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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



8234
New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 11.29-11.31


ὁ γὰρ ἐσθίων καὶ πίνων κρίμα ἑαυτῷ ἐσθίει καὶ πίνει μὴ διακρίνων τὸ σῶμα.For he who eats and drinks in anunworthy manner eats and drinks judgment to himself, if he doesn'tdiscern the Lord's body.


διὰ τοῦτο ἐν ὑμῖν πολλοὶ ἀσθενεῖς καὶ ἄρρωστοι καὶ κοιμῶνται ἱκανοί.For this cause many among you are weakand sickly, and not a few sleep.


εἰ δὲ ἑαυτοὺς διεκρίνομεν, οὐκ ἂν ἐκρινόμεθα·For if we discerned ourselves,we wouldn't be judged.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

43 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 19.15 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

19.15. וַיֹּאמֶר אֶל־הָעָם הֱיוּ נְכֹנִים לִשְׁלֹשֶׁת יָמִים אַל־תִּגְּשׁוּ אֶל־אִשָּׁה׃ 19.15. And he said unto the people: ‘Be ready against the third day; come not near a woman.’"
2. Hebrew Bible, Malachi, 1.10-1.14 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.11. כִּי מִמִּזְרַח־שֶׁמֶשׁ וְעַד־מְבוֹאוֹ גָּדוֹל שְׁמִי בַּגּוֹיִם וּבְכָל־מָקוֹם מֻקְטָר מֻגָּשׁ לִשְׁמִי וּמִנְחָה טְהוֹרָה כִּי־גָדוֹל שְׁמִי בַּגּוֹיִם אָמַר יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת׃ 1.12. וְאַתֶּם מְחַלְּלִים אוֹתוֹ בֶּאֱמָרְכֶם שֻׁלְחַן אֲדֹנָי מְגֹאָל הוּא וְנִיבוֹ נִבְזֶה אָכְלוֹ׃ 1.13. וַאֲמַרְתֶּם הִנֵּה מַתְּלָאָה וְהִפַּחְתֶּם אוֹתוֹ אָמַר יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת וַהֲבֵאתֶם גָּזוּל וְאֶת־הַפִּסֵּחַ וְאֶת־הַחוֹלֶה וַהֲבֵאתֶם אֶת־הַמִּנְחָה הַאֶרְצֶה אוֹתָהּ מִיֶּדְכֶם אָמַר יְהוָה׃ 1.14. וְאָרוּר נוֹכֵל וְיֵשׁ בְּעֶדְרוֹ זָכָר וְנֹדֵר וְזֹבֵחַ מָשְׁחָת לַאדֹנָי כִּי מֶלֶךְ גָּדוֹל אָנִי אָמַר יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת וּשְׁמִי נוֹרָא בַגּוֹיִם׃ 1.10. Oh that there were even one among you that would shut the doors, That ye might not kindle fire on Mine altar in vain! I have no pleasure in you, Saith the LORD of hosts, Neither will I accept an offering at your hand." 1.11. For from the rising of the sun even unto the going down of the same My name is great among the nations; And in every place offerings are presented unto My name, Even pure oblations; For My name is great among the nations, Saith the LORD of hosts." 1.12. But ye profane it, In that ye say: ‘The table of the LORD is polluted, And the fruit thereof, even the food thereof, is contemptible.’" 1.13. Ye say also: ‘Behold, what a weariness is it!’ And ye have snuffed at it, Saith the LORD of hosts; And ye have brought that which was taken by violence, And the lame, and the sick; Thus ye bring the offering; Should I accept this of your hand? Saith the LORD." 1.14. But cursed be he that dealeth craftily, Whereas he hath in his flock a male, And voweth, and sacrificeth unto the Lord a blemished thing; For I am a great King, Saith the LORD of hosts, And My name is feared among the nations."
3. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 141.2 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

141.2. תִּכּוֹן תְּפִלָּתִי קְטֹרֶת לְפָנֶיךָ מַשְׂאַת כַּפַּי מִנְחַת־עָרֶב׃ 141.2. Let my prayer be set forth as incense before Thee, The lifting up of my hands as the evening sacrifice."
4. Anon., Epistle of Barnabas, 7, 10 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

5. Anon., Didache, 9.2, 9.5, 10.6, 14.1-14.3 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

1. There are two ways, one of life and one of death; but a great difference between the two ways. The way of life, then, is this: First, you shall love God who made you; second, your neighbour as yourself; and all things whatsoever you would should not occur to you, do not also do to another. And of these sayings the teaching is this: Bless those who curse you, and pray for your enemies, and fast for those who persecute you. For what reward is there, if you love those who love you? Do not also the Gentiles do the same? But love those who hate you, and you shall not have an enemy. Abstain from fleshly and worldly lusts. If someone gives you a blow upon your right cheek, turn to him the other also, and you shall be perfect. If someone impresses you for one mile, go with him two. If someone takes away your cloak, give him also your coat. If someone takes from you what is yours, ask it not back, for indeed you are not able. Give to every one that asks you, and ask it not back; for the Father wills that to all should be given of our own blessings (free gifts). Happy is he that gives according to the commandment; for he is guiltless. Woe to him that receives; for if one having need receives, he is guiltless; but he that receives not having need, shall pay the penalty, why he received and for what, and, coming into straits (confinement), he shall be examined concerning the things which he has done, and he shall not escape thence until he pay back the last farthing. Matthew 5:26 But also now concerning this, it has been said, Let your alms sweat in your hands, until you know to whom you should give.
6. Ignatius, To The Smyrnaeans, 7.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

7. Mishnah, Avot, 1.5 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

1.5. Yose ben Yocha (a of Jerusalem used to say:Let thy house be wide open, and let the poor be members of thy household. Engage not in too much conversation with women. They said this with regard to one’s own wife, how much more [does the rule apply] with regard to another man’s wife. From here the Sages said: as long as a man engages in too much conversation with women, he causes evil to himself, he neglects the study of the Torah, and in the end he will inherit gehinnom."
8. Mishnah, Berachot, 2.2 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

2.2. These are the breaks between the sections: between the first blessing and the second, between the second and “Shema,” between “Shema” and “And it shall come to pass if you listen” between “And it shall come to pass if you listen” and “And the Lord said” and between “And the Lord said” and “Emet veYatziv” (true and firm). Rabbi Judah says: between “And the Lord said” and “Emet veYatziv” one should not interrupt. Rabbi Joshua ben Korhah said: Why was the section of “Shema” placed before that of “And it shall come to pass if you listen”? So that one should first accept upon himself the yoke of the Kingdom of Heaven and then take upon himself the yoke of the commandments. Why does the section of “And it shall come to pass if you listen” come before that of “And the Lord said”? Because “And it shall come to pass if you listen” is customary during both day and night, whereas [the section] “And the Lord said” is customary only during the day."
9. Mishnah, Sotah, 3.4 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

3.4. She had barely finished drinking when her face turns yellow, her eyes protrude and her veins swell. And [those who see her] exclaim, “Remove her! Remove her, so that the temple-court should not be defiled”. If she had merit, it [causes the water] to suspend its effect upon her. Some merit suspends the effect for one year, some merit suspends the effects for two years, and some merit suspends the effect for three years. Hence Ben Azzai said: a person must teach his daughter Torah, so that if she has to drink [the water of bitterness], she should know that the merit suspends its effect. Rabbi Eliezer says: whoever teaches his daughter Torah teaches her lasciviousness. Rabbi Joshua says: a woman prefers one kav (of food) and sexual indulgence to nine kav and sexual separation. He used to say, a foolish pietist, a cunning wicked person, a female separatist, and the blows of separatists bring destruction upon the world."
10. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, None (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.10. Now Ibeg you, brothers, through the name of our Lord, Jesus Christ, that youall speak the same thing and that there be no divisions among you, butthat you be perfected together in the same mind and in the samejudgment. 1.11. For it has been reported to me concerning you, mybrothers, by those who are from Chloe's household, that there arecontentions among you. 1.12. Now I mean this, that each one of yousays, "I follow Paul," "I follow Apollos," "I follow Cephas," and, "Ifollow Christ. 1.13. Is Christ divided? Was Paul crucified for you?Or were you baptized into the name of Paul? 1.14. I thank God that Ibaptized none of you, except Crispus and Gaius 1.15. o that no oneshould say that I had baptized you into my own name. 1.16. (I alsobaptized the household of Stephanas; besides them, I don't know whetherI baptized any other.) 1.17. For Christ sent me not to baptize, but topreach the gospel -- not in wisdom of words, so that the cross ofChrist wouldn't be made void. 1.26. For you seeyour calling, brothers, that not many are wise according to the flesh,not many mighty, and not many noble; 1.27. but God chose the foolishthings of the world that he might put to shame those who are wise. Godchose the weak things of the world, that he might put to shame thethings that are strong; 1.28. and God chose the lowly things of theworld, and the things that are despised, and the things that are not,that he might bring to nothing the things that are: 1.29. that noflesh should boast before God. 1.30. But of him, you are in ChristJesus, who was made to us wisdom from God, and righteousness andsanctification, and redemption: 1.31. that, according as it iswritten, "He who boasts, let him boast in the Lord. 3.16. Don't you know that you are a temple of God, and that God'sSpirit lives in you? 3.17. If anyone destroys the temple of God, Godwill destroy him; for God's temple is holy, which you are. 4.12. We toil,working with our own hands. Being reviled, we bless. Being persecuted,we endure. 5.7. Purge out the old yeast, that you may bea new lump, even as you are unleavened. For indeed Christ, ourPassover, has been sacrificed in our place. 5.9. I wrote to you in my letter to have no company with sexual sinners; 5.10. yet not at all meaning with the sexual sinners of this world, orwith the covetous and extortioners, or with idolaters; for then youwould have to leave the world. 6.9. Or don't you know that the unrighteouswill not inherit the Kingdom of God? Don't be deceived. Neither thesexually immoral, nor idolaters, nor adulterers, nor male prostitutes,nor homosexuals 6.10. nor thieves, nor covetous, nor drunkards, norslanderers, nor extortioners, will inherit the Kingdom of God. 6.11. Such were some of you, but you were washed. But you were sanctified.But you were justified in the name of the Lord Jesus, and in the Spiritof our God. 6.12. All things are lawful for me," but not all thingsare expedient. "All things are lawful for me," but I will not bebrought under the power of anything. 6.13. Foods for the belly, andthe belly for foods," but God will bring to nothing both it and them.But the body is not for sexual immorality, but for the Lord; and theLord for the body. 6.14. Now God raised up the Lord, and will alsoraise us up by his power. 6.15. Don't you know that your bodies aremembers of Christ? Shall I then take the members of Christ, and makethem members of a prostitute? May it never be! 6.16. Or don't you knowthat he who is joined to a prostitute is one body? For, "The two," sayshe, "will become one flesh. 6.17. But he who is joined to the Lord isone spirit. 6.18. Flee sexual immorality! "Every sin that a man doesis outside the body," but he who commits sexual immorality sins againsthis own body. 6.19. Or don't you know that your body is a temple ofthe Holy Spirit which is in you, which you have from God? You are notyour own 6.20. for you were bought with a price. Therefore glorifyGod in your body and in your spirit, which are God's. 7.1. Now concerning the things about which you wrote to me: it isgood for a man not to touch a woman. 7.5. Don't deprive one another, unless it is by consent for aseason, that you may give yourselves to fasting and prayer, and may betogether again, that Satan doesn't tempt you because of your lack ofself-control. 7.10. But to the married I command-- not I, but the Lord -- that the wife not leave her husband 7.26. I think that it is good therefore, because ofthe distress that is on us, that it is good for a man to be as he is. 8.1. Now concerning things sacrificed to idols: We know that we allhave knowledge. Knowledge puffs up, but love builds up. 8.2. But ifanyone thinks that he knows anything, he doesn't yet know as he oughtto know. 8.3. But if anyone loves God, the same is known by him. 8.4. Therefore concerning the eating of things sacrificed to idols, we knowthat no idol is anything in the world, and that there is no other Godbut one. 8.5. For though there are things that are called "gods,"whether in the heavens or on earth; as there are many "gods" and many"lords; 8.6. yet to us there is one God, the Father, of whom are allthings, and we for him; and one Lord, Jesus Christ, through whom areall things, and we live through him. 8.7. However, that knowledgeisn't in all men. But some, with consciousness of the idol until now,eat as of a thing sacrificed to an idol, and their conscience, beingweak, is defiled. 8.8. But food will not commend us to God. Forneither, if we don't eat, are we the worse; nor, if we eat, are we thebetter. 8.9. But be careful that by no means does this liberty ofyours become a stumbling block to the weak. 8.10. For if a man seesyou who have knowledge sitting in an idol's temple, won't hisconscience, if he is weak, be emboldened to eat things sacrificed toidols? 8.11. And through your knowledge, he who is weak perishes, thebrother for whose sake Christ died. 9.14. Even so the Lord ordained thatthose who proclaim the gospel should live from the gospel. 9.16. For if I preach the gospel, I havenothing to boast about; for necessity is laid on me; but woe is to me,if I don't preach the gospel. 10.1. Now I would not have you ignorant, brothers, that our fatherswere all under the cloud, and all passed through the sea; 10.2. andwere all baptized into Moses in the cloud and in the sea; 10.3. andall ate the same spiritual food; 10.4. and all drank the samespiritual drink. For they drank of a spiritual rock that followed them,and the rock was Christ. 10.5. However with most of them, God was notwell pleased, for they were overthrown in the wilderness. 10.6. Nowthese things were our examples, to the intent we should not lust afterevil things, as they also lusted. 10.14. Therefore, my beloved, flee fromidolatry. 10.15. I speak as to wise men. Judge what I say. 10.16. Thecup of blessing which we bless, isn't it a communion of the blood ofChrist? The bread which we break, isn't it a communion of the body ofChrist? 10.17. Because we, who are many, are one bread, one body; forwe all partake of the one bread. 10.18. Consider Israel after theflesh. Don't those who eat the sacrifices have communion with the altar? 10.19. What am I saying then? That a thing sacrificed to idols isanything, or that an idol is anything? 10.20. But I say that thethings which the Gentiles sacrifice, they sacrifice to demons, and notto God, and I don't desire that you would have communion with demons. 10.21. You can't both drink the cup of the Lord and the cup of demons.You can't both partake of the table of the Lord, and of the table ofdemons. 10.22. Or do we provoke the Lord to jealousy? Are we strongerthan he? 10.25. Whatever is sold in the butcher shop, eat, asking no questionfor the sake of conscience 11.3. But I wouldhave you know that the head of every man is Christ, and the head of thewoman is the man, and the head of Christ is God. 11.4. Every manpraying or prophesying, having his head covered, dishonors his head. 11.5. But every woman praying or prophesying with her head unveileddishonors her head. For it is one and the same thing as if she wereshaved. 11.6. For if a woman is not covered, let her also be shorn.But if it is shameful for a woman to be shorn or shaved, let her becovered. 11.7. For a man indeed ought not to have his head covered,because he is the image and glory of God, but the woman is the glory ofthe man. 11.8. For man is not from woman, but woman from man; 11.17. But in giving you this command, I don't praise you, that youcome together not for the better but for the worse. 11.18. For firstof all, when you come together in the assembly, I hear that divisionsexist among you, and I partly believe it. 11.19. For there also mustbe factions among you, that those who are approved may be revealedamong you. 11.20. When therefore you assemble yourselves together, itis not possible to eat the Lord's supper. 11.21. For in your eatingeach one takes his own supper before others. One is hungry, and anotheris drunken. 11.22. What, don't you have houses to eat and to drink in?Or do you despise God's assembly, and put them to shame who don't have?What shall I tell you? Shall I praise you? In this I don't praise you. 11.23. For I received from the Lord that which also I delivered toyou, that the Lord Jesus on the night in which he was betrayed tookbread. 11.24. When he had given thanks, he broke it, and said, "Take,eat. This is my body, which is broken for you. Do this in memory ofme. 11.25. In the same way he also took the cup, after supper,saying, "This cup is the new covet in my blood. Do this, as often asyou drink, in memory of me. 11.26. For as often as you eat this breadand drink this cup, you proclaim the Lord's death until he comes. 11.27. Therefore whoever eats this bread or drinks the Lord's cup i unworthy manner will be guilty of the body and the blood of theLord. 11.28. But let a man examine himself, and so let him eat of thebread, and drink of the cup. 11.30. For this cause many among you are weakand sickly, and not a few sleep. 11.31. For if we discerned ourselves,we wouldn't be judged. 11.32. But when we are judged, we are punishedby the Lord, that we may not be condemned with the world. 11.33. Therefore, my brothers, when you come together to eat, wait one foranother. 11.34. But if anyone is hungry, let him eat at home, lestyour coming together be for judgment. The rest I will set in orderwhenever I come. 12.10. and to another workings of miracles; and to another prophecy; and toanother discerning of spirits; to another different kinds of languages;and to another the interpretation of languages. 12.12. For as the body is one, and has many members, and all themembers of the body, being many, are one body; so also is Christ. 12.13. For in one Spirit we were all baptized into one body, whetherJews or Greeks, whether bond or free; and were all given to drink intoone Spirit. 12.14. For the body is not one member, but many. 12.15. If the foot would say, "Because I'm not the hand, I'm not part of thebody," it is not therefore not part of the body. 12.16. If the earwould say, "Because I'm not the eye, I'm not part of the body," it'snot therefore not part of the body. 12.17. If the whole body were aneye, where would the hearing be? If the whole were hearing, where wouldthe smelling be? 12.18. But now God has set the members, each one ofthem, in the body, just as he desired. 12.19. If they were all onemember, where would the body be? 12.20. But now they are many members,but one body. 12.21. The eye can't tell the hand, "I have no need foryou," or again the head to the feet, "I have no need for you. 12.22. No, much rather, those members of the body which seem to be weaker arenecessary. 12.23. Those parts of the body which we think to be lesshonorable, on those we bestow more abundant honor; and ourunpresentable parts have more abundant propriety; 12.24. whereas ourpresentable parts have no such need. But God composed the bodytogether, giving more abundant honor to the inferior part 12.25. thatthere should be no division in the body, but that the members shouldhave the same care for one another. 12.26. When one member suffers,all the members suffer with it. Or when one member is honored, all themembers rejoice with it. 12.27. Now you are the body of Christ, and members individually. 12.28. God has set some in the assembly: first apostles, secondprophets, third teachers, then miracle workers, then gifts of healings,helps, governments, and various kinds of languages. 12.29. Are allapostles? Are all prophets? Are all teachers? Are all miracle workers? 12.30. Do all have gifts of healings? Do all speak with variouslanguages? Do all interpret? 12.31. But earnestly desire the bestgifts. Moreover, I show a most excellent way to you. 14.23. If therefore thewhole assembly is assembled together and all speak with otherlanguages, and unlearned or unbelieving people come in, won't they saythat you are crazy? 14.27. If any man speaks in another language, let it be two,or at the most three, and in turn; and let one interpret. 14.28. Butif there is no interpreter, let him keep silent in the assembly, andlet him speak to himself, and to God. 14.29. Let the prophets speak,two or three, and let the others discern. 14.30. But if a revelationis made to another sitting by, let the first keep silent. 14.31. Foryou all can prophesy one by one, that all may learn, and all may beexhorted. 14.32. The spirits of the prophets are subject to theprophets 14.33. for God is not a God of confusion, but of peace.As in all the assemblies of the saints 15.1. Now I declare to you, brothers, the gospel which I preachedto you, which also you received, in which you also stand 15.3. For I delivered to youfirst of all that which I also received: that Christ died for our sinsaccording to the Scriptures 15.4. that he was buried, that he wasraised on the third day according to the Scriptures 15.5. and that heappeared to Cephas, then to the twelve. 15.18. Then they also who arefallen asleep in Christ have perished. 15.19. If we have only hoped inChrist in this life, we are of all men most pitiable. 15.20. But now Christ has been raised from the dead. He became thefirst fruits of those who are asleep. 15.21. For since death came byman, the resurrection of the dead also came by man. 15.22. For as inAdam all die, so also in Christ all will be made alive. 15.23. Buteach in his own order: Christ the first fruits, then those who areChrist's, at his coming. 15.24. Then the end comes, when he willdeliver up the Kingdom to God, even the Father; when he will haveabolished all rule and all authority and power. 15.25. For he mustreign until he has put all his enemies under his feet. 15.26. The lastenemy that will be abolished is death. 15.27. For, "He put all thingsin subjection under his feet." But when he says, "All things are put insubjection," it is evident that he is excepted who subjected all thingsto him. 15.28. When all things have been subjected to him, then theSon will also himself be subjected to him who subjected all things tohim, that God may be all in all. 15.35. But someone will say, "Howare the dead raised?" and, "With what kind of body do they come? 15.36. You foolish one, that which you yourself sow is not made aliveunless it dies. 15.37. That which you sow, you don't sow the body thatwill be, but a bare grain, maybe of wheat, or of some other kind. 15.38. But God gives it a body even as it pleased him, and to eachseed a body of its own. 15.39. All flesh is not the same flesh, butthere is one flesh of men, another flesh of animals, another of fish,and another of birds. 15.40. There are also celestial bodies, andterrestrial bodies; but the glory of the celestial differs from that ofthe terrestrial. 15.41. There is one glory of the sun, another gloryof the moon, and another glory of the stars; for one star differs fromanother star in glory. 15.42. So also is the resurrection of the dead.It is sown in corruption; it is raised in incorruption. 15.43. It issown in dishonor; it is raised in glory. It is sown in weakness; it israised in power. 15.44. It is sown a natural body; it is raised aspiritual body. There is a natural body and there is also a spiritualbody. 16.15. Now I beg you, brothers (you know the house of Stephanas,that it is the first fruits of Achaia, and that they have setthemselves to minister to the saints) 16.19. The assemblies of Asia greet you. Aquila and Priscilla greetyou much in the Lord, together with the assembly that is in theirhouse.
11. New Testament, 1 Thessalonians, 3.7, 4.11-4.12, 5.12, 5.23 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.7. for this cause, brothers, we were comforted over you in all our distress and affliction through your faith. 4.11. and that you make it your ambition to lead a quiet life, and to do your own business, and to work with your own hands, even as we charged you; 4.12. that you may walk properly toward those who are outside, and may have need of nothing. 5.12. But we beg you, brothers, to know those who labor among you, and are over you in the Lord, and admonish you 5.23. May the God of peace himself sanctify you completely. May your whole spirit, soul, and body be preserved blameless at the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ.
12. New Testament, 1 Timothy, 4.4-4.5 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4.4. For every creature of God is good, and nothing is to be rejected, if it is received with thanksgiving. 4.5. For it is sanctified through the word of God and prayer.
13. New Testament, 2 Corinthians, 4.10, 5.10, 5.16-5.19, 6.16, 7.1, 8.12-8.15, 9.13-9.14, 11.27, 12.2-12.3 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

14. New Testament, Acts, 2.42, 2.46, 10.9-10.16, 10.28, 12.4-12.5, 17.9-17.21 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

2.42. They continued steadfastly in the apostles' teaching and fellowship, in the breaking of bread, and prayer. 2.46. Day by day, continuing steadfastly with one accord in the temple, and breaking bread at home, they took their food with gladness and singleness of heart 10.9. Now on the next day as they were on their journey, and got close to the city, Peter went up on the housetop to pray at about noon. 10.10. He became hungry and desired to eat, but while they were preparing, he fell into a trance. 10.11. He saw heaven opened and a certain container descending to him, like a great sheet let down by four corners on the earth 10.12. in which were all kinds of four-footed animals of the earth, wild animals, reptiles, and birds of the sky. 10.13. A voice came to him, "Rise, Peter, kill and eat! 10.14. But Peter said, "Not so, Lord; for I have never eaten anything that is common or unclean. 10.15. A voice came to him again the second time, "What God has cleansed, you must not make unholy. 10.16. This was done three times, and immediately the vessel was received up into heaven. 10.28. He said to them, "You yourselves know how it is an unlawful thing for a man who is a Jew to join himself or come to one of another nation, but God has shown me that I shouldn't call any man unholy or unclean. 12.4. When he had captured him, he put him in prison, and delivered him to four squads of four soldiers each to guard him, intending to bring him out to the people after the Passover. 12.5. Peter therefore was kept in the prison, but constant prayer was made by the assembly to God for him. 17.9. When they had taken security from Jason and the rest, they let them go. 17.10. The brothers immediately sent Paul and Silas away by night to Beroea. When they arrived, they went into the Jewish synagogue. 17.11. Now these were more noble than those in Thessalonica, in that they received the word with all readiness of the mind, examining the Scriptures daily, whether these things were so. 17.12. Many of them therefore believed; also of the Greek women of honorable estate, and not a few men. 17.13. But when the Jews of Thessalonica had knowledge that the word of God was proclaimed by Paul at Beroea also, they came there likewise, agitating the multitudes. 17.14. Then the brothers immediately sent out Paul to go as far as to the sea, and Silas and Timothy still stayed there. 17.15. But those who escorted Paul brought him as far as Athens. Receiving a commandment to Silas and Timothy that they should come to him with all speed, they departed. 17.16. Now while Paul waited for them at Athens, his spirit was provoked within him as he saw the city full of idols. 17.17. So he reasoned in the synagogue with Jews and the devout persons, and in the marketplace every day with those who met him. 17.18. Some of the Epicurean and Stoic philosophers also encountered him. Some said, "What does this babbler want to say?"Others said, "He seems to be advocating foreign demons," because he preached Jesus and the resurrection. 17.19. They took hold of him, and brought him to the Areopagus, saying, "May we know what this new teaching is, which is spoken by you? 17.20. For you bring certain strange things to our ears. We want to know therefore what these things mean. 17.21. Now all the Athenians and the strangers living there spent their time in nothing else, but either to tell or to hear some new thing.
15. New Testament, James, 2.12, 3.9, 3.13-3.16, 4.3 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.12. So speak, and so do, as men who are to be judged by a law of freedom. 3.9. With it we bless our God and Father, and with it we curse men, who are made in the image of God. 3.13. Who is wise and understanding among you? Let him show by his good conduct that his deeds are done in gentleness of wisdom. 3.14. But if you have bitter jealousy and selfish ambition in your heart, don't boast and don't lie against the truth. 3.15. This wisdom is not that which comes down from above, but is earthly, sensual, and demonic. 3.16. For where jealousy and selfish ambition are, there is confusion and every evil deed. 4.3. You ask, and don't receive, because you ask amiss, so that you may spend it for your pleasures.
16. New Testament, Jude, 12 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

17. New Testament, Philemon, 22 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

18. New Testament, Colossians, 2.11, 2.19, 3.15, 4.15 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.11. in whom you were also circumcised with a circumcision not made with hands, in the putting off of the body of the sins of the flesh, in the circumcision of Christ; 2.19. and not holding firmly to the Head, from whom all the body, being supplied and knit together through the joints and ligaments, grows with God's growth. 3.15. And let the peace of God rule in your hearts, to which also you were called in one body; and be thankful. 4.15. Greet the brothers who are in Laodicea, and Nymphas, and the assembly that is in his house.
19. New Testament, Ephesians, 1.23, 2.3, 2.16, 2.21, 3.6 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.23. which is his body, the fullness of him who fills all in all. 2.3. among whom we also all once lived in the lust of our flesh, doing the desires of the flesh and of the mind, and were by nature children of wrath, even as the rest. 2.16. and might reconcile them both in one body to God through the cross, having killed the hostility thereby. 2.21. in whom the whole building, fitted together, grows into a holy temple in the Lord; 3.6. that the Gentiles are fellow heirs, and fellow members of the body, and fellow partakers of his promise in Christ Jesus through the gospel
20. New Testament, Galatians, 2.14, 3.16, 3.25-3.29 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.14. But when I sawthat they didn't walk uprightly according to the truth of the gospel, Isaid to Peter before them all, "If you, being a Jew, live as theGentiles do, and not as the Jews do, why do you compel the Gentiles tolive as the Jews do? 3.16. Now the promises were spoken to Abraham and tohis seed. He doesn't say, "To seeds," as of many, but as of one, "Toyour seed," which is Christ. 3.25. But now that faithis come, we are no longer under a tutor. 3.26. For you are all sons ofGod, through faith in Christ Jesus. 3.27. For as many of you as werebaptized into Christ have put on Christ. 3.28. There is neither Jewnor Greek, there is neither slave nor free man, there is neither malenor female; for you are all one in Christ Jesus. 3.29. If you are Christ's, then you are Abraham's seed and heirs according to promise.
21. New Testament, Philippians, 2.17, 3.21, 4.18 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.17. Yes, and if I am poured out on the sacrifice and service of your faith, I rejoice, and rejoice with you all. 3.21. who will change the body of our humiliation to be conformed to the body of his glory, according to the working by which he is able even to subject all things to himself. 4.18. But I have all things, and abound. I am filled, having received from Epaphroditus the things that came from you, a sweet-smelling fragrance, an acceptable and well-pleasing sacrifice to God.
22. New Testament, Romans, 1.9, 3.23, 4.1, 4.2, 4.3, 4.4, 4.5, 4.6, 4.7, 4.8, 4.9, 4.10, 4.11, 4.12, 4.13, 4.14, 4.15, 4.16, 4.17, 4.18, 4.19, 4.20, 4.21, 4.22, 4.23, 4.24, 4.25, 6.3, 6.4, 6.5, 6.6, 6.7, 6.8, 6.9, 6.10, 6.11, 8.35, 12.1, 12.3, 12.4, 12.5, 12.6, 12.7, 12.8, 13.5, 14.1, 14.1-15.6, 14.2, 14.3, 14.4, 14.5, 14.6, 14.7, 14.8, 14.9, 14.10, 14.11, 14.12, 14.13, 14.14, 14.15, 14.23, 15.25, 15.26, 15.27, 15.28, 15.29, 15.30, 15.31, 15.32, 16, 16.2, 16.3, 16.5, 16.6, 16.7, 16.8, 16.9, 16.10, 16.11, 16.12, 16.13, 16.14, 16.15, 16.16, 16.23 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.9. For God is my witness, whom I serve in my spirit in the gospel of his Son, how unceasingly I make mention of you always in my prayers
23. New Testament, Luke, 22.14-22.20 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

22.14. When the hour had come, he sat down with the twelve apostles. 22.15. He said to them, "I have earnestly desired to eat this Passover with you before I suffer 22.16. for I tell you, I will no longer by any means eat of it until it is fulfilled in the Kingdom of God. 22.17. He received a cup, and when he had given thanks, he said, "Take this, and share it among yourselves 22.18. for I tell you, I will not drink at all again from the fruit of the vine, until the Kingdom of God comes. 22.19. He took bread, and when he had given thanks, he broke it, and gave to them, saying, "This is my body which is given for you. Do this in memory of me. 22.20. Likewise, he took the cup after supper, saying, "This cup is the new covet in my blood, which is poured out for you.
24. New Testament, Mark, 14.22-14.25 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

14.22. As they were eating, Jesus took bread, and when he had blessed, he broke it, and gave to them, and said, "Take, eat. This is my body. 14.23. He took the cup, and when he had given thanks, he gave to them. They all drank of it. 14.24. He said to them, "This is my blood of the new covet, which is poured out for many. 14.25. Most assuredly I tell you, I will no more drink of the fruit of the vine, until that day when I drink it anew in the Kingdom of God.
25. New Testament, Matthew, 14.13-14.21, 15.11, 15.17, 26.26-26.29 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

14.13. Now when Jesus heard this, he withdrew from there in a boat, to a deserted place apart. When the multitudes heard it, they followed him on foot from the cities. 14.14. Jesus went out, and he saw a great multitude. He had compassion on them, and healed their sick. 14.15. When evening had come, his disciples came to him, saying, "This place is deserted, and the hour is already late. Send the multitudes away, that they may go into the villages, and buy themselves food. 14.16. But Jesus said to them, "They don't need to go away. You give them something to eat. 14.17. They told him, "We only have here five loaves and two fish. 14.18. He said, "Bring them here to me. 14.19. He commanded the multitudes to sit down on the grass; and he took the five loaves and the two fish, and looking up to heaven, he blessed, broke and gave the loaves to the disciples, and the disciples gave to the multitudes. 14.20. They all ate, and were filled. They took up twelve baskets full of that which remained left over from the broken pieces. 14.21. Those who ate were about five thousand men, besides women and children. 15.11. That which enters into the mouth doesn't defile the man; but that which proceeds out of the mouth, this defiles the man. 15.17. Don't you understand that whatever goes into the mouth passes into the belly, and then out of the body? 26.26. As they were eating, Jesus took bread, gave thanks for it, and broke it. He gave to the disciples, and said, "Take, eat; this is my body. 26.27. He took the cup, gave thanks, and gave to them, saying, "All of you drink it 26.28. for this is my blood of the new covet, which is poured out for many for the remission of sins. 26.29. But I tell you that I will not drink of this fruit of the vine from now on, until that day when I drink it anew with you in my Father's kingdom.
26. Plutarch, Consolation To His Wife, None (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

27. Suetonius, Claudius, 18.2 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

28. Tacitus, Annals, 12.43 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

12.43.  Many prodigies occurred during the year. Ominous birds took their seat on the Capitol; houses were overturned by repeated shocks of earthquake, and, as the panic spread, the weak were trampled underfoot in the trepidation of the crowd. A shortage of corn, again, and the famine which resulted, were construed as a supernatural warning. Nor were the complaints always whispered. Claudius, sitting in judgement, was surrounded by a wildly clamorous mob, and, driven into the farthest corner of the Forum, was there subjected to violent pressure, until, with the help of a body of troops, he forced a way through the hostile throng. It was established that the capital had provisions for fifteen days, no more; and the crisis was relieved only by the especial grace of the gods and the mildness of the winter. And yet, Heaven knows, in the past, Italy exported supplies for the legions into remote provinces; nor is sterility the trouble now, but we cultivate Africa and Egypt by preference, and the life of the Roman nation has been staked upon cargo-boats and accidents.
29. Hermas, Mandates, 4.3 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

30. Irenaeus, Refutation of All Heresies, 1.13.2, 5.1.3, 5.33.3 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

31. Justin, First Apology, 14.3 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

32. Justin, Dialogue With Trypho, 40-41, 20 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

20. Justin: Moreover, you were commanded to abstain from certain kinds of food, in order that you might keep God before your eyes while you ate and drank, seeing that you were prone and very ready to depart from His knowledge, as Moses also affirms: 'The people ate and drank, and rose up to play.' Exodus 32:6 And again: 'Jacob ate, and was satisfied, and grew fat; and he who was beloved kicked: he grew fat, he grew thick, he was enlarged, and he forsook God who had made him.' Deuteronomy 32:15 For it was told you by Moses in the book of Genesis, that God granted to Noah, being a just man, to eat of every animal, but not of flesh with the blood, which is dead. And as he was ready to say, as the green herbs, I anticipated him: Why do you not receive this statement, 'as the green herbs,' in the sense in which it was given by God, to wit, that just as God has granted the herbs for sustece to man, even so has He given the animals for the diet of flesh? But, you say, a distinction was laid down thereafter to Noah, because we do not eat certain herbs. As you interpret it, the thing is incredible. And first I shall not occupy myself with this, though able to say and to hold that every vegetable is food, and fit to be eaten. But although we discriminate between green herbs, not eating all, we refrain from eating some, not because they are common or unclean, but because they are bitter, or deadly, or thorny. But we lay hands on and take of all herbs which are sweet, very nourishing and good, whether they are marine or land plants. Thus also God by the mouth of Moses commanded you to abstain from unclean and improper and violent animals: when, moreover, though you were eating manna in the desert, and were seeing all those wondrous acts wrought for you by God, you made and worshipped the golden calf. Hence he cries continually, and justly, 'They are foolish children, in whom is no faith.' Deuteronomy 32:6, 20
33. Pliny The Younger, Letters, 10.96-10.97 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

34. Pliny The Younger, Letters, 10.96-10.97 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

35. Tertullian, On Baptism, 18 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

18. But they whose office it is, know that baptism is not rashly to be administered. Give to every one who begs you, has a reference of its own, appertaining especially to almsgiving. On the contrary, this precept is rather to be looked at carefully: Give not the holy thing to the dogs, nor cast your pearls before swine; Matthew 7:6 and, Lay not hands easily on any; share not other men's sins. If Philip so easily baptized the chamberlain, let us reflect that a manifest and conspicuous evidence that the Lord deemed him worthy had been interposed. Acts 8:26-40 The Spirit had enjoined Philip to proceed to that road: the eunuch himself, too, was not found idle, nor as one who was suddenly seized with an eager desire to be baptized; but, after going up to the temple for prayer's sake, being intently engaged on the divine Scripture, was thus suitably discovered - to whom God had, unasked, sent an apostle, which one, again, the Spirit bade adjoin himself to the chamberlain's chariot. The Scripture which he was reading falls in opportunely with his faith: Philip, being requested, is taken to sit beside him; the Lord is pointed out; faith lingers not; water needs no waiting for; the work is completed, and the apostle snatched away. But Paul too was, in fact, 'speedily' baptized: for Simon, his host, speedily recognized him to be an appointed vessel of election. God's approbation sends sure premonitory tokens before it; every petition may both deceive and be deceived. And so, according to the circumstances and disposition, and even age, of each individual, the delay of baptism is preferable; principally, however, in the case of little children. For why is it necessary - if (baptism itself) is not so necessary - that the sponsors likewise should be thrust into danger? Who both themselves, by reason of mortality, may fail to fulfil their promises, and may be disappointed by the development of an evil disposition, in those for whom they stood? The Lord does indeed say, Forbid them not to come unto me. Let them come, then, while they are growing up; let them come while they are learning, while they are learning whither to come; let them become Christians when they have become able to know Christ. Why does the innocent period of life hasten to the remission of sins? More caution will be exercised in worldly matters: so that one who is not trusted with earthly substance is trusted with divine! Let them know how to ask for salvation, that you may seem (at least) to have given to him that asks. For no less cause must the unwedded also be deferred - in whom the ground of temptation is prepared, alike in such as never were wedded by means of their maturity, and in the widowed by means of their freedom - until they either marry, or else be more fully strengthened for continence. If any understand the weighty import of baptism, they will fear its reception more than its delay: sound faith is secure of salvation.
36. Cyprian, Letters, 64 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

37. Cyprian, Letters, 64 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

38. Cyprian, Letters, 64 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

39. Cyprian, Letters, 64 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

40. Origen, Commentary On Matthew, 10.25, 14.2 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

10.25. After this the word says, And when even had come, His disciples came to Him, saying, The place is desert and the time is already past; send, therefore, the multitudes away, that they may go into the villages and buy themselves food. Matthew 14:15 And first observe that when about to give to the disciples the loaves of blessing, that they might set them before the multitudes, He healed the sick, in order that, having been restored to health, they might participate in the loaves of blessing; for while they are yet sickly, they are not able to receive the loaves of the blessing of Jesus. But if any one, when he ought to listen to the precept, But let each prove himself, and so let him eat of the bread, etc., 1 Corinthians 11:28 does not obey these words, but in haphazard fashion participates in the bread of the Lord and His cup, he becomes weak or sickly, or even - if I may use the expression - on account of being stupefied by the power of the bread, asleep. 14.2. So much then for the more common understanding of the two or three whom the Word exhorts to be in agreement. But now let us also touch upon another interpretation which was uttered by some one of our predecessors, exhorting those who were married to sanctity and purity; for by the two, he says, whom the Word desires to agree on earth, we must understand the husband and wife, who by agreement defraud each other of bodily intercourse that they may give themselves unto prayer; 1 Corinthians 7:5 when if they pray for anything whatever that they shall ask, they shall receive it, the request being granted to them by the Father in heaven of Jesus Christ on the ground of such agreement. And this interpretation does not appear to me to cause dissolution of marriage, but to be an incitement to agreement, so that if the one wished to be pure, but the other did not desire it, and on this account he who willed and was able to fulfil the better part, condescended to the one who had not the power or the will, they would not both have the accomplishment from the Father in heaven of Jesus Christ, of anything whatever that they might ask.
41. Origen, Against Celsus, 8.33 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

8.33. From this it is evident that we have already met the next statement of Celsus, which is as follows: We must either not live, and indeed not come into this life at all, or we must do so on condition that we give thanks and first-fruits and prayers to demons, who have been set over the things of this world: and that we must do as long as we live, that they may prove good and kind. We must surely live, and we must live according to the word of God, as far as we are enabled to do so. And we are thus enabled to live, when, whether we eat or drink, we do all to the glory of God; and we are not to refuse to enjoy those things which have been created for our use, but must receive them with thanksgiving to the Creator. And it is under these conditions, and not such as have been imagined by Celsus, that we have been brought into life by God; and we are not placed under demons, but we are under the government of the Most High God, through Him who has brought us to God - Jesus Christ. It is not according to the law of God that any demon has had a share in worldly affairs, but it was by their own lawlessness that they perhaps sought out for themselves places destitute of the knowledge of God and of the divine life, or places where there are many enemies of God. Perhaps also, as being fit to rule over and punish them, they have been set by the Word, who governs all things, to rule over those who subjected themselves to evil and not to God. For this reason, then, let Celsus, as one who knows not God, give thank-offerings to demons. But we give thanks to the Creator of all, and, along with thanksgiving and prayer for the blessings we have received, we also eat the bread presented to us; and this bread becomes by prayer a sacred body, which sanctifies those who sincerely partake of it.
42. Origen, Fragments On 1 Corinthians, 34 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

43. Pseudo-Tertullian, Martyrdom of Perpetua And Felicitas, 6



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abraham Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 82
acts of john Poorthuis and Schwartz, A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity (2006) 73
acts of thomas Poorthuis and Schwartz, A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity (2006) 73
adam Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 221
aelius aristides Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 142
agape Alikin, The Earliest History of the Christian Gathering (2009) 104
agapê König, Saints and Symposiasts: The Literature of Food and the Symposium in Greco-Roman and Early Christian Culture (2012) 124
alienation, language of Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 170
altar Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 224
altars Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 398
anastasis, cave of Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 398
angels, in worship Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 398
apocryphal acts of thomas Poorthuis and Schwartz, A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity (2006) 73
architecture, from first century to early fourth century Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 709
architecture, generally Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 709
architecture, house-churches Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 709
asclepius, communal meals Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 142
asia minor, temple banquet areas Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 142
association dining, relationship with early christian feasting König, Saints and Symposiasts: The Literature of Food and the Symposium in Greco-Roman and Early Christian Culture (2012) 129
atheism, accusations against, epicureans Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 756
atheism, accusations against, jews Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 756
banquet hall (andron) Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 142
baptism, before council of nicaea Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 480
baptism, third century Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 480
baptism Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 139; Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 163; Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 80, 82
benefaction Cadwallader, Stones, Bones and the Sacred: Essays on Material Culture and Religion in Honor of Dennis E (2016) 43, 46, 47
birth Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 221
blood Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 141
body Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 296; Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 170; Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 80, 82
body and soul Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 224
body inherent defilement of Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 221
body of christ Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 296
body politic Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 80
bones, study of Cadwallader, Stones, Bones and the Sacred: Essays on Material Culture and Religion in Honor of Dennis E (2016) 46
borders v Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 80
boundaries, traditional Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 82
boundaries Poorthuis and Schwartz, A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity (2006) 73
boundary Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 82
bread, as food Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 398
bread, as thanksgiving Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 398
bread, breaking of Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 398
catechumenate, before council of nicaea Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 480
catechumenate, competentes Pignot, The Catechumenate in Late Antique Africa (4th–6th Centuries): Augustine of Hippo, His Contemporaries and Early Reception (2020) 119
charges against, at corinth Cadwallader, Stones, Bones and the Sacred: Essays on Material Culture and Religion in Honor of Dennis E (2016) 36, 38, 41, 42
charity Cadwallader, Stones, Bones and the Sacred: Essays on Material Culture and Religion in Honor of Dennis E (2016) 46, 47, 48
child mortality Nasrallah, Archaeology and the Letters of Paul (2019) 155
children, food consumption Cadwallader, Stones, Bones and the Sacred: Essays on Material Culture and Religion in Honor of Dennis E (2016) 44
christianity, brotherhood in Visnjic, The Invention of Duty: Stoicism as Deontology (2021) 439
christianity, early, feasting practices König, Saints and Symposiasts: The Literature of Food and the Symposium in Greco-Roman and Early Christian Culture (2012) 124, 127, 129
christianity, early, relationship between early christian and jewish feasting and feasting literature König, Saints and Symposiasts: The Literature of Food and the Symposium in Greco-Roman and Early Christian Culture (2012) 127, 129
chrysippus Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 171
church, sibling-ethics and Cadwallader, Stones, Bones and the Sacred: Essays on Material Culture and Religion in Honor of Dennis E (2016) 47, 48, 49
churches, communal meals Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 142
circumcision Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 82
community, borders of Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 139
confession Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 140, 141
corinth Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 398
crises Cadwallader, Stones, Bones and the Sacred: Essays on Material Culture and Religion in Honor of Dennis E (2016) 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49
death, infant, child mortality Nasrallah, Archaeology and the Letters of Paul (2019) 155
death Nasrallah, Archaeology and the Letters of Paul (2019) 155; Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 82
delphi Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 296
didache (teaching of the twelve apostles) McGowan, Ascetic Eucharists: Food and Drink in Early Christian Ritual Meals (1999) 92
discernment Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 139, 140
discretion, age of Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 228
disease Cadwallader, Stones, Bones and the Sacred: Essays on Material Culture and Religion in Honor of Dennis E (2016) 36, 45, 46
dogs Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 140
dreams Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 296
dying and rising (or death and resurrection) Jeong, Pauline Baptism among the Mysteries: Ritual Messages and the Promise of Initiation (2023) 275
egeria Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 398
embodiment Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 82
emperor Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 80
encratism Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 221
entanglement Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 80
eschatology Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 170; Nasrallah, Archaeology and the Letters of Paul (2019) 155
ethnicity Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 82
eucharist, before nicaea Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 480
eucharist, elements Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 398
eucharist, eucharistic, community practice Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 398
eucharist, new testament period Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 480
eucharist, of bread and wine McGowan, Ascetic Eucharists: Food and Drink in Early Christian Ritual Meals (1999) 92
eucharist, second-century rome Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 480
eucharist, space Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 398
eucharist Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 139, 140, 221, 222, 224; Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 219; König, Saints and Symposiasts: The Literature of Food and the Symposium in Greco-Roman and Early Christian Culture (2012) 124; Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 163; Visnjic, The Invention of Duty: Stoicism as Deontology (2021) 439
eucharistic prayer Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 205
eucharisty Edelmann-Singer et al., Sceptic and Believer in Ancient Mediterranean Religions (2020) 180
excommunication Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 139
faith Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 82
family Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 80
famine Cadwallader, Stones, Bones and the Sacred: Essays on Material Culture and Religion in Honor of Dennis E (2016) 34, 39, 40, 44
feeley-harnik, gillian König, Saints and Symposiasts: The Literature of Food and the Symposium in Greco-Roman and Early Christian Culture (2012) 129
fertility Cadwallader, Stones, Bones and the Sacred: Essays on Material Culture and Religion in Honor of Dennis E (2016) 34, 36
fish Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 398
food, impurity of offered to idols Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 221, 222
food Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 163
food supply, offices, officials Cadwallader, Stones, Bones and the Sacred: Essays on Material Culture and Religion in Honor of Dennis E (2016) 36, 37, 38, 39, 43
food supply Cadwallader, Stones, Bones and the Sacred: Essays on Material Culture and Religion in Honor of Dennis E (2016) 33, 34, 35, 39, 43
foreigners, impurity of Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 140
funerals Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 398
gospels McGowan, Ascetic Eucharists: Food and Drink in Early Christian Ritual Meals (1999) 92
graeco-roman piety Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 171
health, and purity Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 139
heaven, worship in Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 398
hennecke e. Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 228
hierarchies, social Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 141
house-church, architecture Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 709
household Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 756
human/humankind Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 296
hunger, in corinth Cadwallader, Stones, Bones and the Sacred: Essays on Material Culture and Religion in Honor of Dennis E (2016) 34, 35, 36, 43
hunger, paul and Cadwallader, Stones, Bones and the Sacred: Essays on Material Culture and Religion in Honor of Dennis E (2016) 41, 42, 44, 45, 48, 49
hunger, types Cadwallader, Stones, Bones and the Sacred: Essays on Material Culture and Religion in Honor of Dennis E (2016) 39, 44, 45
hunger Cadwallader, Stones, Bones and the Sacred: Essays on Material Culture and Religion in Honor of Dennis E (2016) 45, 46, 48
ḥabura Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 141
imperial cult, inscriptions Cadwallader, Stones, Bones and the Sacred: Essays on Material Culture and Religion in Honor of Dennis E (2016) 36, 37, 38, 39
incense Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 398
inhabitants Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 80
inspiration Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 296
intention Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 221
interpretation words Alikin, The Earliest History of the Christian Gathering (2009) 127
irenaeus McGowan, Ascetic Eucharists: Food and Drink in Early Christian Ritual Meals (1999) 92
jerusalem, earthly Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 398
jerusalem temple Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 398
jesus, last supper of Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 219
jesus Edelmann-Singer et al., Sceptic and Believer in Ancient Mediterranean Religions (2020) 180; McGowan, Ascetic Eucharists: Food and Drink in Early Christian Ritual Meals (1999) 92
jesus christ, in paul Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 296
jew/jewish, literature/ authors' "151.0_296.0@law, god's" Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 296
jew Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 82
johnson-debaufre, melanie Nasrallah, Archaeology and the Letters of Paul (2019) 155
judaism Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 756
kitchen, in synagogue Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 142
last supper Poorthuis and Schwartz, A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity (2006) 73; Visnjic, The Invention of Duty: Stoicism as Deontology (2021) 437, 439
lawlessness Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 398
life Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 82
limit Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 82
literature, ancient, consolation Nasrallah, Archaeology and the Letters of Paul (2019) 155, 156
literature Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 296
lord, day of Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 398
lords supper Alikin, The Earliest History of the Christian Gathering (2009) 104, 105, 107, 127; Visnjic, The Invention of Duty: Stoicism as Deontology (2021) 437
lord’s supper Nasrallah, Archaeology and the Letters of Paul (2019) 156
marcus (gnostic) McGowan, Ascetic Eucharists: Food and Drink in Early Christian Ritual Meals (1999) 92
marriage Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 221, 222
meal, communal Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 398
meal, eucharistic Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 398
meals, communal, purity requirements for Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 139, 140, 141
meals, dining facilities, status Cadwallader, Stones, Bones and the Sacred: Essays on Material Culture and Religion in Honor of Dennis E (2016) 46, 47
meals, group Alikin, The Earliest History of the Christian Gathering (2009) 127
meals Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 163
mediterranean Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 80
menstruation Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 224
misanthropy Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 756
mosaics Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 398
nero, emperor Cadwallader, Stones, Bones and the Sacred: Essays on Material Culture and Religion in Honor of Dennis E (2016) 36, 48
new covenant Visnjic, The Invention of Duty: Stoicism as Deontology (2021) 439
non-jew Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 82
order Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 82
order of the gathering Alikin, The Earliest History of the Christian Gathering (2009) 65
original sin Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 221
pagan, pagans, communal meals Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 142
pagans, paganism Pignot, The Catechumenate in Late Antique Africa (4th–6th Centuries): Augustine of Hippo, His Contemporaries and Early Reception (2020) 119
papias McGowan, Ascetic Eucharists: Food and Drink in Early Christian Ritual Meals (1999) 92
passions (pathē) Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 171
passover, sacrifice (in temple) Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 142
passover, seder ritual Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 142
passover König, Saints and Symposiasts: The Literature of Food and the Symposium in Greco-Roman and Early Christian Culture (2012) 129; McGowan, Ascetic Eucharists: Food and Drink in Early Christian Ritual Meals (1999) 92
passover meal Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 228
patronage Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 756
paul, 1 corinthians McGowan, Ascetic Eucharists: Food and Drink in Early Christian Ritual Meals (1999) 92
paul, apostle, poverty Nasrallah, Archaeology and the Letters of Paul (2019) 156
paul, last supper in Visnjic, The Invention of Duty: Stoicism as Deontology (2021) 437, 439
paul, letters of Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 398
paul Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 219; König, Saints and Symposiasts: The Literature of Food and the Symposium in Greco-Roman and Early Christian Culture (2012) 127, 129
paul (saul) Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 296
petra, communal meals Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 142
plutarch Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 756; Nasrallah, Archaeology and the Letters of Paul (2019) 155
polis Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 80
poor, the Nasrallah, Archaeology and the Letters of Paul (2019) 155, 156
ports Cadwallader, Stones, Bones and the Sacred: Essays on Material Culture and Religion in Honor of Dennis E (2016) 34, 46
poverty, of paul Nasrallah, Archaeology and the Letters of Paul (2019) 156
poverty Nasrallah, Archaeology and the Letters of Paul (2019) 155, 156
prayereucharistic Alikin, The Earliest History of the Christian Gathering (2009) 127
prayers, symbol for Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 398
production Cadwallader, Stones, Bones and the Sacred: Essays on Material Culture and Religion in Honor of Dennis E (2016) 47
propaganda Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 80
pseudo-clementine writings Poorthuis and Schwartz, A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity (2006) 73
purity Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 398
purity requirement for Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 141, 221, 222, 224
qumran, communal meals Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 142
qumran König, Saints and Symposiasts: The Literature of Food and the Symposium in Greco-Roman and Early Christian Culture (2012) 129
quotations Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 398
rabbinic conceptions of impurity Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 140
refoundation Cadwallader, Stones, Bones and the Sacred: Essays on Material Culture and Religion in Honor of Dennis E (2016) 35
repentance Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 141
representation Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 80
resurrection Jeong, Pauline Baptism among the Mysteries: Ritual Messages and the Promise of Initiation (2023) 275; Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 82
roads Cadwallader, Stones, Bones and the Sacred: Essays on Material Culture and Religion in Honor of Dennis E (2016) 35
roman colony Cadwallader, Stones, Bones and the Sacred: Essays on Material Culture and Religion in Honor of Dennis E (2016) 35
rome, therapeutae Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 142
rome Cadwallader, Stones, Bones and the Sacred: Essays on Material Culture and Religion in Honor of Dennis E (2016) 39, 44, 49
sacred and profane Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 139, 140, 141
sacrifice, animal Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 398
sacrifice, eucharistic Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 398
sacrifice Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 140, 141, 222
sacrifice and sacrificial feasting, christian attitudes to sacrificial meat König, Saints and Symposiasts: The Literature of Food and the Symposium in Greco-Roman and Early Christian Culture (2012) 127
sacrifices, jerusalem temple Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 142
self-doubt (selbstzweifel) Edelmann-Singer et al., Sceptic and Believer in Ancient Mediterranean Religions (2020) 180
seminal emissions Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 224
sex/sexuality Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 296
sexual relations christians on pagan conceptions of Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 222
sexual relations proper place, time, and frequency Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 221, 222
shema Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 205
sin Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 296
slaves, slavery Cadwallader, Stones, Bones and the Sacred: Essays on Material Culture and Religion in Honor of Dennis E (2016) 44
space v Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 82
spirit, characterizations as, breath (life itself) Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 296
spirit, modes of presence, indwelling Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 296
spirit, modes of presence, receiving of Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 296
stoa, triclinium Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 142
stobi synagogue, inscription Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 142
stobi synagogue, triclinium Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 142
sun Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 398
sunday, christian Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 205
symbols Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 398
symposium Alikin, The Earliest History of the Christian Gathering (2009) 65
syria, temples Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 142
tabgha Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 398
table (τράπεζα) Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 398
teeth Cadwallader, Stones, Bones and the Sacred: Essays on Material Culture and Religion in Honor of Dennis E (2016) 46
temple Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 296; Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 756
thanksgiving Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 398
the curator annonae Cadwallader, Stones, Bones and the Sacred: Essays on Material Culture and Religion in Honor of Dennis E (2016) 36, 37, 38, 39, 48
transmogrification Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 82
unification Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 139
valentinians McGowan, Ascetic Eucharists: Food and Drink in Early Christian Ritual Meals (1999) 92
value (axia) Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 171
virtue Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 171
vision of god, purification before Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 222
walbank, mary Nasrallah, Archaeology and the Letters of Paul (2019) 155
water Cadwallader, Stones, Bones and the Sacred: Essays on Material Culture and Religion in Honor of Dennis E (2016) 36
wine' McGowan, Ascetic Eucharists: Food and Drink in Early Christian Ritual Meals (1999) 92
wine Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 398
women Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 228
words of institution Visnjic, The Invention of Duty: Stoicism as Deontology (2021) 437
world, the Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 170
worship, before council of nicaea Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 480
worship, daily and weekly Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 205
worship, early christian Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 398
worship, occasional Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 228