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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



8234
New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 11.8-11.9


οὐ γάρ ἐστιν ἀνὴρ ἐκ γυναικός, ἀλλὰγυνὴ ἐξ ἀνδρός·For man is not from woman, but woman from man;


καὶ γὰρ οὐκ ἐκτίσθη ἀνὴρ διὰ τὴν γυναῖκα, ἀλλὰ γυνὴ διὰ τὸν ἄνδρα.for neither was man created for the woman, but woman for the man.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

41 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 23.9-23.10, 30.12-30.14 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

23.9. בָּנִים אֲשֶׁר־יִוָּלְדוּ לָהֶם דּוֹר שְׁלִישִׁי יָבֹא לָהֶם בִּקְהַל יְהוָה׃ 30.12. לֹא בַשָּׁמַיִם הִוא לֵאמֹר מִי יַעֲלֶה־לָּנוּ הַשָּׁמַיְמָה וְיִקָּחֶהָ לָּנוּ וְיַשְׁמִעֵנוּ אֹתָהּ וְנַעֲשֶׂנָּה׃ 30.13. וְלֹא־מֵעֵבֶר לַיָּם הִוא לֵאמֹר מִי יַעֲבָר־לָנוּ אֶל־עֵבֶר הַיָּם וְיִקָּחֶהָ לָּנוּ וְיַשְׁמִעֵנוּ אֹתָהּ וְנַעֲשֶׂנָּה׃ 30.14. כִּי־קָרוֹב אֵלֶיךָ הַדָּבָר מְאֹד בְּפִיךָ וּבִלְבָבְךָ לַעֲשֹׂתוֹ׃ 23.9. The children of the third generation that are born unto them may enter into the assembly of the LORD." 23.10. When thou goest forth in camp against thine enemies, then thou shalt keep thee from every evil thing." 30.12. It is not in heaven, that thou shouldest say: ‘Who shall go up for us to heaven, and bring it unto us, and make us to hear it, that we may do it?’" 30.13. Neither is it beyond the sea, that thou shouldest say: ‘Who shall go over the sea for us, and bring it unto us, and make us to hear it, that we may do it?’" 30.14. But the word is very nigh unto thee, in thy mouth, and in thy heart, that thou mayest do it."
2. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 2.23-2.24 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

2.23. וַיֹּאמֶר הָאָדָם זֹאת הַפַּעַם עֶצֶם מֵעֲצָמַי וּבָשָׂר מִבְּשָׂרִי לְזֹאת יִקָּרֵא אִשָּׁה כִּי מֵאִישׁ לֻקֳחָה־זֹּאת׃ 2.24. עַל־כֵּן יַעֲזָב־אִישׁ אֶת־אָבִיו וְאֶת־אִמּוֹ וְדָבַק בְּאִשְׁתּוֹ וְהָיוּ לְבָשָׂר אֶחָד׃ 2.23. And the man said: ‘This is now bone of my bones, and flesh of my flesh; she shall be called Woman, because she was taken out of Man.’" 2.24. Therefore shall a man leave his father and his mother, and shall cleave unto his wife, and they shall be one flesh."
3. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 18.5 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

18.5. וּשְׁמַרְתֶּם אֶת־חֻקֹּתַי וְאֶת־מִשְׁפָּטַי אֲשֶׁר יַעֲשֶׂה אֹתָם הָאָדָם וָחַי בָּהֶם אֲנִי יְהוָה׃ 18.5. Ye shall therefore keep My statutes, and Mine ordices, which if a man do, he shall live by them: I am the LORD."
4. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 6.3 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

6.3. וְקָרָא זֶה אֶל־זֶה וְאָמַר קָדוֹשׁ קָדוֹשׁ קָדוֹשׁ יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת מְלֹא כָל־הָאָרֶץ כְּבוֹדוֹ׃ 6.3. And one called unto another, and said: Holy, holy, holy, is the LORD of hosts; The whole earth is full of His glory."
5. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 3.12 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

3.12. וַתִּשָּׂאֵנִי רוּחַ וָאֶשְׁמַע אַחֲרַי קוֹל רַעַשׁ גָּדוֹל בָּרוּךְ כְּבוֹד־יְהוָה מִמְּקוֹמוֹ׃ 3.12. Then a spirit lifted me up, and I heard behind me the voice of a great rushing: ‘Blessed be the glory of the LORD from His place’;"
6. Plato, Timaeus, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

22a. as were most versed in ancient lore about their early history, he discovered that neither he himself nor any other Greek knew anything at all, one might say, about such matters. And on one occasion, when he wished to draw them on to discourse on ancient history, he attempted to tell them the most ancient of our traditions, concerning Phoroneus, who was said to be the first man, and Niobe; and he went on to tell the legend about Deucalion and Pyrrha after the Flood, and how they survived it, and to give the geneology of their descendants;
7. Philo of Alexandria, On Husbandry, 80-82, 79 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

79. But the divine army is the body of virtues, the champions of the souls that love God, whom it becomes, when they see the adversary defeated, to sing a most beautiful and becoming hymn to the God who giveth the victory and the glorious triumph; and two choruses, the one proceeding from the conclave of the men, and the other from the company of the women, will stand up and sing in alternate songs a melody responsive to one another's voices.
8. Philo of Alexandria, On The Contemplative Life, 13 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

13. Then, because of their anxious desire for an immortal and blessed existence, thinking that their mortal life has already come to an end, they leave their possessions to their sons or daughters, or perhaps to other relations, giving them up their inheritance with willing cheerfulness; and those who know no relations give their property to their companions or friends, for it followed of necessity that those who have acquired the wealth which sees, as if ready prepared for them, should be willing to surrender that wealth which is blind to those who themselves also are still blind in their minds.
9. Philo of Alexandria, On The Life of Moses, 2.45 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

2.45. Now what has been here said is quite sufficient for the abundant praise of Moses as a lawgiver. But there is another more extensive praise which his own holy writings themselves contain, and it is to them that we must now turn for the purpose of exhibiting the virtue of him who compiled them.
10. Philo of Alexandria, That Every Good Person Is Free, 86-87, 85 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

85. In the first place, then, there is no one who has a house so absolutely his own private property, that it does not in some sense also belong to every one: for besides that they all dwell together in companies, the house is open to all those of the same notions, who come to them from other quarters;
11. Anon., The Life of Adam And Eve, 21.6 (1st cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

12. Ignatius, To The Ephesians, 7.2, 8.2, 10.3 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

7.2. There is one only physician, of flesh and of spirit, generate and ingenerate, God in man, true Life in death, Son of Mary and Son of God, first passible and then impassible, Jesus Christ our Lord. 8.2. They that are of the flesh cannot do the things of the Spirit, neither can they that are of the Spirit do the things of the flesh; even as faith cannot do the things of unfaithfulness, neither unfaithfulness the things of faith. Nay, even those things which ye do after the flesh are spiritual; for ye do all things in Jesus Christ. 10.3. Let us show ourselves their brothers by our forbearance; but let us be zealous to be imitators of the Lord, vying with each other who shall suffer the greater wrong, who shall be defrauded, who shall be set at nought; that no herb of the devil be found in you: but in all purity and temperance abide ye in Christ Jesus, with your flesh and with your spirit.
13. Ignatius, To The Magnesians, 8.1, 9.1, 13.2 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

8.1. Be not seduced by strange doctrines nor by antiquated fables, which are profitless. For if even unto this day we live after the manner of Judaism, we avow that we have not received grace: 9.1. If then those who had walked in ancient practices attained unto newness of hope, no longer observing sabbaths but fashioning their lives after the Lord's day, on which our life also arose through Him and through His death which some men deny -- a mystery whereby we attained unto belief, and for this cause we endure patiently, that we may be found disciples of Jesus Christ our only teacher -- 13.2. Be obedient to the bishop and to one another, as Jesus Christ was to the Father [according to the flesh], and as the Apostles were to Christ and to the Father, that there may be union both of flesh and of spirit.
14. Ignatius, To The Trallians, 11.2 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

15. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 2.124-2.127 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.124. 4. They have no one certain city, but many of them dwell in every city; and if any of their sect come from other places, what they have lies open for them, just as if it were their own; and they go in to such as they never knew before, as if they had been ever so long acquainted with them. 2.125. For which reason they carry nothing at all with them when they travel into remote parts, though still they take their weapons with them, for fear of thieves. Accordingly, there is, in every city where they live, one appointed particularly to take care of strangers, and to provide garments and other necessaries for them. 2.126. But the habit and management of their bodies is such as children use who are in fear of their masters. Nor do they allow of the change of garments, or of shoes, till they be first entirely torn to pieces or worn out by time. 2.127. Nor do they either buy or sell anything to one another; but every one of them gives what he hath to him that wanteth it, and receives from him again in lieu of it what may be convenient for himself; and although there be no requital made, they are fully allowed to take what they want of whomsoever they please.
16. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, None (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.1. When I came to you, brothers, I didn't come with excellence ofspeech or of wisdom, proclaiming to you the testimony of God. 2.2. ForI determined not to know anything among you, except Jesus Christ, andhim crucified. 2.3. I was with you in weakness, in fear, and in muchtrembling. 2.4. My speech and my preaching were not in persuasivewords of human wisdom, but in demonstration of the Spirit and of power 2.5. that your faith wouldn't stand in the wisdom of men, but in thepower of God. 5.1. It is actually reported that there is sexual immorality amongyou, and such sexual immorality as is not even named among theGentiles, that one has his father's wife. 5.2. You are puffed up, anddidn't rather mourn, that he who had done this deed might be removedfrom among you. 5.3. For I most assuredly, as being absent in body butpresent in spirit, have already, as though I were present, judged himwho has done this thing. 5.4. In the name of our Lord Jesus Christ,you being gathered together, and my spirit, with the power of our LordJesus Christ 5.5. are to deliver such a one to Satan for thedestruction of the flesh, that the spirit may be saved in the day ofthe Lord Jesus. 5.6. Your boasting is not good. Don't you know that a little yeastleavens the whole lump? 5.7. Purge out the old yeast, that you may bea new lump, even as you are unleavened. For indeed Christ, ourPassover, has been sacrificed in our place. 5.8. Therefore let us keepthe feast, not with old yeast, neither with the yeast of malice andwickedness, but with the unleavened bread of sincerity and truth. 5.9. I wrote to you in my letter to have no company with sexual sinners; 5.10. yet not at all meaning with the sexual sinners of this world, orwith the covetous and extortioners, or with idolaters; for then youwould have to leave the world. 5.11. But as it is, I wrote to you notto associate with anyone who is called a brother who is a sexualsinner, or covetous, or an idolater, or a slanderer, or a drunkard, oran extortioner. Don't even eat with such a person. 5.12. For what haveI to do with also judging those who are outside? Don't you judge thosewho are within? 5.13. But those who are outside, God judges. "Put awaythe wicked man from among yourselves. 6.12. All things are lawful for me," but not all thingsare expedient. "All things are lawful for me," but I will not bebrought under the power of anything. 6.13. Foods for the belly, andthe belly for foods," but God will bring to nothing both it and them.But the body is not for sexual immorality, but for the Lord; and theLord for the body. 6.14. Now God raised up the Lord, and will alsoraise us up by his power. 6.15. Don't you know that your bodies aremembers of Christ? Shall I then take the members of Christ, and makethem members of a prostitute? May it never be! 6.16. Or don't you knowthat he who is joined to a prostitute is one body? For, "The two," sayshe, "will become one flesh. 6.17. But he who is joined to the Lord isone spirit. 6.18. Flee sexual immorality! "Every sin that a man doesis outside the body," but he who commits sexual immorality sins againsthis own body. 6.19. Or don't you know that your body is a temple ofthe Holy Spirit which is in you, which you have from God? You are notyour own 6.20. for you were bought with a price. Therefore glorifyGod in your body and in your spirit, which are God's. 7.1. Now concerning the things about which you wrote to me: it isgood for a man not to touch a woman. 7.2. But, because of sexualimmoralities, let each man have his own wife, and let each woman haveher own husband. 7.3. Let the husband render to his wife the affectionowed her, and likewise also the wife to her husband. 7.4. The wifedoesn't have authority over her own body, but the husband. Likewisealso the husband doesn't have authority over his own body, but thewife. 7.5. Don't deprive one another, unless it is by consent for aseason, that you may give yourselves to fasting and prayer, and may betogether again, that Satan doesn't tempt you because of your lack ofself-control. 7.6. But this I say by way of concession, not of commandment. 7.7. Yet I wish that all men were like me. However each man has his own giftfrom God, one of this kind, and another of that kind. 7.8. But I sayto the unmarried and to widows, it is good for them if they remain evenas I am. 7.9. But if they don't have self-control, let them marry. Forit's better to marry than to burn. 7.10. But to the married I command-- not I, but the Lord -- that the wife not leave her husband 7.11. (but if she departs, let her remain unmarried, or else be reconciled toher husband), and that the husband not leave his wife. 7.12. But to the rest I -- not the Lord -- say, if any brother hasan unbelieving wife, and she is content to live with him, let him notleave her. 7.13. The woman who has an unbelieving husband, and he iscontent to live with her, let her not leave her husband. 7.14. For theunbelieving husband is sanctified in the wife, and the unbelieving wifeis sanctified in the husband. Otherwise your children would be unclean,but now are they holy. 7.15. Yet if the unbeliever departs, let therebe separation. The brother or the sister is not under bondage in suchcases, but God has called us in peace. 7.16. For how do you know,wife, whether you will save your husband? Or how do you know, husband,whether you will save your wife? 7.17. Only, as the Lord hasdistributed to each man, as God has called each, so let him walk. So Icommand in all the assemblies. 7.18. Was anyone called having been circumcised? Let him not becomeuncircumcised. Has anyone been called in uncircumcision? Let him not becircumcised. 7.19. Circumcision is nothing, and uncircumcision isnothing, but the keeping of the commandments of God. 7.20. Let eachman stay in that calling in which he was called. 7.21. Were you calledbeing a bondservant? Don't let that bother you, but if you get anopportunity to become free, use it. 7.22. For he who was called in theLord being a bondservant is the Lord's free man. Likewise he who wascalled being free is Christ's bondservant. 7.23. You were bought witha price. Don't become bondservants of men. 7.24. Brothers, let eachman, in whatever condition he was called, stay in that condition withGod. 7.25. Now concerning virgins, I have no commandment from the Lord,but I give my judgment as one who has obtained mercy from the Lord tobe trustworthy. 7.26. I think that it is good therefore, because ofthe distress that is on us, that it is good for a man to be as he is. 7.27. Are you bound to a wife? Don't seek to be freed. Are you freefrom a wife? Don't seek a wife. 7.28. But if you marry, you have notsinned. If a virgin marries, she has not sinned. Yet such will haveoppression in the flesh, and I want to spare you. 7.29. But I saythis, brothers: the time is short, that from now on, both those whohave wives may be as though they had none; 7.30. and those who weep,as though they didn't weep; and those who rejoice, as though theydidn't rejoice; and those who buy, as though they didn't possess; 7.31. and those who use the world, as not using it to the fullest. Forthe mode of this world passes away. 7.32. But I desire to have you tobe free from cares. He who is unmarried is concerned for the things ofthe Lord, how he may please the Lord; 7.33. but he who is married isconcerned about the things of the world, how he may please his wife. 7.34. There is also a difference between a wife and a virgin. Theunmarried woman cares about the things of the Lord, that she may beholy both in body and in spirit. But she who is married cares about thethings of the world -- how she may please her husband. 7.35. This Isay for your own profit; not that I may ensnare you, but for that whichis appropriate, and that you may attend to the Lord withoutdistraction. 7.36. But if any man thinks that he is behavinginappropriately toward his virgin, if she is past the flower of herage, and if need so requires, let him do what he desires. He doesn'tsin. Let them marry. 7.37. But he who stands steadfast in his heart,having no necessity, but has power over his own heart, to keep his ownvirgin, does well. 7.38. So then both he who gives his own virgin inmarriage does well, and he who doesn't give her in marriage doesbetter. 7.39. A wife is bound by law for as long as her husband lives;but if the husband is dead, she is free to be married to whoever shedesires, only in the Lord. 7.40. But she is happier if she stays asshe is, in my judgment, and I think that I also have God's Spirit. 8.1. Now concerning things sacrificed to idols: We know that we allhave knowledge. Knowledge puffs up, but love builds up. 9.9. For it is written in the law of Moses,"You shall not muzzle an ox while it treads out the grain." Is it forthe oxen that God cares 10.1. Now I would not have you ignorant, brothers, that our fatherswere all under the cloud, and all passed through the sea; 10.2. andwere all baptized into Moses in the cloud and in the sea; 10.3. andall ate the same spiritual food; 10.4. and all drank the samespiritual drink. For they drank of a spiritual rock that followed them,and the rock was Christ. 10.5. However with most of them, God was notwell pleased, for they were overthrown in the wilderness. 10.6. Nowthese things were our examples, to the intent we should not lust afterevil things, as they also lusted. 10.7. Neither be idolaters, as someof them were. As it is written, "The people sat down to eat and drink,and rose up to play. 10.8. Neither let us commit sexual immorality,as some of them committed, and in one day twenty-three thousand fell. 10.9. Neither let us test the Lord, as some of them tested, andperished by the serpents. 10.10. Neither grumble, as some of them alsogrumbled, and perished by the destroyer. 10.11. Now all these thingshappened to them by way of example, and they were written for ouradmonition, on whom the ends of the ages have come. 10.12. Thereforelet him who thinks he stands be careful that he doesn't fall. 10.13. No temptation has taken you but such as man can bear. God isfaithful, who will not allow you to be tempted above what you are able,but will with the temptation also make the way of escape, that you maybe able to endure it. 10.25. Whatever is sold in the butcher shop, eat, asking no questionfor the sake of conscience 11.1. Be imitators of me, even as I also am of Christ. 11.2. Now Ipraise you, brothers, that you remember me in all things, and hold firmthe traditions, even as I delivered them to you. 11.3. But I wouldhave you know that the head of every man is Christ, and the head of thewoman is the man, and the head of Christ is God. 11.4. Every manpraying or prophesying, having his head covered, dishonors his head. 11.5. But every woman praying or prophesying with her head unveileddishonors her head. For it is one and the same thing as if she wereshaved. 11.6. For if a woman is not covered, let her also be shorn.But if it is shameful for a woman to be shorn or shaved, let her becovered. 11.7. For a man indeed ought not to have his head covered,because he is the image and glory of God, but the woman is the glory ofthe man. 11.9. for neither was man created for the woman, but woman for the man. 11.10. For this cause the woman ought to have authority on her head,because of the angels. 11.11. Nevertheless, neither is the woman independent of the man,nor the man independent of the woman, in the Lord. 11.12. For as womancame from man, so a man also comes through a woman; but all things arefrom God. 11.13. Judge for yourselves. Is it appropriate that a womanpray to God unveiled? 11.14. Doesn't even nature itself teach you thatif a man has long hair, it is a dishonor to him? 11.15. But if a womanhas long hair, it is a glory to her, for her hair is given to her for acovering. 11.16. But if any man seems to be contentious, we have nosuch custom, neither do God's assemblies. 11.17. But in giving you this command, I don't praise you, that youcome together not for the better but for the worse. 11.18. For firstof all, when you come together in the assembly, I hear that divisionsexist among you, and I partly believe it. 11.19. For there also mustbe factions among you, that those who are approved may be revealedamong you. 11.20. When therefore you assemble yourselves together, itis not possible to eat the Lord's supper. 11.21. For in your eatingeach one takes his own supper before others. One is hungry, and anotheris drunken. 11.22. What, don't you have houses to eat and to drink in?Or do you despise God's assembly, and put them to shame who don't have?What shall I tell you? Shall I praise you? In this I don't praise you. 11.27. Therefore whoever eats this bread or drinks the Lord's cup i unworthy manner will be guilty of the body and the blood of theLord. 11.28. But let a man examine himself, and so let him eat of thebread, and drink of the cup. 11.29. For he who eats and drinks in anunworthy manner eats and drinks judgment to himself, if he doesn'tdiscern the Lord's body. 11.30. For this cause many among you are weakand sickly, and not a few sleep. 12.12. For as the body is one, and has many members, and all themembers of the body, being many, are one body; so also is Christ. 12.13. For in one Spirit we were all baptized into one body, whetherJews or Greeks, whether bond or free; and were all given to drink intoone Spirit. 12.14. For the body is not one member, but many. 12.15. If the foot would say, "Because I'm not the hand, I'm not part of thebody," it is not therefore not part of the body. 12.16. If the earwould say, "Because I'm not the eye, I'm not part of the body," it'snot therefore not part of the body. 12.17. If the whole body were aneye, where would the hearing be? If the whole were hearing, where wouldthe smelling be? 12.18. But now God has set the members, each one ofthem, in the body, just as he desired. 12.19. If they were all onemember, where would the body be? 12.20. But now they are many members,but one body. 12.21. The eye can't tell the hand, "I have no need foryou," or again the head to the feet, "I have no need for you. 12.22. No, much rather, those members of the body which seem to be weaker arenecessary. 12.23. Those parts of the body which we think to be lesshonorable, on those we bestow more abundant honor; and ourunpresentable parts have more abundant propriety; 12.24. whereas ourpresentable parts have no such need. But God composed the bodytogether, giving more abundant honor to the inferior part 12.25. thatthere should be no division in the body, but that the members shouldhave the same care for one another. 12.26. When one member suffers,all the members suffer with it. Or when one member is honored, all themembers rejoice with it. 12.27. Now you are the body of Christ, and members individually. 14.3. But he who prophesies speaks tomen for their edification, exhortation, and consolation. 14.4. He whospeaks in another language edifies himself, but he who prophesiesedifies the assembly. 14.5. Now I desire to have you all speak withother languages, but rather that you would prophesy. For he is greaterwho prophesies than he who speaks with other languages, unless heinterprets, that the assembly may be built up. 14.23. If therefore thewhole assembly is assembled together and all speak with otherlanguages, and unlearned or unbelieving people come in, won't they saythat you are crazy? 14.24. But if all prophesy, and someoneunbelieving or unlearned comes in, he is reproved by all, and he isjudged by all. 14.25. And thus the secrets of his heart are revealed.So he will fall down on his face and worship God, declaring that God isamong you indeed. 14.33. for God is not a God of confusion, but of peace.As in all the assemblies of the saints 14.34. let your wives keepsilent in the assemblies, for it has not been permitted for them tospeak; but let them be in subjection, as the law also says. 14.35. Ifthey desire to learn anything, let them ask their own husbands at home,for it is shameful for a woman to chatter in the assembly. 14.36. What? Was it from you that the word of God went out? Or did it come toyou alone? 15.12. Now if Christ is preached, that he has been raised from thedead, how do some among you say that there is no resurrection of thedead? 15.35. But someone will say, "Howare the dead raised?" and, "With what kind of body do they come? 15.36. You foolish one, that which you yourself sow is not made aliveunless it dies. 15.37. That which you sow, you don't sow the body thatwill be, but a bare grain, maybe of wheat, or of some other kind. 15.38. But God gives it a body even as it pleased him, and to eachseed a body of its own. 15.39. All flesh is not the same flesh, butthere is one flesh of men, another flesh of animals, another of fish,and another of birds. 15.40. There are also celestial bodies, andterrestrial bodies; but the glory of the celestial differs from that ofthe terrestrial. 15.41. There is one glory of the sun, another gloryof the moon, and another glory of the stars; for one star differs fromanother star in glory. 15.42. So also is the resurrection of the dead.It is sown in corruption; it is raised in incorruption. 15.43. It issown in dishonor; it is raised in glory. It is sown in weakness; it israised in power. 15.44. It is sown a natural body; it is raised aspiritual body. There is a natural body and there is also a spiritualbody. 15.45. So also it is written, "The first man, Adam, became a livingsoul." The last Adam became a life-giving spirit. 15.46. However thatwhich is spiritual isn't first, but that which is natural, then thatwhich is spiritual. 15.47. The first man is of the earth, made ofdust. The second man is the Lord from heaven. 15.48. As is the onemade of dust, such are those who are also made of dust; and as is theheavenly, such are they also that are heavenly. 15.49. As we haveborne the image of those made of dust, let's also bear the image of theheavenly. 16.1. Now concerning the collection for the saints, as I commandedthe assemblies of Galatia, you do likewise. 16.2. On the first day ofthe week, let each one of you save, as he may prosper, that nocollections be made when I come. 16.3. When I arrive, I will sendwhoever you approve with letters to carry your gracious gift toJerusalem. 16.4. If it is appropriate for me to go also, they will gowith me.
17. New Testament, 1 Thessalonians, 1.9 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.9. For they themselves report concerning us what kind of a reception we had from you; and how you turned to God from idols, to serve a living and true God
18. New Testament, 1 Timothy, 1.3-1.4, 1.7-1.9, 2.9-2.15, 4.3-4.4, 4.7, 5.3-5.7, 5.11-5.15, 6.4 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.3. As I exhorted you to stay at Ephesus when I was going into Macedonia, that you might charge certain men not to teach a different doctrine 1.4. neither to pay attention to myths and endless genealogies, which cause disputes, rather than God's stewardship, which is in faith -- 1.7. desiring to be teachers of the law, though they understand neither what they say, nor about what they strongly affirm. 1.8. But we know that the law is good, if a man uses it lawfully 1.9. as knowing this, that law is not made for a righteous man, but for the lawless and insubordinate, for the ungodly and sinners, for the unholy and profane, for murderers of fathers and murderers of mothers, for manslayers 2.9. In the same way, that women also adorn themselves in decent clothing, with modesty and propriety; not just with braided hair, gold, pearls, or expensive clothing; 2.10. but (which becomes women professing godliness) with good works. 2.11. Let a woman learn in quietness with all subjection. 2.12. But I don't permit a woman to teach, nor to exercise authority over a man, but to be in quietness. 2.13. For Adam was first formed, then Eve. 2.14. Adam wasn't deceived, but the woman, being deceived, has fallen into disobedience; 2.15. but she will be saved through her child-bearing, if they continue in faith, love, and sanctification with sobriety. 4.3. forbidding marriage and commanding to abstain from foods which God created to be received with thanksgiving by those who believe and know the truth. 4.4. For every creature of God is good, and nothing is to be rejected, if it is received with thanksgiving. 4.7. But refuse profane and old wives' fables. Exercise yourself toward godliness. 5.3. Honor widows who are widows indeed. 5.4. But if any widow has children or grandchildren, let them learn first to show piety towards their own family, and to repay their parents, for this is acceptable in the sight of God. 5.5. Now she who is a widow indeed, and desolate, has her hope set on God, and continues in petitions and prayers night and day. 5.6. But she who gives herself to pleasure is dead while she lives. 5.7. Also command these things, that they may be without reproach. 5.11. But refuse younger widows, for when they have grown wanton against Christ, they desire to marry; 5.12. having condemnation, because they have rejected their first pledge. 5.13. Besides, they also learn to be idle, going about from house to house. Not only idle, but also gossips and busybodies, saying things which they ought not. 5.14. I desire therefore that the younger widows marry, bear children, rule the household, and give no occasion to the adversary for reviling. 5.15. For already some have turned aside after Satan. 6.4. he is conceited, knowing nothing, but obsessed with arguments, disputes, and word battles, from which come envy, strife, reviling, evil suspicions
19. New Testament, 2 Corinthians, 11.24-11.25 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

20. New Testament, 2 Timothy, 2.18, 3.15-3.16, 4.4 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.18. men who have erred concerning the truth, saying that the resurrection is already past, and overthrowing the faith of some. 3.15. From infancy, you have known the sacred writings which are able to make you wise for salvation through faith, which is in Christ Jesus. 3.16. Every writing inspired by God is profitable for teaching, for reproof, for correction, and for instruction which is in righteousness 4.4. and will turn away their ears from the truth, and turn aside to fables.
21. New Testament, Acts, 2.42, 2.46, 6.1-6.2, 11.28-11.30, 20.7 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

2.42. They continued steadfastly in the apostles' teaching and fellowship, in the breaking of bread, and prayer. 2.46. Day by day, continuing steadfastly with one accord in the temple, and breaking bread at home, they took their food with gladness and singleness of heart 6.1. Now in those days, when the number of the disciples was multiplying, there arose a grumbling of the Grecian Jews against the Hebrews because their widows were neglected in the daily service. 6.2. The twelve summoned the multitude of the disciples and said, "It is not appropriate for us to forsake the word of God and serve tables. 11.28. One of them named Agabus stood up, and indicated by the Spirit that there should be a great famine over all the world, which also happened in the days of Claudius. 11.29. The disciples, as anyone had plenty, each determined to send relief to the brothers who lived in Judea; 11.30. which they also did, sending it to the elders by the hands of Barnabas and Saul. 20.7. On the first day of the week, when the disciples were gathered together to break bread, Paul talked with them, intending to depart on the next day, and continued his speech until midnight.
22. New Testament, Apocalypse, 7.9-7.17, 14.3-14.4 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

7.9. After these things I looked, and behold, a great multitude, which no man could number, out of every nation and of all tribes, peoples, and languages, standing before the throne and before the Lamb, dressed in white robes, with palm branches in their hands. 7.10. They cried with a loud voice, saying, "Salvation be to our God, who sits on the throne, and to the Lamb! 7.11. All the angels were standing around the throne, the elders, and the four living creatures; and they fell before his throne on their faces, and worshiped God 7.12. saying, "Amen! Blessing, glory, wisdom, thanksgiving, honor, power, and might, be to our God forever and ever! Amen. 7.13. One of the elders answered, saying to me, "These who are arrayed in white robes, who are they, and where did they come from? 7.14. I told him, "My lord, you know."He said to me, "These are those who came out of the great tribulation. They washed their robes, and made them white in the Lamb's blood. 7.15. Therefore they are before the throne of God, they serve him day and night in his temple. He who sits on the throne will spread his tent over them. 7.16. They will never be hungry, neither thirsty any more; neither will the sun beat on them, nor any heat; 7.17. for the Lamb who is in the midst of the throne shepherds them, and leads them to living springs of waters. God will wipe away every tear from their eyes. 14.3. They sing a new song before the throne, and before the four living creatures and the elders. No one could learn the song except the one hundred forty-four thousand, those who had been redeemed out of the earth. 14.4. These are those who were not defiled with women, for they are virgins. These are those who follow the Lamb wherever he goes. These were redeemed by Jesus from among men, the first fruits to God and to the Lamb.
23. New Testament, James, 3.5 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.5. So the tongue is also a little member, and boasts great things. See how a small fire can spread to a large forest!
24. New Testament, Colossians, 3.11, 3.18, 3.18-4.1 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.11. where there can't be Greek and Jew, circumcision and uncircumcision, barbarian, Scythian, bondservant, freeman; but Christ is all, and in all.
25. New Testament, Ephesians, 5.21, 5.21-6.9, 5.22, 5.23, 5.24, 5.25, 5.26, 5.27, 5.28, 5.29, 5.30, 5.31, 5.32, 5.33 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

5.21. subjecting yourselves one to another in the fear of Christ.
26. New Testament, Galatians, 1.6-1.9, 1.15-1.16, 2.9-2.14, 2.19-2.20, 3.1-3.5, 3.27-3.28, 4.8, 4.21-4.31, 5.13-5.15 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.6. I marvel that you are so quickly deserting him who called you in the grace of Christ to a different gospel; 1.7. and there isn'tanother gospel. Only there are some who trouble you, and want topervert the gospel of Christ. 1.8. But even though we, or an angelfrom heaven, should preach to you any gospel other than that which wepreached to you, let him be cursed. 1.9. As we have said before, so Inow say again: if any man preaches to you any gospel other than thatwhich you received, let him be cursed. 1.15. Butwhen it was the good pleasure of God, who separated me from my mother'swomb, and called me through his grace 1.16. to reveal his Son in me,that I might preach him among the Gentiles, I didn't immediately conferwith flesh and blood 2.9. and when they perceived the grace that was given tome, James and Cephas and John, they who were reputed to be pillars,gave to me and Barnabas the right hand of fellowship, that we should goto the Gentiles, and they to the circumcision. 2.10. They only askedus to remember the poor -- which very thing I was also zealous to do. 2.11. But when Peter came to Antioch, I resisted him to the face,because he stood condemned. 2.12. For before some people came fromJames, he ate with the Gentiles. But when they came, he drew back andseparated himself, fearing those who were of the circumcision. 2.13. And the rest of the Jews joined him in his hypocrisy; so that evenBarnabas was carried away with their hypocrisy. 2.14. But when I sawthat they didn't walk uprightly according to the truth of the gospel, Isaid to Peter before them all, "If you, being a Jew, live as theGentiles do, and not as the Jews do, why do you compel the Gentiles tolive as the Jews do? 2.19. For I, through the law, died to the law,that I might live to God. 2.20. I have been crucified with Christ, andit is no longer I that live, but Christ living in me. That life which Inow live in the flesh, I live by faith in the Son of God, who loved me,and gave himself up for me. 3.1. Foolish Galatians, who has bewitched you not to obey thetruth, before whose eyes Jesus Christ was openly set forth among you as crucified? 3.2. I just want to learn this from you. Did you receivethe Spirit by the works of the law, or by hearing of faith? 3.3. Areyou so foolish? Having begun in the Spirit, are you now completed inthe flesh? 3.4. Did you suffer so many things in vain, if it is indeedin vain? 3.5. He therefore who supplies the Spirit to you, and worksmiracles among you, does he do it by the works of the law, or byhearing of faith? 3.27. For as many of you as werebaptized into Christ have put on Christ. 3.28. There is neither Jewnor Greek, there is neither slave nor free man, there is neither malenor female; for you are all one in Christ Jesus. 4.8. However at that time, not knowing God, youwere in bondage to those who by nature are not gods. 4.21. Tell me, you that desire to be under the law, don't you listen to thelaw? 4.22. For it is written that Abraham had two sons, one by thehandmaid, and one by the free woman. 4.23. However, the son by thehandmaid was born according to the flesh, but the son by the free womanwas born through promise. 4.24. These things contain an allegory, forthese are two covets. One is from Mount Sinai, bearing children tobondage, which is Hagar. 4.25. For this Hagar is Mount Sinai inArabia, and answers to the Jerusalem that exists now, for she is inbondage with her children. 4.26. But the Jerusalem that is above isfree, which is the mother of us all. 4.27. For it is written,"Rejoice, you barren who don't bear. Break forth and shout, you that don't travail. For more are the children of the desolate than of her who has a husband. 4.28. Now we, brothers, as Isaac was, are children of promise. 4.29. But as then, he who was born according to the flesh persecutedhim who was born according to the Spirit, so also it is now. 4.30. However what does the Scripture say? "Throw out the handmaid and herson, for the son of the handmaid will not inherit with the son of thefree woman. 4.31. So then, brothers, we are not children of ahandmaid, but of the free woman. 5.13. For you, brothers, were called for freedom. Only don't useyour freedom for gain to the flesh, but through love be servants to oneanother. 5.14. For the whole law is fulfilled in one word, in this:"You shall love your neighbor as yourself. 5.15. But if you bite anddevour one another, be careful that you don't consume one another.
27. New Testament, Philippians, 1.3-1.7, 1.12-1.18, 1.27-1.30, 2.1-2.4, 2.18-2.30, 3.1, 4.1-4.4, 4.10-4.19, 4.22 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.3. I thank my God whenever I remember you 1.4. always in every request of mine on behalf of you all making my requests with joy 1.5. for your fellowship in furtherance of the gospel from the first day until now; 1.6. being confident of this very thing, that he who began a good work in you will complete it until the day of Jesus Christ. 1.7. It is even right for me to think this way on behalf of all of you, because I have you in my heart, because, both in my bonds and in the defense and confirmation of the gospel, you all are partakers with me of grace. 1.12. Now I desire to have you know, brothers, that the things which happened to me have turned out rather to the progress of the gospel; 1.13. so that it became evident to the whole praetorian guard, and to all the rest, that my bonds are in Christ; 1.14. and that most of the brothers in the Lord, being confident through my bonds, are more abundantly bold to speak the word of God without fear. 1.15. Some indeed preach Christ even out of envy and strife, and some also out of good will. 1.16. The former insincerly preach Christ from selfish ambition, thinking that they add affliction to my chains; 1.17. but the latter out of love, knowing that I am appointed for the defense of the gospel. 1.18. What does it matter? Only that in every way, whether in pretense or in truth, Christ is proclaimed. I rejoice in this, yes, and will rejoice. 1.27. Only let your manner of life be worthy of the gospel of Christ, that, whether I come and see you or am absent, I may hear of your state, that you stand firm in one spirit, with one soul striving for the faith of the gospel; 1.28. and in nothing frightened by the adversaries, which is for them a proof of destruction, but to you of salvation, and that from God. 1.29. Because it has been granted to you on behalf of Christ, not only to believe in him, but also to suffer on his behalf 1.30. having the same conflict which you saw in me, and now hear is in me. 2.1. If there is therefore any exhortation in Christ, if any consolation of love, if any fellowship of the Spirit, if any tender mercies and compassion 2.2. make my joy full, by being like-minded, having the same love, being of one accord, of one mind; 2.3. doing nothing through rivalry or through conceit, but in humility, each counting others better than himself; 2.4. each of you not just looking to his own things, but each of you also to the things of others. 2.19. But I hope in the Lord Jesus to send Timothy to you soon, that I also may be cheered up when I know how you are doing. 2.20. For I have no one else like-minded, who will truly care about you. 2.21. For they all seek their own, not the things of Jesus Christ. 2.22. But you know the proof of him, that, as a child serves a father, so he served with me in furtherance of the gospel. 2.23. Therefore I hope to send him at once, as soon as I see how it will go with me. 2.24. But I trust in the Lord that I myself also will come shortly. 2.25. But I counted it necessary to send to you Epaphroditus, my brother, fellow worker, fellow soldier, and your apostle and minister to my need; 2.26. since he longed for you all, and was very troubled, because you had heard that he was sick. 2.27. For indeed he was sick, nearly to death, but God had mercy on him; and not on him only, but on me also, that I might not have sorrow on sorrow. 2.28. I have sent him therefore the more diligently, that, when you see him again, you may rejoice, and that I may be the less sorrowful. 2.29. Receive him therefore in the Lord with all joy, and hold such in honor 2.30. because for the work of Christ he came near to death, risking his life to supply that which was lacking in your service toward me. 3.1. Finally, my brothers, rejoice in the Lord. To write the same things to you, to me indeed is not tiresome, but for you it is safe. 4.1. Therefore, my brothers, beloved and longed for, my joy and crown, so stand firm in the Lord, my beloved. 4.2. I exhort Euodia, and I exhort Syntyche, to think the same way in the Lord. 4.3. Yes, I beg you also, true yoke-fellow, help these women, for they labored with me in the gospel, with Clement also, and the rest of my fellow workers, whose names are in the book of life. 4.4. Rejoice in the Lord always! Again I will say, Rejoice! 4.10. But I rejoice in the Lord greatly, that now at length you have revived your thought for me; in which you did indeed take thought, but you lacked opportunity. 4.11. Not that I speak in respect to lack, for I have learned in whatever state I am, to be content in it. 4.12. I know how to be humbled, and I know also how to abound. In everything and in all things I have learned the secret both to be filled and to be hungry, both to abound and to be in need. 4.13. I can do all things through Christ, who strengthens me. 4.14. However you did well that you had fellowship with my affliction. 4.15. You yourselves also know, you Philippians, that in the beginning of the gospel, when I departed from Macedonia, no assembly had fellowship with me in the matter of giving and receiving but you only. 4.16. For even in Thessalonica you sent once and again to my need. 4.17. Not that I seek for the gift, but I seek for the fruit that increases to your account. 4.18. But I have all things, and abound. I am filled, having received from Epaphroditus the things that came from you, a sweet-smelling fragrance, an acceptable and well-pleasing sacrifice to God. 4.19. My God will supply every need of yours according to his riches in glory in Christ Jesus. 4.22. All the saints greet you, especially those who are of Caesar's household.
28. New Testament, Romans, 14.3-14.8, 14.14, 14.20, 15.25-15.27, 16.1-16.16 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

14.3. Don't let him who eats despise him who doesn't eat. Don't let him who doesn't eat judge him who eats, for God has received him. 14.4. Who are you who judge another's servant? To his own lord he stands or falls. Yes, he will be made to stand, for God has power to make him stand. 14.5. One man esteems one day as more important. Another esteems every day alike. Let each man be fully assured in his own mind. 14.6. He who observes the day, observes it to the Lord; and he who does not observe the day, to the Lord he does not observe it. He who eats, eats to the Lord, for he gives God thanks. He who doesn't eat, to the Lord he doesn't eat, and gives God thanks. 14.7. For none of us lives to himself, and none dies to himself. 14.8. For if we live, we live to the Lord. Or if we die, we die to the Lord. If therefore we live or die, we are the Lord's. 14.14. I know, and am persuaded in the Lord Jesus, that nothing is unclean of itself; except that to him who considers anything to be unclean, to him it is unclean. 14.20. Don't overthrow God's work for food's sake. All things indeed are clean, however it is evil for that man who creates a stumbling block by eating. 15.25. But now, I say, I am going to Jerusalem, serving the saints. 15.26. For it has been the good pleasure of Macedonia and Achaia to make a certain contribution for the poor among the saints who are at Jerusalem. 15.27. Yes, it has been their good pleasure, and they are their debtors. For if the Gentiles have been made partakers of their spiritual things, they owe it to them also to serve them in fleshly things. 16.1. I commend to you Phoebe, our sister, who is a servant of the assembly that is at Cenchreae 16.2. that you receive her in the Lord, in a way worthy of the saints, and that you assist her in whatever matter she may need from you, for she herself also has been a helper of many, and of my own self. 16.3. Greet Prisca and Aquila, my fellow workers in Christ Jesus 16.4. who for my life, laid down their own necks; to whom not only I give thanks, but also all the assemblies of the Gentiles. 16.5. Greet the assembly that is in their house. Greet Epaenetus, my beloved, who is the first fruits of Achaia to Christ. 16.6. Greet Mary, who labored much for us. 16.7. Greet Andronicus and Junias, my relatives and my fellow prisoners, who are notable among the apostles, who also were in Christ before me. 16.8. Greet Amplias, my beloved in the Lord. 16.9. Greet Urbanus, our fellow worker in Christ, and Stachys, my beloved. 16.10. Greet Apelles, the approved in Christ. Greet those who are of the household of Aristobulus. 16.11. Greet Herodion, my kinsman. Greet them of the household of Narcissus, who are in the Lord. 16.12. Greet Tryphaena and Tryphosa, who labor in the Lord. Greet Persis, the beloved, who labored much in the Lord. 16.13. Greet Rufus, the chosen in the Lord, and his mother and mine. 16.14. Greet Asyncritus, Phlegon, Hermes, Patrobas, Hermas, and the brothers who are with them. 16.15. Greet Philologus and Julia, Nereus and his sister, and Olympas, and all the saints who are with them. 16.16. Greet one another with a holy kiss. The assemblies of Christ greet you.
29. New Testament, Titus, 1.10, 1.14-1.15, 2.3-2.8, 3.9 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.10. For there are also many unruly men, vain talkers and deceivers, especially those of the circumcision 1.14. not paying attention to Jewish fables and commandments of men who turn away from the truth. 1.15. To the pure, all things are pure; but to those who are defiled and unbelieving, nothing is pure; but both their mind and their conscience are defiled. 2.3. and that older women likewise be reverent in behavior, not slanderers nor enslaved to much wine, teachers of that which is good; 2.4. that they may train the young women to love their husbands, to love their children 2.5. to be sober-minded, chaste, workers at home, kind, being in subjection to their own husbands, that God's word may not be blasphemed. 2.6. Likewise, exhort the younger men to be sober-minded; 2.7. in all things showing yourself an example of good works; in your teaching showing integrity, seriousness, incorruptibility 2.8. and soundness of speech that can't be condemned; that he who opposes you may be ashamed, having no evil thing to say about us. 3.9. but shun foolish questionings, genealogies, strife, and disputes about the law; for they are unprofitable and vain.
30. New Testament, Luke, 8.43-8.48 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

8.43. A woman who had a flow of blood for twelve years, who had spent all her living on physicians, and could not be healed by any 8.44. came behind him, and touched the fringe of his cloak, and immediately the flow of her blood stopped. 8.45. Jesus said, "Who touched me?"When all denied it, Peter and those with him said, "Master, the multitudes press and jostle you, and you say, 'Who touched me?' 8.46. But Jesus said, "Someone did touch me, for I perceived that power has gone out of me. 8.47. When the woman saw that she was not hidden, she came trembling, and falling down before him declared to him in the presence of all the people the reason why she had touched him, and how she was healed immediately. 8.48. He said to her, "Daughter, cheer up. Your faith has made you well. Go in peace.
31. New Testament, Mark, 7.26, 7.28 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

7.26. Now the woman was a Greek, a Syrophoenician by race. She begged him that he would cast the demon out of her daughter. 7.28. But she answered him, "Yes, Lord. Yet even the dogs under the table eat the children's crumbs.
32. New Testament, Matthew, 5.4-5.5 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

5.4. Blessed are those who mourn, For they shall be comforted. 5.5. Blessed are the gentle, For they shall inherit the earth.
33. Plutarch, Moralia, None (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

34. Plutarch, Roman Questions, 14 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

14. Why do sons cover their heads when they escort their parents to the grave, while daughters go with uncovered heads and hair unbound? Is it because fathers should be honoured as gods by their male offspring, but mourned as dead by their daughters, that custom has assigned to each sex its proper part and has produced a fitting result from both? Or is it that the unusual is proper in mourning, and it is more usual for women to go forth in public with their heads covered and men with their heads uncovered? So in Greece, whenever any misfortune comes, the women cut off their hair and the men let it grow, for it is usual for men to have their hair cut and for women to let it grow. Or is it that it has become customary for sons to cover their heads for the reason already given? The first reason above: The father should be honoured as a god. For they turn about at the graves, as Varro relates, thus honouring the tombs of their fathers even as they do the shrines of the gods: and when they have cremated their parents, they declare that the dead person has become a god at the moment when first they find a bone. Cf. Cicero, De Legibus, ii. 22 (57). But formerly women were not allowed to cover the head at all. At least it is recorded that Spurius Carvilius Cf. 278 e, infra ; Comparison of Lycurgus and Numa, iii. (77 c); Comparison of Theseus and Romulus, vi. (39 b); Dionysius of Halicarnassus, Roman Antiquities, ii. 25. 7; Valerius Maximus, ii. 1. 4; Aulus Gellius, iv. 3. 2; xvii. 21. 44; Tertullian, Apol. vi., De Monogamia, ix. was the first man to divorce his wife and the reason was her barrenness: the second was Sulpicius Gallus, because he saw his wife pull her cloak over her head: and the third was Publius Sempronius, because his wife had been present as a spectator at funeral games. Cf. Valerius Maximus, vi. 3. 10. 14. Why do sons cover their heads when they escort their parents to the grave, while daughters go with uncovered heads and hair unbound? Is it because fathers should be honoured as gods by their male offspring, but mourned as dead by their daughters, that custom has assigned to each sex its proper part and has produced a fitting result from both? Or is it that the unusual is proper in mourning, and it is more usual for women to go forth in public with their heads covered and men with their heads uncovered? So in Greece, whenever any misfortune comes, the women cut off their hair and the men let it grow, for it is usual for men to have their hair cut and for women to let it grow. Or is it that it has become customary for sons to cover their heads for the reason already given? For they turn about at the graves, as Varro relates, thus honouring the tombs of their fathers even as they do the shrines of the gods; and when they have cremated their parents, they declare that the dead person has become a god at the moment when first they find a bone. But formerly women were not allowed to cover the head at all. At least it is recorded that Spurius Carvilius was the first man to divorce his wife and the reason was her barrenness; the second was Sulpicius Gallus, because he saw his wife pull her cloak over her head; and the third was Publius Sempronius, because his wife had been present as a spectator at funeral games.
35. Anon., Mekhilta Derabbi Yishmael, None (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

36. Hermas, Mandates, 12.1.1-12.1.2 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

37. Hermas, Visions, 1.1-1.2, 3.11-3.13 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

38. Tertullian, On The Soul, 9 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

39. Babylonian Talmud, Niddah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

31a. מאי קרא (תהלים עא, ו) ממעי אמי אתה גוזי מאי משמע דהאי גוזי לישנא דאשתבועי הוא דכתיב (ירמיהו ז, כט) גזי נזרך והשליכי,ואמר רבי אלעזר למה ולד דומה במעי אמו לאגוז מונח בספל של מים אדם נותן אצבעו עליו שוקע לכאן ולכאן,תנו רבנן שלשה חדשים הראשונים ולד דר במדור התחתון אמצעיים ולד דר במדור האמצעי אחרונים ולד דר במדור העליון וכיון שהגיע זמנו לצאת מתהפך ויוצא וזהו חבלי אשה,והיינו דתנן חבלי של נקבה מרובין משל זכר,ואמר רבי אלעזר מאי קרא (תהלים קלט, טו) אשר עשיתי בסתר רקמתי בתחתיות ארץ דרתי לא נאמר אלא רקמתי,מאי שנא חבלי נקבה מרובין משל זכר זה בא כדרך תשמישו וזה בא כדרך תשמישו זו הופכת פניה וזה אין הופך פניו,תנו רבנן שלשה חדשים הראשונים תשמיש קשה לאשה וגם קשה לולד אמצעיים קשה לאשה ויפה לולד אחרונים יפה לאשה ויפה לולד שמתוך כך נמצא הולד מלובן ומזורז,תנא המשמש מטתו ליום תשעים כאילו שופך דמים מנא ידע אלא אמר אביי משמש והולך (תהלים קטז, ו) ושומר פתאים ה',תנו רבנן שלשה שותפין יש באדם הקב"ה ואביו ואמו אביו מזריע הלובן שממנו עצמות וגידים וצפרנים ומוח שבראשו ולובן שבעין אמו מזרעת אודם שממנו עור ובשר ושערות ושחור שבעין והקב"ה נותן בו רוח ונשמה וקלסתר פנים וראיית העין ושמיעת האוזן ודבור פה והלוך רגלים ובינה והשכל,וכיון שהגיע זמנו להפטר מן העולם הקב"ה נוטל חלקו וחלק אביו ואמו מניח לפניהם אמר רב פפא היינו דאמרי אינשי פוץ מלחא ושדי בשרא לכלבא,דרש רב חיננא בר פפא מאי דכתיב (איוב ט, י) עושה גדולות עד אין חקר ונפלאות עד אין מספר בא וראה שלא כמדת הקב"ה מדת בשר ודם מדת בשר ודם נותן חפץ בחמת צרורה ופיה למעלה ספק משתמר ספק אין משתמר ואילו הקב"ה צר העובר במעי אשה פתוחה ופיה למטה ומשתמר,דבר אחר אדם נותן חפציו לכף מאזנים כל זמן שמכביד יורד למטה ואילו הקב"ה כל זמן שמכביד הולד עולה למעלה,דרש רבי יוסי הגלילי מאי דכתיב {תהילים קל״ט:י״ד } אודך (ה') על כי נוראות נפליתי נפלאים מעשיך ונפשי יודעת מאד בא וראה שלא כמדת הקב"ה מדת בשר ודם מדת בשר ודם אדם נותן זרעונים בערוגה כל אחת ואחת עולה במינו ואילו הקב"ה צר העובר במעי אשה וכולם עולין למין אחד,דבר אחר צבע נותן סמנין ליורה כולן עולין לצבע אחד ואילו הקב"ה צר העובר במעי אשה כל אחת ואחת עולה למינו,דרש רב יוסף מאי דכתיב (ישעיהו יב, א) אודך ה' כי אנפת בי ישוב אפך ותנחמני במה הכתוב מדבר,בשני בני אדם שיצאו לסחורה ישב לו קוץ לאחד מהן התחיל מחרף ומגדף לימים שמע שטבעה ספינתו של חבירו בים התחיל מודה ומשבח לכך נאמר ישוב אפך ותנחמני,והיינו דאמר רבי אלעזר מאי דכתיב (תהלים עב, יח) עושה נפלאות (גדולות) לבדו וברוך שם כבודו לעולם אפילו בעל הנס אינו מכיר בנסו,דריש רבי חנינא בר פפא מאי דכתיב (תהלים קלט, ג) ארחי ורבעי זרית וכל דרכי הסכנת מלמד שלא נוצר אדם מן כל הטפה אלא מן הברור שבה תנא דבי רבי ישמעאל משל לאדם שזורה בבית הגרנות נוטל את האוכל ומניח את הפסולת,כדרבי אבהו דרבי אבהו רמי כתיב (שמואל ב כב, מ) ותזרני חיל וכתיב (תהלים יח, לג) האל המאזרני חיל אמר דוד לפני הקב"ה רבש"ע זיריתני וזרזתני,דרש רבי אבהו מאי דכתיב (במדבר כג, י) מי מנה עפר יעקב ומספר את רובע ישראל מלמד שהקב"ה יושב וסופר את רביעיותיהם של ישראל מתי תבא טיפה שהצדיק נוצר הימנה,ועל דבר זה נסמית עינו של בלעם הרשע אמר מי שהוא טהור וקדוש ומשרתיו טהורים וקדושים יציץ בדבר זה מיד נסמית עינו דכתיב (במדבר כד, ג) נאם הגבר שתום העין,והיינו דאמר רבי יוחנן מאי דכתיב (בראשית ל, טז) וישכב עמה בלילה הוא מלמד שהקב"ה סייע באותו מעשה שנאמר (בראשית מט, יד) יששכר חמור גרם חמור גרם לו ליששכר,אמר רבי יצחק אמר רבי אמי אשה מזרעת תחילה יולדת זכר איש מזריע תחילה יולדת נקבה שנאמר (ויקרא יג, כט) אשה כי תזריע וילדה זכר,תנו רבנן בראשונה היו אומרים אשה מזרעת תחילה יולדת זכר איש מזריע תחלה יולדת נקבה ולא פירשו חכמים את הדבר עד שבא רבי צדוק ופירשו (בראשית מו, טו) אלה בני לאה אשר ילדה ליעקב בפדן ארם ואת דינה בתו תלה הזכרים בנקבות ונקבות בזכרים,(דברי הימים א ח, מ) ויהיו בני אולם אנשים גבורי חיל דורכי קשת ומרבים בנים ובני בנים וכי בידו של אדם להרבות בנים ובני בנים אלא מתוך 31a. bWhat is the versefrom which it is derived that a fetus is administered an oath on the day of its birth? “Upon You I have relied from birth; bYou are He Who took me out [ igozi /i] of my mother’s womb”(Psalms 71:6). bFrom where mayit bbe inferred that thisword: b“ iGozi /i,” is a term of administering an oath? As it is written: “Cut off [ igozi /i] your hair and cast it away”(Jeremiah 7:29), which is interpreted as a reference to the vow of a nazirite, who must cut off his hair at the end of his term of naziriteship., bAnd Rabbi Elazar says: To what is a fetus in its mother’s womb comparable?It is comparable bto a nut placed in a basinfull bof water,floating on top of the water. If ba person puts his finger on top ofthe nut, bit sinkseither bin this direction or in that direction. /b,§ bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: During bthe first three monthsof pregcy, the bfetus resides in the lower compartmentof the womb; in the bmiddlethree months, the bfetus resides in the middle compartment;and during the blastthree months of pregcy the bfetus resides in the upper compartment. And once its time to emerge arrives, it turns upside down and emerges; and this iswhat causes blabor pains. /b,With regard to the assertion that labor pains are caused by the fetus turning upside down, the Gemara notes: bAnd this isthe explanation for bthat which we learnedin a ibaraita /i: bThe labor pains experienced bya woman who gives birth to ba female are greater thanthose bexperienced bya woman who gives birth to ba male.The Gemara will explain this below., bAnd Rabbi Elazar says: What is the versefrom which it is derived that a fetus initially resides in the lower part of the womb? b“When I was made in secret, and I was woven together in the lowest parts of the earth”(Psalms 139:15). Since it bis not stated: I residedin the lowest parts of the earth, bbut rather: “I was woven togetherin the lowest parts of the earth,” this teaches that during the initial stage of a fetus’s development, when it is woven together, its location is in the lower compartment of the womb.,The Gemara asks: bWhat is differentabout bthe labor pains experienced bya woman who gives birth to ba female,that they bare greater than those experienced bya woman who gives birth to ba male?The Gemara answers: bThisone, a male fetus, bemerges in the manner in which it engages in intercourse.Just as a male engages in intercourse facing downward, so too, it is born while facing down. bAnd thatone, a female fetus, bemerges in the manner in which it engages in intercourse,i.e., facing upward. Consequently, bthatone, a female fetus, bturns its face aroundbefore it is born, bbut thisone, a male fetus, bdoes not turn its face aroundbefore it is born.,§ bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: During bthe first three monthsof pregcy, bsexual intercourse is difficultand harmful bfor the woman and is also difficult for the offspring.During the bmiddlethree months, intercourse is bdifficult for the woman but is beneficial for the offspring.During the blastthree months, sexual intercourse is bbeneficial for the woman and beneficial for the offspring; as a result of it the offspring is found to be strong and fair skinned. /b,The Sages btaughtin a ibaraita /i: With regard to bone who engages in intercoursewith his wife bon the ninetieth dayof her pregcy, bit is as though he spillsher bblood.The Gemara asks: bHow does one knowthat it is the ninetieth day of her pregcy? bRather, Abaye says: One should go ahead and engage in intercoursewith his wife even if it might be the ninetieth day, bandrely on God to prevent any ensuing harm, as the verse states: b“The Lord preserves the simple”(Psalms 116:6).,§ bThe Sages taught: There are three partners inthe creation of ba person: The Holy One, Blessed be He, and his father, and his mother. His father emits the white seed, from whichthe following body parts are formed: The bbones,the bsinews,the bnails,the bbrain that is in its head, andthe bwhite of the eye. His mother emits red seed, from whichare formed the bskin,the bflesh,the bhair, andthe bblack of the eye. And the Holy One, Blessed be He, inserts into him a spirit, a soul,his bcountece [ iukelaster /i], eyesight, hearing of the ear,the capability of bspeechof bthe mouth,the capability of bwalkingwith bthe legs, understanding, and wisdom. /b, bAnd whena person’s btime to depart from the world arrives, the Holy One, Blessed be He, retrieves His part, and He leaves the part ofthe person’s bfather and mother before them. Rav Pappa said: Thisis in accordance with the adage bthat people say: Remove the saltfrom a piece of meat, bandyou may then btoss the meat to a dog,as it has become worthless.,§ bRav Ḥina bar Pappa taught: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “Who does great deeds beyond comprehension, wondrous deeds without number”(Job 9:10)? bCome and see that the attribute of flesh and blood is unlike the attribute of the Holy One, Blessed be He. The attribute of flesh and bloodis that if one bputs an article in a flask,even if the flask is btied and its openingfaces bupward, it is uncertain whetherthe item bis preservedfrom getting lost, band it is uncertain whether it is not preservedfrom being lost. bBut the Holy One, Blessed be He, forms the fetus in a woman’s open womb, and its openingfaces bdownward, andyet the fetus bis preserved. /b, bAnother matterthat demonstrates the difference between the attributes of God and the attributes of people is that when ba person places his articles on a scaleto be measured, bthe heavierthe item bis,the more bit descends. Butwhen bthe Holy One, Blessed be He,forms a fetus, bthe heavier the offspring gets,the more bit ascends upwardin the womb., bRabbi Yosei HaGelili taught: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “I will give thanks to You, for I am fearfully and wonderfully made; wonderful are Your works, and that my soul knows very well”(Psalms 139:14)? bCome and see that the attribute of flesh and blood is unlike the attribute of the Holy One, Blessed be He. The attribute of flesh and bloodis that when ba person plants seedsof different species binone bgarden bed, each and every oneof the seeds bemergesas a grown plant baccording to its species. But the Holy One, Blessed be He, forms the fetus in a woman’s womb, and all ofthe seeds, i.e., those of both the father and the mother, bemergewhen the offspring is formed bas onesex., bAlternatively,when ba dyer puts herbs in a cauldron [ ileyora /i], they all emerge as one colorof dye, bwhereas the Holy One, Blessed be He, forms the fetus in a woman’s womb,and beach and every oneof the seeds bemerges as its own type.In other words, the seed of the father form distinct elements, such as the white of the eye, and the seed of the mother forms other elements, such as the black of the eye, as explained above., bRav Yosef taught: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written:“And on that day you shall say: bI will give thanks to You, Lord, for You were angry with me; Your anger is turned away, and You comfort me”(Isaiah 12:1)? bWith regard to whatmatter bis the verse speaking? /b,It is referring, for example, bto two people who lefttheir homes to go bon a businesstrip. bA thorn penetratedthe body bof one of them,and he was consequently unable to go with his colleague. bHe started blaspheming and cursingin frustration. bAfter a period of time, he heard that the ship of the otherperson bhad sunk in the sea,and realized that the thorn had saved him from death. He then bstarted thankingGod band praisingHim for his delivery due to the slight pain caused to him by the thorn. This is the meaning of the statement: I will give thanks to You, Lord, for You were angry with me. bTherefore, it is statedat the end of the verse: b“Your anger is turned away, and You comfort me.” /b, bAnd thisstatement bisidentical to bthat which Rabbi Elazar said: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written:“Blessed be the Lord God, the God of Israel, bWho does wondrous things alone; and blessed be His glorious name forever”(Psalms 72:18–19)? What does it mean that God “does wondrous things alone”? It means that beven the one for whom the miracle was performed does not recognize the miraclethat was performed for bhim. /b, bRabbi Ḥanina bar Pappa taught: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “You measure [ izerita /i] my going about [ iorḥi /i] and my lying down [ iriv’i /i], and are acquainted with all my ways”(Psalms 139:3)? This verse bteaches that a person is not created from the entire dropof semen, bbut from its clearpart. iZeritacan mean to winnow, while iorḥiand iriv’ican both be explained as references to sexual intercourse. Therefore the verse is interpreted homiletically as saying that God separates the procreative part of the semen from the rest. bThe school of Rabbi Yishmael taught a parable:This matter is comparable bto a person who winnowsgrain bin the granary; he takes the food and leaves the waste. /b,This is bin accordance witha statement bof Rabbi Abbahu, as Rabbi Abbahu raises a contradiction: It is writtenin one of King David’s psalms: b“For You have girded me [ ivatazreni /i] with strength for battle”(II Samuel 22:40), without the letter ialefin ivatazreni /i; band it is writtenin another psalm: b“Who girds me [ ihame’azreni /i] with strength”(Psalms 18:33), with an ialefin ihame’azreini /i. What is the difference between these two expressions? bDavid said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe, You selected me [ izeiritani /i],i.e., You separated between the procreative part and the rest of the semen in order to create me, band You have girded me [ izeraztani /i] with strength. /b, bRabbi Abbahu taught: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is writtenin Balaam’s blessing: b“Who has counted the dust of Jacob, or numbered the stock [ irova /i] of Israel”(Numbers 23:10)? The verse bteaches that the Holy One, Blessed be He, sits and counts the times that the Jewish people engage in intercourse [ irevi’iyyoteihem /i],anticipating the time bwhen the drop from which the righteous person will be created will arrive. /b, bAndit was bdue to this matterthat bthe eye of wicked Balaam went blind. He said: ShouldGod, bwho is pure and holy, and whose ministers are pure and holy, peek at this matter? Immediately his eye was blindedas a divine punishment, bas it is written: “The saying of the man whose eye is shut”(Numbers 24:3)., bAnd thisstatement bisthe same as that bwhich Rabbi Yoḥa said: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written,with regard to Leah’s conceiving Issachar: b“And he lay with her that night”(Genesis 30:16)? The verse bteaches that the Holy One, Blessed be He, contributed to that act.The manner in which God contributed to this act is derived from another verse, bas it is stated: “Issachar is a large-boned [ igarem /i] donkey”(Genesis 49:14). This teaches that God directed Jacob’s bdonkeytoward Leah’s tent so that he would engage in intercourse with her, thereby bcausing [ igaram /i]Leah’s conceiving bIssachar. /b,§ bRabbi Yitzḥak saysthat bRabbi Ami says:The sex of a fetus is determined at the moment of conception. If the bwoman emits seed first, she gives birth to a male,and if the bman emits seed first, she gives birth to a female, as it is stated: “If a woman bears seed and gives birth to a male”(Leviticus 12:2)., bThe Sages taught: At first,people bwould saythat if the bwoman emits seed first she gives birth to a male,and if the bman emits seed first, she gives birth to a female. But the Sages did not explainfrom which verse this bmatteris derived, buntil Rabbi Tzadok came and explainedthat bitis derived from the following verse: b“These are the sons of Leah, whom she bore to Jacob in Paddan Aram, with his daughter Dinah”(Genesis 46:15). From the fact that the verse battributes the males to the females,as the males are called: The sons of Leah, bandit attributes bthe females to the males, /bin that Dinah is called: His daughter, it is derived that if the woman emits seed first she gives birth to a male, whereas if the man emits seed first, she bears a female.,This statement is also derived from the following verse: b“And the sons of Ulam were mighty men of valor, archers, and had many sons and sons’ sons”(I Chronicles 8:40). bIs it in a person’s power to have many sons and sons’ sons? Rather, because /b
40. Anon., Apostolic Constitutions, 7.33-7.38 (4th cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

41. Pseudo-Tertullian, Martyrdom of Perpetua And Felicitas, 7



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
accessories Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 158, 159
adam Falcetta, Early Christian Teachers: The 'Didaskaloi' From Their Origins to the Middle of the Second Century (2020) 152
agape Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 191
aggadic narratives Kosman, Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism (2012) 20
aging Seim and Okland, Metamorphoses: Resurrection, Body and Transformative Practices in Early Christianity (2009) 32
agōn, philosophy Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 464
alienation, language of Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 170, 207
antithesis Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 65
asceticism Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 207
atwood, m. Kraemer, Unreliable Witnesses: Religion, Gender, and History in the Greco-Roman Mediterranean (2010) 247
body, in ignatius Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 199
body Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 170, 199, 207
body (human), xv Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 395
byrne, brendan Kosman, Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism (2012) 20
celibacy Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 207
christians Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 158, 159
church (ejkklhsiva), as a woman Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 207
church (ejkklhsiva) Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 199, 207
clothing Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 395
colonization Harkins and Maier, Experiencing the Shepherd of Hermas (2022) 18
communication Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 395
contradiction, within scripture Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 65
cross-cultural(ly) Harkins and Maier, Experiencing the Shepherd of Hermas (2022) 18
culture, cultural affiliations in galilee Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 186, 187
daughters Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 158, 159
desire Harkins and Maier, Experiencing the Shepherd of Hermas (2022) 18
dibelius, martin Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 464
dress, christian Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 158, 159
dress, female Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 158, 159
dress, girls Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 158
dress, greek Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 159
dress, islamic Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 158
dress, matrons (veste maritali) Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 158, 159
dress, public ceremonial Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 158, 159
dress, religious Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 158, 159
epistle, pastorals Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 464
eschatology Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 170
estrangement Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 580
ethics, bourgeois Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 464
ethnicity Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 158, 159; Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 31
etruscan Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 158, 159
eva/eve Falcetta, Early Christian Teachers: The 'Didaskaloi' From Their Origins to the Middle of the Second Century (2020) 152
eve, loss of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 580
exousia Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 205
family Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 207
fathers Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 158
ficker, g. Kraemer, Unreliable Witnesses: Religion, Gender, and History in the Greco-Roman Mediterranean (2010) 172
fillets Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 158, 159
gender, in christian sources Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 199
gender Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 158, 159; Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 199, 207; Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 31; Tupamahu, Contesting Languages: Heteroglossia and the Politics of Language in the Early Church (2022) 159, 160
genesis, genealogies Falcetta, Early Christian Teachers: The 'Didaskaloi' From Their Origins to the Middle of the Second Century (2020) 152
gentiles, and the torah/law Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 65
glory, adam, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 580
glory, god, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 580
gnosticism, in the pastoral letters Falcetta, Early Christian Teachers: The 'Didaskaloi' From Their Origins to the Middle of the Second Century (2020) 152
god, jealousy of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 580
goff, b. Kraemer, Unreliable Witnesses: Religion, Gender, and History in the Greco-Roman Mediterranean (2010) 247
golan, ruth Kosman, Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism (2012) 20
good heart, goodness Kosman, Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism (2012) 20
greeks Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 158, 159
hair Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 580
hairstyles, feminine Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 158, 159
hairstyles Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 158, 159
head-coverings Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 158, 159
head Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 580
headbands Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 158, 159
heine, r. Kraemer, Unreliable Witnesses: Religion, Gender, and History in the Greco-Roman Mediterranean (2010) 172
hermeneutics, and making communities Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 65
hermeneutics, methods of interpretation Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 65
hierarchy, order Kosman, Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism (2012) 20
humility Kosman, Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism (2012) 20
identity, identity marker Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 31
identity, jewish Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 190
identity Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 395; Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 31
image of god Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 580
infinite Kosman, Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism (2012) 20
infulae Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 159
interpolations Tupamahu, Contesting Languages: Heteroglossia and the Politics of Language in the Early Church (2022) 159, 160
intertextuality and intertext Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 65
jeremias j. Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 191
jesus Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 199; Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 31
jewish practices/torah observance Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 205
jewish prayers/ prayer-practice Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 31
jews, jewish communities, literature Falcetta, Early Christian Teachers: The 'Didaskaloi' From Their Origins to the Middle of the Second Century (2020) 152
judaism, hellenistic Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 464
julius caesar, c. Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 159
kedushah Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 191
kosman, admiel Kosman, Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism (2012) 20
kraemer, r. s. Kraemer, Unreliable Witnesses: Religion, Gender, and History in the Greco-Roman Mediterranean (2010) 247
law, paul Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 186
letter on the conversion of the jews, (severus of minorca), conversion accounts of jewish women Kraemer, Unreliable Witnesses: Religion, Gender, and History in the Greco-Roman Mediterranean (2010) 172
levinskaya, i. Kraemer, Unreliable Witnesses: Religion, Gender, and History in the Greco-Roman Mediterranean (2010) 247
light Seim and Okland, Metamorphoses: Resurrection, Body and Transformative Practices in Early Christianity (2009) 32
mar ukba Kosman, Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism (2012) 20
marriage, renunciation of Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 207
marriage Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 580
masculinity Kosman, Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism (2012) 20
matrons Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 158, 159
men, severuss representation Kraemer, Unreliable Witnesses: Religion, Gender, and History in the Greco-Roman Mediterranean (2010) 172
midrash, shnei ketuvim Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 65
minorcan jewish women, artemisia, conversion to christianity Kraemer, Unreliable Witnesses: Religion, Gender, and History in the Greco-Roman Mediterranean (2010) 172
modesty Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 159
nature/nature Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 205
nomos/nomoi Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 65
nomos pisteōs Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 65
nonverbal aspects of prayer Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 31
orr, william f. Kosman, Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism (2012) 20
palla Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 159
pastoral epistles Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 464
pastorals Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 464
paul, adversaries Falcetta, Early Christian Teachers: The 'Didaskaloi' From Their Origins to the Middle of the Second Century (2020) 152
paul, attitudes to women Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 187, 190, 191
paul, jewish law Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 186
paul, missionary activity Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 186, 187, 188, 190
paul Kosman, Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism (2012) 20; Seim and Okland, Metamorphoses: Resurrection, Body and Transformative Practices in Early Christianity (2009) 32
paul (apostle) Ogereau, Early Christianity in Macedonia: From Paul to the Late Sixth Century (2023) 90
perfection Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 395
phallicism Kosman, Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism (2012) 20
philippi, christian community Ogereau, Early Christianity in Macedonia: From Paul to the Late Sixth Century (2023) 90
philo of alexandria, on the pentateuch Falcetta, Early Christian Teachers: The 'Didaskaloi' From Their Origins to the Middle of the Second Century (2020) 152
philosophy Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 464
plato Falcetta, Early Christian Teachers: The 'Didaskaloi' From Their Origins to the Middle of the Second Century (2020) 152; Seim and Okland, Metamorphoses: Resurrection, Body and Transformative Practices in Early Christianity (2009) 32
possession Harkins and Maier, Experiencing the Shepherd of Hermas (2022) 18
power Seim and Okland, Metamorphoses: Resurrection, Body and Transformative Practices in Early Christianity (2009) 32
prayer/praying, direction Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 31
prayer/praying, inner room (ταμεῖον) Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 31
prayer/praying, place for prayer Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 31
prayer/praying, towards the east Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 31
prayer gestures/postures, kneeling Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 31
prayer gestures/postures, lifting up hands Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 31
prayer gestures/postures, standing Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 31
prayer gestures/postures Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 31
preaching' Alikin, The Earliest History of the Christian Gathering (2009) 185
prophecy Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 31; Tupamahu, Contesting Languages: Heteroglossia and the Politics of Language in the Early Church (2022) 159, 160
psychology Harkins and Maier, Experiencing the Shepherd of Hermas (2022) 18
public and private Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 199
rabbi akiva, school of Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 65
rabbi ishmael, school of Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 65
religion, and gender issues Kraemer, Unreliable Witnesses: Religion, Gender, and History in the Greco-Roman Mediterranean (2010) 247
religion Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 158, 159
resurrection of the body Seim and Okland, Metamorphoses: Resurrection, Body and Transformative Practices in Early Christianity (2009) 32
ribbons Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 159
righteousness by pistis/deeds Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 65
ruether, rosemary radford Kosman, Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism (2012) 20
sacrifice Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 159
scarves Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 158
se Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 395
sexuality Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 207
simple person Kosman, Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism (2012) 20
sojourning Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 207
spirit Harkins and Maier, Experiencing the Shepherd of Hermas (2022) 18
spirituality Kosman, Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism (2012) 20
stoicism Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 464
sunday, christian Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 191
sunday Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 31
symbol Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 395
szesnat, h. Kraemer, Unreliable Witnesses: Religion, Gender, and History in the Greco-Roman Mediterranean (2010) 172
taxonomy Seim and Okland, Metamorphoses: Resurrection, Body and Transformative Practices in Early Christianity (2009) 32
teacher, of the law Falcetta, Early Christian Teachers: The 'Didaskaloi' From Their Origins to the Middle of the Second Century (2020) 152
temple (in jerusalem) Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 31
tephillah Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 191
toga Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 159
torah, conceptualization of Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 65
torah, two torot, double torah Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 65
torah, written torah/oral torah Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 65
touch Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 395
tradition Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 464; Tupamahu, Contesting Languages: Heteroglossia and the Politics of Language in the Early Church (2022) 159
transform Seim and Okland, Metamorphoses: Resurrection, Body and Transformative Practices in Early Christianity (2009) 32
translation Tupamahu, Contesting Languages: Heteroglossia and the Politics of Language in the Early Church (2022) 159
ullucci, d. Kraemer, Unreliable Witnesses: Religion, Gender, and History in the Greco-Roman Mediterranean (2010) 247
veil, veiling Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 158, 159
virtus feminarum Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 464
vittae Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 158, 159
voice Tupamahu, Contesting Languages: Heteroglossia and the Politics of Language in the Early Church (2022) 159
walther, james arthur Kosman, Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism (2012) 20
weddings Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 159
weisberg, dvora e. Kosman, Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism (2012) 20
wife, wives Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 158, 159
wife of mar ukba Kosman, Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism (2012) 20
wigs Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 158
woman, her position Kosman, Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism (2012) 20
woman Kosman, Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism (2012) 20
women, and christianity Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 199, 207
women, charismatic activities Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 432
women, illegitimate activities Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 432
women, legitimate activities Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 432
women, severuss accounts of Kraemer, Unreliable Witnesses: Religion, Gender, and History in the Greco-Roman Mediterranean (2010) 172
women Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 199, 207; Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 31
wool, woollen Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 159
world, the Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 170
worship, daily and weekly Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 191
worship, day of worship Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 31