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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



8234
New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 11.27


ὥστε ὃς ἂν ἐσθίῃ τὸν ἄρτον ἢ πίνῃ τὸ ποτήριον τοῦ κυρίου ἀναξίως, ἔνοχος ἔσται τοῦ σώματος καὶ τοῦ αἵματος τοῦ κυρίου.Therefore whoever eats this bread or drinks the Lord's cup inan unworthy manner will be guilty of the body and the blood of theLord.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

51 results
1. Septuagint, Tobit, 1.22 (th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.22. Ahikar interceded for me, and I returned to Nineveh. Now Ahikar was cupbearer, keeper of the signet, and in charge of administration of the accounts, for Esarhaddon had appointed him second to himself. He was my nephew.
2. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 12.15-12.16, 12.27 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

12.15. רַק בְּכָל־אַוַּת נַפְשְׁךָ תִּזְבַּח וְאָכַלְתָּ בָשָׂר כְּבִרְכַּת יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ אֲשֶׁר נָתַן־לְךָ בְּכָל־שְׁעָרֶיךָ הַטָּמֵא וְהַטָּהוֹר יֹאכְלֶנּוּ כַּצְּבִי וְכָאַיָּל׃ 12.16. רַק הַדָּם לֹא תֹאכֵלוּ עַל־הָאָרֶץ תִּשְׁפְּכֶנּוּ כַּמָּיִם׃ 12.27. וְעָשִׂיתָ עֹלֹתֶיךָ הַבָּשָׂר וְהַדָּם עַל־מִזְבַּח יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ וְדַם־זְבָחֶיךָ יִשָּׁפֵךְ עַל־מִזְבַּח יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ וְהַבָּשָׂר תֹּאכֵל׃ 12.15. Notwithstanding thou mayest kill and eat flesh within all thy gates, after all the desire of thy soul, according to the blessing of the LORD thy God which He hath given thee; the unclean and the clean may eat thereof, as of the gazelle, and as of the hart." 12.16. Only ye shall not eat the blood; thou shalt pour it out upon the earth as water." 12.27. and thou shalt offer thy burnt-offerings, the flesh and the blood, upon the altar of the LORD thy God; and the blood of thy sacrifices shall be poured out against the altar of the LORD thy God, and thou shalt eat the flesh."
3. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 12.14, 12.44, 12.48 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

12.14. וְהָיָה הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה לָכֶם לְזִכָּרוֹן וְחַגֹּתֶם אֹתוֹ חַג לַיהוָה לְדֹרֹתֵיכֶם חֻקַּת עוֹלָם תְּחָגֻּהוּ׃ 12.44. וְכָל־עֶבֶד אִישׁ מִקְנַת־כָּסֶף וּמַלְתָּה אֹתוֹ אָז יֹאכַל בּוֹ׃ 12.48. וְכִי־יָגוּר אִתְּךָ גֵּר וְעָשָׂה פֶסַח לַיהוָה הִמּוֹל לוֹ כָל־זָכָר וְאָז יִקְרַב לַעֲשֹׂתוֹ וְהָיָה כְּאֶזְרַח הָאָרֶץ וְכָל־עָרֵל לֹא־יֹאכַל בּוֹ׃ 12.14. And this day shall be unto you for a memorial, and ye shall keep it a feast to the LORD; throughout your generations ye shall keep it a feast by an ordice for ever." 12.44. but every man’s servant that is bought for money, when thou hast circumcised him, then shall he eat thereof." 12.48. And when a stranger shall sojourn with thee, and will keep the passover to the LORD, let all his males be circumcised, and then let him come near and keep it; and he shall be as one that is born in the land; but no uncircumcised person shall eat thereof."
4. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 15.19, 17.14-17.15 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

15.19. וְאִשָּׁה כִּי־תִהְיֶה זָבָה דָּם יִהְיֶה זֹבָהּ בִּבְשָׂרָהּ שִׁבְעַת יָמִים תִּהְיֶה בְנִדָּתָהּ וְכָל־הַנֹּגֵעַ בָּהּ יִטְמָא עַד־הָעָרֶב׃ 17.14. כִּי־נֶפֶשׁ כָּל־בָּשָׂר דָּמוֹ בְנַפְשׁוֹ הוּא וָאֹמַר לִבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל דַּם כָּל־בָּשָׂר לֹא תֹאכֵלוּ כִּי נֶפֶשׁ כָּל־בָּשָׂר דָּמוֹ הִוא כָּל־אֹכְלָיו יִכָּרֵת׃ 17.15. וְכָל־נֶפֶשׁ אֲשֶׁר תֹּאכַל נְבֵלָה וּטְרֵפָה בָּאֶזְרָח וּבַגֵּר וְכִבֶּס בְּגָדָיו וְרָחַץ בַּמַּיִם וְטָמֵא עַד־הָעֶרֶב וְטָהֵר׃ 15.19. And if a woman have an issue, and her issue in her flesh be blood, she shall be in her impurity seven days; and whosoever toucheth her shall be unclean until the even." 17.14. For as to the life of all flesh, the blood thereof is all one with the life thereof; therefore I said unto the children of Israel: Ye shall eat the blood of no manner of flesh; for the life of all flesh is the blood thereof; whosoever eateth it shall be cut off." 17.15. And every soul that eateth that which dieth of itself, or that which is torn of beasts, whether he be home-born or a stranger, he shall wash his clothes, and bathe himself in water, and be unclean until the even; then shall he be clean."
5. Hebrew Bible, Malachi, 1.10-1.14 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.11. כִּי מִמִּזְרַח־שֶׁמֶשׁ וְעַד־מְבוֹאוֹ גָּדוֹל שְׁמִי בַּגּוֹיִם וּבְכָל־מָקוֹם מֻקְטָר מֻגָּשׁ לִשְׁמִי וּמִנְחָה טְהוֹרָה כִּי־גָדוֹל שְׁמִי בַּגּוֹיִם אָמַר יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת׃ 1.12. וְאַתֶּם מְחַלְּלִים אוֹתוֹ בֶּאֱמָרְכֶם שֻׁלְחַן אֲדֹנָי מְגֹאָל הוּא וְנִיבוֹ נִבְזֶה אָכְלוֹ׃ 1.13. וַאֲמַרְתֶּם הִנֵּה מַתְּלָאָה וְהִפַּחְתֶּם אוֹתוֹ אָמַר יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת וַהֲבֵאתֶם גָּזוּל וְאֶת־הַפִּסֵּחַ וְאֶת־הַחוֹלֶה וַהֲבֵאתֶם אֶת־הַמִּנְחָה הַאֶרְצֶה אוֹתָהּ מִיֶּדְכֶם אָמַר יְהוָה׃ 1.14. וְאָרוּר נוֹכֵל וְיֵשׁ בְּעֶדְרוֹ זָכָר וְנֹדֵר וְזֹבֵחַ מָשְׁחָת לַאדֹנָי כִּי מֶלֶךְ גָּדוֹל אָנִי אָמַר יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת וּשְׁמִי נוֹרָא בַגּוֹיִם׃ 1.10. Oh that there were even one among you that would shut the doors, That ye might not kindle fire on Mine altar in vain! I have no pleasure in you, Saith the LORD of hosts, Neither will I accept an offering at your hand." 1.11. For from the rising of the sun even unto the going down of the same My name is great among the nations; And in every place offerings are presented unto My name, Even pure oblations; For My name is great among the nations, Saith the LORD of hosts." 1.12. But ye profane it, In that ye say: ‘The table of the LORD is polluted, And the fruit thereof, even the food thereof, is contemptible.’" 1.13. Ye say also: ‘Behold, what a weariness is it!’ And ye have snuffed at it, Saith the LORD of hosts; And ye have brought that which was taken by violence, And the lame, and the sick; Thus ye bring the offering; Should I accept this of your hand? Saith the LORD." 1.14. But cursed be he that dealeth craftily, Whereas he hath in his flock a male, And voweth, and sacrificeth unto the Lord a blemished thing; For I am a great King, Saith the LORD of hosts, And My name is feared among the nations."
6. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 22.16 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

22.16. וַיָּבֹאוּ אֶל־בִּלְעָם וַיֹּאמְרוּ לוֹ כֹּה אָמַר בָּלָק בֶּן־צִפּוֹר אַל־נָא תִמָּנַע מֵהֲלֹךְ אֵלָי׃ 22.16. And they came to Balaam, and said to him: ‘Thus saith Balak the son of Zippor: Let nothing, I pray thee, hinder thee from coming unto me;"
7. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 50.13, 141.2 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

50.13. הַאוֹכַל בְּשַׂר אַבִּירִים וְדַם עַתּוּדִים אֶשְׁתֶּה׃ 141.2. תִּכּוֹן תְּפִלָּתִי קְטֹרֶת לְפָנֶיךָ מַשְׂאַת כַּפַּי מִנְחַת־עָרֶב׃ 50.13. Do I eat the flesh of bulls, or drink the blood of goats?" 141.2. Let my prayer be set forth as incense before Thee, The lifting up of my hands as the evening sacrifice."
8. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 30.29, 33.7, 63.11 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

30.29. הַשִּׁיר יִהְיֶה לָכֶם כְּלֵיל הִתְקַדֶּשׁ־חָג וְשִׂמְחַת לֵבָב כַּהוֹלֵךְ בֶּחָלִיל לָבוֹא בְהַר־יְהוָה אֶל־צוּר יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 33.7. הֵן אֶרְאֶלָּם צָעֲקוּ חֻצָה מַלְאֲכֵי שָׁלוֹם מַר יִבְכָּיוּן׃ 63.11. וַיִּזְכֹּר יְמֵי־עוֹלָם מֹשֶׁה עַמּוֹ אַיֵּה הַמַּעֲלֵם מִיָּם אֵת רֹעֵי צֹאנוֹ אַיֵּה הַשָּׂם בְּקִרְבּוֹ אֶת־רוּחַ קָדְשׁוֹ׃ 30.29. Ye shall have a song As in the night when a feast is hallowed; And gladness of heart, as when one goeth with the pipe To come into the mountain of the LORD, to the Rock of Israel." 33.7. Behold, their valiant ones cry without; The ambassadors of peace weep bitterly." 63.11. Then His people remembered the days of old, the days of Moses: ‘Where is He that brought them up out of the sea With the shepherds of His flock? Where is He that put His holy spirit In the midst of them?"
9. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 7.16, 11.14, 15.19 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

7.16. וְאַתָּה אַל־תִּתְפַּלֵּל בְּעַד־הָעָם הַזֶּה וְאַל־תִּשָּׂא בַעֲדָם רִנָּה וּתְפִלָּה וְאַל־תִּפְגַּע־בִּי כִּי־אֵינֶנִּי שֹׁמֵעַ אֹתָךְ׃ 11.14. וְאַתָּה אַל־תִּתְפַּלֵּל בְּעַד־הָעָם הַזֶּה וְאַל־תִּשָּׂא בַעֲדָם רִנָּה וּתְפִלָּה כִּי אֵינֶנִּי שֹׁמֵעַ בְּעֵת קָרְאָם אֵלַי בְּעַד רָעָתָם׃ 15.19. לָכֵן כֹּה־אָמַר יְהוָה אִם־תָּשׁוּב וַאֲשִׁיבְךָ לְפָנַי תַּעֲמֹד וְאִם־תּוֹצִיא יָקָר מִזּוֹלֵל כְּפִי תִהְיֶה יָשֻׁבוּ הֵמָּה אֵלֶיךָ וְאַתָּה לֹא־תָשׁוּב אֲלֵיהֶם׃ 7.16. Therefore pray not thou for this people, neither lift up cry nor prayer for them, neither make intercession to Me; for I will not hear thee." 11.14. Therefore pray not thou for this people, neither lift up cry nor prayer for them; for I will not hear them in the time that they cry unto Me for their trouble.’" 15.19. Therefore thus saith the LORD: If thou return, and I bring thee back, Thou shalt stand before Me; And if thou bring forth the precious out of the vile, Thou shalt be as My mouth; Let them return unto thee, But thou shalt not return unto them."
10. Septuagint, Tobit, 1.22 (4th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.22. Ahikar interceded for me, and I returned to Nineveh. Now Ahikar was cupbearer, keeper of the signet, and in charge of administration of the accounts, for Esarhaddon had appointed him second to himself. He was my nephew.
11. Hebrew Bible, Daniel, 1.8, 2.16, 2.23, 2.45 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.8. וַיָּשֶׂם דָּנִיֵּאל עַל־לִבּוֹ אֲשֶׁר לֹא־יִתְגָּאַל בְּפַתְבַּג הַמֶּלֶךְ וּבְיֵין מִשְׁתָּיו וַיְבַקֵּשׁ מִשַּׂר הַסָּרִיסִים אֲשֶׁר לֹא יִתְגָּאָל׃ 2.16. וְדָנִיֵּאל עַל וּבְעָה מִן־מַלְכָּא דִּי זְמָן יִנְתֵּן־לֵהּ וּפִשְׁרָא לְהַחֲוָיָה לְמַלְכָּא׃ 2.23. לָךְ אֱלָהּ אֲבָהָתִי מְהוֹדֵא וּמְשַׁבַּח אֲנָה דִּי חָכְמְתָא וּגְבוּרְתָא יְהַבְתְּ לִי וּכְעַן הוֹדַעְתַּנִי דִּי־בְעֵינָא מִנָּךְ דִּי־מִלַּת מַלְכָּא הוֹדַעְתֶּנָא׃ 2.45. כָּל־קֳבֵל דִּי־חֲזַיְתָ דִּי מִטּוּרָא אִתְגְּזֶרֶת אֶבֶן דִּי־לָא בִידַיִן וְהַדֶּקֶת פַּרְזְלָא נְחָשָׁא חַסְפָּא כַּסְפָּא וְדַהֲבָא אֱלָהּ רַב הוֹדַע לְמַלְכָּא מָה דִּי לֶהֱוֵא אַחֲרֵי דְנָה וְיַצִּיב חֶלְמָא וּמְהֵימַן פִּשְׁרֵהּ׃ 1.8. But Daniel purposed in his heart that he would not defile himself with the king’s food, nor with the wine which he drank; therefore he requested of the chief of the officers that he might not defile himself." 2.16. Then Daniel went in, and desired of the king that he would give him time, that he might declare unto the king the interpretation." 2.23. I thank Thee, and praise Thee, O Thou God of my fathers, w Who hast given me wisdom and might, And hast now made known unto me what we desired of Thee; For Thou hast made known unto us the king’s matter." 2.45. Forasmuch as thou sawest that a stone was cut out of the mountain without hands, and that it broke in pieces the iron, the brass, the clay, the silver, and the gold; the great God hath made known to the king what shall come to pass hereafter; and the dream is certain, and the interpretation thereof sure.’"
12. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 25.8, 51.14 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

25.8. happy is he who lives with an intelligent wife,and he who has not made a slip with his tongue,and he who has not served a man inferior to himself; 51.14. Before the temple I asked for her,and I will search for her to the last.
13. Septuagint, Wisdom of Solomon, 9.15, 13.18, 25.8 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

9.15. for a perishable body weighs down the soul,and this earthy tent burdens the thoughtful mind. 13.18. For health he appeals to a thing that is weak;for life he prays to a thing that is dead;for aid he entreats a thing that is utterly inexperienced;for a prosperous journey, a thing that cannot take a step;
14. Anon., Epistle of Barnabas, 2.5, 15.5 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

2.5. What to Me is the multitude of your sacrifices, saith the Lord I am full of whole burnt-offerings, and the fat of lambs and the blood of bulls and of goats desire not, not though ye should come to be seen of Me. or who required these things at your hands? Ye shall continue no more to tread My court. If ye bring fine flour, it is in vain; incense is an abomination to Me; your new moons and your Sabbaths I cannot away with. 15.5. And He rested on the seventh day. this He meaneth; when His Son shall come, and shall abolish the time of the Lawless One, and shall judge the ungodly, and shall change the sun and the moon and the stars, then shall he truly rest on the seventh day.
15. Anon., Didache, 9.2, 9.5, 13.2, 14.1-14.3 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

10. But after you are filled, thus give thanks: We thank You, holy Father, for Your holy name which You caused to tabernacle in our hearts, and for the knowledge and faith and immortality, which You made known to us through Jesus Your Servant; to You be the glory forever. You, Master almighty, created all things for Your name's sake; You gave food and drink to men for enjoyment, that they might give thanks to You; but to us You freely gave spiritual food and drink and life eternal through Your Servant. Before all things we thank You that You are mighty; to You be the glory forever. Remember, Lord, Your Church, to deliver it from all evil and to make it perfect in Your love, and gather it from the four winds, sanctified for Your kingdom which You have prepared for it; for Yours is the power and the glory forever. Let grace come, and let this world pass away. Hosanna to the God (Son) of David! If any one is holy, let him come; if any one is not so, let him repent. Maran atha. Amen. But permit the prophets to make Thanksgiving as much as they desire.
16. Ignatius, To The Smyrnaeans, 7.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

17. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 6.308, 10.124, 13.80, 13.372 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

6.308. So he sent to Nabal’s wife, and invited her to come to him, to live with him, and to be his wife. Whereupon she replied to those that came, that she was not worthy to touch his feet; however, she came, with all her servants, and became his wife, having received that honor on account of her wise and righteous course of life. She also obtained the same honor partly on account of her beauty. 10.124. 6. But when the king had sent to call him privately, and inquired what he could say to him from God, which might be suitable to his present circumstances, and desired him to inform him of it, Jeremiah replied, that he had somewhat to say; but he said withal, he should not be believed, nor, if he admonished them, should be hearkened to; “for,” said he, “thy friends have determined to destroy me, as though I had been guilty of some wickedness; and where are now those men who deceived us, and said that the king of Babylon would not come and fight against us any more? but I am afraid now to speak the truth, lest thou shouldst condemn me to die.” 13.372. 5. As to Alexander, his own people were seditious against him; for at a festival which was then celebrated, when he stood upon the altar, and was going to sacrifice, the nation rose upon him, and pelted him with citrons [which they then had in their hands, because] the law of the Jews required that at the feast of tabernacles every one should have branches of the palm tree and citron tree; which thing we have elsewhere related. They also reviled him, as derived from a captive, and so unworthy of his dignity and of sacrificing.
18. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, None (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.10. Now Ibeg you, brothers, through the name of our Lord, Jesus Christ, that youall speak the same thing and that there be no divisions among you, butthat you be perfected together in the same mind and in the samejudgment.
19. New Testament, 1 Thessalonians, 2.15, 3.7, 4.11-4.12, 5.12 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.15. who killed both the Lord Jesus and their own prophets, and drove us out, and didn't please God, and are contrary to all men; 3.7. for this cause, brothers, we were comforted over you in all our distress and affliction through your faith. 4.11. and that you make it your ambition to lead a quiet life, and to do your own business, and to work with your own hands, even as we charged you; 4.12. that you may walk properly toward those who are outside, and may have need of nothing. 5.12. But we beg you, brothers, to know those who labor among you, and are over you in the Lord, and admonish you
20. New Testament, 1 Timothy, 3.16, 5.17-5.18 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.16. Without controversy, the mystery of godliness is great: God was revealed in the flesh, Justified in the spirit, Seen by angels, Preached among the nations, Believed on in the world, And received up in glory. 5.17. Let the elders who rule well be counted worthy of double honor, especially those who labor in the word and in teaching. 5.18. For the Scripture says, "You shall not muzzle the ox when it treads out the grain." And, "The laborer is worthy of his wages.
21. New Testament, 2 Peter, 1.13 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.13. I think it right, as long as I am in this tent, to stir you up by reminding you;
22. New Testament, 2 Corinthians, 1.17, 4.1, 5.1, 5.4, 6.16, 7.1, 7.15, 8.12-8.15, 9.13-9.14, 11.27 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

23. New Testament, 2 Thessalonians, 1.11 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.11. To this end we also pray always for you, that our God may count you worthy of your calling, and fulfill every desire of goodness and work of faith, with power;
24. New Testament, Acts, 2.42, 2.46, 10.9-10.16, 10.28, 17.9-17.21 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

2.42. They continued steadfastly in the apostles' teaching and fellowship, in the breaking of bread, and prayer. 2.46. Day by day, continuing steadfastly with one accord in the temple, and breaking bread at home, they took their food with gladness and singleness of heart 10.9. Now on the next day as they were on their journey, and got close to the city, Peter went up on the housetop to pray at about noon. 10.10. He became hungry and desired to eat, but while they were preparing, he fell into a trance. 10.11. He saw heaven opened and a certain container descending to him, like a great sheet let down by four corners on the earth 10.12. in which were all kinds of four-footed animals of the earth, wild animals, reptiles, and birds of the sky. 10.13. A voice came to him, "Rise, Peter, kill and eat! 10.14. But Peter said, "Not so, Lord; for I have never eaten anything that is common or unclean. 10.15. A voice came to him again the second time, "What God has cleansed, you must not make unholy. 10.16. This was done three times, and immediately the vessel was received up into heaven. 10.28. He said to them, "You yourselves know how it is an unlawful thing for a man who is a Jew to join himself or come to one of another nation, but God has shown me that I shouldn't call any man unholy or unclean. 17.9. When they had taken security from Jason and the rest, they let them go. 17.10. The brothers immediately sent Paul and Silas away by night to Beroea. When they arrived, they went into the Jewish synagogue. 17.11. Now these were more noble than those in Thessalonica, in that they received the word with all readiness of the mind, examining the Scriptures daily, whether these things were so. 17.12. Many of them therefore believed; also of the Greek women of honorable estate, and not a few men. 17.13. But when the Jews of Thessalonica had knowledge that the word of God was proclaimed by Paul at Beroea also, they came there likewise, agitating the multitudes. 17.14. Then the brothers immediately sent out Paul to go as far as to the sea, and Silas and Timothy still stayed there. 17.15. But those who escorted Paul brought him as far as Athens. Receiving a commandment to Silas and Timothy that they should come to him with all speed, they departed. 17.16. Now while Paul waited for them at Athens, his spirit was provoked within him as he saw the city full of idols. 17.17. So he reasoned in the synagogue with Jews and the devout persons, and in the marketplace every day with those who met him. 17.18. Some of the Epicurean and Stoic philosophers also encountered him. Some said, "What does this babbler want to say?"Others said, "He seems to be advocating foreign demons," because he preached Jesus and the resurrection. 17.19. They took hold of him, and brought him to the Areopagus, saying, "May we know what this new teaching is, which is spoken by you? 17.20. For you bring certain strange things to our ears. We want to know therefore what these things mean. 17.21. Now all the Athenians and the strangers living there spent their time in nothing else, but either to tell or to hear some new thing.
25. New Testament, James, 2.10, 2.12, 3.13-3.16, 4.3 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.10. For whoever shall keep the whole law, and yet stumble in one point, he has become guilty of all. 2.12. So speak, and so do, as men who are to be judged by a law of freedom. 3.13. Who is wise and understanding among you? Let him show by his good conduct that his deeds are done in gentleness of wisdom. 3.14. But if you have bitter jealousy and selfish ambition in your heart, don't boast and don't lie against the truth. 3.15. This wisdom is not that which comes down from above, but is earthly, sensual, and demonic. 3.16. For where jealousy and selfish ambition are, there is confusion and every evil deed. 4.3. You ask, and don't receive, because you ask amiss, so that you may spend it for your pleasures.
26. New Testament, Jude, 12 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

27. New Testament, Colossians, 1.22, 2.9, 4.15 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.22. yet now he has reconciled in the body of his flesh through death, to present you holy and without blemish and blameless before him 2.9. For in him all the fullness of the Godhead dwells bodily 4.15. Greet the brothers who are in Laodicea, and Nymphas, and the assembly that is in his house.
28. New Testament, Ephesians, 2.14, 6.12 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.14. For he is our peace, who made both one, and broke down the middle wall of partition 6.12. For our wrestling is not against flesh and blood, but against the principalities, against the powers, against the world's rulers of the darkness of this age, and against the spiritual hosts of wickedness in the heavenly places.
29. New Testament, Galatians, 1.16, 2.14, 3.16, 3.25-3.29, 6.7 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.16. to reveal his Son in me,that I might preach him among the Gentiles, I didn't immediately conferwith flesh and blood 2.14. But when I sawthat they didn't walk uprightly according to the truth of the gospel, Isaid to Peter before them all, "If you, being a Jew, live as theGentiles do, and not as the Jews do, why do you compel the Gentiles tolive as the Jews do? 3.16. Now the promises were spoken to Abraham and tohis seed. He doesn't say, "To seeds," as of many, but as of one, "Toyour seed," which is Christ. 3.25. But now that faithis come, we are no longer under a tutor. 3.26. For you are all sons ofGod, through faith in Christ Jesus. 3.27. For as many of you as werebaptized into Christ have put on Christ. 3.28. There is neither Jewnor Greek, there is neither slave nor free man, there is neither malenor female; for you are all one in Christ Jesus. 3.29. If you are Christ's, then you are Abraham's seed and heirs according to promise. 6.7. Don't be deceived. God is notmocked, for whatever a man sows, that will he also reap.
30. New Testament, Hebrews, 2.14-2.15, 3.3, 9.11-9.12, 10.4-10.5, 10.10, 10.19-10.20, 13.11, 13.20-13.21 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.14. Since then the children have shared in flesh and blood, he also himself in like manner partook of the same, that through death he might bring to nothing him who had the power of death, that is, the devil 2.15. and might deliver all of them who through fear of death were all their lifetime subject to bondage. 3.3. For he has been counted worthy of more glory than Moses, inasmuch as he who built the house has more honor than the house. 9.11. But Christ having come as a high priest of the coming good things, through the greater and more perfect tabernacle, not made with hands, that is to say, not of this creation 9.12. nor yet through the blood of goats and calves, but through his own blood, entered in once for all into the Holy Place, having obtained eternal redemption. 10.4. For it is impossible that the blood of bulls and goats should take away sins. 10.5. Therefore when he comes into the world, he says, "Sacrifice and offering you didn't desire, But a body did you prepare for me; 10.10. by which will we have been sanctified through the offering of the body of Jesus Christ once for all. 10.19. Having therefore, brothers, boldness to enter into the holy place by the blood of Jesus 10.20. by the way which he dedicated for us, a new and living way, through the veil, that is to say, his flesh; 13.11. For the bodies of those animals, whose blood is brought into the holy place by the high priest as an offering for sin, are burned outside of the camp. 13.20. Now may the God of peace, who brought again from the dead the great shepherd of the sheep with the blood of an eternal covet, our Lord Jesus 13.21. make you complete in every good work to do his will, working in you that which is well pleasing in his sight, through Jesus Christ, to whom be the glory forever and ever. Amen.
31. New Testament, Philippians, 2.17, 4.18 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.17. Yes, and if I am poured out on the sacrifice and service of your faith, I rejoice, and rejoice with you all. 4.18. But I have all things, and abound. I am filled, having received from Epaphroditus the things that came from you, a sweet-smelling fragrance, an acceptable and well-pleasing sacrifice to God.
32. New Testament, Romans, 1.9, 1.24, 6.3-6.12, 7.4-7.5, 7.18, 7.24-7.25, 8.3-8.5, 8.9, 8.12-8.13, 8.35, 12.1, 13.5, 13.14, 14.1-14.15, 15.25-15.32, 16.2-16.3, 16.5-16.16, 16.23 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.9. For God is my witness, whom I serve in my spirit in the gospel of his Son, how unceasingly I make mention of you always in my prayers 1.24. Therefore God also gave them up in the lusts of their hearts to uncleanness, that their bodies should be dishonored among themselves 6.3. Or don't you know that all we who were baptized into Christ Jesus were baptized into his death? 6.4. We were buried therefore with him through baptism to death, that just like Christ was raised from the dead through the glory of the Father, so we also might walk in newness of life. 6.5. For if we have become united with him in the likeness of his death, we will also be part of his resurrection; 6.6. knowing this, that our old man was crucified with him, that the body of sin might be done away with, so that we would no longer be in bondage to sin. 6.7. For he who has died has been freed from sin. 6.8. But if we died with Christ, we believe that we will also live with him; 6.9. knowing that Christ, being raised from the dead, dies no more. Death no more has dominion over him! 6.10. For the death that he died, he died to sin one time; but the life that he lives, he lives to God. 6.11. Thus also consider yourselves also to be dead to sin, but alive to God in Christ Jesus our Lord. 6.12. Therefore don't let sin reign in your mortal body, that you should obey it in its lusts. 7.4. Therefore, my brothers, you also were made dead to the law through the body of Christ, that you would be joined to another, to him who was raised from the dead, that we might bring forth fruit to God. 7.5. For when we were in the flesh, the sinful passions which were through the law, worked in our members to bring forth fruit to death. 7.18. For I know that in me, that is, in my flesh, dwells no good thing. For desire is present with me, but I don't find it doing that which is good. 7.24. What a wretched man I am! Who will deliver me out of the body of this death? 7.25. I thank God through Jesus Christ, our Lord! So then with the mind, I myself serve God's law, but with the flesh, the sin's law. 8.3. For what the law couldn't do, in that it was weak through the flesh, God did, sending his own Son in the likeness of sinful flesh and for sin, he condemned sin in the flesh; 8.4. that the ordice of the law might be fulfilled in us, who walk not after the flesh, but after the Spirit. 8.5. For those who live according to the flesh set their minds on the things of the flesh, but those who live according to the Spirit, the things of the Spirit. 8.9. But you are not in the flesh but in the Spirit, if it is so that the Spirit of God dwells in you. But if any man doesn't have the Spirit of Christ, he is not his. 8.12. So then, brothers, we are debtors, not to the flesh, to live after the flesh. 8.13. For if you live after the flesh, you must die; but if by the Spirit you put to death the deeds of the body, you will live. 8.35. Who shall separate us from the love of Christ? Could oppression, or anguish, or persecution, or famine, or nakedness, or peril, or sword? 12.1. Therefore I urge you, brothers, by the mercies of God, to present your bodies a living sacrifice, holy, acceptable to God, which is your spiritual service. 13.5. Therefore you need to be in subjection, not only because of the wrath, but also for conscience' sake. 13.14. But put on the Lord Jesus Christ, and make no provision for the flesh, for its lusts. 14.1. Now receive one who is weak in faith, but not for disputes over opinions. 14.2. One man has faith to eat all things, but he who is weak eats only vegetables. 14.3. Don't let him who eats despise him who doesn't eat. Don't let him who doesn't eat judge him who eats, for God has received him. 14.4. Who are you who judge another's servant? To his own lord he stands or falls. Yes, he will be made to stand, for God has power to make him stand. 14.5. One man esteems one day as more important. Another esteems every day alike. Let each man be fully assured in his own mind. 14.6. He who observes the day, observes it to the Lord; and he who does not observe the day, to the Lord he does not observe it. He who eats, eats to the Lord, for he gives God thanks. He who doesn't eat, to the Lord he doesn't eat, and gives God thanks. 14.7. For none of us lives to himself, and none dies to himself. 14.8. For if we live, we live to the Lord. Or if we die, we die to the Lord. If therefore we live or die, we are the Lord's. 14.9. For to this end Christ died, rose, and lived again, that he might be Lord of both the dead and the living. 14.10. But you, why do you judge your brother? Or you again, why do you despise your brother? For we will all stand before the judgment seat of Christ. 14.11. For it is written, "'As I live,' says the Lord, 'to me every knee will bow. Every tongue will confess to God.' 14.12. So then each one of us will give account of himself to God. 14.13. Therefore let's not judge one another any more, but judge this rather, that no man put a stumbling block in his brother's way, or an occasion for falling. 14.14. I know, and am persuaded in the Lord Jesus, that nothing is unclean of itself; except that to him who considers anything to be unclean, to him it is unclean. 14.15. Yet if because of food your brother is grieved, you walk no longer in love. Don't destroy with your food him for whom Christ died. 15.25. But now, I say, I am going to Jerusalem, serving the saints. 15.26. For it has been the good pleasure of Macedonia and Achaia to make a certain contribution for the poor among the saints who are at Jerusalem. 15.27. Yes, it has been their good pleasure, and they are their debtors. For if the Gentiles have been made partakers of their spiritual things, they owe it to them also to serve them in fleshly things. 15.28. When therefore I have accomplished this, and have sealed to them this fruit, I will go on by way of you to Spain. 15.29. I know that, when I come to you, I will come in the fullness of the blessing of the gospel of Christ. 15.30. Now I beg you, brothers, by our Lord Jesus Christ, and by the love of the Spirit, that you strive together with me in your prayers to God for me 15.31. that I may be delivered from those who are disobedient in Judea, and that my service which I have for Jerusalem may be acceptable to the saints; 15.32. that I may come to you in joy through the will of God, and together with you, find rest. 16.2. that you receive her in the Lord, in a way worthy of the saints, and that you assist her in whatever matter she may need from you, for she herself also has been a helper of many, and of my own self. 16.3. Greet Prisca and Aquila, my fellow workers in Christ Jesus 16.5. Greet the assembly that is in their house. Greet Epaenetus, my beloved, who is the first fruits of Achaia to Christ. 16.6. Greet Mary, who labored much for us. 16.7. Greet Andronicus and Junias, my relatives and my fellow prisoners, who are notable among the apostles, who also were in Christ before me. 16.8. Greet Amplias, my beloved in the Lord. 16.9. Greet Urbanus, our fellow worker in Christ, and Stachys, my beloved. 16.10. Greet Apelles, the approved in Christ. Greet those who are of the household of Aristobulus. 16.11. Greet Herodion, my kinsman. Greet them of the household of Narcissus, who are in the Lord. 16.12. Greet Tryphaena and Tryphosa, who labor in the Lord. Greet Persis, the beloved, who labored much in the Lord. 16.13. Greet Rufus, the chosen in the Lord, and his mother and mine. 16.14. Greet Asyncritus, Phlegon, Hermes, Patrobas, Hermas, and the brothers who are with them. 16.15. Greet Philologus and Julia, Nereus and his sister, and Olympas, and all the saints who are with them. 16.16. Greet one another with a holy kiss. The assemblies of Christ greet you. 16.23. Gaius, my host and host of the whole assembly, greets you. Erastus, the treasurer of the city, greets you, as does Quartus, the brother.
33. New Testament, John, 1.14, 6.53-6.56 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.14. The Word became flesh, and lived among us. We saw his glory, such glory as of the one and only Son of the Father, full of grace and truth. 6.53. Jesus therefore said to them, "Most assuredly I tell you, unless you eat the flesh of the Son of Man and drink his blood, you don't have life in yourselves. 6.54. He who eats my flesh and drinks my blood has eternal life, and I will raise him up at the last day. 6.55. For my flesh is food indeed, and my blood is drink indeed. 6.56. He who eats my flesh and drinks my blood lives in me, and I in him.
34. New Testament, Luke, 7.7, 10.7, 14.7-14.11, 22.14-22.20, 22.26-22.27 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

7.7. Therefore I didn't even think myself worthy to come to you; but say the word, and my servant will be healed. 10.7. Remain in that same house, eating and drinking the things they give, for the laborer is worthy of his wages. Don't go from house to house. 14.7. He spoke a parable to those who were invited, when he noticed how they chose the best seats, and said to them 14.8. When you are invited by anyone to a marriage feast, don't sit in the best seat, since perhaps someone more honorable than you might be invited by him 14.9. and he who invited both of you would come and tell you, 'Make room for this person.' Then you would begin, with shame, to take the lowest place. 14.10. But when you are invited, go and sit in the lowest place, so that when he who invited you comes, he may tell you, 'Friend, move up higher.' Then you will be honored in the presence of all who sit at the table with you. 14.11. For everyone who exalts himself will be humbled, and whoever humbles himself will be exalted. 22.14. When the hour had come, he sat down with the twelve apostles. 22.15. He said to them, "I have earnestly desired to eat this Passover with you before I suffer 22.16. for I tell you, I will no longer by any means eat of it until it is fulfilled in the Kingdom of God. 22.17. He received a cup, and when he had given thanks, he said, "Take this, and share it among yourselves 22.18. for I tell you, I will not drink at all again from the fruit of the vine, until the Kingdom of God comes. 22.19. He took bread, and when he had given thanks, he broke it, and gave to them, saying, "This is my body which is given for you. Do this in memory of me. 22.20. Likewise, he took the cup after supper, saying, "This cup is the new covet in my blood, which is poured out for you. 22.26. But not so with you. But one who is the greater among you, let him become as the younger, and one who is governing, as one who serves. 22.27. For who is greater, one who sits at the table, or one who serves? Isn't it he who sits at the table? But I am in the midst of you as one who serves.
35. New Testament, Mark, 3.4, 5.29, 10.33, 14.12-14.15, 14.22-14.25, 14.64 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.4. He said to them, "Is it lawful on the Sabbath day to do good, or to do harm? To save a life, or to kill?" But they were silent. 5.29. Immediately the flow of her blood was dried up, and she felt in her body that she was healed of her affliction. 10.33. Behold, we are going up to Jerusalem. The Son of Man will be delivered to the chief priests and the scribes. They will condemn him to death, and will deliver him to the Gentiles. 14.12. On the first day of unleavened bread, when they sacrificed the Passover, his disciples asked him, "Where do you want us to go and make ready that you may eat the Passover? 14.13. He sent two of his disciples, and said to them, "Go into the city, and there you will meet a man carrying a pitcher of water. Follow him 14.14. and wherever he enters in, tell the master of the house, 'The Teacher says, "Where is the guest room, where I may eat the Passover with my disciples?"' 14.15. He will himself show you a large upper room furnished and ready. Make ready for us there. 14.22. As they were eating, Jesus took bread, and when he had blessed, he broke it, and gave to them, and said, "Take, eat. This is my body. 14.23. He took the cup, and when he had given thanks, he gave to them. They all drank of it. 14.24. He said to them, "This is my blood of the new covet, which is poured out for many. 14.25. Most assuredly I tell you, I will no more drink of the fruit of the vine, until that day when I drink it anew in the Kingdom of God. 14.64. You have heard the blasphemy! What do you think?" They all condemned him to be worthy of death.
36. New Testament, Matthew, 5.21, 10.10, 12.6, 12.41-12.42, 14.13-14.21, 16.17, 22.1-22.14, 26.18, 26.26-26.29, 26.66 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

5.21. You have heard that it was said to the ancient ones, 'You shall not murder;' and 'Whoever shall murder shall be in danger of the judgment.' 10.10. Take no bag for your journey, neither two coats, nor shoes, nor staff: for the laborer is worthy of his food. 12.6. But I tell you that one greater than the temple is here. 12.41. The men of Nineveh will stand up in the judgment with this generation, and will condemn it, for they repented at the preaching of Jonah; and behold, someone greater than Jonah is here. 12.42. The queen of the south will rise up in the judgment with this generation, and will condemn it, for she came from the ends of the earth to hear the wisdom of Solomon; and behold, someone greater than Solomon is here. 14.13. Now when Jesus heard this, he withdrew from there in a boat, to a deserted place apart. When the multitudes heard it, they followed him on foot from the cities. 14.14. Jesus went out, and he saw a great multitude. He had compassion on them, and healed their sick. 14.15. When evening had come, his disciples came to him, saying, "This place is deserted, and the hour is already late. Send the multitudes away, that they may go into the villages, and buy themselves food. 14.16. But Jesus said to them, "They don't need to go away. You give them something to eat. 14.17. They told him, "We only have here five loaves and two fish. 14.18. He said, "Bring them here to me. 14.19. He commanded the multitudes to sit down on the grass; and he took the five loaves and the two fish, and looking up to heaven, he blessed, broke and gave the loaves to the disciples, and the disciples gave to the multitudes. 14.20. They all ate, and were filled. They took up twelve baskets full of that which remained left over from the broken pieces. 14.21. Those who ate were about five thousand men, besides women and children. 16.17. Jesus answered him, "Blessed are you, Simon Bar Jonah, for flesh and blood has not revealed this to you, but my Father who is in heaven. 22.1. Jesus answered and spoke again in parables to them, saying 22.2. The Kingdom of Heaven is like a certain king, who made a marriage feast for his son 22.3. and sent out his servants to call those who were invited to the marriage feast, but they would not come. 22.4. Again he sent out other servants, saying, 'Tell those who are invited, "Behold, I have made ready my dinner. My oxen and my fatlings are killed, and all things are ready. Come to the marriage feast!"' 22.5. But they made light of it, and went their ways, one to his own farm, another to his merchandise 22.6. and the rest grabbed his servants, and treated them shamefully, and killed them. 22.7. But the king was angry, and he sent his armies, destroyed those murderers, and burned their city. 22.8. Then he said to his servants, 'The wedding is ready, but those who were invited weren't worthy. 22.9. Go therefore to the intersections of the highways, and as many as you may find, invite to the marriage feast.' 22.10. Those servants went out into the highways, and gathered together as many as they found, both bad and good. The wedding was filled with guests. 22.11. But when the king came in to see the guests, he saw there a man who didn't have on wedding clothing 22.12. and he said to him, 'Friend, how did you come in here not wearing wedding clothing?' He was speechless. 22.13. Then the king said to the servants, 'Bind him hand and foot, take him away, and throw him into the outer darkness; there is where the weeping and grinding of teeth will be.' 22.14. For many are called, but few chosen. 26.18. He said, "Go into the city to a certain person, and tell him, 'The Teacher says, "My time is at hand. I will keep the Passover at your house with my disciples."' 26.26. As they were eating, Jesus took bread, gave thanks for it, and broke it. He gave to the disciples, and said, "Take, eat; this is my body. 26.27. He took the cup, gave thanks, and gave to them, saying, "All of you drink it 26.28. for this is my blood of the new covet, which is poured out for many for the remission of sins. 26.29. But I tell you that I will not drink of this fruit of the vine from now on, until that day when I drink it anew with you in my Father's kingdom. 26.66. What do you think?"They answered, "He is worthy of death!
37. Suetonius, Claudius, 18.2 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

38. Tacitus, Annals, 12.43 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

12.43.  Many prodigies occurred during the year. Ominous birds took their seat on the Capitol; houses were overturned by repeated shocks of earthquake, and, as the panic spread, the weak were trampled underfoot in the trepidation of the crowd. A shortage of corn, again, and the famine which resulted, were construed as a supernatural warning. Nor were the complaints always whispered. Claudius, sitting in judgement, was surrounded by a wildly clamorous mob, and, driven into the farthest corner of the Forum, was there subjected to violent pressure, until, with the help of a body of troops, he forced a way through the hostile throng. It was established that the capital had provisions for fifteen days, no more; and the crisis was relieved only by the especial grace of the gods and the mildness of the winter. And yet, Heaven knows, in the past, Italy exported supplies for the legions into remote provinces; nor is sterility the trouble now, but we cultivate Africa and Egypt by preference, and the life of the Roman nation has been staked upon cargo-boats and accidents.
39. Hermas, Mandates, 4.3 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

40. Hippolytus, Apostolic Tradition, 21 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

41. Irenaeus, Refutation of All Heresies, 1.13.2, 5.1.3, 5.33.3 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

42. Justin, First Apology, 14.3, 67.5 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

43. Justin, Dialogue With Trypho, 20, 40-41, 17 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

17. Justin: For other nations have not inflicted on us and on Christ this wrong to such an extent as you have, who in very deed are the authors of the wicked prejudice against the Just One, and us who hold by Him. For after that you had crucified Him, the only blameless and righteous Man - through whose stripes those who approach the Father by Him are healed- when you knew that He had risen from the dead and ascended to heaven, as the prophets foretold He would, you not only did not repent of the wickedness which you had committed, but at that time you selected and sent out from Jerusalem chosen men through all the land to tell that the godless heresy of the Christians had sprung up, and to publish those things which all they who knew us not speak against us. So that you are the cause not only of your own unrighteousness, but in fact of that of all other men. And Isaiah cries justly: 'By reason of you, My name is blasphemed among the Gentiles.' Isaiah 52:5 And: 'Woe unto their soul! Because they have devised an evil device against themselves, saying, Let us bind the righteous, for he is distasteful to us. Therefore they shall eat the fruit of their doings. Woe unto the wicked! evil shall be rendered to him according to the works of his hands.' And again, in other words: 'Woe unto them that draw their iniquity as with a long cord, and their transgressions as with the harness of a heifer's yoke: who say, Let his speed come near; and let the counsel of the Holy One of Israel come, that we may know it. Woe unto them that call evil good, and good evil; that put light for darkness, and darkness for light; that put bitter for sweet, and sweet for bitter!' Accordingly, you displayed great zeal in publishing throughout all the land bitter and dark and unjust things against the only blameless and righteous Light sent by God. For He appeared distasteful to you when He cried among you, 'It is written, My house is the house of prayer; but you have made it a den of thieves!' Matthew 21:13 He overthrew also the tables of the money-changers in the temple, and exclaimed, 'Woe unto you, Scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! Because you pay tithe of mint and rue, but do not observe the love of God and justice. You whited sepulchres! Appearing beautiful outward, but are within full of dead men's bones.' And to the Scribes, 'Woe unto you, Scribes! For you have the keys, and you do not enter in yourselves, and them that are entering in you hinder; you blind guides!'
44. Pliny The Younger, Letters, 10.96-10.97 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

45. Pliny The Younger, Letters, 10.96-10.97 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

46. Tertullian, Apology, 39.17-39.18 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

47. Cyprian, Letters, 63.16 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

48. Cyprian, Letters, 63.16 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

49. Cyprian, Letters, 63.16 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

50. Cyprian, Letters, 63.16 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

51. Pseudo-Tertullian, Martyrdom of Perpetua And Felicitas, 6



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
acts of john Poorthuis and Schwartz (2006), A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity. 73
acts of thomas Poorthuis and Schwartz (2006), A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity. 73
aelius aristides Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 142
agape Alikin (2009), The Earliest History of the Christian Gathering, 104
agapê König (2012), Saints and Symposiasts: The Literature of Food and the Symposium in Greco-Roman and Early Christian Culture, 124
alexandria Vinzent (2013), Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament, 57
alienation,language of Lieu (2004), Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World, 170
altars Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 398
anastasis,cave of Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 398
angels,in worship Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 398
anger,wild Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 1036
antiochus iv epiphanes Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 1036
apocryphal acts of thomas Poorthuis and Schwartz (2006), A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity. 73
apostle Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 404
architecture,from first century to early fourth century Esler (2000), The Early Christian World, 709
architecture,generally Esler (2000), The Early Christian World, 709
architecture,house-churches Esler (2000), The Early Christian World, 709
asclepius,communal meals Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 142
asia minor,temple banquet areas Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 142
association dining,relationship with early christian feasting König (2012), Saints and Symposiasts: The Literature of Food and the Symposium in Greco-Roman and Early Christian Culture, 129
atheism,accusations against,epicureans Malherbe et al. (2014), Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J, 756
atheism,accusations against,jews Malherbe et al. (2014), Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J, 756
banquet hall (andron) Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 142
baptism,before council of nicaea Esler (2000), The Early Christian World, 480
baptism,third century Esler (2000), The Early Christian World, 480
baptism Blidstein (2017), Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature, 139; Lieu (2004), Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World, 163; McGowan (1999), Ascetic Eucharists: Food and Drink in Early Christian Ritual Meals, 21
benefaction Cadwallader (2016), Stones, Bones and the Sacred: Essays on Material Culture and Religion in Honor of Dennis E, 43, 46, 47
birds Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 1036
birth Vinzent (2013), Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament, 57, 219
blood,of christ Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth (2018), A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews. 84, 139
blood Blidstein (2017), Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature, 141; Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth (2018), A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews. 84, 139; Vinzent (2013), Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament, 57
body Lieu (2004), Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World, 170
body of christ Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth (2018), A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews. 84, 139
bones,study of Cadwallader (2016), Stones, Bones and the Sacred: Essays on Material Culture and Religion in Honor of Dennis E, 46
boundaries Poorthuis and Schwartz (2006), A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity. 73
bread,as food Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 398
bread,as thanksgiving Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 398
bread,breaking of Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 398
bread Vinzent (2013), Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament, 57, 219
calendar Vinzent (2013), Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament, 57
catechumenate,before council of nicaea Esler (2000), The Early Christian World, 480
celebration Vinzent (2013), Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament, 57, 219
charges against,at corinth Cadwallader (2016), Stones, Bones and the Sacred: Essays on Material Culture and Religion in Honor of Dennis E, 36, 38, 41, 42
charity Cadwallader (2016), Stones, Bones and the Sacred: Essays on Material Culture and Religion in Honor of Dennis E, 46, 47, 48
cherubim Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 1036
child mortality Nasrallah (2019), Archaeology and the Letters of Paul, 155
children,food consumption Cadwallader (2016), Stones, Bones and the Sacred: Essays on Material Culture and Religion in Honor of Dennis E, 44
children Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 1036
christianity,brotherhood in Visnjic (2021), The Invention of Duty: Stoicism as Deontology, 439
christianity,early,feasting practices König (2012), Saints and Symposiasts: The Literature of Food and the Symposium in Greco-Roman and Early Christian Culture, 124, 127, 129
christianity,early,relationship between early christian and jewish feasting and feasting literature König (2012), Saints and Symposiasts: The Literature of Food and the Symposium in Greco-Roman and Early Christian Culture, 127, 129
christology Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth (2018), A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews. 139
chrysippus Wilson (2022), Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency, 171
church,sibling-ethics and Cadwallader (2016), Stones, Bones and the Sacred: Essays on Material Culture and Religion in Honor of Dennis E, 47, 48, 49
church order literature McGowan (1999), Ascetic Eucharists: Food and Drink in Early Christian Ritual Meals, 21
churches,communal meals Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 142
circumcision Vinzent (2013), Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament, 219
clement of alexandria McGowan (1999), Ascetic Eucharists: Food and Drink in Early Christian Ritual Meals, 21
cognitive Robbins et al. (2017), The Art of Visual Exegesis, 40
community,borders of Blidstein (2017), Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature, 139
community Vinzent (2013), Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament, 57, 219
confession Blidstein (2017), Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature, 140, 141
corinth Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 398
covenant Vinzent (2013), Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament, 57
creation Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth (2018), A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews. 139; Vinzent (2013), Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament, 57
creator Vinzent (2013), Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament, 57
crises Cadwallader (2016), Stones, Bones and the Sacred: Essays on Material Culture and Religion in Honor of Dennis E, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49
cross Vinzent (2013), Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament, 57
death,adam,of Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 1036
death,infant,child mortality Nasrallah (2019), Archaeology and the Letters of Paul, 155
death Nasrallah (2019), Archaeology and the Letters of Paul, 155
didache (teaching of the twelve apostles) McGowan (1999), Ascetic Eucharists: Food and Drink in Early Christian Ritual Meals, 21, 92
dining Cadwallader (2016), Stones, Bones and the Sacred: Essays on Material Culture and Religion in Honor of Dennis E, 76
discernment Blidstein (2017), Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature, 139, 140
disease Cadwallader (2016), Stones, Bones and the Sacred: Essays on Material Culture and Religion in Honor of Dennis E, 36, 45, 46
dix,dom gregory McGowan (1999), Ascetic Eucharists: Food and Drink in Early Christian Ritual Meals, 21
dogs Blidstein (2017), Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature, 140
dying and rising (or death and resurrection) Jeong (2023), Pauline Baptism among the Mysteries: Ritual Messages and the Promise of Initiation. 275
east,the Lampe (2003), Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus, 163
egeria Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 398
encounter Vinzent (2013), Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament, 57
eschatology Lieu (2004), Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World, 170; Nasrallah (2019), Archaeology and the Letters of Paul, 155; Vinzent (2013), Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament, 57, 219
eucharist,before nicaea Esler (2000), The Early Christian World, 480
eucharist,elements Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 398
eucharist,eucharistic,community practice Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 398
eucharist,new testament period Esler (2000), The Early Christian World, 480
eucharist,of bread and wine McGowan (1999), Ascetic Eucharists: Food and Drink in Early Christian Ritual Meals, 92
eucharist,second-century rome Esler (2000), The Early Christian World, 480
eucharist,space Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 398
eucharist Blidstein (2017), Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature, 139, 140; Klawans (2009), Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism, 219; König (2012), Saints and Symposiasts: The Literature of Food and the Symposium in Greco-Roman and Early Christian Culture, 124; Lieu (2004), Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World, 163; Visnjic (2021), The Invention of Duty: Stoicism as Deontology, 439
excommunication Blidstein (2017), Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature, 139
famine Cadwallader (2016), Stones, Bones and the Sacred: Essays on Material Culture and Religion in Honor of Dennis E, 34, 39, 40, 44
feeley-harnik,gillian König (2012), Saints and Symposiasts: The Literature of Food and the Symposium in Greco-Roman and Early Christian Culture, 129
fertility Cadwallader (2016), Stones, Bones and the Sacred: Essays on Material Culture and Religion in Honor of Dennis E, 34, 36
fish Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 398
flesh Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth (2018), A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews. 84
food Lieu (2004), Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World, 163
food supply,offices,officials Cadwallader (2016), Stones, Bones and the Sacred: Essays on Material Culture and Religion in Honor of Dennis E, 36, 37, 38, 39, 43
food supply Cadwallader (2016), Stones, Bones and the Sacred: Essays on Material Culture and Religion in Honor of Dennis E, 33, 34, 35, 39, 43
foreigners,impurity of Blidstein (2017), Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature, 140
frame,frames Robbins et al. (2017), The Art of Visual Exegesis, 40
funerals Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 398
gospels McGowan (1999), Ascetic Eucharists: Food and Drink in Early Christian Ritual Meals, 92
graeco-roman piety Wilson (2022), Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency, 171
health,and purity Blidstein (2017), Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature, 139
heaven,worship in Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 398
hellenistic symposium Visnjic (2021), The Invention of Duty: Stoicism as Deontology, 438
hierarchies,social Blidstein (2017), Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature, 141
historical tradition Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 404
house-church,architecture Esler (2000), The Early Christian World, 709
household Malherbe et al. (2014), Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J, 756
hunger,in corinth Cadwallader (2016), Stones, Bones and the Sacred: Essays on Material Culture and Religion in Honor of Dennis E, 34, 35, 36, 43
hunger,paul and Cadwallader (2016), Stones, Bones and the Sacred: Essays on Material Culture and Religion in Honor of Dennis E, 41, 42, 44, 45, 48, 49
hunger,types Cadwallader (2016), Stones, Bones and the Sacred: Essays on Material Culture and Religion in Honor of Dennis E, 39, 44, 45
hunger Cadwallader (2016), Stones, Bones and the Sacred: Essays on Material Culture and Religion in Honor of Dennis E, 45, 46, 48
ḥabura Blidstein (2017), Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature, 141
ideological Robbins et al. (2017), The Art of Visual Exegesis, 40
idols,food offered to Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 404
imperial cult,inscriptions Cadwallader (2016), Stones, Bones and the Sacred: Essays on Material Culture and Religion in Honor of Dennis E, 36, 37, 38, 39
incense Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 398
inner texture Robbins et al. (2017), The Art of Visual Exegesis, 40
interpretation words Alikin (2009), The Earliest History of the Christian Gathering, 127
intertexture Robbins et al. (2017), The Art of Visual Exegesis, 40
irenaeus McGowan (1999), Ascetic Eucharists: Food and Drink in Early Christian Ritual Meals, 21, 92
jerusalem,earthly Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 398
jerusalem temple Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 398
jesus,last supper of Klawans (2009), Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism, 219
jesus Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 1036; McGowan (1999), Ascetic Eucharists: Food and Drink in Early Christian Ritual Meals, 21, 92
jesus (christ) (see also yeshu) Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 404
johnson-debaufre,melanie Nasrallah (2019), Archaeology and the Letters of Paul, 155
judaism Malherbe et al. (2014), Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J, 756
just Vinzent (2013), Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament, 57
justin martyr McGowan (1999), Ascetic Eucharists: Food and Drink in Early Christian Ritual Meals, 21
kitchen,in synagogue Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 142
lamb Vinzent (2013), Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament, 57, 219
language Vinzent (2013), Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament, 57
last supper McGowan (1999), Ascetic Eucharists: Food and Drink in Early Christian Ritual Meals, 21; Poorthuis and Schwartz (2006), A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity. 73; Visnjic (2021), The Invention of Duty: Stoicism as Deontology, 437, 438, 439
law Vinzent (2013), Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament, 57, 219
lawlessness Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 398
literature,ancient,consolation Nasrallah (2019), Archaeology and the Letters of Paul, 155, 156
liturgy Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth (2018), A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews. 139
lord,day of Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 398
lords supper Alikin (2009), The Earliest History of the Christian Gathering, 104, 107, 127; Vinzent (2013), Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament, 57, 219; Visnjic (2021), The Invention of Duty: Stoicism as Deontology, 437, 438
lord’s supper Nasrallah (2019), Archaeology and the Letters of Paul, 156
marcus (gnostic) McGowan (1999), Ascetic Eucharists: Food and Drink in Early Christian Ritual Meals, 92
mark,jesus before sanhedrin Bickerman and Tropper (2007), Studies in Jewish and Christian History, 738
mark,trial of jesus Bickerman and Tropper (2007), Studies in Jewish and Christian History, 738
mark Bickerman and Tropper (2007), Studies in Jewish and Christian History, 738
mary Vinzent (2013), Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament, 57
meal,communal Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 398
meal,eucharistic Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 398
meals,communal,purity requirements for Blidstein (2017), Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature, 139, 140, 141
meals,dining facilities,status Cadwallader (2016), Stones, Bones and the Sacred: Essays on Material Culture and Religion in Honor of Dennis E, 46, 47
meals,eucharistic Alikin (2009), The Earliest History of the Christian Gathering, 58
meals,festive Alikin (2009), The Earliest History of the Christian Gathering, 58
meals,group Alikin (2009), The Earliest History of the Christian Gathering, 58, 127
meals Lieu (2004), Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World, 163
milk Alikin (2009), The Earliest History of the Christian Gathering, 58
misanthropy Malherbe et al. (2014), Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J, 756
mosaics Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 398
moses Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 1036
nebuchadnezzar Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 1036
nero,emperor Cadwallader (2016), Stones, Bones and the Sacred: Essays on Material Culture and Religion in Honor of Dennis E, 36, 48
new covenant Visnjic (2021), The Invention of Duty: Stoicism as Deontology, 439
offerings Vinzent (2013), Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament, 57
order of the gathering Alikin (2009), The Earliest History of the Christian Gathering, 65
pagan,pagans,communal meals Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 142
papias McGowan (1999), Ascetic Eucharists: Food and Drink in Early Christian Ritual Meals, 92
passions (pathē) Wilson (2022), Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency, 171
passover,sacrifice (in temple) Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 142
passover,seder ritual Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 142
passover König (2012), Saints and Symposiasts: The Literature of Food and the Symposium in Greco-Roman and Early Christian Culture, 129; McGowan (1999), Ascetic Eucharists: Food and Drink in Early Christian Ritual Meals, 92
patronage Malherbe et al. (2014), Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J, 756
paul,1 corinthians McGowan (1999), Ascetic Eucharists: Food and Drink in Early Christian Ritual Meals, 92
paul,apostle,poverty Nasrallah (2019), Archaeology and the Letters of Paul, 156
paul,last supper in Visnjic (2021), The Invention of Duty: Stoicism as Deontology, 437, 438, 439
paul,letters of Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 398
paul Klawans (2009), Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism, 219; König (2012), Saints and Symposiasts: The Literature of Food and the Symposium in Greco-Roman and Early Christian Culture, 127, 129; Seim and Okland (2009), Metamorphoses: Resurrection, Body and Transformative Practices in Early Christianity, 155
paul (saul) Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 404
peace Vinzent (2013), Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament, 57
perfection Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth (2018), A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews. 84, 139
peter Vinzent (2013), Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament, 57
peter (cephas,simon –) Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 404
petra,communal meals Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 142
philo of alexandria Vinzent (2013), Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament, 219
plutarch Malherbe et al. (2014), Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J, 756; Nasrallah (2019), Archaeology and the Letters of Paul, 155
poor,the Nasrallah (2019), Archaeology and the Letters of Paul, 155, 156
ports Cadwallader (2016), Stones, Bones and the Sacred: Essays on Material Culture and Religion in Honor of Dennis E, 34, 46
poverty,of paul Nasrallah (2019), Archaeology and the Letters of Paul, 156
poverty Nasrallah (2019), Archaeology and the Letters of Paul, 155, 156
power Seim and Okland (2009), Metamorphoses: Resurrection, Body and Transformative Practices in Early Christianity, 155; Vinzent (2013), Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament, 57
prayereucharistic Alikin (2009), The Earliest History of the Christian Gathering, 127
prayers,symbol for Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 398
priests Vinzent (2013), Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament, 219
production Cadwallader (2016), Stones, Bones and the Sacred: Essays on Material Culture and Religion in Honor of Dennis E, 47
prophets Vinzent (2013), Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament, 57
pseudo-clementine writings Poorthuis and Schwartz (2006), A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity. 73
purity Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 398
purity requirement for Blidstein (2017), Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature, 141
qumran,communal meals Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 142
qumran König (2012), Saints and Symposiasts: The Literature of Food and the Symposium in Greco-Roman and Early Christian Culture, 129
quotations Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 398
rabbinic conceptions of impurity Blidstein (2017), Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature, 140
rabbis Vinzent (2013), Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament, 57
refoundation Cadwallader (2016), Stones, Bones and the Sacred: Essays on Material Culture and Religion in Honor of Dennis E, 35
repentance,eve,of Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 1036
repentance Blidstein (2017), Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature, 141
resurrection Jeong (2023), Pauline Baptism among the Mysteries: Ritual Messages and the Promise of Initiation. 275
revelation Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth (2018), A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews. 84, 139
roads Cadwallader (2016), Stones, Bones and the Sacred: Essays on Material Culture and Religion in Honor of Dennis E, 35
roman colony Cadwallader (2016), Stones, Bones and the Sacred: Essays on Material Culture and Religion in Honor of Dennis E, 35
roman empire,judicial procedure Bickerman and Tropper (2007), Studies in Jewish and Christian History, 738
rome,therapeutae Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 142
rome Cadwallader (2016), Stones, Bones and the Sacred: Essays on Material Culture and Religion in Honor of Dennis E, 39, 44, 49
sabbath Vinzent (2013), Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament, 57, 219
sacred and profane Blidstein (2017), Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature, 139, 140, 141
sacrifice,animal Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 398
sacrifice,eucharistic Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 398
sacrifice Blidstein (2017), Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature, 140, 141; Vinzent (2013), Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament, 57, 219
sacrifice and sacrificial feasting,christian attitudes to sacrificial meat König (2012), Saints and Symposiasts: The Literature of Food and the Symposium in Greco-Roman and Early Christian Culture, 127
sacrifices,jerusalem temple Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 142
salvation Vinzent (2013), Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament, 57
sanhedrin Bickerman and Tropper (2007), Studies in Jewish and Christian History, 738
semiotic square Robbins et al. (2017), The Art of Visual Exegesis, 40
sex/sexual Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 1036
sinner Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 1036
slaves,slavery Cadwallader (2016), Stones, Bones and the Sacred: Essays on Material Culture and Religion in Honor of Dennis E, 44
sociorhetorical Robbins et al. (2017), The Art of Visual Exegesis, 40
spirit,holy Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth (2018), A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews. 84, 139
stephen Vinzent (2013), Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament, 57
stoa,triclinium Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 142
stobi synagogue,inscription Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 142
stobi synagogue,triclinium Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 142
sun Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 398
sunday Vinzent (2013), Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament, 219
symbols Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 398
symposium Alikin (2009), The Earliest History of the Christian Gathering, 65
synoptic,tradition Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 404
syria,temples Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 142
tabgha Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 398
table (τράπεζα) Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 398
teeth Cadwallader (2016), Stones, Bones and the Sacred: Essays on Material Culture and Religion in Honor of Dennis E, 46
temple Malherbe et al. (2014), Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J, 756; Vinzent (2013), Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament, 57, 219
tent Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 1036; Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth (2018), A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews. 84, 139
tertullian McGowan (1999), Ascetic Eucharists: Food and Drink in Early Christian Ritual Meals, 21
thanksgiving Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 398
the curator annonae Cadwallader (2016), Stones, Bones and the Sacred: Essays on Material Culture and Religion in Honor of Dennis E, 36, 37, 38, 39, 48
throne,immovable Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 1036
torah Vinzent (2013), Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament, 57
twelve Vinzent (2013), Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament, 57
unification Blidstein (2017), Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature, 139
unleavened bread Vinzent (2013), Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament, 219
valentinians McGowan (1999), Ascetic Eucharists: Food and Drink in Early Christian Ritual Meals, 92; Vinzent (2013), Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament, 57
value (axia) Wilson (2022), Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency, 171
virtue Wilson (2022), Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency, 171
visual material culture Robbins et al. (2017), The Art of Visual Exegesis, 40
walbank,mary Nasrallah (2019), Archaeology and the Letters of Paul, 155
water Cadwallader (2016), Stones, Bones and the Sacred: Essays on Material Culture and Religion in Honor of Dennis E, 36
wine' McGowan (1999), Ascetic Eucharists: Food and Drink in Early Christian Ritual Meals, 92
wine Alikin (2009), The Earliest History of the Christian Gathering, 58; Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 398
women Vinzent (2013), Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament, 57
words of institution Visnjic (2021), The Invention of Duty: Stoicism as Deontology, 437
world,the Lieu (2004), Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World, 170
worship,before council of nicaea Esler (2000), The Early Christian World, 480
worship,early christian Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 398