Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 319
cultural frames Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 320, 325
culture, cultural affiliations in galilee Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 187
daniel Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 727
death penalty Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 60
delphi Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 295
democritus Pevarello, The Sentences of Sextus and the Origins of Christian Ascetiscism (2013) 74
demons, in rabbinic literature Rosen-Zvi, Demonic Desires: Yetzer Hara and the Problem of Evil in Late Antiquity (2011). 161
demons, in the babylonian talmud Rosen-Zvi, Demonic Desires: Yetzer Hara and the Problem of Evil in Late Antiquity (2011). 161
desires Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 159; Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová, Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria (2016) 332
devil Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 120
dialect Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 320, 325
didakhe, the Stanton, Unity and Disunity in Greek and Christian Thought under the Roman Peace (2021) 185
dium, city Ogereau, Early Christianity in Macedonia: From Paul to the Late Sixth Century (2023) 77
divorce Pevarello, The Sentences of Sextus and the Origins of Christian Ascetiscism (2013) 80, 96
dreams Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 295
egnatia (via) Ogereau, Early Christianity in Macedonia: From Paul to the Late Sixth Century (2023) 142
eleutherai (ἐλευθεραί), modern gyphtokastro (γυφτόκαστρο) Breytenbach and Tzavella, Early Christianity in Athens, Attica, and Adjacent Areas (2022) 12
encratism Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 221; Pevarello, The Sentences of Sextus and the Origins of Christian Ascetiscism (2013) 24, 96
enkrateia Pevarello, The Sentences of Sextus and the Origins of Christian Ascetiscism (2013) 96; Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová, Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria (2016) 332
environment Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 325
essenes (see also qumran) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 60
eucharist Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 221, 222, 223
evil Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 119, 120
exegesis, of paul Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová, Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria (2016) 332
exegesis Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová, Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria (2016) 332
exegetical debates/conversations Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová, Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria (2016) 332
exousia Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 134
faith Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 105; Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 370
flesh Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 152; Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 295
focus (in metaphor and blending theory), blending theory Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 325
food, impurity of offered to idols Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 221, 222
freedom Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 85
freedom (eleutheria) Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 134
gender, in christian sources Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 206
gender, overcoming Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 206
gender Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 206
genre Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 320
gentile Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 335
gentiles Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 105
gnosticism, assimilation of other heresies to Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 362
god, praise/thanks of Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 295
god, temple of Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 295
good (agathos) Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 134
gospels Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 105
graphic images/pictures Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 319
greece Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 320
greek, language Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 335
greek-jewish (graeco-jewish), philosophy Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 335
greek (language), philosophy/philosophers Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová, Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria (2016) 332
hellenism, hellenistic Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 335
heterodox christians ixf Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová, Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria (2016) 332
hillel the elder Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 335
historical tradition Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 402
holy spirit Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 152, 223
hope Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 119
husband Pevarello, The Sentences of Sextus and the Origins of Christian Ascetiscism (2013) 24
ignatios of antioch Stanton, Unity and Disunity in Greek and Christian Thought under the Roman Peace (2021) 185
image Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 319
imitation, of christ Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 120
inspiration Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 295
intention Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 221
interpretive analytics Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 320
irenaeus Pevarello, The Sentences of Sextus and the Origins of Christian Ascetiscism (2013) 96
isaac Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 159
jerome Monnickendam, Jewish Law and Early Christian Identity: Betrothal, Marriage, and Infidelity in the Writings of Ephrem the Syrian (2020) 40; Pevarello, The Sentences of Sextus and the Origins of Christian Ascetiscism (2013) 24
jew/jewish, literature/ authors Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 295
jew Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 370
jewish practices/torah observance, circumcision Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 134
jewish practices/torah observance Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 88
jews Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 105
josephus Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 69
josephus essenes, and celibacy Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 69
josephus essenes, marriage and children Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 69
josephus essenes Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 69
jovinian Pevarello, The Sentences of Sextus and the Origins of Christian Ascetiscism (2013) 24
julius cassianus Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 206
kerygma Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 105
kuefler, m. Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 69
lactantius" Monnickendam, Jewish Law and Early Christian Identity: Betrothal, Marriage, and Infidelity in the Writings of Ephrem the Syrian (2020) 40
law, god's" '151.0_295.0@law, lawful Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 295
law, lawsuits Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 295
law, the, in clement Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 362
law, unlawful Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 295
life / afterlife, earthly Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 727
literature Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 295
local, frames Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 325
love, of heaven Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 727
love Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 119, 120
luke Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 105
marcion Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 206; Pevarello, The Sentences of Sextus and the Origins of Christian Ascetiscism (2013) 96
marital relations Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 60, 335
marriage, continence within Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová, Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria (2016) 332
marriage, goodness of Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová, Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria (2016) 332
marriage, heretical contempt for Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 362
marriage, renunciation of Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 206
marriage Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 152, 221, 222, 223; Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 295; Pevarello, The Sentences of Sextus and the Origins of Christian Ascetiscism (2013) 24, 74, 80, 96; Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová, Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria (2016) 332
marriage (see also divorce) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 60, 335, 402
marriage as sacred Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 223
martyrdom of polykarpos Stanton, Unity and Disunity in Greek and Christian Thought under the Roman Peace (2021) 185
matrimony, necessity for the masses Monnickendam, Jewish Law and Early Christian Identity: Betrothal, Marriage, and Infidelity in the Writings of Ephrem the Syrian (2020) 40
matrimony, new testament Monnickendam, Jewish Law and Early Christian Identity: Betrothal, Marriage, and Infidelity in the Writings of Ephrem the Syrian (2020) 40
mediterranean culture Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 320
mediterranean discourse Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 325
meiri, r. menahem Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 335
menstruation Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 223
mental images Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 319
mental picture Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 319
metaphor(ical) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 335
nan, action Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 325
nan, aesthetics Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 319
nan, apocalypticism Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 325
nan, argumentation Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 319, 320, 325
neapolis Ogereau, Early Christianity in Macedonia: From Paul to the Late Sixth Century (2023) 70
neither/nothing (oudeteros/ouden) Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 134
non-jew Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 370
oinoi (οινόη) Breytenbach and Tzavella, Early Christianity in Athens, Attica, and Adjacent Areas (2022) 12
old testament Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová, Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria (2016) 332
organizing frame Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 325
origen Monnickendam, Jewish Law and Early Christian Identity: Betrothal, Marriage, and Infidelity in the Writings of Ephrem the Syrian (2020) 40
original sin Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 221
paraenesis Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 295
passions Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 223
patience Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 120
paul, attitudes to women Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 187, 191
paul, missionary activity Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 187, 188
paul, st. Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 69
paul, the apostle/st. paul, apostle divine apostle) Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová, Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria (2016) 332
paul, the apostle/st. paul, interpretation of paul Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová, Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria (2016) 332
paul Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 159
paul (apostle) Breytenbach and Tzavella, Early Christianity in Athens, Attica, and Adjacent Areas (2022) 12; Ogereau, Early Christianity in Macedonia: From Paul to the Late Sixth Century (2023) 70, 77, 142
paul (saul) Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 295; Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 60, 335, 402
paul (the apostle) Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 105
pauline letters/epistles Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová, Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria (2016) 332
pauline paraenesis Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 295
pelagianism Pevarello, The Sentences of Sextus and the Origins of Christian Ascetiscism (2013) 24
pelagius Pevarello, The Sentences of Sextus and the Origins of Christian Ascetiscism (2013) 24
pelekanidis, s. Ogereau, Early Christianity in Macedonia: From Paul to the Late Sixth Century (2023) 142
perfectionism Pevarello, The Sentences of Sextus and the Origins of Christian Ascetiscism (2013) 24
personal terms Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 85
pharisees Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 69
philippi, christian community Ogereau, Early Christianity in Macedonia: From Paul to the Late Sixth Century (2023) 70, 142
philo Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 335
philosopher, philosophical Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 105
physical Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová, Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria (2016) 332
picturing Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 319, 320
plato Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová, Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria (2016) 332
pleasure Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 159
polykarpos of smyrna Stanton, Unity and Disunity in Greek and Christian Thought under the Roman Peace (2021) 185
porneia (zenut, unchastity) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 335
poverty Pevarello, The Sentences of Sextus and the Origins of Christian Ascetiscism (2013) 96
prayer Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 325
pre-election Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 120
predestinarian/predeterminism Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 727
presbyter, appointment of Falcetta, Early Christian Teachers: The 'Didaskaloi' From Their Origins to the Middle of the Second Century (2020) 59
priests Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 223
procreation Pevarello, The Sentences of Sextus and the Origins of Christian Ascetiscism (2013) 80, 96
procreationism Pevarello, The Sentences of Sextus and the Origins of Christian Ascetiscism (2013) 96
prophet Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 105
prostitute Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 152
protestant Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 402
purity Pevarello, The Sentences of Sextus and the Origins of Christian Ascetiscism (2013) 24; Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 325
purity requirement for Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 152, 221, 222, 223
pydna Ogereau, Early Christianity in Macedonia: From Paul to the Late Sixth Century (2023) 77
pythagoreans Pevarello, The Sentences of Sextus and the Origins of Christian Ascetiscism (2013) 80, 96
rabbinic tradition/literature, halakha Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 60
rabbis Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 60
rationale Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 325
remaining single, after a spouses death Soyars, The Shepherd of Hermas and the Pauline Legacy (2019) 114
remaining single Soyars, The Shepherd of Hermas and the Pauline Legacy (2019) 114
remarriage Soyars, The Shepherd of Hermas and the Pauline Legacy (2019) 114
renunciation Pevarello, The Sentences of Sextus and the Origins of Christian Ascetiscism (2013) 24, 96
resurrection Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 325; Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 105
rhetography Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 319, 320, 325
rhetology Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 319, 320
rhetorical dialect Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 320
rhetorolect, apocalyptic Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 325
rhetorolect, priestly Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 325
rhetorolect, wisdom Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 325
rhetorolect Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 320
risk, relation to divine-human trust Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 119
ritual Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 325
roman culture Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 320
rome Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 105
rufinus Pevarello, The Sentences of Sextus and the Origins of Christian Ascetiscism (2013) 24, 74
sacred and profane Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 152
sacrifice Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 222; Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 325
salvation Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 105
satan, in rabbinic literature Rosen-Zvi, Demonic Desires: Yetzer Hara and the Problem of Evil in Late Antiquity (2011). 161
satan Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 85; Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 119, 120; Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 159
se Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 325
self-mutilation Pevarello, The Sentences of Sextus and the Origins of Christian Ascetiscism (2013) 74
seminal emissions Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 223
seneca Larsen and Rubenson, Monastic Education in Late Antiquity: The Transformation of Classical 'Paideia' (2018) 17
senses, bodily Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 319
sensory-aesthetic te Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 319
septuagint Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 60, 335
serapion of antioch Stanton, Unity and Disunity in Greek and Christian Thought under the Roman Peace (2021) 185
sex, sexual behavior Falcetta, Early Christian Teachers: The 'Didaskaloi' From Their Origins to the Middle of the Second Century (2020) 59
sex/sexuality Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 295
sexual relations, (mis)behaviour Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 335, 402
sexual relations Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 60, 402
sexual relations abstinence from Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 152
sexual relations christians on pagan conceptions of Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 222
sexual relations in first-century christian sources Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 152
sexual relations proper place, time, and frequency Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 221, 222, 223
shepherd of hermas, the Stanton, Unity and Disunity in Greek and Christian Thought under the Roman Peace (2021) 185
shepherd of hermas Pevarello, The Sentences of Sextus and the Origins of Christian Ascetiscism (2013) 96
shield of trust Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 119, 120
sign Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 105
simeon Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 105
sin, sinfulness, of remarriage Soyars, The Shepherd of Hermas and the Pauline Legacy (2019) 114
slave Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 370
slavery Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 134
souls Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 159
spirit, characterizations as, breath (life itself) Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 295
spirit, characterizations as, holy Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 295
spirit, modes of presence, indwelling Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 295
spirit, modes of presence, receiving of Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 295
spirit Breytenbach and Tzavella, Early Christianity in Athens, Attica, and Adjacent Areas (2022) 12
stoic Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 159
strymon Ogereau, Early Christianity in Macedonia: From Paul to the Late Sixth Century (2023) 142
system, halakhic ~ Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 60
tatian Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 362; Pevarello, The Sentences of Sextus and the Origins of Christian Ascetiscism (2013) 96
teacher, appointment of Falcetta, Early Christian Teachers: The 'Didaskaloi' From Their Origins to the Middle of the Second Century (2020) 59