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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



8234
New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 15.34


φθείρουσιν ἤθη χρηστὰ ὁμιλίαι κακαί· ἐκνήψατε δικαίως καὶ μὴ ἁμαρτάνετε, ἀγνωσίαν γὰρ θεοῦ τινὲς ἔχουσιν· πρὸς ἐντροπὴν ὑμῖν λαλῶ.Wake up righteously, and don't sin, for some have no knowledgeof God. I say this to your shame.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

26 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 3, 2 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

2. Anon., 1 Enoch, 6.1-6.2, 12.1-12.2 (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

6.1. And it came to pass when the children of men had multiplied that in those days were born unto 6.2. them beautiful and comely daughters. And the angels, the children of the heaven, saw and lusted after them, and said to one another: 'Come, let us choose us wives from among the children of men 12.1. Before these things Enoch was hidden, and no one of the children of men knew where he wa 12.2. hidden, and where he abode, and what had become of him. And his activities had to do with the Watchers, and his days were with the holy ones.
3. Anon., Jubilees, 4.30 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

4.30. And he was taken from amongst the children of men, and we conducted him into the Garden of Eden in majesty and honour
4. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 15.14, 15.17, 22.13, 25.24 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

15.14. It was he who created man in the beginning,and he left him in the power of his own inclination. 15.17. Before a man are life and death,and whichever he chooses will be given to him. 22.13. Do not talk much with a foolish man,and do not visit an unintelligent man;guard yourself from him to escape trouble,and you will not be soiled when he shakes himself off;avoid him and you will find rest,and you will never be wearied by his madness. 22.13. Do not accustom your mouth to lewd vulgarity,for it involves sinful speech. 25.24. From a woman sin had its beginning,and because of her we all die.
5. Philo of Alexandria, On The Cherubim, 92 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

92. In every festival then and assembly among men, the following are the most remarkable and celebrated points, security, relaxation, truce, drunkenness, deep drinking, revelling, luxury, amusement, music at the doors, banquets lasting through the night, unseemly pleasures, wedding feasts during the day, violent acts of insolence, practices of intemperance, indulgence of folly, pursuits of shameful things, an utter destruction and renunciation of what is good, wakefulness during the night for the indulgence of immoderate appetites, sleep by day when it is the proper time to be awake, a turning upside down of the laws of nature. 92. But there are also some people who, without any idea of acquiring gain, do from a bad habit incessantly and inconsiderately swear upon every occasion, even when there is nothing at all about which any doubt is raised, as if they were desirous to fill up the deficiency of their argument with oaths, as if it would not be better to cut their conversation short, or I might rather say to utter nothing at all, but to preserve entire silence, for from a frequency of oaths arises a habit of perjury and impiety.
6. Philo of Alexandria, On Drunkenness, 166 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

166. But sober reasoning does not admit these things, but only that reasoning does so which is overcome with wine, and, as it were, drunk. XLI. On which account it is said, "They made their father drink Wine," That is to say, they brought complete insensibility on the mind, so that it fancied itself competent by its own abilities to judge what was expedient, and to assent to all sorts of apparent facts, as if they really had solid truth in them; human nature being by no means and under no circumstances competent either to ascertain the truth by consideration, or to choose real truth and advantage, or to reject what is false and the cause of injury;
7. Philo of Alexandria, On The Contemplative Life, 74, 42 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

42. For that which those men who gain victories in the Olympic games, when perfectly sober in the arena, and having all the Greeks for spectators do by day, exerting all their skill for the purpose of gaining victory and the crown, these men with base designs do at convivial entertainments, getting drunk by night, in the hour of darkness, when soaked in wine, acting without either knowledge, or art, or skill, to the insult, and injury, and great disgrace of those who are subjected to their violence.
8. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 1.11, 1.12, 2.6, 2.7, 2.8, 2.9, 2.10, 3.11, 3.12, 3.13, 3.14, 3.15, 4.5, 7.1, 7.2, 7.3, 7.4, 7.5, 7.6, 7.7, 7.8, 7.9, 7.10, 7.11, 7.12, 7.13, 7.14, 7.15, 7.16, 7.17, 7.18, 7.19, 7.20, 7.21, 7.22, 7.23, 7.24, 7.25, 7.26, 7.27, 7.28, 7.29, 7.30, 7.31, 7.32, 7.33, 7.34, 7.35, 7.36, 7.37, 7.38, 7.39, 7.40, 8.1-11.1, 9.19, 9.20, 9.21, 9.22, 9.23, 10.7, 10.9, 12.28, 12.29, 15, 15.1, 15.2, 15.3, 15.4, 15.5, 15.6, 15.7, 15.8, 15.9, 15.10, 15.11, 15.12, 15.13, 15.14, 15.15, 15.16, 15.17, 15.18, 15.19, 15.20, 15.21, 15.22, 15.23, 15.24, 15.25, 15.26, 15.27, 15.28, 15.29, 15.30, 15.31, 15.32, 15.33, 15.35, 15.36, 15.37, 15.38, 15.39, 15.40, 15.41, 15.42, 15.43, 15.44, 15.45, 15.46, 15.47, 15.48, 15.49, 15.50, 15.51, 15.52, 15.53, 15.54, 15.55, 15.56, 15.57, 15.58, 16.13 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.11. For it has been reported to me concerning you, mybrothers, by those who are from Chloe's household, that there arecontentions among you.
9. New Testament, 1 Thessalonians, 4.13, 4.16-4.17, 5.1-5.11 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4.13. But we don't want you to be ignorant, brothers, concerning those who have fallen asleep, so that you don't grieve like the rest, who have no hope. 4.16. For the Lord himself will descend from heaven with a shout, with the voice of the archangel, and with God's trumpet. The dead in Christ will rise first 4.17. then we who are alive, who are left, will be caught up together with them in the clouds, to meet the Lord in the air. So we will be with the Lord forever. 5.1. But concerning the times and the seasons, brothers, you have no need that anything be written to you. 5.2. For you yourselves know well that the day of the Lord comes like a thief in the night. 5.3. For when they are saying, "Peace and safety," then sudden destruction will come on them, like birth pains on a pregt woman; and they will in no way escape. 5.4. But you, brothers, aren't in darkness, that the day should overtake you like a thief. 5.5. You are all sons of light, and sons of the day. We don't belong to the night, nor to darkness 5.6. so then let's not sleep, as the rest do, but let's watch and be sober. 5.7. For those who sleep, sleep in the night, and those who are drunken are drunken in the night. 5.8. But let us, since we belong to the day, be sober, putting on the breastplate of faith and love, and, for a helmet, the hope of salvation. 5.9. For God didn't appoint us to wrath, but to the obtaining of salvation through our Lord Jesus Christ 5.10. who died for us, that, whether we wake or sleep, we should live together with him. 5.11. Therefore exhort one another, and build each other up, even as you also do.
10. New Testament, 2 Corinthians, 4.10, 5.1, 12.2 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

11. New Testament, Acts, 9.3, 14.23 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

9.3. As he traveled, it happened that he got close to Damascus, and suddenly a light from the sky shone around him. 14.23. When they had appointed elders for them in every assembly, and had prayed with fasting, they commended them to the Lord, on whom they had believed.
12. New Testament, Colossians, 4.2, 4.13-4.14 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4.2. Continue steadfastly in prayer, watching therein with thanksgiving; 4.13. For I testify about him, that he has great zeal for you, and for those in Laodicea, and for those in Hierapolis. 4.14. Luke, the beloved physician, and Demas greet you.
13. New Testament, Ephesians, 6.18 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

6.18. with all prayer and requests, praying at all times in the Spirit, and being watchful to this end in all perseverance and requests for all the saints:
14. New Testament, Galatians, 1.16, 1.21-1.22, 2.15-2.17, 2.20, 3.6, 3.23, 3.26, 3.28-3.29, 5.4-5.5 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.16. to reveal his Son in me,that I might preach him among the Gentiles, I didn't immediately conferwith flesh and blood 1.21. Then I came to the regions of Syria and Cilicia. 1.22. Iwas still unknown by face to the assemblies of Judea which were inChrist 2.15. We, being Jews by nature, and not Gentile sinners 2.16. yet knowing that a man is not justified by the works of the law butthrough the faith of Jesus Christ, even we believed in Christ Jesus,that we might be justified by faith in Christ, and not by the works ofthe law, because no flesh will be justified by the works of the law. 2.17. But if, while we sought to be justified in Christ, we ourselvesalso were found sinners, is Christ a servant of sin? Certainly not! 2.20. I have been crucified with Christ, andit is no longer I that live, but Christ living in me. That life which Inow live in the flesh, I live by faith in the Son of God, who loved me,and gave himself up for me. 3.6. Even as Abraham "believed God, and it wascounted to him for righteousness. 3.23. But before faith came, we were kept in custodyunder the law, shut up to the faith which should afterwards berevealed. 3.26. For you are all sons ofGod, through faith in Christ Jesus. 3.28. There is neither Jewnor Greek, there is neither slave nor free man, there is neither malenor female; for you are all one in Christ Jesus. 3.29. If you are Christ's, then you are Abraham's seed and heirs according to promise. 5.4. You are alienated from Christ, you who desire to be justified by thelaw. You have fallen away from grace. 5.5. For we, through the Spirit,by faith wait for the hope of righteousness.
15. New Testament, Philippians, 1.27, 3.9, 3.21 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.27. Only let your manner of life be worthy of the gospel of Christ, that, whether I come and see you or am absent, I may hear of your state, that you stand firm in one spirit, with one soul striving for the faith of the gospel; 3.9. and be found in him, not having a righteousness of my own, that which is of the law, but that which is through faith in Christ, the righteousness which is from God by faith; 3.21. who will change the body of our humiliation to be conformed to the body of his glory, according to the working by which he is able even to subject all things to himself.
16. New Testament, Romans, 1.16, 3.22, 3.26, 4.1, 4.11-4.12, 5.12-5.21, 8.29, 13.11-13.14 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.16. For I am not ashamed of the gospel of Christ, for it is the power of God for salvation for everyone who believes; for the Jew first, and also for the Greek. 3.22. even the righteousness of God through faith in Jesus Christ to all and on all those who believe. For there is no distinction 3.26. to demonstrate his righteousness at this present time; that he might himself be just, and the justifier of him who has faith in Jesus. 4.1. What then will we say that Abraham, our forefather, has found according to the flesh? 4.11. He received the sign of circumcision, a seal of the righteousness of the faith which he had while he was in uncircumcision, that he might be the father of all those who believe, though they be in uncircumcision, that righteousness might also be accounted to them. 4.12. The father of circumcision to those who not only are of the circumcision, but who also walk in the steps of that faith of our father Abraham, which he had in uncircumcision. 5.12. Therefore, as sin entered into the world through one man, and death through sin; and so death passed to all men, because all sinned. 5.13. For until the law, sin was in the world; but sin is not charged when there is no law. 5.14. Nevertheless death reigned from Adam until Moses, even over those whose sins weren't like Adam's disobedience, who is a foreshadowing of him who was to come. 5.15. But the free gift isn't like the trespass. For if by the trespass of the one the many died, much more did the grace of God, and the gift by the grace of the one man, Jesus Christ, abound to the many. 5.16. The gift is not as through one who sinned: for the judgment came by one to condemnation, but the free gift came of many trespasses to justification. 5.17. For if by the trespass of the one, death reigned through the one; so much more will those who receive the abundance of grace and of the gift of righteousness reign in life through the one, Jesus Christ. 5.18. So then as through one trespass, all men were condemned; even so through one act of righteousness, all men were justified to life. 5.19. For as through the one man's disobedience many were made sinners, even so through the obedience of the one will many be made righteous. 5.20. The law came in besides, that the trespass might abound; but where sin abounded, grace did abound more exceedingly; 5.21. that as sin reigned in death, even so might grace reign through righteousness to eternal life through Jesus Christ our Lord. 8.29. For whom he foreknew, he also predestined to be conformed to the image of his Son, that he might be the firstborn among many brothers. 13.11. Do this, knowing the time, that it is already time for you to awaken out of sleep, for salvation is now nearer to us than when we first believed. 13.12. The night is far gone, and the day is near. Let's therefore throw off the works of darkness, and let's put on the armor of light. 13.13. Let us walk properly, as in the day; not in reveling and drunkenness, not in sexual promiscuity and lustful acts, and not in strife and jealousy. 13.14. But put on the Lord Jesus Christ, and make no provision for the flesh, for its lusts.
17. Plutarch, Against Colotes, None (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

18. Seneca The Younger, De Vita Beata (Dialogorum Liber Vii), 12.4 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

19. Tertullian, On The Soul, 43 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

20. Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

20a. תוקפו של בועז ענוותנותו של פלטי בן ליש כדאמרן,אמר רבי יוחנן מאי דכתיב (משלי לא, כט) רבות בנות עשו חיל ואת עלית על כולנה רבות בנות עשו חיל זה יוסף ובועז ואת עלית על כולנה זה פלטי בן ליש,אמר רבי שמואל בר נחמן אמר רבי יונתן מאי דכתיב (משלי לא, ל) שקר החן והבל היופי שקר החן זה יוסף והבל היופי זה בועז יראת ה' היא תתהלל זה פלטי בן ליש,דבר אחר שקר החן זה דורו של משה והבל היופי זה דורו של יהושע יראת ה' היא תתהלל זה דורו של חזקיה,דבר אחר שקר החן זה דורו של משה ויהושע והבל היופי זה דורו של חזקיה יראת ה' היא תתהלל זה דורו של ר' יהודה ברבי אילעאי אמרו עליו על רבי יהודה ברבי אילעאי שהיו ששה תלמידים מתכסין בטלית אחת ועוסקין בתורה:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big מת לו מת אינו יוצא מפתח פלטרין שלו רבי יהודה אומר אם רוצה לצאת אחר המיטה יוצא שכן מצינו בדוד שיצא אחר מיטתו של אבנר שנאמר (שמואל ב ג, לא) והמלך דוד הולך אחר המיטה א"ל לא היה הדבר אלא לפייס את העם וכשמברין אותו כל העם מסובין על הארץ והוא מיסב על הדרגש:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big תנו רבנן מקום שנהגו נשים לצאת אחר המיטה יוצאות לפני המיטה יוצאות ר' יהודה אומר לעולם נשים לפני המיטה יוצאות שכן מצינו בדוד שיצא אחר מיטתו של אבנר שנאמר (שמואל ב ג, לא) והמלך דוד הולך אחר המיטה,אמרו לו לא היה הדבר אלא לפייס את העם ונתפייסו שהיה דוד יוצא מבין האנשים ונכנס לבין הנשים ויצא מבין הנשים ונכנס לבין האנשים שנאמר (שמואל ב ג, לז) וידעו כל העם וכל ישראל כי לא היתה מהמלך להמית את אבנר,דרש רבא מאי דכתיב (שמואל ב ג, לה) ויבא כל העם להברות את דוד כתיב להכרות וקרינן להברות בתחלה להכרותו ולבסוף להברותו,אמר רב יהודה אמר רב מפני מה נענש אבנר מפני שהיה לו למחות בשאול ולא מיחה ר' יצחק אמר מיחה ולא נענה ושניהן מקרא אחד דרשו (שמואל ב ג, לג) ויקונן המלך אל אבנר ויאמר הכמות נבל ימות אבנר ידיך לא אסורות ורגליך לא לנחשתים הוגשו,מאן דאמר לא מיחה הכי קאמר ידיך לא אסורות ורגליך לא לנחשתים הוגשו מאי טעמא לא מחית (שמואל ב ג, לד) כנפול לפני בני עולה נפלת ומ"ד מיחה ולא נענה איתמהויי מתמה הכמות נבל ימות ידיך לא אסורות ורגליך לא לנחשתים מכדי מחויי מחית מ"ט כנפול לפני בני עולה נפלת,למאן דאמר מיחה מ"ט איענש א"ר נחמן (ברבי) יצחק ששהא מלכות בית דוד שתי שנים ומחצה:,וכשמברין אותו כו': מאי דרגש אמר עולא ערסא דגדא א"ל רבנן לעולא מי איכא מידי דעד האידנא לא אותביניה והשתא מותבינן ליה,מתקיף לה רבא מאי קושיא דילמא מידי דהוה אאכילה ושתיה דעד האידנא לא אכילניה ולא אשקיניה השתא קא מוכלינן ליה וקא משקינן ליה אלא אי קשיא הא קשיא דרגש אינו צריך לכפותו אלא זוקפו ואי ס"ד ערסא דגדא אמאי אינו צריך לכפותו והתניא הכופה את מטתו לא מטתו בלבד הוא כופה אלא כל מטות שיש לו בתוך ביתו הוא כופה,מאי קושיא דילמא מידי דהוה אמטה מיוחדת לכלים דקתני אם היתה מיוחדת לכלים אינו צריך לכפותה אלא אי קשיא הא קשיא רשב"ג אומר דרגש מתיר קרביטין והוא נופל מאיליו ואי סלקא דעתך ערסא דגדא קרביטין מי אית ליה,אלא כי אתא רבין אמר אמר לי ההוא מרבנן ורב תחליפא שמיה דהוה שכיח בשוקא דגילדאי ואמר ליה מאי דרגש ערסא דצלא א"ר ירמיה א"ר יוחנן דרגש 20a. bBoaz’s poweris the bhumility of Palti, son of Laish, as we said,for he conquered his desire not only for one night, as Boaz did, but for many nights, bRabbi Yoḥa says: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “Many daughters have done valiantly, but you excel above them all”(Proverbs 31:29)? b“Many daughters have done valiantly”; thisis a reference to bJoseph and Boaz. “But you excel above them all”; thisis a reference to bPalti, son of Laish,who exceeded Joseph and Boaz in restraint, as discussed above., bRabbi Shmuel bar Naḥman saysthat bRabbi Yonatan says: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “Grace is deceitful, and beauty is vain,but a woman who fears the Lord, she shall be praised” (Proverbs 31:30). b“Grace is deceitful”; thisis a reference to bJoseph. “And beauty is vain”; thisis a reference to bBoaz. “Who fears the Lord, she shall be praised”; thisis a reference to bPalti, son of Laish,who did not sin with Michal. Although the behavior of Joseph and Boaz is commendable, it is “deceitful” and “vain” relative to that of Palti ben Laish., bAlternatively: “Grace is deceitful”; thisis a reference to bthe generation of Moses. “And beauty is vain”; thisis a reference to bthe generation of Joshua. “Who fears the Lord, she shall be praised”; thisis a reference to bthe generation of Hezekiah.Although the studying of Torah during the generations of Moses and Joshua was commendable, it was “deceitful” and “vain” relative to that of the generation of Hezekiah, during which the people studied Torah assiduously, despite the suffering caused by of war and foreign rule., bAlternatively: “Grace is deceitful”; thisis a reference to bthe generation of Moses and Joshua. “And beauty is vain”; thisis a reference to bthe generation of Hezekiah. “Who fears the Lord, she shall be praised”; thisis a reference to bthe generation of Rabbi Yehuda, son of Rabbi Ilai,who lived after the decrees of Hadrian, when the people were impoverished and oppressed. bIt was said about Rabbi Yehuda, son of Rabbi Ilai, that sixof his bstudents would cover themselves with one garment,due to their poverty, bandnevertheless they would bengage in Torahstudy. Although the studying of Torah during the generations of Moses, Joshua, and Hezekiah was commendable, it was “deceitful” and “vain” relative to that of the people in the generation of Rabbi Yehuda, son of Rabbi Ilai, who studied Torah despite their hardships., strongMISHNA: /strong If a relative bofthe king bdies, he does not emerge from the entrance of his palace [ ipalterin /i],as it does not befit one of his stature to accompany the deceased. bRabbi Yehuda says: If he wishes to follow the bier, he followsit, bas that is what we foundwith regard btoKing bDavid, who followed the bier of Abner. As it is stated: “And King David followed the bier”(II Samuel 3:31). The Sages bsaid toRabbi Yehuda: bThe matter was only to appease the people,so that they should not suspect David of ordering Abner’s death. bAnd whenthe people bcomfortthe king with the meal of comfort, ball the people recline on the ground, and he reclines on the idargash /i. /b, strongGEMARA: /strong bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: In ba place where women were accustomed to follow the bier, they would followit, and the men would walk in front of the bier, and if the women were accustomed to walk bin front of the bier, they would goin front of it. bRabbi Yehuda says: Women always go in front of the bier, as that is what we found with regard toKing bDavid, who followed the bier of Abner, as it is stated: “And King David followed the bier,”and presumably David did not go among the women.,The Sages bsaid to him: The matter was only to appease the people, and they were appeased. As David would go out from among the men and go in among the women, and went out from among the women and went in among the men, as it is stated: “So all the people and all Israel understoodthat day bthat it was not from the king to slay Abner,son of Ner” (II Samuel 3:37)., bRava interpreteda verse bhomiletically: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “And all the people came to comfort David”(II Samuel 3:35)? bIt is written: “To destroy [ ilehakhrot /i],” and we read: “To comfort [ ilehavrot /i],”meaning, bin the beginningthey wanted bto destroy him,as they suspected him of ordering Abner’s assassination, band ultimately,when they saw that he was truly mourning, they decided bto comfort him. /b, bRav Yehuda saysthat bRav says: For whatreason bwas Abner punishedby being killed? It is bbecause he should have protested to Saulabout the killing of the priests of Nob (see I Samuel 22:17–19), bbut he did not protest. Rabbi Yitzḥak says: He did protest,so that is not the reason for his death, bbut he was not answered. And both ofthese Sages binterpreted one verse: “And the king lamented for Abner, and said: Should Abner die as a churl dies? Your hands were not bound, nor your feet put into fetters;as a man falls before the children of iniquity, so did you fall” (II Samuel 3:33–34).,The Gemara explains how each Sage understands the verse: bThe one who says he did not protestexplains that bthisis what the verse bis saying:As b“your hands were not bound, nor your feet put into fetters,” what is the reason you did not protestagainst Saul? Therefore, since you could have protested but did not, then b“as a man falls before the children of iniquity, so did you fall.” And the one who says he protested and was not answeredexplains that this is what the verse is saying: David bwondered: “ShouldAbner bdie as a churl dies? Your hands were not bound, nor your feet put into fetters,” since you protestedat the right time. Since that is the case, bwhat is the reasonthat b“as a man falls before the children of iniquity, so did you fall”? /b,The Gemara asks: bAccording to the one who saysthat Abner bprotested, what is the reason he was punishedwith this death? bRav Naḥman, son of Rabbi Yitzḥak, says:It is bbecause he delayed the kingdom of the house of David two and a half years,by supporting the kingdom of Ish-bosheth, the son of Saul, for this period of time.,§ The mishna teaches: bAnd when they comfortthe king with the meal of comfort, he reclines on the idargash /i. The Gemara asks: bWhatis ba idargash /i? Ulla says: A bed of fortune,which would be designated in houses for decoration and for good fortune, and no one would sit on it. bThe Sages said to Ulla: Is there anythingwhich buntil now we did not authorize one to siton, bbut now,in his time of mourning, bwe seat himon it?, bRava objects to thisquestion: bWhat is the difficultyin this? bPerhapssitting on the idargashis bjust as it is with eating and drinking. As until now, we did not feed him nor give him drink,but bnow,in his time of mourning, bwe feed him and give him drink,in the meal of comfort. bRather, ifit bis difficult, this iswhat is bdifficult,as it is taught in a ibaraita /i: Concerning ba idargash /i,the mourner bis not required to overturn itduring mourning. bRather, he stands it upon its side. bAnd if it enters your mindto say that this is ba bed of fortune, why is he not required to overturn it? But isn’t it taughtin a ibaraita /i: With regard to bone who overturns his bedduring mourning, bnot only does he overturns hisown bbed, but rather he overturns all the beds he has in his house? /b,The Gemara responds: bWhat is the difficultyin this? bPerhapsthe lack of requirement to overturn the idargashis bjust as it is with a bedthat is bdesignated forthe storage of bgarments,and not for sleeping, bas it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bIf it was designated forthe storage of bgarmentsand not for people to lie down on, bhe is not required to overturn it. Rather, ifit bis difficult, this iswhat is bdifficult,as it is taught in a ibaraita /i: bRabban Shimon ben Gamliel says:One is not required to overturn ba idargash /i.Rather, the mourner bloosens the straps [ ikarvitin /i] and it falls on its own. And if it enters your mindto say that this is ba bed of fortune, doessuch a bed bhave straps? /b, bRather, when Ravin came he said: One of the Sages said to me, and Rav Taḥlifais bhis name, that he was often in the market of the leather workers, and he said to him: Whatis the meaning of idargash /i? A leather bed. Rabbi Yirmeya saysthat bRabbi Yoḥa says:The difference between a bed and a idargashis this: bA idargash/b
21. Diogenes Laertius, Lives of The Philosophers, 10.128, 10.132, 10.144 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

10.128. He who has a clear and certain understanding of these things will direct every preference and aversion toward securing health of body and tranquillity of mind, seeing that this is the sum and end of a blessed life. For the end of all our actions is to be free from pain and fear, and, when once we have attained all this, the tempest of the soul is laid; seeing that the living creature has no need to go in search of something that is lacking, nor to look for anything else by which the good of the soul and of the body will be fulfilled. When we are pained because of the absence of pleasure, then, and then only, do we feel the need of pleasure. Wherefore we call pleasure the alpha and omega of a blessed life. Pleasure is our first and kindred good. 10.132. It is not an unbroken succession of drinking-bouts and of revelry, not sexual love, not the enjoyment of the fish and other delicacies of a luxurious table, which produce a pleasant life; it is sober reasoning, searching out the grounds of every choice and avoidance, and banishing those beliefs through which the greatest tumults take possession of the soul. of all this the beginning and the greatest good is prudence. Wherefore prudence is a more precious thing even than philosophy; from it spring all the other virtues, for it teaches that we cannot lead a life of pleasure which is not also a life of prudence, honour, and justice; nor lead a life of prudence, honour, and justice, which is not also a life of pleasure. For the virtues have grown into one with a pleasant life, and a pleasant life is inseparable from them. 10.144. Nature's wealth at once has its bounds and is easy to procure; but the wealth of vain fancies recedes to an infinite distance.Fortune but seldom interferes with the wise man; his greatest and highest interests have been, are, and will be, directed by reason throughout the course of his life.The just man enjoys the greatest peace of mind, while the unjust is full of the utmost disquietude.Pleasure in the flesh admits no increase when once the pain of want has been removed; after that it only admits of variation. The limit of pleasure in the mind, however, is reached when we reflect on the things themselves and their congeners which cause the mind the greatest alarms.
22. Augustine, Against Julian, 6.7-6.14, 6.16-6.20, 6.23-6.25, 6.31-6.32, 6.34, 6.39-6.40 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

23. Augustine, The City of God, 14 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

24. Anon., 2 Enoch, 30.16

25. Anon., 4 Ezra, 3.21-3.22, 4.30, 7.118

3.21. For the first Adam, burdened with an evil heart, transgressed and was overcome, as were also all who were descended from him. 3.22. Thus the disease became permanent; the law was in the people's heart along with the evil root, but what was good departed, and the evil remained. 4.30. For a grain of evil seed was sown in Adam's heart from the beginning, and how much ungodliness it has produced until now, and will produce until the time of threshing comes!
26. Epicurus, Vatican Sayings, 52



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abraham Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 363
acts of the apostles, prophets in Falcetta, Early Christian Teachers: The 'Didaskaloi' From Their Origins to the Middle of the Second Century (2020) 59
acts of the apostles, teachers in Falcetta, Early Christian Teachers: The 'Didaskaloi' From Their Origins to the Middle of the Second Century (2020) 59
adam and eve, in geneology of error Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 52
allegorical interpretation Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 58
allegory, allegorical Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 58
angelic sin, as epistemological transgression Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 52
apocalypse, apocalyptic, apocalypticism, apocalypticist Werline et al., Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity (2008) 30
apocalyptic, jewish Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 374
appropriation Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 168
arriano, contra iulianum opus imperfectum Yates and Dupont, The Bible in Christian North Africa: Part II: Consolidation of the Canon to the Arab Conquest (ca. 393 to 650 CE). (2023) 281
augustine Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 52
awakening Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 168
baptism for the dead Nasrallah, Archaeology and the Letters of Paul (2019) 174
barnabas Falcetta, Early Christian Teachers: The 'Didaskaloi' From Their Origins to the Middle of the Second Century (2020) 59
beast, passions as Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 49
believing Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 362
bible Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 58
body, bodily Werline et al., Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity (2008) 30
book of the watchers, polysemy of Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 52
boundary Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 362, 363
church Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 58
circumcision Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 363
cognitive aspect Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 168
contemplation Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 58
conversion, philosophical Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 168
conversion, psychological aspects Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 168
conversion Werline et al., Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity (2008) 30
corinth, community of Falcetta, Early Christian Teachers: The 'Didaskaloi' From Their Origins to the Middle of the Second Century (2020) 59
corinth, dead, rituals for Nasrallah, Archaeology and the Letters of Paul (2019) 174
corinth, grief Nasrallah, Archaeology and the Letters of Paul (2019) 174
cosmology/cosmological Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 168
cosmos Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 363
creation, goodness of Yates and Dupont, The Bible in Christian North Africa: Part II: Consolidation of the Canon to the Arab Conquest (ca. 393 to 650 CE). (2023) 281
cynics/cynicism Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 49
darkness Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 58
davis, thomas, baptism for Nasrallah, Archaeology and the Letters of Paul (2019) 174
day of the lord Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 374
death, julian of aeclanum on Yates and Dupont, The Bible in Christian North Africa: Part II: Consolidation of the Canon to the Arab Conquest (ca. 393 to 650 CE). (2023) 281
death Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 58
diatribe, hellenistic judaism Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 49
diatribe Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 49
disposition Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 168
drunkenness Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 168
eliphaz Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 58
enochic literature, authority of Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 52
epicureanism, asphaleia Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 374
epicureanism, on friendship Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 374
epicureanism, pleasure Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 374
epicureanism, thessalonians Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 374
epicurus, justice Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 49
epicurus, pleasure Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 374
epicurus Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 49, 374
eschatology, day of the lord Nasrallah, Archaeology and the Letters of Paul (2019) 174
eschatology Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 374; Nasrallah, Archaeology and the Letters of Paul (2019) 174
eve Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 49
exhortation, paraenesis Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 168
eye Werline et al., Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity (2008) 30
faith Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 362, 363
fear Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 58
flesh Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 58
friendship, epicurean Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 374
genesis, and book of the watchers Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 52
genesis, and etiologies of sin and evil Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 52
glory Werline et al., Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity (2008) 30
gregory the great Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 58
heart Werline et al., Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity (2008) 30
hedonism Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 49
hellenistic Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 168
heracles/hercules Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 49
holiness (of god) Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 58
immorality Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 49
jew Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 363
jews Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 168
judaism, hellenistic Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 49
julian of aeclanum, ad florum Yates and Dupont, The Bible in Christian North Africa: Part II: Consolidation of the Canon to the Arab Conquest (ca. 393 to 650 CE). (2023) 281
justice Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 49
knowledge, revealed Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 52
literary production Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 52
logos Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 58
marketplace Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 49
mind Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 168
mysteries, mystery, lesemysterium Werline et al., Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity (2008) 30
mystic, mystical, mysticism Werline et al., Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity (2008) 30
non-jew Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 363
parallels/parallelism Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 49
paul Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 49
paul (the apostle) Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 58
philosopher, popular Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 49
philosophy, philosophical Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 168
physical description, thesslanonians Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 374
pleasure Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 374
polemic Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 49
preaching, in synagogue Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 49
presbyter, appointment of Falcetta, Early Christian Teachers: The 'Didaskaloi' From Their Origins to the Middle of the Second Century (2020) 59
prophetic, false Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 374
protreptic Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 168
psychic Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 168
qumran Werline et al., Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity (2008) 30
resurrection Nasrallah, Archaeology and the Letters of Paul (2019) 174; Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 362; Werline et al., Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity (2008) 30
reveal, revelation Werline et al., Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity (2008) 30
rival Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 168
roman imperial period Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 168
sardanapalus Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 49
satan Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 52
second temple jewish Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 52
secret Werline et al., Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity (2008) 30
seeing Werline et al., Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity (2008) 30
seneca Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 374
sex, sexual behavior Falcetta, Early Christian Teachers: The 'Didaskaloi' From Their Origins to the Middle of the Second Century (2020) 59
shame Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 374
sin, doctrine of original Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 52
sin Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 58
soberness Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 168
socratic Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 168
soul Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 168
spiritual Werline et al., Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity (2008) 30
spiritual body Werline et al., Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity (2008) 30
synagogue Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 49
tarsus Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 49
teacher, appointment of Falcetta, Early Christian Teachers: The 'Didaskaloi' From Their Origins to the Middle of the Second Century (2020) 59
teacher, in antioch Falcetta, Early Christian Teachers: The 'Didaskaloi' From Their Origins to the Middle of the Second Century (2020) 59
textual transmission, premodern Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 52
thessalonians Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 58
torah, and enochic literature Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 52
torah, authority of Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 52
tradition, apocalyptic Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 374
triad, the Falcetta, Early Christian Teachers: The 'Didaskaloi' From Their Origins to the Middle of the Second Century (2020) 59
truth Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 168
unnik, willem c. van Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 49
virtue, from philosophy' Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 49
vision Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 58
wakefulness Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 168
way of life Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 168
wine Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 168
wisdom Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 168; Werline et al., Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity (2008) 30