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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



8234
New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 10.6


Ταῦτα δὲ τύποι ἡμῶν ἐγενήθησαν, εἰς τὸ μὴ εἶναι ἡμᾶςἐπιθυμητὰςκακῶν,καθὼς κἀκεῖνοιἐπεθύμησαν.Nowthese things were our examples, to the intent we should not lust afterevil things, as they also lusted.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

49 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 7.9, 12.8, 13.1-13.3, 32.4, 32.15-32.42 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

7.9. וְיָדַעְתָּ כִּי־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ הוּא הָאֱלֹהִים הָאֵל הַנֶּאֱמָן שֹׁמֵר הַבְּרִית וְהַחֶסֶד לְאֹהֲבָיו וּלְשֹׁמְרֵי מצותו [מִצְוֺתָיו] לְאֶלֶף דּוֹר׃ 12.8. לֹא תַעֲשׂוּן כְּכֹל אֲשֶׁר אֲנַחְנוּ עֹשִׂים פֹּה הַיּוֹם אִישׁ כָּל־הַיָּשָׁר בְּעֵינָיו׃ 13.1. אֵת כָּל־הַדָּבָר אֲשֶׁר אָנֹכִי מְצַוֶּה אֶתְכֶם אֹתוֹ תִשְׁמְרוּ לַעֲשׂוֹת לֹא־תֹסֵף עָלָיו וְלֹא תִגְרַע מִמֶּנּוּ׃ 13.1. כִּי הָרֹג תַּהַרְגֶנּוּ יָדְךָ תִּהְיֶה־בּוֹ בָרִאשׁוֹנָה לַהֲמִיתוֹ וְיַד כָּל־הָעָם בָּאַחֲרֹנָה׃ 13.2. כִּי־יָקוּם בְּקִרְבְּךָ נָבִיא אוֹ חֹלֵם חֲלוֹם וְנָתַן אֵלֶיךָ אוֹת אוֹ מוֹפֵת׃ 13.3. וּבָא הָאוֹת וְהַמּוֹפֵת אֲשֶׁר־דִּבֶּר אֵלֶיךָ לֵאמֹר נֵלְכָה אַחֲרֵי אֱלֹהִים אֲחֵרִים אֲשֶׁר לֹא־יְדַעְתָּם וְנָעָבְדֵם׃ 32.4. כִּי־אֶשָּׂא אֶל־שָׁמַיִם יָדִי וְאָמַרְתִּי חַי אָנֹכִי לְעֹלָם׃ 32.4. הַצּוּר תָּמִים פָּעֳלוֹ כִּי כָל־דְּרָכָיו מִשְׁפָּט אֵל אֱמוּנָה וְאֵין עָוֶל צַדִּיק וְיָשָׁר הוּא׃ 32.15. וַיִּשְׁמַן יְשֻׁרוּן וַיִּבְעָט שָׁמַנְתָּ עָבִיתָ כָּשִׂיתָ וַיִּטֹּשׁ אֱלוֹהַ עָשָׂהוּ וַיְנַבֵּל צוּר יְשֻׁעָתוֹ׃ 32.16. יַקְנִאֻהוּ בְּזָרִים בְּתוֹעֵבֹת יַכְעִיסֻהוּ׃ 32.17. יִזְבְּחוּ לַשֵּׁדִים לֹא אֱלֹהַ אֱלֹהִים לֹא יְדָעוּם חֲדָשִׁים מִקָּרֹב בָּאוּ לֹא שְׂעָרוּם אֲבֹתֵיכֶם׃ 32.18. צוּר יְלָדְךָ תֶּשִׁי וַתִּשְׁכַּח אֵל מְחֹלְלֶךָ׃ 32.19. וַיַּרְא יְהוָה וַיִּנְאָץ מִכַּעַס בָּנָיו וּבְנֹתָיו׃ 32.21. הֵם קִנְאוּנִי בְלֹא־אֵל כִּעֲסוּנִי בְּהַבְלֵיהֶם וַאֲנִי אַקְנִיאֵם בְּלֹא־עָם בְּגוֹי נָבָל אַכְעִיסֵם׃ 32.22. כִּי־אֵשׁ קָדְחָה בְאַפִּי וַתִּיקַד עַד־שְׁאוֹל תַּחְתִּית וַתֹּאכַל אֶרֶץ וִיבֻלָהּ וַתְּלַהֵט מוֹסְדֵי הָרִים׃ 32.23. אַסְפֶּה עָלֵימוֹ רָעוֹת חִצַּי אֲכַלֶּה־בָּם׃ 32.24. מְזֵי רָעָב וּלְחֻמֵי רֶשֶׁף וְקֶטֶב מְרִירִי וְשֶׁן־בְּהֵמוֹת אֲשַׁלַּח־בָּם עִם־חֲמַת זֹחֲלֵי עָפָר׃ 32.25. מִחוּץ תְּשַׁכֶּל־חֶרֶב וּמֵחֲדָרִים אֵימָה גַּם־בָּחוּר גַּם־בְּתוּלָה יוֹנֵק עִם־אִישׁ שֵׂיבָה׃ 32.26. אָמַרְתִּי אַפְאֵיהֶם אַשְׁבִּיתָה מֵאֱנוֹשׁ זִכְרָם׃ 32.27. לוּלֵי כַּעַס אוֹיֵב אָגוּר פֶּן־יְנַכְּרוּ צָרֵימוֹ פֶּן־יֹאמְרוּ יָדֵינוּ רָמָה וְלֹא יְהוָה פָּעַל כָּל־זֹאת׃ 32.28. כִּי־גוֹי אֹבַד עֵצוֹת הֵמָּה וְאֵין בָּהֶם תְּבוּנָה׃ 32.29. לוּ חָכְמוּ יַשְׂכִּילוּ זֹאת יָבִינוּ לְאַחֲרִיתָם׃ 32.31. כִּי לֹא כְצוּרֵנוּ צוּרָם וְאֹיְבֵינוּ פְּלִילִים׃ 32.32. כִּי־מִגֶּפֶן סְדֹם גַּפְנָם וּמִשַּׁדְמֹת עֲמֹרָה עֲנָבֵמוֹ עִנְּבֵי־רוֹשׁ אַשְׁכְּלֹת מְרֹרֹת לָמוֹ׃ 32.33. חֲמַת תַּנִּינִם יֵינָם וְרֹאשׁ פְּתָנִים אַכְזָר׃ 32.34. הֲלֹא־הוּא כָּמֻס עִמָּדִי חָתֻם בְּאוֹצְרֹתָי׃ 32.35. לִי נָקָם וְשִׁלֵּם לְעֵת תָּמוּט רַגְלָם כִּי קָרוֹב יוֹם אֵידָם וְחָשׁ עֲתִדֹת לָמוֹ׃ 32.36. כִּי־יָדִין יְהוָה עַמּוֹ וְעַל־עֲבָדָיו יִתְנֶחָם כִּי יִרְאֶה כִּי־אָזְלַת יָד וְאֶפֶס עָצוּר וְעָזוּב׃ 32.37. וְאָמַר אֵי אֱלֹהֵימוֹ צוּר חָסָיוּ בוֹ׃ 32.38. אֲשֶׁר חֵלֶב זְבָחֵימוֹ יֹאכֵלוּ יִשְׁתּוּ יֵין נְסִיכָם יָקוּמוּ וְיַעְזְרֻכֶם יְהִי עֲלֵיכֶם סִתְרָה׃ 32.39. רְאוּ עַתָּה כִּי אֲנִי אֲנִי הוּא וְאֵין אֱלֹהִים עִמָּדִי אֲנִי אָמִית וַאֲחַיֶּה מָחַצְתִּי וַאֲנִי אֶרְפָּא וְאֵין מִיָּדִי מַצִּיל׃ 32.41. אִם־שַׁנּוֹתִי בְּרַק חַרְבִּי וְתֹאחֵז בְּמִשְׁפָּט יָדִי אָשִׁיב נָקָם לְצָרָי וְלִמְשַׂנְאַי אֲשַׁלֵּם׃ 32.42. אַשְׁכִּיר חִצַּי מִדָּם וְחַרְבִּי תֹּאכַל בָּשָׂר מִדַּם חָלָל וְשִׁבְיָה מֵרֹאשׁ פַּרְעוֹת אוֹיֵב׃ 7.9. Know therefore that the LORD thy God, He is God; the faithful God, who keepeth covet and mercy with them that love Him and keep His commandments to a thousand generations;" 12.8. Ye shall not do after all that we do here this day, every man whatsoever is right in his own eyes;" 13.1. All this word which I command you, that shall ye observe to do; thou shalt not add thereto, nor diminish from it." 13.2. If there arise in the midst of thee a prophet, or a dreamer of dreams—and he give thee a sign or a wonder," 13.3. and the sign or the wonder come to pass, whereof he spoke unto thee—saying: ‘Let us go after other gods, which thou hast not known, and let us serve them’;" 32.4. The Rock, His work is perfect; For all His ways are justice; A God of faithfulness and without iniquity, Just and right is He. ." 32.15. But Jeshurun waxed fat, and kicked— Thou didst wax fat, thou didst grow thick, thou didst become gross— And he forsook God who made him, And contemned the Rock of his salvation." 32.16. They roused Him to jealousy with strange gods, With abominations did they provoke Him." 32.17. They sacrificed unto demons, no-gods, Gods that they knew not, New gods that came up of late, Which your fathers dreaded not." 32.18. of the Rock that begot thee thou wast unmindful, And didst forget God that bore thee. ." 32.19. And the LORD saw, and spurned, Because of the provoking of His sons and His daughters." 32.20. And He said: ‘I will hide My face from them, I will see what their end shall be; For they are a very froward generation, Children in whom is no faithfulness." 32.21. They have roused Me to jealousy with a no-god; They have provoked Me with their vanities; And I will rouse them to jealousy with a no-people; I will provoke them with a vile nation." 32.22. For a fire is kindled in My nostril, And burneth unto the depths of the nether-world, And devoureth the earth with her produce, And setteth ablaze the foundations of the mountains." 32.23. I will heap evils upon them; I will spend Mine arrows upon them;" 32.24. The wasting of hunger, and the devouring of the fiery bolt, And bitter destruction; And the teeth of beasts will I send upon them, With the venom of crawling things of the dust." 32.25. Without shall the sword bereave, And in the chambers terror; Slaying both young man and virgin, The suckling with the man of gray hairs." 32.26. I thought I would make an end of them, I would make their memory cease from among men;" 32.27. Were it not that I dreaded the enemy’s provocation, Lest their adversaries should misdeem, Lest they should say: Our hand is exalted, And not the LORD hath wrought all this.’" 32.28. For they are a nation void of counsel, And there is no understanding in them." 32.29. If they were wise, they would understand this, They would discern their latter end." 32.30. How should one chase a thousand, And two put ten thousand to flight, Except their Rock had given them over And the LORD had delivered them up?" 32.31. For their rock is not as our Rock, Even our enemies themselves being judges." 32.32. For their vine is of the vine of Sodom, And of the fields of Gomorrah; Their grapes are grapes of gall, Their clusters are bitter;" 32.33. Their wine is the venom of serpents, And the cruel poison of asps." 32.34. ’Is not this laid up in store with Me, Sealed up in My treasuries?" 32.35. Vengeance is Mine, and recompense, Against the time when their foot shall slip; For the day of their calamity is at hand, And the things that are to come upon them shall make haste." 32.36. For the LORD will judge His people, And repent Himself for His servants; When He seeth that their stay is gone, And there is none remaining, shut up or left at large." 32.37. And it is said: Where are their gods, The rock in whom they trusted;" 32.38. Who did eat the fat of their sacrifices, and drank the wine of their drink-offering? Let him rise up and help you, Let him be your protection." 32.39. See now that I, even I, am He, And there is no god with Me; I kill, and I make alive; I have wounded, and I heal; And there is none that can deliver out of My hand." 32.40. For I lift up My hand to heaven, And say: As I live for ever," 32.41. If I whet My glittering sword, And My hand take hold on judgment; I will render vengeance to Mine adversaries, And will recompense them that hate Me." 32.42. I will make Mine arrows drunk with blood, And My sword shall devour flesh; With the blood of the slain and the captives, From the long-haired heads of the enemy.’"
2. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 4.1, 4.8-4.9, 4.31, 6.8, 14.21-14.31, 19.9, 32.7 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

4.1. וַיֹּאמֶר מֹשֶׁה אֶל־יְהוָה בִּי אֲדֹנָי לֹא אִישׁ דְּבָרִים אָנֹכִי גַּם מִתְּמוֹל גַּם מִשִּׁלְשֹׁם גַּם מֵאָז דַּבֶּרְךָ אֶל־עַבְדֶּךָ כִּי כְבַד־פֶּה וּכְבַד לָשׁוֹן אָנֹכִי׃ 4.1. וַיַּעַן מֹשֶׁה וַיֹּאמֶר וְהֵן לֹא־יַאֲמִינוּ לִי וְלֹא יִשְׁמְעוּ בְּקֹלִי כִּי יֹאמְרוּ לֹא־נִרְאָה אֵלֶיךָ יְהוָה׃ 4.8. וְהָיָה אִם־לֹא יַאֲמִינוּ לָךְ וְלֹא יִשְׁמְעוּ לְקֹל הָאֹת הָרִאשׁוֹן וְהֶאֱמִינוּ לְקֹל הָאֹת הָאַחֲרוֹן׃ 4.9. וְהָיָה אִם־לֹא יַאֲמִינוּ גַּם לִשְׁנֵי הָאֹתוֹת הָאֵלֶּה וְלֹא יִשְׁמְעוּן לְקֹלֶךָ וְלָקַחְתָּ מִמֵּימֵי הַיְאֹר וְשָׁפַכְתָּ הַיַּבָּשָׁה וְהָיוּ הַמַּיִם אֲשֶׁר תִּקַּח מִן־הַיְאֹר וְהָיוּ לְדָם בַּיַּבָּשֶׁת׃ 4.31. וַיַּאֲמֵן הָעָם וַיִּשְׁמְעוּ כִּי־פָקַד יְהוָה אֶת־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְכִי רָאָה אֶת־עָנְיָם וַיִּקְּדוּ וַיִּשְׁתַּחֲוּוּ׃ 6.8. וְהֵבֵאתִי אֶתְכֶם אֶל־הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר נָשָׂאתִי אֶת־יָדִי לָתֵת אֹתָהּ לְאַבְרָהָם לְיִצְחָק וּלְיַעֲקֹב וְנָתַתִּי אֹתָהּ לָכֶם מוֹרָשָׁה אֲנִי יְהוָה׃ 14.21. וַיֵּט מֹשֶׁה אֶת־יָדוֹ עַל־הַיָּם וַיּוֹלֶךְ יְהוָה אֶת־הַיָּם בְּרוּחַ קָדִים עַזָּה כָּל־הַלַּיְלָה וַיָּשֶׂם אֶת־הַיָּם לֶחָרָבָה וַיִּבָּקְעוּ הַמָּיִם׃ 14.22. וַיָּבֹאוּ בְנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּתוֹךְ הַיָּם בַּיַּבָּשָׁה וְהַמַּיִם לָהֶם חֹמָה מִימִינָם וּמִשְּׂמֹאלָם׃ 14.23. וַיִּרְדְּפוּ מִצְרַיִם וַיָּבֹאוּ אַחֲרֵיהֶם כֹּל סוּס פַּרְעֹה רִכְבּוֹ וּפָרָשָׁיו אֶל־תּוֹךְ הַיָּם׃ 14.24. וַיְהִי בְּאַשְׁמֹרֶת הַבֹּקֶר וַיַּשְׁקֵף יְהוָה אֶל־מַחֲנֵה מִצְרַיִם בְּעַמּוּד אֵשׁ וְעָנָן וַיָּהָם אֵת מַחֲנֵה מִצְרָיִם׃ 14.25. וַיָּסַר אֵת אֹפַן מַרְכְּבֹתָיו וַיְנַהֲגֵהוּ בִּכְבֵדֻת וַיֹּאמֶר מִצְרַיִם אָנוּסָה מִפְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל כִּי יְהוָה נִלְחָם לָהֶם בְּמִצְרָיִם 14.26. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה נְטֵה אֶת־יָדְךָ עַל־הַיָּם וְיָשֻׁבוּ הַמַּיִם עַל־מִצְרַיִם עַל־רִכְבּוֹ וְעַל־פָּרָשָׁיו׃ 14.27. וַיֵּט מֹשֶׁה אֶת־יָדוֹ עַל־הַיָּם וַיָּשָׁב הַיָּם לִפְנוֹת בֹּקֶר לְאֵיתָנוֹ וּמִצְרַיִם נָסִים לִקְרָאתוֹ וַיְנַעֵר יְהוָה אֶת־מִצְרַיִם בְּתוֹךְ הַיָּם׃ 14.28. וַיָּשֻׁבוּ הַמַּיִם וַיְכַסּוּ אֶת־הָרֶכֶב וְאֶת־הַפָּרָשִׁים לְכֹל חֵיל פַּרְעֹה הַבָּאִים אַחֲרֵיהֶם בַּיָּם לֹא־נִשְׁאַר בָּהֶם עַד־אֶחָד׃ 14.29. וּבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל הָלְכוּ בַיַּבָּשָׁה בְּתוֹךְ הַיָּם וְהַמַּיִם לָהֶם חֹמָה מִימִינָם וּמִשְּׂמֹאלָם 14.31. וַיַּרְא יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶת־הַיָּד הַגְּדֹלָה אֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה יְהוָה בְּמִצְרַיִם וַיִּירְאוּ הָעָם אֶת־יְהוָה וַיַּאֲמִינוּ בַּיהוָה וּבְמֹשֶׁה עַבְדּוֹ׃ 19.9. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה הִנֵּה אָנֹכִי בָּא אֵלֶיךָ בְּעַב הֶעָנָן בַּעֲבוּר יִשְׁמַע הָעָם בְּדַבְּרִי עִמָּךְ וְגַם־בְּךָ יַאֲמִינוּ לְעוֹלָם וַיַּגֵּד מֹשֶׁה אֶת־דִּבְרֵי הָעָם אֶל־יְהוָה׃ 32.7. וַיְדַבֵּר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה לֶךְ־רֵד כִּי שִׁחֵת עַמְּךָ אֲשֶׁר הֶעֱלֵיתָ מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם׃ 4.1. And Moses answered and said: ‘But, behold, they will not believe me, nor hearken unto my voice; for they will say: The lord hath not appeared unto thee.’" 4.8. And it shall come to pass, if they will not believe thee, neither hearken to the voice of the first sign, that they will believe the voice of the latter sign." 4.9. And it shall come to pass, if they will not believe even these two signs, neither hearken unto thy voice, that thou shalt take of the water of the river, and pour it upon the dry land; and the water which thou takest out of the river shall become blood upon the dry land.’" 4.31. And the people believed; and when they heard that the LORD had remembered the children of Israel, and that He had seen their affliction, then they bowed their heads and worshipped." 6.8. And I will bring you in unto the land, concerning which I lifted up My hand to give it to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob; and I will give it you for a heritage: I am the LORD.’" 14.21. And Moses stretched out his hand over the sea; and the LORD caused the sea to go back by a strong east wind all the night, and made the sea dry land, and the waters were divided." 14.22. And the children of Israel went into the midst of the sea upon the dry ground; and the waters were a wall unto them on their right hand, and on their left." 14.23. And the Egyptians pursued, and went in after them into the midst of the sea, all Pharaoh’s horses, his chariots, and his horsemen." 14.24. And it came to pass in the morning watch, that the LORD looked forth upon the host of the Egyptians through the pillar of fire and of cloud, and discomfited the host of the Egyptians." 14.25. And He took off their chariot wheels, and made them to drive heavily; so that the Egyptians said: ‘Let us flee from the face of Israel; for the LORD fighteth for them against the Egyptians.’" 14.26. And the LORD said unto Moses: ‘Stretch out thy hand over the sea, that the waters may come back upon the Egyptians, upon their chariots, and upon their horsemen.’" 14.27. And Moses stretched forth his hand over the sea, and the sea returned to its strength when the morning appeared; and the Egyptians fled against it; and the LORD overthrew the Egyptians in the midst of the sea." 14.28. And the waters returned, and covered the chariots, and the horsemen, even all the host of Pharaoh that went in after them into the sea; there remained not so much as one of them." 14.29. But the children of Israel walked upon dry land in the midst of the sea; and the waters were a wall unto them on their right hand, and on their left." 14.30. Thus the LORD saved Israel that day out of the hand of the Egyptians; and Israel saw the Egyptians dead upon the sea-shore." 14.31. And Israel saw the great work which the LORD did upon the Egyptians, and the people feared the LORD; and they believed in the LORD, and in His servant Moses." 19.9. And the LORD said unto Moses: ‘Lo, I come unto thee in a thick cloud, that the people may hear when I speak with thee, and may also believe thee for ever.’ And Moses told the words of the people unto the LORD." 32.7. And the LORD spoke unto Moses: ‘Go, get thee down; for thy people, that thou broughtest up out of the land of Egypt, have dealt corruptly;"
3. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 6.1-6.2 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

6.1. וַיְהִי כִּי־הֵחֵל הָאָדָם לָרֹב עַל־פְּנֵי הָאֲדָמָה וּבָנוֹת יֻלְּדוּ לָהֶם׃ 6.1. וַיּוֹלֶד נֹחַ שְׁלֹשָׁה בָנִים אֶת־שֵׁם אֶת־חָם וְאֶת־יָפֶת׃ 6.2. וַיִּרְאוּ בְנֵי־הָאֱלֹהִים אֶת־בְּנוֹת הָאָדָם כִּי טֹבֹת הֵנָּה וַיִּקְחוּ לָהֶם נָשִׁים מִכֹּל אֲשֶׁר בָּחָרוּ׃ 6.2. מֵהָעוֹף לְמִינֵהוּ וּמִן־הַבְּהֵמָה לְמִינָהּ מִכֹּל רֶמֶשׂ הָאֲדָמָה לְמִינֵהוּ שְׁנַיִם מִכֹּל יָבֹאוּ אֵלֶיךָ לְהַחֲיוֹת׃ 6.1. And it came to pass, when men began to multiply on the face of the earth, and daughters were born unto them," 6.2. that the sons of nobles saw the daughters of men that they were fair; and they took them wives, whomsoever they chose."
4. Hebrew Bible, Hosea, 5.9 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

5.9. אֶפְרַיִם לְשַׁמָּה תִהְיֶה בְּיוֹם תּוֹכֵחָה בְּשִׁבְטֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל הוֹדַעְתִּי נֶאֱמָנָה׃ 5.9. Ephraim shall be desolate in the day of rebuke; Among the tribes of Israel do I make known that which shall surely be. ."
5. Hebrew Bible, Joel, 2.20, 2.28 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

2.20. But I will remove far off from you the northern one, And will drive him into a land barren and desolate, With his face toward the eastern sea, And his hinder part toward the western sea; that his foulness may come up, and his ill savour may come up, because he hath done great things.’"
6. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 17.7 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

17.7. וְלֹא־יִזְבְּחוּ עוֹד אֶת־זִבְחֵיהֶם לַשְּׂעִירִם אֲשֶׁר הֵם זֹנִים אַחֲרֵיהֶם חֻקַּת עוֹלָם תִּהְיֶה־זֹּאת לָהֶם לְדֹרֹתָם׃ 17.7. And they shall no more sacrifice their sacrifices unto the satyrs, after whom they go astray. This shall be a statute for ever unto them throughout their generations. ."
7. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 11.4, 21.4-21.9, 25.1-25.9 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

11.4. וְהָאסַפְסֻף אֲשֶׁר בְּקִרְבּוֹ הִתְאַוּוּ תַּאֲוָה וַיָּשֻׁבוּ וַיִּבְכּוּ גַּם בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיֹּאמְרוּ מִי יַאֲכִלֵנוּ בָּשָׂר׃ 21.4. וַיִּסְעוּ מֵהֹר הָהָר דֶּרֶךְ יַם־סוּף לִסְבֹב אֶת־אֶרֶץ אֱדוֹם וַתִּקְצַר נֶפֶשׁ־הָעָם בַּדָּרֶךְ׃ 21.5. וַיְדַבֵּר הָעָם בֵּאלֹהִים וּבְמֹשֶׁה לָמָה הֶעֱלִיתֻנוּ מִמִּצְרַיִם לָמוּת בַּמִּדְבָּר כִּי אֵין לֶחֶם וְאֵין מַיִם וְנַפְשֵׁנוּ קָצָה בַּלֶּחֶם הַקְּלֹקֵל׃ 21.6. וַיְשַׁלַּח יְהוָה בָּעָם אֵת הַנְּחָשִׁים הַשְּׂרָפִים וַיְנַשְּׁכוּ אֶת־הָעָם וַיָּמָת עַם־רָב מִיִּשְׂרָאֵל׃ 21.7. וַיָּבֹא הָעָם אֶל־מֹשֶׁה וַיֹּאמְרוּ חָטָאנוּ כִּי־דִבַּרְנוּ בַיהוָה וָבָךְ הִתְפַּלֵּל אֶל־יְהוָה וְיָסֵר מֵעָלֵינוּ אֶת־הַנָּחָשׁ וַיִּתְפַּלֵּל מֹשֶׁה בְּעַד הָעָם׃ 21.8. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה עֲשֵׂה לְךָ שָׂרָף וְשִׂים אֹתוֹ עַל־נֵס וְהָיָה כָּל־הַנָּשׁוּךְ וְרָאָה אֹתוֹ וָחָי׃ 21.9. וַיַּעַשׂ מֹשֶׁה נְחַשׁ נְחֹשֶׁת וַיְשִׂמֵהוּ עַל־הַנֵּס וְהָיָה אִם־נָשַׁךְ הַנָּחָשׁ אֶת־אִישׁ וְהִבִּיט אֶל־נְחַשׁ הַנְּחֹשֶׁת וָחָי׃ 25.1. וַיְדַבֵּר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה לֵּאמֹר׃ 25.1. וַיֵּשֶׁב יִשְׂרָאֵל בַּשִּׁטִּים וַיָּחֶל הָעָם לִזְנוֹת אֶל־בְּנוֹת מוֹאָב׃ 25.2. וַתִּקְרֶאןָ לָעָם לְזִבְחֵי אֱלֹהֵיהֶן וַיֹּאכַל הָעָם וַיִּשְׁתַּחֲוּוּ לֵאלֹהֵיהֶן׃ 25.3. וַיִּצָּמֶד יִשְׂרָאֵל לְבַעַל פְּעוֹר וַיִּחַר־אַף יְהוָה בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 25.4. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה קַח אֶת־כָּל־רָאשֵׁי הָעָם וְהוֹקַע אוֹתָם לַיהוָה נֶגֶד הַשָּׁמֶשׁ וְיָשֹׁב חֲרוֹן אַף־יְהוָה מִיִּשְׂרָאֵל׃ 25.5. וַיֹּאמֶר מֹשֶׁה אֶל־שֹׁפְטֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל הִרְגוּ אִישׁ אֲנָשָׁיו הַנִּצְמָדִים לְבַעַל פְּעוֹר׃ 25.6. וְהִנֵּה אִישׁ מִבְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל בָּא וַיַּקְרֵב אֶל־אֶחָיו אֶת־הַמִּדְיָנִית לְעֵינֵי מֹשֶׁה וּלְעֵינֵי כָּל־עֲדַת בְּנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל וְהֵמָּה בֹכִים פֶּתַח אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד׃ 25.7. וַיַּרְא פִּינְחָס בֶּן־אֶלְעָזָר בֶּן־אַהֲרֹן הַכֹּהֵן וַיָּקָם מִתּוֹךְ הָעֵדָה וַיִּקַּח רֹמַח בְּיָדוֹ׃ 25.8. וַיָּבֹא אַחַר אִישׁ־יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶל־הַקֻּבָּה וַיִּדְקֹר אֶת־שְׁנֵיהֶם אֵת אִישׁ יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאֶת־הָאִשָּׁה אֶל־קֳבָתָהּ וַתֵּעָצַר הַמַּגֵּפָה מֵעַל בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 25.9. וַיִּהְיוּ הַמֵּתִים בַּמַּגֵּפָה אַרְבָּעָה וְעֶשְׂרִים אָלֶף׃ 11.4. And the mixed multitude that was among them fell a lusting; and the children of Israel also wept on their part, and said: ‘Would that we were given flesh to eat!" 21.4. And they journeyed from mount Hor by the way to the Red Sea, to compass the land of Edom; and the soul of the people became impatient because of the way." 21.5. And the people spoke against God, and against Moses: ‘Wherefore have ye brought us up out of Egypt to die in the wilderness? for there is no bread, and there is no water; and our soul loatheth this light bread.’" 21.6. And the LORD sent fiery serpents among the people, and they bit the people; and much people of Israel died." 21.7. And the people came to Moses, and said: ‘We have sinned, because we have spoken against the LORD, and against thee; pray unto the LORD, that He take away the serpents from us.’ And Moses prayed for the people." 21.8. And the LORD said unto Moses: ‘Make thee a fiery serpent, and set it upon a pole; and it shall come to pass, that every one that is bitten, when he seeth it, shall live.’" 21.9. And Moses made a serpent of brass, and set it upon the pole; and it came to pass, that if a serpent had bitten any man, when he looked unto the serpent of brass, he lived." 25.1. And Israel abode in Shittim, and the people began to commit harlotry with the daughters of Moab." 25.2. And they called the people unto the sacrifices of their gods; and the people did eat, and bowed down to their gods." 25.3. And Israel joined himself unto the Baal of Peor; and the anger of the LORD was kindled against Israel." 25.4. And the LORD said unto Moses: ‘Take all the chiefs of the people, and hang them up unto the LORD in face of the sun, that the fierce anger of the LORD may turn away from Israel.’" 25.5. And Moses said unto the judges of Israel: ‘Slay ye every one his men that have joined themselves unto the Baal of Peor.’" 25.6. And, behold, one of the children of Israel came and brought unto his brethren a Midianitish woman in the sight of Moses, and in the sight of all the congregation of the children of Israel, while they were weeping at the door of the tent of meeting." 25.7. And when Phinehas, the son of Eleazar, the son of Aaron the priest, saw it, he rose up from the midst of the congregation, and took a spear in his hand." 25.8. And he went after the man of Israel into the chamber, and thrust both of them through, the man of Israel, and the woman through her belly. So the plague was stayed from the children of Israel." 25.9. And those that died by the plague were twenty and four thousand."
8. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 77.54 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

9. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 2.8, 11.6, 49.1, 49.6, 53.9, 64.3 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

2.8. וַתִּמָּלֵא אַרְצוֹ אֱלִילִים לְמַעֲשֵׂה יָדָיו יִשְׁתַּחֲווּ לַאֲשֶׁר עָשׂוּ אֶצְבְּעֹתָיו׃ 11.6. וְגָר זְאֵב עִם־כֶּבֶשׂ וְנָמֵר עִם־גְּדִי יִרְבָּץ וְעֵגֶל וּכְפִיר וּמְרִיא יַחְדָּו וְנַעַר קָטֹן נֹהֵג בָּם׃ 49.1. לֹא יִרְעָבוּ וְלֹא יִצְמָאוּ וְלֹא־יַכֵּם שָׁרָב וָשָׁמֶשׁ כִּי־מְרַחֲמָם יְנַהֲגֵם וְעַל־מַבּוּעֵי מַיִם יְנַהֲלֵם׃ 49.1. שִׁמְעוּ אִיִּים אֵלַי וְהַקְשִׁיבוּ לְאֻמִּים מֵרָחוֹק יְהוָה מִבֶּטֶן קְרָאָנִי מִמְּעֵי אִמִּי הִזְכִּיר שְׁמִי׃ 49.6. וַיֹּאמֶר נָקֵל מִהְיוֹתְךָ לִי עֶבֶד לְהָקִים אֶת־שִׁבְטֵי יַעֲקֹב ונצירי [וּנְצוּרֵי] יִשְׂרָאֵל לְהָשִׁיב וּנְתַתִּיךָ לְאוֹר גּוֹיִם לִהְיוֹת יְשׁוּעָתִי עַד־קְצֵה הָאָרֶץ׃ 53.9. וַיִּתֵּן אֶת־רְשָׁעִים קִבְרוֹ וְאֶת־עָשִׁיר בְּמֹתָיו עַל לֹא־חָמָס עָשָׂה וְלֹא מִרְמָה בְּפִיו׃ 64.3. וּמֵעוֹלָם לֹא־שָׁמְעוּ לֹא הֶאֱזִינוּ עַיִן לֹא־רָאָתָה אֱלֹהִים זוּלָתְךָ יַעֲשֶׂה לִמְחַכֵּה־לוֹ׃ 2.8. Their land also is full of idols; Every one worshippeth the work of his own hands, That which his own fingers have made." 11.6. And the wolf shall dwell with the lamb, And the leopard shall lie down with the kid; And the calf and the young lion and the fatling together; And a little child shall lead them." 49.1. Listen, O isles, unto me, And hearken, ye peoples, from far: The LORD hath called me from the womb, From the bowels of my mother hath He made mention of my name;" 49.6. Yea, He saith: ‘It is too light a thing that thou shouldest be My servant To raise up the tribes of Jacob, And to restore the offspring of Israel; I will also give thee for a light of the nations, That My salvation may be unto the end of the earth.’" 53.9. And they made his grave with the wicked, And with the rich his tomb; Although he had done no violence, Neither was any deceit in his mouth.’" 64.3. And whereof from of old men have not heard, nor perceived by the ear, neither hath the eye seen a God beside Thee, who worketh for him that waiteth for Him."
10. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 1.5 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

1.5. בְּטֶרֶם אצורך [אֶצָּרְךָ] בַבֶּטֶן יְדַעְתִּיךָ וּבְטֶרֶם תֵּצֵא מֵרֶחֶם הִקְדַּשְׁתִּיךָ נָבִיא לַגּוֹיִם נְתַתִּיךָ׃ 1.5. Before I formed thee in the belly I knew thee, And before thou camest forth out of the womb I sanctified thee; I have appointed thee a prophet unto the nations."
11. Hebrew Bible, Joshua, 4.22, 5.1, 5.9, 6.9 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

4.22. וְהוֹדַעְתֶּם אֶת־בְּנֵיכֶם לֵאמֹר בַּיַּבָּשָׁה עָבַר יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶת־הַיַּרְדֵּן הַזֶּה׃ 5.1. וַיְהִי כִשְׁמֹעַ כָּל־מַלְכֵי הָאֱמֹרִי אֲשֶׁר בְּעֵבֶר הַיַּרְדֵּן יָמָּה וְכָל־מַלְכֵי הַכְּנַעֲנִי אֲשֶׁר עַל־הַיָּם אֵת אֲשֶׁר־הוֹבִישׁ יְהוָה אֶת־מֵי הַיַּרְדֵּן מִפְּנֵי בְנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל עַד־עברנו [עָבְרָם] וַיִּמַּס לְבָבָם וְלֹא־הָיָה בָם עוֹד רוּחַ מִפְּנֵי בְּנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 5.1. וַיַּחֲנוּ בְנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל בַּגִּלְגָּל וַיַּעֲשׂוּ אֶת־הַפֶּסַח בְּאַרְבָּעָה עָשָׂר יוֹם לַחֹדֶשׁ בָּעֶרֶב בְּעַרְבוֹת יְרִיחוֹ׃ 5.9. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־יְהוֹשֻׁעַ הַיּוֹם גַּלּוֹתִי אֶת־חֶרְפַּת מִצְרַיִם מֵעֲלֵיכֶם וַיִּקְרָא שֵׁם הַמָּקוֹם הַהוּא גִּלְגָּל עַד הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה׃ 6.9. וְהֶחָלוּץ הֹלֵךְ לִפְנֵי הַכֹּהֲנִים תקעו [תֹּקְעֵי] הַשּׁוֹפָרוֹת וְהַמְאַסֵּף הֹלֵךְ אַחֲרֵי הָאָרוֹן הָלוֹךְ וְתָקוֹעַ בַּשּׁוֹפָרוֹת׃ 4.22. then ye shall let your children know, saying: Israel came over this Jordan on dry land." 5.1. And it came to pass, when all the kings of the Amorites, that were beyond the Jordan westward, and all the kings of the Canaanites, that were by the sea, heard how that the LORD had dried up the waters of the Jordan from before the children of Israel, until they were passed over, that their heart melted, neither was there spirit in them any more, because of the children of Israel." 5.9. And the LORD said unto Joshua: ‘This day have I rolled away the reproach of Egypt from off you.’ Wherefore the name of that place was called Gilgal, unto this day." 6.9. And the armed men went before the priests that blew the horns, and the rearward went after the ark, [the priests] blowing with the horns continually."
12. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 30.3, 30.13 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

30.3. כִּי־קָרוֹב יוֹם וְקָרוֹב יוֹם לַיהוָה יוֹם עָנָן עֵת גּוֹיִם יִהְיֶה׃ 30.13. כֹּה־אָמַר אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה וְהַאֲבַדְתִּי גִלּוּלִים וְהִשְׁבַּתִּי אֱלִילִים מִנֹּף וְנָשִׂיא מֵאֶרֶץ־מִצְרַיִם לֹא יִהְיֶה־עוֹד וְנָתַתִּי יִרְאָה בְּאֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם׃ 30.3. For the day is near, Even the day of the LORD is near, A day of clouds, it shall be the time of the nations." 30.13. Thus saith the Lord GOD: I will also destroy the idols, And I will cause the things of nought to cease from Noph; And there shall be no more a prince out of the land of Egypt; And I will put a fear in the land of Egypt."
13. Anon., 1 Enoch, 6.6-6.11, 7.1-7.2 (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

6.6. by mutual imprecations upon it. And they were in all two hundred; who descended in the days of Jared on the summit of Mount Hermon, and they called it Mount Hermon, because they had sworn 6.7. and bound themselves by mutual imprecations upon it. And these are the names of their leaders: Samlazaz, their leader, Araklba, Rameel, Kokablel, Tamlel, Ramlel, Danel, Ezeqeel, Baraqijal 6.8. Asael, Armaros, Batarel, Ael, Zaq1el, Samsapeel, Satarel, Turel, Jomjael, Sariel. These are their chiefs of tens. 7.1. And all the others together with them took unto themselves wives, and each chose for himself one, and they began to go in unto them and to defile themselves with them, and they taught them charm 7.2. and enchantments, and the cutting of roots, and made them acquainted with plants. And they
14. Anon., Jubilees, 15.26 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

15.26. This law is for all the generations for ever
15. Cicero, Tusculan Disputations, 4.14, 4.24 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

4.14. praesentis autem mali sapientis adfectio nulla est, stultorum stultorum Dav. stulta autem aegritudo est, eaque eaque Ba. ea qua X (ea qu e M 1 ) adficiuntur in malis opinatis animosque demittunt et contrahunt rationi non obtemperantes. itaque haec prima definitio difin. V est, ut aegritudo sit animi adversante ratione contractio. itaque ... 6 contractio Non. 93, 1 sic quattuor perturbationes sunt, tres constantiae, quoniam cf. Aug. civ. 14, 8 aegritudini nulla constantia opponitur. Sed omnes perturbationes iudicio censent fieri et St. fr. 3, 380 et 393 opinione. itaque eas definiunt pressius, ut intellegatur, non modo quam vitiosae, vitiose GKR sed etiam quam in nostra sint potestate. est ergo ergo igitur H s aegritudo aegritudo om. G 1 add. 1 et 2 opinio recens mali praesentis, in quo demitti contrahique animo rectum esse videatur, laetitia opinio recens boni praesentis, in quo ecferri ecferri haec ferri VK c (eff. K 2 ) rectum esse videatur, laetitia...15 videatur om. G 1, add. G 2 in mg. inf. ( lemmata laetitia metus adscr. 1 cf. praef. ) metus opinio impendentis mali, quod intolerabile intollerabile V esse videatur, libido lubido K, in lib. corr. G 1 (libido etiam in mg. ) R 1 opinio venturi boni, quod sit ex usu iam praesens esse atque adesse. 4.24. intellegatur igitur perturbationem iactantibus se opinionibus inconstanter et turbide in motu in motu immotus GRV (s del. rec ) H immot os K ( ss. c ) esse semper; cum autem hic fervor concitatioque animi inveteraverit et tamquam in venis medullisque insederit, tum existet existit X (exs. G) existet Küh. ( de fut. cf. p. 378, 14 comm. ad 1, 29 Sen. epist. 85, 9 al. ) inveteravit ... insedit ... existit Sey. et morbus et aegrotatio et offensiones eae, quae sunt eis morbis aegrotationibusque contrariae. Haec, quae dico, cogitatione inter se differunt, re quidem copulata sunt, eaque eaque GRV (eaq K 1 sed; add. 2 ) oriuntur ex libidine et ex laetitia. nam cum est concupita pecunia nec adhibita continuo ratio quasi quaedam Socratica medicina, quae sanaret sanet Bentl. permanet K 1 eam cupiditatem, permanat in venas et inhaeret in visceribus illud malum, existitque existit (exs. KR) qui m. X (que V rec s ) morbus et aegrotatio, quae evelli evelli Wopkens avelli inveterata non possunt, eique morbo nomen est avaritia;
16. Dead Sea Scrolls, Damascus Covenant, 7.17 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

17. Dead Sea Scrolls, (Cairo Damascus Covenant) Cd-A, 7.17 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

18. Hebrew Bible, Daniel, 12.4 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

12.4. וְאַתָּה דָנִיֵּאל סְתֹם הַדְּבָרִים וַחֲתֹם הַסֵּפֶר עַד־עֵת קֵץ יְשֹׁטְטוּ רַבִּים וְתִרְבֶּה הַדָּעַת׃ 12.4. But thou, O Daniel, shut up the words, and seal the book, even to the time of the end; many shall run to and fro, and knowledge shall be increased.’"
19. Septuagint, Wisdom of Solomon, 15.1-15.4, 16.2-16.3, 16.5, 16.10, 16.12-16.14 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

15.1. But thou, our God, art kind and true,patient, and ruling all things in mercy. 15.2. For even if we sin we are thine, knowing thy power;but we will not sin, because we know that we are accounted thine. 15.3. For to know thee is complete righteousness,and to know thy power is the root of immortality. 15.4. For neither has the evil intent of human art misled us,nor the fruitless toil of painters,a figure stained with varied colors 16.2. Instead of this punishment thou didst show kindness to thy people,and thou didst prepare quails to eat,a delicacy to satisfy the desire of appetite; 16.3. in order that those men, when they desired food,might lose the least remt of appetite because of the odious creatures sent to them,while thy people, after suffering want a short time,might partake of delicacies. 16.5. For when the terrible rage of wild beasts came upon thy people and they were being destroyed by the bites of writhing serpents,thy wrath did not continue to the end; 16.10. but thy sons were not conquered even by the teeth of venomous serpents,for thy mercy came to their help and healed them. 16.12. For neither herb nor poultice cured them,but it was thy word, O Lord, which heals all men. 16.13. For thou hast power over life and death;thou dost lead men down to the gates of Hades and back again. 16.14. A man in his wickedness kills another,but he cannot bring back the departed spirit,nor set free the imprisoned soul.
20. Philo of Alexandria, On The Life of Abraham, 257 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

257. And the advice was this; not to afflict himself beyond all measure, as if he were stricken down with a novel and unprecedented calamity; nor, on the other hand, to give way to indifference, as if nothing had happened calculated to give him sorrow. But rather to choose the middle way in preference to either extreme; and to endeavour to grieve in a moderate degree; not being indigt at nature for having reclaimed what belonged to her as her due; and bearing what had befallen him with a mild and gentle spirit.
21. Philo of Alexandria, On The Migration of Abraham, 154-157, 151 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

151. for this is that disposition which attaches itself to the soul in such a manner as to be difficult to shake off, hindering it from proceeding swiftly on its progress towards virtue. This, too, when we leave Egypt, that is to say, the whole of the district connected with the body, being anxious to unlearn our subjection to the passions, in accordance with the language and precepts of the prophet Moses, follows us close, checking and impeding our zeal in the departure, and out of envy causing delay to the rapidity of setting forth;
22. Philo of Alexandria, On The Special Laws, 4.126-4.131 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

4.126. The lawgiver blames some persons of his time as gluttons, and as believing that the mere indulgence of luxury is the happiest of all possible conditions, not being content to live in this manner only in cities in which there were abundant supplies and stores of all kinds of necessary things, but carrying their effeminacy even into pathless and untrodden deserts, and choosing in them also to have markets for fish and meat, and all things which can contribute to an easy life: 4.127. then, when a scarcity arose, they assembled together and raised an outcry, and looked miserable, and with shameless audacity impeached their ruler, and did not desist from creating disturbances till they obtained what they desired; and they obtained it to their destruction, for two reasons: first of all, that it might be shown that all things are possible to God, who can find a way in the most difficult and apparently hopeless circumstances; and secondly, that punishment might fall on those who were intemperate in their gluttonous appetites, and obstinate resisters of holiness. 4.128. For a vast cloud being Raised{28}{#ex 16:13.} out of the sea showered down quails about the time of sunrise, and the camp and all the district around it for a day's journey for a well-girt active man was overshadowed all about with the Birds.{29}{#nu 11:31.} And the height of the flight of the birds was distant from the ground a height of about two cubits, in order that they might be easily caught. 4.129. It would have been natural therefore for them, being amazed at the marvellous nature of the prodigy which they beheld, to be satisfied with the sight, and being filled with piety to nourish their souls on that, and to abstain from eating flesh; but these men, on the contrary, stirred up their desires even more than before, and pursued these birds as the greatest good imaginable, and catching hold of them with both their hands filled their bosoms; then, having stored them up in their tents, they sallied forth to catch others, for immoderate covetousness has no limit. And when they had collected every description of food they devoured it insatiably, being about, vain-minded generation that they were, to perish by their own fulness; 4.130. and indeed at no distant time they did perish by the purging of their bile, {30}{#nu 11:20.} so that the place itself derived its name from the calamity which fell upon them, for it was called the graves of their lust, {31}{see #Nu 11:34: "And he called the name of that place Kibroth-hattaavah, because there they buried the people that lusted."} than which there is not in the soul, as the scripture teaches, us, any greater evil. 4.131. For which reason Moses says with great beauty in his recommendations, "Let not every man do that which seemeth good to his own Eyes,"{32}{#de 11:8.} which is equivalent to saying, let not any one gratify his own desire, but let each person seek to please God, and the world, and nature, and wise men, repudiating self-love, if he would become a good and virtuous man.XXV.
23. Philo of Alexandria, Questions On Genesis, 4.73 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

24. Anon., Epistle of Barnabas, 4.7-4.8, 14.1-14.4 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

4.7. Ours it is; but they lost it in this way for ever, when Moses had just received it. For the scripture saith; And Moses was in the mountain fasting forty days and forty nights, and he received the covet from the Lord, even tablets of stone written with the finger of the hand of the Lord. 4.8. But they lost it by turning unto idols. For thus saith the Lord; Moses, Moses, come down quickly; for thy people whom thou broughtest out of the land of Egypt hath done unlawfully. And Moses understood, and threw the two tables from his hands; and their covet was broken in pieces, that the covet of the beloved Jesus might be sealed unto our hearts in the hope which springeth from faith in Him. 14.1. Yea verily, but as regards the covet which He swear to the fathers to give it to the people let us see whether He hath actually given it. He hath given it, but they themselves were not found worthy to receive it by reason of their sins. 14.2. For the prophet saith; And Moses was fasting in Mount Sinai forty days and forty nights, that he might receive the covet of the Lord to give to the people. And [Moses] received from the Lord the two tables which were written by the finger of the hand of the Lord in the spirit. And Moses took them, and brought them down to give them to the people. 14.3. And the Lord said unto Moses; Moses, Moses, come down quickly; for thy people, whom thou leddest forth from the land of Egypt, hath done wickedly. And Moses perceived that they had made for themselves again molten images, and he cast them out of his hands and the tables of the covet of the Lord were broken in pieces. 14.4. Moses received them, but they themselves were not found worthy. But how did we receive them? Mark this. Moses received them being a servant, but the Lord himself gave them to us to be the people of His inheritance, having endured patiently for our sakes.
25. Epictetus, Discourses, 1.18.1-1.18.2 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

26. New Testament, 1 Peter, 2.22, 4.12 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.22. who did not sin, "neither was deceit found in his mouth. 4.12. Beloved, don't be astonished at the fiery trial which has come upon you, to test you, as though a strange thing happened to you.
27. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 1.11, 2.9, 5.1, 5.2, 5.3, 5.4, 5.5, 5.6, 5.7, 5.8, 5.10, 5.11, 5.13, 6.12, 6.13, 6.14, 6.15, 6.16, 6.17, 6.18, 6.19, 6.20, 7.1, 7.12, 7.13, 7.14, 7.15, 7.16, 7.32, 7.33, 7.34, 7.35, 8, 8.1, 8.1-11.1, 8.2, 8.3, 8.4, 8.5, 8.6, 8.7, 8.8, 8.9, 8.10, 8.11, 8.12, 8.13, 9, 9.1, 9.2, 9.3, 9.4, 9.5, 9.6, 9.7, 9.8, 9.9, 9.10, 9.11, 9.12, 9.13, 9.14, 9.15, 9.16, 9.17, 9.18, 9.19, 9.20, 9.21, 9.22, 9.23, 9.24, 9.25, 9.26, 9.27, 10, 10.1, 10.2, 10.3, 10.4, 10.5, 10.7, 10.8, 10.9, 10.10, 10.11, 10.12, 10.13, 10.14, 10.15, 10.16, 10.17, 10.18, 10.19, 10.20, 10.21, 10.22, 10.23, 10.23-11.1, 10.24, 10.25, 10.26, 10.27, 10.28, 10.29, 10.30, 10.31, 10.31-11.1, 10.32, 10.33, 11, 11.7, 11.8, 11.9, 11.10, 11.22, 11.26, 11.27, 11.28, 11.29, 11.30, 11.31, 11.32, 11.33, 11.34, 12.2, 13, 13.1, 13.2, 13.3, 14, 14.1, 15.2, 15.20, 15.21, 15.22, 15.23, 15.24, 15.25, 15.26, 15.27, 15.28, 16.1, 16.2, 16.3, 16.4, 16.8, 16.9 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.11. For it has been reported to me concerning you, mybrothers, by those who are from Chloe's household, that there arecontentions among you.
28. New Testament, 1 Thessalonians, 2.5-2.7, 4.3-4.8, 4.13-4.18 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.5. For neither were we at any time found using words of flattery, as you know, nor a cloak of covetousness (God is witness) 2.6. nor seeking glory from men (neither from you nor from others), when we might have claimed authority as apostles of Christ. 2.7. But we were gentle in the midst of you, as when a nurse cherishes her own children. 4.3. For this is the will of God: your sanctification, that you abstain from sexual immorality 4.4. that each one of you know how to possess himself of his own vessel in sanctification and honor 4.5. not in the passion of lust, even as the Gentiles who don't know God; 4.6. that no one should take advantage of and wrong a brother or sister in this matter; because the Lord is an avenger in all these things, as also we forewarned you and testified. 4.7. For God called us not for uncleanness, but in sanctification. 4.8. Therefore he who rejects doesn't reject man, but God, who has also given his Holy Spirit to you. 4.13. But we don't want you to be ignorant, brothers, concerning those who have fallen asleep, so that you don't grieve like the rest, who have no hope. 4.14. For if we believe that Jesus died and rose again, even so those who have fallen asleep in Jesus will God bring with him. 4.15. For this we tell you by the word of the Lord, that we who are alive, who are left to the coming of the Lord, will in no way precede those who have fallen asleep. 4.16. For the Lord himself will descend from heaven with a shout, with the voice of the archangel, and with God's trumpet. The dead in Christ will rise first 4.17. then we who are alive, who are left, will be caught up together with them in the clouds, to meet the Lord in the air. So we will be with the Lord forever. 4.18. Therefore comfort one another with these words.
29. New Testament, 1 Timothy, 6.9-6.10 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

6.9. But those who are determined to be rich fall into a temptation and a snare and many foolish and harmful lusts, such as drown men in ruin and destruction. 6.10. For the love of money is a root of all kinds of evil. Some have been led astray from the faith in their greed, and have pierced themselves through with many sorrows.
30. New Testament, 2 Corinthians, 3.1, 5.9-5.10 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

31. New Testament, Acts, 2.17, 6.7, 7.51-7.52, 15.20, 15.29 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

2.17. 'It will be in the last days, says God, I will pour out my Spirit on all flesh. Your sons and your daughters will prophesy. Your young men will see visions. Your old men will dream dreams. 6.7. The word of God increased and the number of the disciples multiplied in Jerusalem exceedingly. A great company of the priests were obedient to the faith. 7.51. You stiff-necked and uncircumcised in heart and ears, you always resist the Holy Spirit! As your fathers did, so you do. 7.52. Which of the prophets didn't your fathers persecute? They killed those who foretold the coming of the Righteous One, of whom you have now become betrayers and murderers. 15.20. but that we write to them that they abstain from the pollution of idols, from sexual immorality, from what is strangled, and from blood. 15.29. that you abstain from things sacrificed to idols, from blood, from things strangled, and from sexual immorality, from which if you keep yourselves, it will be well with you. Farewell.
32. New Testament, Apocalypse, 2.14-2.16, 2.20-2.25, 3.4, 3.10, 5.8, 7.14, 14.1-14.4 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.14. But I have a few things against you, because you have there some who hold the teaching of Balaam, who taught Balak to throw a stumbling block before the children of Israel , to eat things sacrificed to idols, and to commit sexual immorality. 2.15. So you also have some who hold to the teaching of the Nicolaitans in the same way. 2.16. Repent therefore, or else I am coming to you quickly, and I will make war against them with the sword of my mouth. 2.20. But I have this against you, that you tolerate your woman, Jezebel, who calls herself a prophetess. She teaches and seduces my servants to commit sexual immorality, and to eat things sacrificed to idols. 2.21. I gave her time to repent, but she refuses to repent of her sexual immorality. 2.22. Behold, I will throw her into a bed, and those who commit adultery with her into great oppression, unless they repent of her works. 2.23. I will kill her children with Death, and all the assemblies will know that I am he who searches the minds and hearts. I will give to each one of you according to your deeds. 2.24. But to you I say, to the rest who are in Thyatira, as many as don't have this teaching, who don't know what some call 'the deep things of Satan,' to you I say, I am not putting any other burden on you. 2.25. Nevertheless that which you have, hold firmly until I come. 3.4. Nevertheless you have a few names in Sardis that did not defile their garments. They will walk with me in white, for they are worthy. 3.10. Because you kept the word of my patience, I also will keep you from the hour of testing, that which is to come on the whole world, to test those who dwell on the earth. 5.8. Now when he had taken the book, the four living creatures and the twenty-four elders fell down before the Lamb, each one having a harp, and golden bowls full of incense, which are the prayers of the saints. 7.14. I told him, "My lord, you know."He said to me, "These are those who came out of the great tribulation. They washed their robes, and made them white in the Lamb's blood. 14.1. I saw, and behold, the Lamb standing on Mount Zion, and with him a number, one hundred forty-four thousand, having his name, and the name of his Father, written on their foreheads. 14.2. I heard a sound from heaven, like the sound of many waters, and like the sound of a great thunder. The sound which I heard was like that of harpers playing on their harps. 14.3. They sing a new song before the throne, and before the four living creatures and the elders. No one could learn the song except the one hundred forty-four thousand, those who had been redeemed out of the earth. 14.4. These are those who were not defiled with women, for they are virgins. These are those who follow the Lamb wherever he goes. These were redeemed by Jesus from among men, the first fruits to God and to the Lamb.
33. New Testament, James, 1.12-1.13 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.12. Blessed is the man who endures temptation, for when he has been approved, he will receive the crown of life, which the Lord promised to those who love him. 1.13. Let no man say when he is tempted, "I am tempted by God," for God can't be tempted by evil, and he himself tempts no one.
34. New Testament, Jude, 23-24, 3, 8, 14 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

35. New Testament, Colossians, 1.22, 2.11-2.12, 2.17-2.18, 3.5 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.22. yet now he has reconciled in the body of his flesh through death, to present you holy and without blemish and blameless before him 2.11. in whom you were also circumcised with a circumcision not made with hands, in the putting off of the body of the sins of the flesh, in the circumcision of Christ; 2.12. having been buried with him in baptism, in which you were also raised with him through faith in the working of God, who raised him from the dead. 2.17. which are a shadow of the things to come; but the body is Christ's. 2.18. Let no one rob you of your prize by a voluntary humility and worshipping of the angels, dwelling in the things which he has not seen, vainly puffed up by his fleshly mind 3.5. Put to death therefore your members which are on the earth: sexual immorality, uncleanness, depraved passion, evil desire, and covetousness, which is idolatry;
36. New Testament, Ephesians, 1.4, 2.1-2.3, 2.8, 4.22, 5.1-5.14 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.4. even as he chose us in him before the foundation of the world, that we would be holy and without blemish before him in love; 2.1. You were made alive when you were dead in transgressions and sins 2.2. in which you once walked according to the course of this world, according to the prince of the powers of the air, the spirit who now works in the sons of disobedience; 2.3. among whom we also all once lived in the lust of our flesh, doing the desires of the flesh and of the mind, and were by nature children of wrath, even as the rest. 2.8. for by grace you have been saved through faith, and that not of yourselves; it is the gift of God 4.22. that you put away, as concerning your former way of life, the old man, that grows corrupt after the lusts of deceit; 5.1. Be therefore imitators of God, as beloved children. 5.2. Walk in love, even as Christ also loved you, and gave himself up for us, an offering and a sacrifice to God for a sweet-smelling fragrance. 5.3. But sexual immorality, and all uncleanness, or covetousness, let it not even be mentioned among you, as becomes saints; 5.4. nor filthiness, nor foolish talking, nor jesting, which are not appropriate; but rather giving of thanks. 5.5. Know this for sure, that no sexually immoral person, nor unclean person, nor covetous man, who is an idolater, has any inheritance in the Kingdom of Christ and God. 5.6. Let no one deceive you with empty words. For because of these things, the wrath of God comes on the sons of disobedience. 5.7. Therefore don't be partakers with them. 5.8. For you were once darkness, but are now light in the Lord. Walk as children of light 5.9. for the fruit of the Spirit is in all goodness and righteousness and truth 5.10. proving what is well-pleasing to the Lord. 5.11. Have no fellowship with the unfruitful works of darkness, but rather even reprove them. 5.12. For the things which are done by them in secret, it is a shame even to speak of. 5.13. But all things, when they are reproved, are revealed by the light, for everything that is revealed is light. 5.14. Therefore he says, "Awake, you who sleep, and arise from the dead, and Christ will shine on you.
37. New Testament, Galatians, 1.4, 1.6-1.9, 1.15-1.16, 2.11-2.14, 2.19-2.20, 3.1-3.5, 4.21-4.31, 5.1, 5.13-5.15, 5.24 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.4. who gave himself for our sins, that he might deliver us out of this present evil age, according to the will of our God and Father -- 1.6. I marvel that you are so quickly deserting him who called you in the grace of Christ to a different gospel; 1.7. and there isn'tanother gospel. Only there are some who trouble you, and want topervert the gospel of Christ. 1.8. But even though we, or an angelfrom heaven, should preach to you any gospel other than that which wepreached to you, let him be cursed. 1.9. As we have said before, so Inow say again: if any man preaches to you any gospel other than thatwhich you received, let him be cursed. 1.15. Butwhen it was the good pleasure of God, who separated me from my mother'swomb, and called me through his grace 1.16. to reveal his Son in me,that I might preach him among the Gentiles, I didn't immediately conferwith flesh and blood 2.11. But when Peter came to Antioch, I resisted him to the face,because he stood condemned. 2.12. For before some people came fromJames, he ate with the Gentiles. But when they came, he drew back andseparated himself, fearing those who were of the circumcision. 2.13. And the rest of the Jews joined him in his hypocrisy; so that evenBarnabas was carried away with their hypocrisy. 2.14. But when I sawthat they didn't walk uprightly according to the truth of the gospel, Isaid to Peter before them all, "If you, being a Jew, live as theGentiles do, and not as the Jews do, why do you compel the Gentiles tolive as the Jews do? 2.19. For I, through the law, died to the law,that I might live to God. 2.20. I have been crucified with Christ, andit is no longer I that live, but Christ living in me. That life which Inow live in the flesh, I live by faith in the Son of God, who loved me,and gave himself up for me. 3.1. Foolish Galatians, who has bewitched you not to obey thetruth, before whose eyes Jesus Christ was openly set forth among you as crucified? 3.2. I just want to learn this from you. Did you receivethe Spirit by the works of the law, or by hearing of faith? 3.3. Areyou so foolish? Having begun in the Spirit, are you now completed inthe flesh? 3.4. Did you suffer so many things in vain, if it is indeedin vain? 3.5. He therefore who supplies the Spirit to you, and worksmiracles among you, does he do it by the works of the law, or byhearing of faith? 4.21. Tell me, you that desire to be under the law, don't you listen to thelaw? 4.22. For it is written that Abraham had two sons, one by thehandmaid, and one by the free woman. 4.23. However, the son by thehandmaid was born according to the flesh, but the son by the free womanwas born through promise. 4.24. These things contain an allegory, forthese are two covets. One is from Mount Sinai, bearing children tobondage, which is Hagar. 4.25. For this Hagar is Mount Sinai inArabia, and answers to the Jerusalem that exists now, for she is inbondage with her children. 4.26. But the Jerusalem that is above isfree, which is the mother of us all. 4.27. For it is written,"Rejoice, you barren who don't bear. Break forth and shout, you that don't travail. For more are the children of the desolate than of her who has a husband. 4.28. Now we, brothers, as Isaac was, are children of promise. 4.29. But as then, he who was born according to the flesh persecutedhim who was born according to the Spirit, so also it is now. 4.30. However what does the Scripture say? "Throw out the handmaid and herson, for the son of the handmaid will not inherit with the son of thefree woman. 4.31. So then, brothers, we are not children of ahandmaid, but of the free woman. 5.1. Stand firm therefore in the liberty by which Christ has madeus free, and don't be entangled again with a yoke of bondage. 5.13. For you, brothers, were called for freedom. Only don't useyour freedom for gain to the flesh, but through love be servants to oneanother. 5.14. For the whole law is fulfilled in one word, in this:"You shall love your neighbor as yourself. 5.15. But if you bite anddevour one another, be careful that you don't consume one another. 5.24. Those who belong to Christhave crucified the flesh with its passions and lusts.
38. New Testament, Hebrews, 3.2-3.5, 3.11-3.12, 8.5, 10.32-10.39, 11.4-11.40, 12.1, 12.22 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.2. who was faithful to him who appointed him, as also was Moses in all his house. 3.3. For he has been counted worthy of more glory than Moses, inasmuch as he who built the house has more honor than the house. 3.4. For every house is built by someone; but he who built all things is God. 3.5. Moses indeed was faithful in all his house as a servant, for a testimony of those things which were afterward to be spoken 3.11. As I swore in my wrath, 'They will not enter into my rest.' 3.12. Beware, brothers, lest perhaps there be in any one of you an evil heart of unbelief, in falling away from the living God; 8.5. who serve a copy and shadow of the heavenly things, even as Moses was warned by God when he was about to make the tabernacle, for he said, "See, you shall make everything according to the pattern that was shown to you on the mountain. 10.32. But remember the former days, in which, after you were enlightened, you endured a great struggle with sufferings; 10.33. partly, being exposed to both reproaches and oppressions; and partly, becoming partakers with those who were treated so. 10.34. For you both had compassion on me in my chains, and joyfully accepted the plundering of your possessions, knowing that you have for yourselves a better possession and an enduring one in the heavens. 10.35. Therefore don't throw away your boldness, which has a great reward. 10.36. For you need endurance so that, having done the will of God, you may receive the promise. 10.37. In a very little while, He who comes will come, and will not wait. 10.38. But the righteous will live by faith. If he shrinks back, my soul has no pleasure in him. 10.39. But we are not of those who shrink back to destruction, but of those who have faith to the saving of the soul. 11.4. By faith, Abel offered to God a more excellent sacrifice than Cain, through which he had testimony given to him that he was righteous, God bearing witness with respect to his gifts; and through it he, being dead, still speaks. 11.5. By faith, Enoch was taken away, so that he wouldn't see death, and he was not found, because God translated him. For he has had testimony given to him that before his translation he had been well pleasing to God. 11.6. Without faith it is impossible to be well pleasing to him, for he who comes to God must believe that he exists, and that he is a rewarder of those who seek him. 11.7. By faith, Noah, being warned about things not yet seen, moved with godly fear, prepared an ark for the saving of his house, through which he condemned the world, and became heir of the righteousness which is according to faith. 11.8. By faith, Abraham, when he was called, obeyed to go out to the place which he was to receive for an inheritance. He went out, not knowing where he went. 11.9. By faith, he lived as an alien in the land of promise, as in a land not his own, dwelling in tents, with Isaac and Jacob, the heirs with him of the same promise. 11.10. For he looked for the city which has the foundations, whose builder and maker is God. 11.11. By faith, even Sarah herself received power to conceive, and she bore a child when she was past age, since she counted him faithful who had promised. 11.12. Therefore as many as the stars of the sky in multitude, and as innumerable as the sand which is by the sea shore, were fathered by one man, and him as good as dead. 11.13. These all died in faith, not having received the promises, but having seen them and embraced them from afar, and having confessed that they were strangers and pilgrims on the earth. 11.14. For those who say such things make it clear that they are seeking after a country of their own. 11.15. If indeed they had been thinking of that country from which they went out, they would have had enough time to return. 11.16. But now they desire a better country, that is, a heavenly one. Therefore God is not ashamed of them, to be called their God, for he has prepared a city for them. 11.17. By faith, Abraham, being tested, offered up Isaac. Yes, he who had gladly received the promises was offering up his one and only son; 11.18. even he to whom it was said, "In Isaac will your seed be called; 11.19. accounting that God is able to raise up even from the dead. Figuratively speaking, he also did receive him back from the dead. 11.20. By faith, Isaac blessed Jacob and Esau, even concerning things to come. 11.21. By faith, Jacob, when he was dying, blessed each of the sons of Joseph, and worshiped, leaning on the top of his staff. 11.22. By faith, Joseph, when his end was near, made mention of the departure of the children of Israel; and gave instructions concerning his bones. 11.23. By faith, Moses, when he was born, was hidden for three months by his parents, because they saw that he was a beautiful child, and they were not afraid of the king's commandment. 11.24. By faith, Moses, when he had grown up, refused to be called the son of Pharaoh's daughter 11.25. choosing rather to share ill treatment with God's people, than to enjoy the pleasures of sin for a time; 11.26. accounting the reproach of Christ greater riches than the treasures of Egypt ; for he looked to the reward. 11.27. By faith, he left Egypt, not fearing the wrath of the king; for he endured, as seeing him who is invisible. 11.28. By faith, he kept the Passover, and the sprinkling of the blood, that the destroyer of the firstborn should not touch them. 11.29. By faith, they passed through the Red sea as on dry land. When the Egyptians tried to do so, they were swallowed up. 11.30. By faith, the walls of Jericho fell down, after they had been encircled for seven days. 11.31. By faith, Rahab the prostitute, didn't perish with those who were disobedient, having received the spies in peace. 11.32. What more shall I say? For the time would fail me if I told of Gideon, Barak, Samson, Jephthah, David, Samuel, and the prophets; 11.33. who, through faith subdued kingdoms, worked out righteousness, obtained promises, stopped the mouths of lions 11.34. quenched the power of fire, escaped the edge of the sword, from weakness were made strong, grew mighty in war, and turned to flight armies of aliens. 11.35. Women received their dead by resurrection. Others were tortured, not accepting their deliverance, that they might obtain a better resurrection. 11.36. Others were tried by mocking and scourging, yes, moreover by bonds and imprisonment. 11.37. They were stoned. They were sawn apart. They were tempted. They were slain with the sword. They went around in sheepskins, in goatskins; being destitute, afflicted, ill-treated 11.38. (of whom the world was not worthy), wandering in deserts, mountains, caves, and the holes of the earth. 11.39. These all, having had testimony given to them through their faith, didn't receive the promise 11.40. God having provided some better thing concerning us, so that apart from us they should not be made perfect. 12.1. Therefore let us also, seeing we are surrounded by so great a cloud of witnesses, lay aside every weight and the sin which so easily entangles us, and let us run with patience the race that is set before us 12.22. But you have come to Mount Zion, and to the city of the living God, the heavenly Jerusalem, and to innumerable hosts of angels
39. New Testament, Romans, 1.24, 1.26-1.27, 2.29, 3.8, 3.30, 4.1, 5.12-5.21, 6.1-6.23, 7.5, 8.2-8.14, 13.13-13.14, 14.17, 15.8 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.24. Therefore God also gave them up in the lusts of their hearts to uncleanness, that their bodies should be dishonored among themselves 1.26. For this reason, God gave them up to vile passions. For their women changed the natural function into that which is against nature. 1.27. Likewise also the men, leaving the natural function of the woman, burned in their lust toward one another, men doing what is inappropriate with men, and receiving in themselves the due penalty of their error. 2.29. but he is a Jew who is one inwardly, and circumcision is that of the heart, in the spirit not in the letter; whose praise is not from men, but from God. 3.8. Why not (as we are slanderously reported, and as some affirm that we say), "Let us do evil, that good may come?" Those who say so are justly condemned. 3.30. since indeed there is one God who will justify the circumcised by faith, and the uncircumcised through faith. 4.1. What then will we say that Abraham, our forefather, has found according to the flesh? 5.12. Therefore, as sin entered into the world through one man, and death through sin; and so death passed to all men, because all sinned. 5.13. For until the law, sin was in the world; but sin is not charged when there is no law. 5.14. Nevertheless death reigned from Adam until Moses, even over those whose sins weren't like Adam's disobedience, who is a foreshadowing of him who was to come. 5.15. But the free gift isn't like the trespass. For if by the trespass of the one the many died, much more did the grace of God, and the gift by the grace of the one man, Jesus Christ, abound to the many. 5.16. The gift is not as through one who sinned: for the judgment came by one to condemnation, but the free gift came of many trespasses to justification. 5.17. For if by the trespass of the one, death reigned through the one; so much more will those who receive the abundance of grace and of the gift of righteousness reign in life through the one, Jesus Christ. 5.18. So then as through one trespass, all men were condemned; even so through one act of righteousness, all men were justified to life. 5.19. For as through the one man's disobedience many were made sinners, even so through the obedience of the one will many be made righteous. 5.20. The law came in besides, that the trespass might abound; but where sin abounded, grace did abound more exceedingly; 5.21. that as sin reigned in death, even so might grace reign through righteousness to eternal life through Jesus Christ our Lord. 6.1. What shall we say then? Shall we continue in sin, that grace may abound? 6.2. May it never be! We who died to sin, how could we live in it any longer? 6.3. Or don't you know that all we who were baptized into Christ Jesus were baptized into his death? 6.4. We were buried therefore with him through baptism to death, that just like Christ was raised from the dead through the glory of the Father, so we also might walk in newness of life. 6.5. For if we have become united with him in the likeness of his death, we will also be part of his resurrection; 6.6. knowing this, that our old man was crucified with him, that the body of sin might be done away with, so that we would no longer be in bondage to sin. 6.7. For he who has died has been freed from sin. 6.8. But if we died with Christ, we believe that we will also live with him; 6.9. knowing that Christ, being raised from the dead, dies no more. Death no more has dominion over him! 6.10. For the death that he died, he died to sin one time; but the life that he lives, he lives to God. 6.11. Thus also consider yourselves also to be dead to sin, but alive to God in Christ Jesus our Lord. 6.12. Therefore don't let sin reign in your mortal body, that you should obey it in its lusts. 6.13. Neither present your members to sin as instruments of unrighteousness, but present yourselves to God, as alive from the dead, and your members as instruments of righteousness to God. 6.14. For sin will not have dominion over you. For you are not under law, but under grace. 6.15. What then? Shall we sin, because we are not under law, but under grace? May it never be! 6.16. Don't you know that to whom you present yourselves as servants to obedience, his servants you are whom you obey; whether of sin to death, or of obedience to righteousness? 6.17. But thanks be to God, that, whereas you were bondservants of sin, you became obedient from the heart to that form of teaching whereunto you were delivered. 6.18. Being made free from sin, you became bondservants of righteousness. 6.19. I speak in human terms because of the weakness of your flesh, for as you presented your members as servants to uncleanness and to wickedness upon wickedness, even so now present your members as servants to righteousness for sanctification. 6.20. For when you were servants of sin, you were free in regard to righteousness. 6.21. What fruit then did you have at that time in the things of which you are now ashamed? For the end of those things is death. 6.22. But now, being made free from sin, and having become servants of God, you have your fruit of sanctification, and the result of eternal life. 6.23. For the wages of sin is death, but the free gift of God is eternal life in Christ Jesus our Lord. 7.5. For when we were in the flesh, the sinful passions which were through the law, worked in our members to bring forth fruit to death. 8.2. For the law of the Spirit of life in Christ Jesus made me free from the law of sin and of death. 8.3. For what the law couldn't do, in that it was weak through the flesh, God did, sending his own Son in the likeness of sinful flesh and for sin, he condemned sin in the flesh; 8.4. that the ordice of the law might be fulfilled in us, who walk not after the flesh, but after the Spirit. 8.5. For those who live according to the flesh set their minds on the things of the flesh, but those who live according to the Spirit, the things of the Spirit. 8.6. For the mind of the flesh is death, but the mind of the Spirit is life and peace; 8.7. because the mind of the flesh is hostile towards God; for it is not subject to God's law, neither indeed can it be. 8.8. Those who are in the flesh can't please God. 8.9. But you are not in the flesh but in the Spirit, if it is so that the Spirit of God dwells in you. But if any man doesn't have the Spirit of Christ, he is not his. 8.10. If Christ is in you, the body is dead because of sin, but the spirit is alive because of righteousness. 8.11. But if the Spirit of him who raised up Jesus from the dead dwells in you, he who raised up Christ Jesus from the dead will also give life to your mortal bodies through his Spirit who dwells in you. 8.12. So then, brothers, we are debtors, not to the flesh, to live after the flesh. 8.13. For if you live after the flesh, you must die; but if by the Spirit you put to death the deeds of the body, you will live. 8.14. For as many as are led by the Spirit of God, these are children of God. 13.13. Let us walk properly, as in the day; not in reveling and drunkenness, not in sexual promiscuity and lustful acts, and not in strife and jealousy. 13.14. But put on the Lord Jesus Christ, and make no provision for the flesh, for its lusts. 14.17. for the Kingdom of God is not eating and drinking, but righteousness, peace, and joy in the Holy Spirit. 15.8. Now I say that Christ has been made a minister of the circumcision for the truth of God, that he might confirm the promises given to the fathers
40. New Testament, Luke, 1.63 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.63. He asked for a writing tablet, and wrote, "His name is John."They all marveled.
41. New Testament, Mark, 4.11-4.20, 11.1-11.11, 14.22 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4.11. He said to them, "To you is given the mystery of the Kingdom of God, but to those who are outside, all things are done in parables 4.12. that 'seeing they may see, and not perceive; and hearing they may hear, and not understand; lest perhaps they should turn again, and their sins should be forgiven them.' 4.13. He said to them, "Don't you understand this parable? How will you understand all of the parables? 4.14. The farmer sows the word. 4.15. These are the ones by the road, where the word is sown; and when they have heard, immediately Satan comes, and takes away the word which has been sown in them. 4.16. These in like manner are those who are sown on the rocky places, who, when they have heard the word, immediately receive it with joy. 4.17. They have no root in themselves, but are short-lived. When oppression or persecution arises because of the word, immediately they stumble. 4.18. Others are those who are sown among the thorns. These are those who have heard the word 4.19. and the cares of this age, and the deceitfulness of riches, and the lusts of other things entering in choke the word, and it becomes unfruitful. 4.20. These are those which were sown on the good ground: such as hear the word, and accept it, and bear fruit, some thirty times, some sixty times, and some one hundred times. 11.1. When they drew near to Jerusalem, to Bethsphage and Bethany, at the Mount of Olives, he sent two of his disciples 11.2. and said to them, "Go your way into the village that is opposite you. Immediately as you enter into it, you will find a colt tied, on which no one has sat. Untie him, and bring him. 11.3. If anyone asks you, 'Why are you doing this?' say, 'The Lord needs him;' and immediately he will send him back here. 11.4. They went away, and found a colt tied at the door outside in the open street, and they untied him. 11.5. Some of those who stood there asked them, "What are you doing, untying the colt? 11.6. They said to them just as Jesus had said, and they let them go. 11.7. They brought the colt to Jesus, and threw their garments on it, and Jesus sat on it. 11.8. Many spread their garments on the way, and others were cutting down branches from the trees, and spreading them on the road. 11.9. Those who went in front, and those who followed, cried out, "Hosanna! Blessed is he who comes in the name of the Lord! 11.10. Blessed is the kingdom of our father David that is coming in the name of the Lord! Hosanna in the highest! 11.11. Jesus entered into the temple in Jerusalem. When he had looked around at everything, it being now evening, he went out to Bethany with the twelve. 14.22. As they were eating, Jesus took bread, and when he had blessed, he broke it, and gave to them, and said, "Take, eat. This is my body.
42. New Testament, Matthew, 4.8, 12.38-12.40, 13.36-13.43 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4.8. Again, the devil took him to an exceedingly high mountain, and showed him all the kingdoms of the world, and their glory. 12.38. Then certain of the scribes and Pharisees answered, saying, "Teacher, we want to see a sign from you. 12.39. But he answered them, "An evil and adulterous generation seeks after a sign, but no sign will be given it but the sign of Jonah the prophet. 12.40. For as Jonah was three days and three nights in the belly of the whale, so will the Son of Man be three days and three nights in the heart of the earth. 13.36. Then Jesus sent the multitudes away, and went into the house. His disciples came to him, saying, "Explain to us the parable of the darnel of the field. 13.37. He answered them, "He who sows the good seed is the Son of Man 13.38. the field is the world; and the good seed, these are the sons of the kingdom; and the darnel are the sons of the evil one. 13.39. The enemy who sowed them is the devil. The harvest is the end of the age, and the reapers are angels. 13.40. As therefore the darnel is gathered up and burned with fire; so will it be at the end of this age. 13.41. The Son of Man will send out his angels, and they will gather out of his kingdom all things that cause stumbling, and those who do iniquity 13.42. and will cast them into the furnace of fire. There will be weeping and the gnashing of teeth. 13.43. Then the righteous will shine forth like the sun in the kingdom of their Father. He who has ears to hear, let him hear.
43. Plutarch, Letter of Condolence To Apollonius, None (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

44. Alcinous, Handbook of Platonism, 30.5 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

45. Irenaeus, Refutation of All Heresies, 1.26.2 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

46. Babylonian Talmud, Hagigah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

15a. יכול אני לבעול כמה בעילות בלא דם או דלמא דשמואל לא שכיחא אמר להו דשמואל לא שכיח וחיישינן שמא באמבטי עיברה,והאמר שמואל כל שכבת זרע שאינו יורה כחץ אינו מזרעת מעיקרא נמי יורה כחץ הוה,ת"ר מעשה ברבי יהושע בן חנניה שהיה עומד על גב מעלה בהר הבית וראהו בן זומא ולא עמד מלפניו אמר לו מאין ולאין בן זומא אמר לו צופה הייתי בין מים העליונים למים התחתונים ואין בין זה לזה אלא שלש אצבעות בלבד שנאמר (בראשית א, ב) ורוח אלהים מרחפת על פני המים כיונה שמרחפת על בניה ואינה נוגעת אמר להן רבי יהושע לתלמידיו עדיין בן זומא מבחוץ,מכדי ורוח אלהים מרחפת על פני המים אימת הוי ביום הראשון הבדלה ביום שני הוא דהואי דכתיב (בראשית א, ו) ויהי מבדיל בין מים למים וכמה אמר רב אחא בר יעקב כמלא נימא ורבנן אמרי כי גודא דגמלא מר זוטרא ואיתימא רב אסי אמר כתרי גלימי דפריסי אהדדי ואמרי לה כתרי כסי דסחיפי אהדדי,אחר קיצץ בנטיעות עליו הכתוב אומר (קהלת ה, ה) אל תתן את פיך לחטיא את בשרך מאי היא חזא מיטטרון דאתיהבא ליה רשותא למיתב למיכתב זכוותא דישראל אמר גמירא דלמעלה לא הוי לא ישיבה ולא תחרות ולא עורף ולא עיפוי שמא חס ושלום ב' רשויות הן,אפקוהו למיטטרון ומחיוהו שיתין פולסי דנורא א"ל מ"ט כי חזיתיה לא קמת מקמיה איתיהיבא ליה רשותא למימחק זכוותא דאחר יצתה בת קול ואמרה (ירמיהו ג, יד) שובו בנים שובבים חוץ מאחר,אמר הואיל ואיטריד ההוא גברא מההוא עלמא ליפוק ליתהני בהאי עלמא נפק אחר לתרבות רעה נפק אשכח זונה תבעה אמרה ליה ולאו אלישע בן אבויה את עקר פוגלא ממישרא בשבת ויהב לה אמרה אחר הוא,שאל אחר את ר"מ לאחר שיצא לתרבות רעה א"ל מאי דכתיב (קהלת ז, יד) גם את זה לעומת זה עשה האלהים אמר לו כל מה שברא הקב"ה ברא כנגדו ברא הרים ברא גבעות ברא ימים ברא נהרות,אמר לו ר"ע רבך לא אמר כך אלא ברא צדיקים ברא רשעים ברא גן עדן ברא גיהנם כל אחד ואחד יש לו ב' חלקים אחד בגן עדן ואחד בגיהנם זכה צדיק נטל חלקו וחלק חברו בגן עדן נתחייב רשע נטל חלקו וחלק חברו בגיהנם,אמר רב משרשיא מאי קראה גבי צדיקים כתיב (ישעיהו סא, ז) לכן בארצם משנה יירשו גבי רשעים כתיב (ירמיהו יז, יח) ומשנה שברון שברם,שאל אחר את ר"מ לאחר שיצא לתרבות רעה מאי דכתיב (איוב כח, יז) לא יערכנה זהב וזכוכית ותמורתה כלי פז אמר לו אלו דברי תורה שקשין לקנותן ככלי זהב וכלי פז ונוחין לאבדן ככלי זכוכית אמר לו ר"ע רבך לא אמר כך אלא מה כלי זהב וכלי זכוכית אע"פ שנשברו יש להם תקנה אף ת"ח אע"פ שסרח יש לו תקנה אמר לו אף אתה חזור בך אמר לו כבר שמעתי מאחורי הפרגוד שובו בנים שובבים חוץ מאחר,ת"ר מעשה באחר שהיה רוכב על הסוס בשבת והיה רבי מאיר מהלך אחריו ללמוד תורה מפיו אמר לו מאיר חזור לאחריך שכבר שיערתי בעקבי סוסי עד כאן תחום שבת א"ל אף אתה חזור בך א"ל ולא כבר אמרתי לך כבר שמעתי מאחורי הפרגוד שובו בנים שובבים חוץ מאחר,תקפיה עייליה לבי מדרשא א"ל לינוקא פסוק לי פסוקך אמר לו (ישעיהו מח, כב) אין שלום אמר ה' לרשעים עייליה לבי כנישתא אחריתי א"ל לינוקא פסוק לי פסוקך אמר לו (ירמיהו ב, כב) כי אם תכבסי בנתר ותרבי לך בורית נכתם עונך לפני עייליה לבי כנישתא אחריתי א"ל 15a. bI can engage in intercourse several times without blood.In other words, I can have relations with a woman while leaving her hymen intact. If this is so, it is possible that the assumed virgin had intercourse in this manner and is forbidden to the High Priest. bOr, perhapsa person who can act like bShmuel is not commonand the ihalakhais not concerned with this case. bHe said to them:One like bShmuel is not common, and we are concerned that she may have conceived in a bath.Perhaps she washed in a bath that contained a man’s semen, from which she became impregnated while remaining a virgin.,The Gemara asks: How could she possibly become pregt in such a manner? bDidn’t Shmuel say: Any semen that is not shot like an arrow cannot fertilize?The Gemara answers: This does not mean that it must be shot like an arrow at the moment of fertilization. Even if binitially,when released from the male, bit was shot as an arrow,it can balsofertilize a woman at a later moment.,With regard to the fate of ben Zoma, bthe Sages taught: There was once an incident with regard to Rabbi Yehoshua ben Ḥaya, who was standing on a step on the Temple Mount, and ben Zoma saw him and did not stand before himto honor him, as he was deep in thought. Rabbi Yehoshua bsaid to him: From wheredo you come band where are you going, ben Zoma,i.e., what is on your mind? bHe said to him:In my thoughts bI was looking uponthe act of Creation, at the gap bbetween the upper waters and the lower waters, as there is onlythe breadth of ba mere three fingers between them, as it is stated: “And the spirit of God hovered over the face of the waters”(Genesis 1:2), blike a dove hovering over its young without touchingthem. bRabbi Yehoshua said to his studentswho had overheard this exchange: bBen Zoma is still outside;he has not yet achieved full understanding of these matters.,The Gemara explains: bNow,this verse: b“And the spirit of God hovered over the face of the waters,” when wasit stated? bOn the first day,whereas bthe divisionof the waters boccurred on the second day, as it is written: “And let it divide the waters from the waters”(Genesis 1:6). How, then, could ben Zoma derive a proof from the former verse? The Gemara asks: bAnd how much,in fact, is the gap between them? bRav Aḥa bar Ya’akov said: Like the thickness of a thread; and the Rabbis said: Likethe gap between bthe boards of a bridge. Mar Zutra, and some sayit was bRav Asi, said: Like two robes spread one over the other,with a slight gap in between. bAnd some said: Like two cups placed one upon the other. /b,§ The Gemara stated earlier that iAḥerchopped down the saplings,becoming a heretic. bWith regard to him, the verse states: “Do not let your mouth bring your flesh into guilt”(Ecclesiastes 5:5). The Gemara poses a question: bWhat wasit that led him to heresy? bHe sawthe angel bMitatron, who was granted permission to sit and write the meritsof bIsrael. He said:There is ba traditionthat in the world babove there is no sitting; no competition; noturning one’s bback before Him,i.e., all face the Divine Presence; band no lethargy.Seeing that someone other than God was seated above, bhe said: Perhaps,the Gemara here interjects, bHeaven forbid, there are two authorities,and there is another source of power in control of the world in addition to God. Such thoughts led iAḥerto heresy.,The Gemara relates: bThey removed Mitatronfrom his place in heaven band smote himwith bsixty rods [ ipulsei /i] of fire,so that others would not make mistake that iAḥermade. bThey saidto the angel: bWhat is the reasonthat bwhen you sawElisha ben Avuya byou did not stand before him?Despite this conduct, since Mitatron was personally involved, he bwas granted permission to erase the merits of iAḥer /iand cause him to stumble in any manner. bA Divine Voice went forth saying: “Return, rebellious children”(Jeremiah 3:22), bapart from iAḥer /i. /b,Upon hearing this, Elisha ben Avuya bsaid: Since that man,meaning himself, bhas been banished from that world, let him go out and enjoy this world. iAḥerwent astray. He wentand bfound a prostituteand bsolicited herfor intercourse. bShe said to him: Andare byou not Elisha ben Avuya?Shall a person of your stature perform such an act? bHe uprooted a radish from a patchof radishes bon Shabbat and gave it to her,to demonstrate that he no longer observed the Torah. The prostitute bsaid: He is otherthan he was. He is not the same Elisha ben Avuya, he is iAḥer /i, other.,The Gemara relates: iAḥerasked Rabbi Meira question, bafter he had gone astray. He said to him: What isthe meaning of that bwhich is written: “God has made even the one as well as the other”(Ecclesiastes 7:14)? Rabbi Meir bsaid to him: Everything that the Holy One, Blessed be He, created, He createda similar creation bcorresponding to it. He created mountains, He created hills; He created seas, He created rivers. /b, iAḥer bsaid to him: Rabbi Akiva, your teacher, did not say so, butexplained the verse as follows: Everything has its opposite: bHe created the righteous, He created the wicked; He created the Garden of Eden, He created Gehenna. Each and everyperson bhas two portions, one in the Garden of Eden and one in Gehenna.If he bmeritsit, by becoming brighteous, he takes his portion and the portion of hiswicked bcolleague in the Garden of Eden;if he is found bculpableby becoming bwicked, he takes his portion and the portion of his colleague in Gehenna. /b, bRav Mesharshiyya said: What is the versefrom which it is derived? bWith regard to the righteous, it is stated: “Therefore in their land they shall possess double”(Isaiah 61:7); whereas bwith regard to the wicked, it is stated: “And destroy them with double destruction”(Jeremiah 17:18); therefore, each receives a double portion.,iAḥerasked Rabbi Meiranother question, again bafter he had gone astray. What isthe meaning of that bwhich is written: “Gold and glass cannot equal it; neither shall its exchange be vessels of fine gold”(Job 28:17)? If it is referring to the praise and honor of the Torah, it should have compared it only to gold, not to glass. bHe said to him:This is referring to bwords of Torah, which are as difficult to acquire as gilded vessels and vessels of fine gold but are as easy to lose as glass vessels. iAḥer bsaid to him: Rabbi Akiva, your teacher, did not say so, buttaught as follows: bJust as golden vessels and glass vessels have a remedy even when they have broken,as they can be melted down and made into new vessels, bso too a Torah scholar, although he has transgressed, has a remedy.Rabbi Meir bsaid to him:If so, byou too, returnfrom your ways. bHe said to him: I have already heardthe following declaration bbehind thedividing bcurtain,which conceals God from the world: b“Return, rebellious children,”(Jeremiah 3:22) bapart from iAḥer /i. /b,The Gemara cites a related story: bThe Sages taught: There was once an incident involving iAḥer /i, who was riding on a horse on Shabbat, and Rabbi Meir was walking behind him to learn Torah from him.After a while, iAḥer bsaid to him: Meir, turn back, for I have already estimatedand measured baccording to the steps of my horsethat bthe Shabbat boundary ends here,and you may therefore venture no further. Rabbi Meir bsaid to him: You, too, returnto the correct path. bHe said to him: But have I not already told youthat bI have already heard behind thedividing bcurtain: “Return, rebellious children,” apart from iAḥer /i? /b,Nevertheless, Rabbi Meir btook hold of himand bbrought him to the study hall. iAḥer bsaid to a child,by way of divination: bRecite your versethat you studied today bto me. He recitedthe following verse bto him: “There is no peace, said the Lord, concerning the wicked”(Isaiah 48:22). bHe brought him to another study hall. iAḥer bsaid to a child: Recite your verse to me. He recited to him: “For though you wash with niter, and take for you much soap, yet your iniquity is marked before Me”(Jeremiah 2:22). bHe brought him to another study hall. iAḥer bsaid to /b
47. Diogenes Laertius, Lives of The Philosophers, 7.110-7.114, 7.116, 7.123, 7.126-7.129 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

7.110. And in things intermediate also there are duties; as that boys should obey the attendants who have charge of them.According to the Stoics there is an eight-fold division of the soul: the five senses, the faculty of speech, the intellectual faculty, which is the mind itself, and the generative faculty, being all parts of the soul. Now from falsehood there results perversion, which extends to the mind; and from this perversion arise many passions or emotions, which are causes of instability. Passion, or emotion, is defined by Zeno as an irrational and unnatural movement in the soul, or again as impulse in excess.The main, or most universal, emotions, according to Hecato in his treatise On the Passions, book ii., and Zeno in his treatise with the same title, constitute four great classes, grief, fear, desire or craving, pleasure. 7.111. They hold the emotions to be judgements, as is stated by Chrysippus in his treatise On the Passions: avarice being a supposition that money is a good, while the case is similar with drunkenness and profligacy and all the other emotions.And grief or pain they hold to be an irrational mental contraction. Its species are pity, envy, jealousy, rivalry, heaviness, annoyance, distress, anguish, distraction. Pity is grief felt at undeserved suffering; envy, grief at others' prosperity; jealousy, grief at the possession by another of that which one desires for oneself; rivalry, pain at the possession by another of what one has oneself. 7.112. Heaviness or vexation is grief which weighs us down, annoyance that which coops us up and straitens us for want of room, distress a pain brought on by anxious thought that lasts and increases, anguish painful grief, distraction irrational grief, rasping and hindering us from viewing the situation as a whole.Fear is an expectation of evil. Under fear are ranged the following emotions: terror, nervous shrinking, shame, consternation, panic, mental agony. Terror is a fear which produces fright; shame is fear of disgrace; nervous shrinking is a fear that one will have to act; consternation is fear due to a presentation of some unusual occurrence; 7.113. panic is fear with pressure exercised by sound; mental agony is fear felt when some issue is still in suspense.Desire or craving is irrational appetency, and under it are ranged the following states: want, hatred, contentiousness, anger, love, wrath, resentment. Want, then, is a craving when it is baulked and, as it were, cut off from its object, but kept at full stretch and attracted towards it in vain. Hatred is a growing and lasting desire or craving that it should go ill with somebody. Contentiousness is a craving or desire connected with partisanship; anger a craving or desire to punish one who is thought to have done you an undeserved injury. The passion of love is a craving from which good men are free; for it is an effort to win affection due to the visible presence of beauty. 7.114. Wrath is anger which has long rankled and has become malicious, waiting for its opportunity, as is illustrated by the lines:Even though for the one day he swallow his anger, yet doth he still keep his displeasure thereafter in his heart, till he accomplish it.Resentment is anger in an early stage.Pleasure is an irrational elation at the accruing of what seems to be choiceworthy; and under it are ranged ravishment, malevolent joy, delight, transport. Ravishment is pleasure which charms the ear. Malevolent joy is pleasure at another's ills. Delight is the mind's propulsion to weakness, its name in Greek (τέρψις) being akin to τρέψις or turning. To be in transports of delight is the melting away of virtue. 7.116. Also they say that there are three emotional states which are good, namely, joy, caution, and wishing. Joy, the counterpart of pleasure, is rational elation; caution, the counterpart of fear, rational avoidance; for though the wise man will never feel fear, he will yet use caution. And they make wishing the counterpart of desire (or craving), inasmuch as it is rational appetency. And accordingly, as under the primary passions are classed certain others subordinate to them, so too is it with the primary eupathies or good emotional states. Thus under wishing they bring well-wishing or benevolence, friendliness, respect, affection; under caution, reverence and modesty; under joy, delight, mirth, cheerfulness. 7.123. Furthermore, the wise are infallible, not being liable to error. They are also without offence; for they do no hurt to others or to themselves. At the same time they are not pitiful and make no allowance for anyone; they never relax the penalties fixed by the laws, since indulgence and pity and even equitable consideration are marks of a weak mind, which affects kindness in place of chastizing. Nor do they deem punishments too severe. Again, they say that the wise man never wonders at any of the things which appear extraordinary, such as Charon's mephitic caverns, ebbings of the tide, hot springs or fiery eruptions. Nor yet, they go on to say, will the wise man live in solitude; for he is naturally made for society and action. 7.126. For if a man be possessed of virtue, he is at once able to discover and to put into practice what he ought to do. Now such rules of conduct comprise rules for choosing, enduring, staying, and distributing; so that if a man does some things by intelligent choice, some things with fortitude, some things by way of just distribution, and some steadily, he is at once wise, courageous, just, and temperate. And each of the virtues has a particular subject with which it deals, as, for instance, courage is concerned with things that must be endured, practical wisdom with acts to be done, acts from which one must abstain, and those which fall under neither head. Similarly each of the other virtues is concerned with its own proper sphere. To wisdom are subordinate good counsel and understanding; to temperance, good discipline and orderliness; to justice, equality and fair-mindedness; to courage, constancy and vigour. 7.127. It is a tenet of theirs that between virtue and vice there is nothing intermediate, whereas according to the Peripatetics there is, namely, the state of moral improvement. For, say the Stoics, just as a stick must be either straight or crooked, so a man must be either just or unjust. Nor again are there degrees of justice and injustice; and the same rule applies to the other virtues. Further, while Chrysippus holds that virtue can be lost, Cleanthes maintains that it cannot. According to the former it may be lost in consequence of drunkenness or melancholy; the latter takes it to be inalienable owing to the certainty of our mental apprehension. And virtue in itself they hold to be worthy of choice for its own sake. At all events we are ashamed of bad conduct as if we knew that nothing is really good but the morally beautiful. Moreover, they hold that it is in itself sufficient to ensure well-being: thus Zeno, and Chrysippus in the first book of his treatise On Virtues, and Hecato in the second book of his treatise On Goods: 7.128. For if magimity by itself alone can raise us far above everything, and if magimity is but a part of virtue, then too virtue as a whole will be sufficient in itself for well-being – despising all things that seem troublesome. Panaetius, however, and Posidonius deny that virtue is self-sufficing: on the contrary, health is necessary, and some means of living and strength.Another tenet of theirs is the perpetual exercise of virtue, as held by Cleanthes and his followers. For virtue can never be lost, and the good man is always exercising his mind, which is perfect. Again, they say that justice, as well as law and right reason, exists by nature and not by convention: so Chrysippus in his work On the Morally Beautiful. 7.129. Neither do they think that the divergence of opinion between philosophers is any reason for abandoning the study of philosophy, since at that rate we should have to give up life altogether: so Posidonius in his Exhortations. Chrysippus allows that the ordinary Greek education is serviceable.It is their doctrine that there can be no question of right as between man and the lower animals, because of their unlikeness. Thus Chrysippus in the first book of his treatise On Justice, and Posidonius in the first book of his De officio. Further, they say that the wise man will feel affection for the youths who by their countece show a natural endowment for virtue. So Zeno in his Republic, Chrysippus in book i. of his work On Modes of Life, and Apollodorus in his Ethics.
48. Augustine, The City of God, 3.14 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

3.14. But what happened after Numa's reign, and under the other kings, when the Albans were provoked into war, with sad results not to themselves alone, but also to the Romans? The long peace of Numa had become tedious; and with what endless slaughter and detriment of both states did the Roman and Alban armies bring it to an end! For Alba, which had been founded by Ascanius, son of Æneas, and which was more properly the mother of Rome than Troy herself, was provoked to battle by Tullus Hostilius, king of Rome, and in the conflict both inflicted and received such damage, that at length both parties wearied of the struggle. It was then devised that the war should be decided by the combat of three twin-brothers from each army: from the Romans the three Horatii stood forward, from the Albans the three Curiatii. Two of the Horatii were overcome and disposed of by the Curiatii; but by the remaining Horatius the three Curiatii were slain. Thus Rome remained victorious, but with such a sacrifice that only one survivor returned to his home. Whose was the loss on both sides? Whose the grief, but of the offspring of Æneas, the descendants of Ascanius, the progeny of Venus, the grandsons of Jupiter? For this, too, was a worse than civil war, in which the belligerent states were mother and daughter. And to this combat of the three twin-brothers there was added another atrocious and horrible catastrophe. For as the two nations had formerly been friendly (being related and neighbors), the sister of the Horatii had been betrothed to one of the Curiatii; and she, when she saw her brother wearing the spoils of her betrothed, burst into tears, and was slain by her own brother in his anger. To me, this one girl seems to have been more humane than the whole Roman people. I cannot think her to blame for lamenting the man to whom already she had plighted her troth, or, as perhaps she was doing, for grieving that her brother should have slain him to whom he had promised his sister. For why do we praise the grief of Æneas (in Virgil ) over the enemy cut down even by his own hand? Why did Marcellus shed tears over the city of Syracuse, when he recollected, just before he destroyed, its magnificence and meridian glory, and thought upon the common lot of all things? I demand, in the name of humanity, that if men are praised for tears shed over enemies conquered by themselves, a weak girl should not be counted criminal for bewailing her lover slaughtered by the hand of her brother. While, then, that maiden was weeping for the death of her betrothed inflicted by her brother's hand, Rome was rejoicing that such devastation had been wrought on her mother state, and that she had purchased a victory with such an expenditure of the common blood of herself and the Albans. Why allege to me the mere names and words of glory and victory? Tear off the disguise of wild delusion, and look at the naked deeds: weigh them naked, judge them naked. Let the charge be brought against Alba, as Troy was charged with adultery. There is no such charge, none like it found: the war was kindled only in order that there Might sound in languid ears the cry of Tullus and of victory. This vice of restless ambition was the sole motive to that social and parricidal war - a vice which Sallust brands in passing; for when he has spoken with brief but hearty commendation of those primitive times in which life was spent without covetousness, and every one was sufficiently satisfied with what he had, he goes on: But after Cyrus in Asia, and the Lacedemonians and Athenians in Greece, began to subdue cities and nations, and to account the lust of sovereignty a sufficient ground for war, and to reckon that the greatest glory consisted in the greatest empire; and so on, as I need not now quote. This lust of sovereignty disturbs and consumes the human race with frightful ills. By this lust Rome was overcome when she triumphed over Alba, and praising her own crime, called it glory. For, as our Scriptures say, the wicked boasts of his heart's desire, and blesses the covetous, whom the Lord abhors. Away, then, with these deceitful masks, these deluding whitewashes, that things may be truthfully seen and scrutinized. Let no man tell me that this and the other was a great man, because he fought and conquered so and so. Gladiators fight and conquer, and this barbarism has its meed of praise; but I think it were better to take the consequences of any sloth, than to seek the glory won by such arms. And if two gladiators entered the arena to fight, one being father, the other his son, who would endure such a spectacle? Who would not be revolted by it? How, then, could that be a glorious war which a daughter-state waged against its mother? Or did it constitute a difference, that the battlefield was not an arena, and that the wide plains were filled with the carcasses not of two gladiators, but of many of the flower of two nations; and that those contests were viewed not by the amphitheatre, but by the whole world, and furnished a profane spectacle both to those alive at the time, and to their posterity, so long as the fame of it is handed down? Yet those gods, guardians of the Roman empire, and, as it were, theatric spectators of such contests as these, were not satisfied until the sister of the Horatii was added by her brother's sword as a third victim from the Roman side, so that Rome herself, though she won the day, should have as many deaths to mourn. Afterwards, as a fruit of the victory, Alba was destroyed, though it was there the Trojan gods had formed a third asylum after Ilium had been sacked by the Greeks, and after they had left Lavinium, where Æneas had founded a kingdom in a land of banishment. But probably Alba was destroyed because from it too the gods had migrated, in their usual fashion, as Virgil says: Gone from each fane, each sacred shrine, Are those who made this realm divine. Gone, indeed, and from now their third asylum, that Rome might seem all the wiser in committing herself to them after they had deserted three other cities. Alba, whose king Amulius had banished his brother, displeased them; Rome, whose king Romulus had slain his brother, pleased them. But before Alba was destroyed, its population, they say, was amalgamated with the inhabitants of Rome so that the two cities were one. Well, admitting it was so, yet the fact remains that the city of Ascanius, the third retreat of the Trojan gods, was destroyed by the daughter-city. Besides, to effect this pitiful conglomerate of the war's leavings, much blood was spilled on both sides. And how shall I speak in detail of the same wars, so often renewed in subsequent reigns, though they seemed to have been finished by great victories; and of wars that time after time were brought to an end by great slaughters, and which yet time after time were renewed by the posterity of those who had made peace and struck treaties? of this calamitous history we have no small proof, in the fact that no subsequent king closed the gates of war; and therefore with all their tutelar gods, no one of them reigned in peace.
49. Stobaeus, Eclogues, 2.7.10



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abraham, as model of trust Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 79
abraham, trust of Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 79
acts of the apostles Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 56
admirers, double loyalties of Zetterholm, The Formation of Christianity in Antioch: A Social-Scientific Approach to the Separation Between Judaism and Christianity (2003) 146
aduentus, advent Lynskey, Tyconius’ Book of Rules: An Ancient Invitation to Ecclesial Hermeneutics (2021) 294
advantage (sumpheron, utilitas) Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 124, 168, 169, 170, 183
advent Lynskey, Tyconius’ Book of Rules: An Ancient Invitation to Ecclesial Hermeneutics (2021) 294
age, childhood, child Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 189
agency, all things McDonough, Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine (2009) 158
allegoria, allegory Lynskey, Tyconius’ Book of Rules: An Ancient Invitation to Ecclesial Hermeneutics (2021) 309
amphilochius of iconium, biblical narratives disseminated via sermons of Ayres Champion and Crawford, The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions (2023) 315
analogy (ἀναλογία) James, Learning the Language of Scripture: Origen, Wisdom, and the Logic of Interpretation (2021) 121
angels Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 56
apatheia\u2003 Linjamaa, The Ethics of The Tripartite Tractate (NHC I, 5): A Study of Determinism and Early Christian Philosophy of Ethics (2019) 76
apocalypticism Lynskey, Tyconius’ Book of Rules: An Ancient Invitation to Ecclesial Hermeneutics (2021) 294
apostle, paul Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 189
apostolic council Zetterholm, The Formation of Christianity in Antioch: A Social-Scientific Approach to the Separation Between Judaism and Christianity (2003) 146, 147
apostolic decree Zetterholm, The Formation of Christianity in Antioch: A Social-Scientific Approach to the Separation Between Judaism and Christianity (2003) 146, 147
appropriation (oikeiōsis) Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 124, 183
aristotle Kaplan, My Perfect One: Typology and Early Rabbinic Interpretation of Song of Songs (2015) 22; Linjamaa, The Ethics of The Tripartite Tractate (NHC I, 5): A Study of Determinism and Early Christian Philosophy of Ethics (2019) 76
arriano, de genesi contra manichaeos Yates and Dupont, The Bible in Christian North Africa: Part II: Consolidation of the Canon to the Arab Conquest (ca. 393 to 650 CE). (2023) 95
arriano, exegetical training and methods Yates and Dupont, The Bible in Christian North Africa: Part II: Consolidation of the Canon to the Arab Conquest (ca. 393 to 650 CE). (2023) 94, 95
asaph James, Learning the Language of Scripture: Origen, Wisdom, and the Logic of Interpretation (2021) 121
asceticism Iricinschi et al., Beyond the Gnostic Gospels: Studies Building on the Work of Elaine Pagels (2013) 420
athletics/training Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 168
auerbach, erich Kaplan, My Perfect One: Typology and Early Rabbinic Interpretation of Song of Songs (2015) 22
augustine Cheuk-Yin Yam, Trinity and Grace in Augustine (2019) 422
baptism, biblical narratives as types for Ayres Champion and Crawford, The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions (2023) 326
baptism Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 190
barnabas, letter of Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 721
beginning Lynskey, Tyconius’ Book of Rules: An Ancient Invitation to Ecclesial Hermeneutics (2021) 309
benefactors Zetterholm, The Formation of Christianity in Antioch: A Social-Scientific Approach to the Separation Between Judaism and Christianity (2003) 146
bible, baptism, biblical types for Ayres Champion and Crawford, The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions (2023) 326
bible, biblical narratives Ayres Champion and Crawford, The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions (2023) 315, 326
bible, ekphrasis, use of Ayres Champion and Crawford, The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions (2023) 326
bible, ekphrasis Ayres Champion and Crawford, The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions (2023) 315
bible, homilies, dissemination through Ayres Champion and Crawford, The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions (2023) 315
bible, in thessaly Ayres Champion and Crawford, The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions (2023) 315
biblical interpretation, jewish context Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 663
biblical interpretation, pesher interpretation Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 663
biography (lives) Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 189
body Linjamaa, The Ethics of The Tripartite Tractate (NHC I, 5): A Study of Determinism and Early Christian Philosophy of Ethics (2019) 76
christ, as son McDonough, Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine (2009) 158
christian exegesis, figurative/allegorical exegesis Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 721
christianity, brotherhood in Visnjic, The Invention of Duty: Stoicism as Deontology (2021) 439
chrysippus Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 93
cicero Kaplan, My Perfect One: Typology and Early Rabbinic Interpretation of Song of Songs (2015) 22
clement of alexandria Linjamaa, The Ethics of The Tripartite Tractate (NHC I, 5): A Study of Determinism and Early Christian Philosophy of Ethics (2019) 76
cognitive theory Linjamaa, The Ethics of The Tripartite Tractate (NHC I, 5): A Study of Determinism and Early Christian Philosophy of Ethics (2019) 76
colossians, letter to Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 56
community, corinth Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 150
concupiscentia, concupiscence Cheuk-Yin Yam, Trinity and Grace in Augustine (2019) 422
connection Lynskey, Tyconius’ Book of Rules: An Ancient Invitation to Ecclesial Hermeneutics (2021) 294
conversion Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 169; Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 189
corinth Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 109, 111, 141, 153
covenant Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 189
crates of mallus Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 297
creation and ownership, through christ McDonough, Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine (2009) 158
crucifixion Lynskey, Tyconius’ Book of Rules: An Ancient Invitation to Ecclesial Hermeneutics (2021) 294
cult, official Zetterholm, The Formation of Christianity in Antioch: A Social-Scientific Approach to the Separation Between Judaism and Christianity (2003) 147
culture, cultural affiliations in galilee Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 186
cupiditas Cheuk-Yin Yam, Trinity and Grace in Augustine (2019) 422
cynics/cynicism Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 50
damascus Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 189
dawson, david James, Learning the Language of Scripture: Origen, Wisdom, and the Logic of Interpretation (2021) 121
de genesi ad litteram, augustines modes of interpretation Yates and Dupont, The Bible in Christian North Africa: Part II: Consolidation of the Canon to the Arab Conquest (ca. 393 to 650 CE). (2023) 94, 95
dead sea scrolls Iricinschi et al., Beyond the Gnostic Gospels: Studies Building on the Work of Elaine Pagels (2013) 420
death Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 189
deixis (δεῖξις), of place James, Learning the Language of Scripture: Origen, Wisdom, and the Logic of Interpretation (2021) 121
demons, as cosmological entities in stoicism Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 93
demons, as gentile gods Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 93
demons McDonough, Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine (2009) 158, 160
desires Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 109, 110, 111, 112, 114, 141, 153
devil Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 153
dibelius, m. Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 93
disciple, peter Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 189
ebionites Iricinschi et al., Beyond the Gnostic Gospels: Studies Building on the Work of Elaine Pagels (2013) 420
ecclesiology Lynskey, Tyconius’ Book of Rules: An Ancient Invitation to Ecclesial Hermeneutics (2021) 294
egypt Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 153
ekphrasis, inscriptions disseminating biblical narratives Ayres Champion and Crawford, The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions (2023) 315, 326
elisha ben avuya (aher) Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 56
emotions passions Linjamaa, The Ethics of The Tripartite Tractate (NHC I, 5): A Study of Determinism and Early Christian Philosophy of Ethics (2019) 76
empedocles Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 93
enablement Lynskey, Tyconius’ Book of Rules: An Ancient Invitation to Ecclesial Hermeneutics (2021) 294
endurance Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 79
enoch xviii, xix Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 56
ephesus Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 50
epicureanism, attacks against Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 50
epistemology, pauls Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 183
epistemology, suneidēsis Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 180
eschatology Lynskey, Tyconius’ Book of Rules: An Ancient Invitation to Ecclesial Hermeneutics (2021) 294
essenes Iricinschi et al., Beyond the Gnostic Gospels: Studies Building on the Work of Elaine Pagels (2013) 420
eucharist Visnjic, The Invention of Duty: Stoicism as Deontology (2021) 439
events Lynskey, Tyconius’ Book of Rules: An Ancient Invitation to Ecclesial Hermeneutics (2021) 309
exegesis, rabbinic Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 663
exegesis Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 150
exemplars of trust Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 79
exodus Kaplan, My Perfect One: Typology and Early Rabbinic Interpretation of Song of Songs (2015) 22; Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 169, 190; Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 189
expectancy Lynskey, Tyconius’ Book of Rules: An Ancient Invitation to Ecclesial Hermeneutics (2021) 294
experience/experiential Jeong, Pauline Baptism among the Mysteries: Ritual Messages and the Promise of Initiation (2023) 183
experience Lynskey, Tyconius’ Book of Rules: An Ancient Invitation to Ecclesial Hermeneutics (2021) 309
faith (belief, fidelity, trust), human Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 189
faithfulness, of god Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 79
faithfulness, of israel Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 79
figura, figure Lynskey, Tyconius’ Book of Rules: An Ancient Invitation to Ecclesial Hermeneutics (2021) 309
figurative/allegorical exegesis, christian second-century exegesis Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 721
figurative/allegorical exegesis, hellenistic jewish writings Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 297
figurative/allegorical exegesis, in gospels Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 721
figurative/allegorical exegesis, in pagan/classical world Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 297
figurative/allegorical exegesis, in pauline epistles Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 721
figurative/allegorical exegesis, pagan/classical use of allegory and Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 721
figurative/allegorical exegesis, typological exegesis and Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 721
figurative/allegorical exegesis Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 721
final judgment Lynskey, Tyconius’ Book of Rules: An Ancient Invitation to Ecclesial Hermeneutics (2021) 294
flesh Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 189
freedom Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 169, 190
freedom (eleutheria) Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 168, 180, 183
from cave Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 56
future xiii Lynskey, Tyconius’ Book of Rules: An Ancient Invitation to Ecclesial Hermeneutics (2021) 294
gentes, nations Lynskey, Tyconius’ Book of Rules: An Ancient Invitation to Ecclesial Hermeneutics (2021) 294
genus-species, general-specific Lynskey, Tyconius’ Book of Rules: An Ancient Invitation to Ecclesial Hermeneutics (2021) 309
glory Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 150
gluttons, gluttony Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 109, 114, 153
god, as tested Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 111
god-fearers, double loyalties of Zetterholm, The Formation of Christianity in Antioch: A Social-Scientific Approach to the Separation Between Judaism and Christianity (2003) 147
good, right actions (kathorthōmata) Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 73, 180
good (agathos) Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 73, 169, 183
gospels, figurative/allegorical exegesis in Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 721
gospels Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 190
grace, as gods beneficence deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 254
grace, response to deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 254
graeco-roman piety Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 180, 183
hagar Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 189
harmony Linjamaa, The Ethics of The Tripartite Tractate (NHC I, 5): A Study of Determinism and Early Christian Philosophy of Ethics (2019) 76
heart Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 189
hedonism Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 50
hellenistic jewish writings, figurative/allegorical exegesis in Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 297
hellenistic jewish writings, forms and methods of exegesis in Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 297
hellenistic jewish writings Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 297
heraclitus of ephesus Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 721
hermeneutics Lynskey, Tyconius’ Book of Rules: An Ancient Invitation to Ecclesial Hermeneutics (2021) 309
historical reality Lynskey, Tyconius’ Book of Rules: An Ancient Invitation to Ecclesial Hermeneutics (2021) 309
history, study of in relation to theology Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 79
history Lynskey, Tyconius’ Book of Rules: An Ancient Invitation to Ecclesial Hermeneutics (2021) 294, 309
holiness, holy spirit Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 189
homer, exegesis of Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 297
homilies, biblical narratives, dissemination of Ayres Champion and Crawford, The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions (2023) 315
honor and dishonor deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 254
identity Lynskey, Tyconius’ Book of Rules: An Ancient Invitation to Ecclesial Hermeneutics (2021) 309
idolatry Iricinschi et al., Beyond the Gnostic Gospels: Studies Building on the Work of Elaine Pagels (2013) 420; Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 111, 114, 141, 153; Zetterholm, The Formation of Christianity in Antioch: A Social-Scientific Approach to the Separation Between Judaism and Christianity (2003) 146, 147
idols, as demons McDonough, Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine (2009) 158, 160
idols, as mediators McDonough, Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine (2009) 158, 160
idols, food sacrificed to McDonough, Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine (2009) 153, 158
inheritance deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 254
intermediates Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 73, 169
interpretation, christian Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 150
interpretation, hellenistic jewish Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 150
intertextuality vii Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 169, 190
ishmael Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 189
isis Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 93
israel, israelites Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 109, 110, 111, 112, 114, 153
israel Lynskey, Tyconius’ Book of Rules: An Ancient Invitation to Ecclesial Hermeneutics (2021) 309; Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 189
jerusalem, agreement at Zetterholm, The Formation of Christianity in Antioch: A Social-Scientific Approach to the Separation Between Judaism and Christianity (2003) 146, 147
jesus, return of deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 254
jesus/christ Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 150
jew(ish), sabbateans Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 189
jew(ish) Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 189
jewish practices/torah observance Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 73, 124, 183
jews and judaism, hellenistic jewish writings Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 297
john the baptist James, Learning the Language of Scripture: Origen, Wisdom, and the Logic of Interpretation (2021) 121
judaizing Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 73, 183
jude, letter of Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 56
judgment deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 254
justice, righteousness, human attribute Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 189
king Lynskey, Tyconius’ Book of Rules: An Ancient Invitation to Ecclesial Hermeneutics (2021) 294
lamb Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 56
last supper Visnjic, The Invention of Duty: Stoicism as Deontology (2021) 439
law, 2 corinthians Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 150
law, christianity Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 150
law, paul Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 186
law Lynskey, Tyconius’ Book of Rules: An Ancient Invitation to Ecclesial Hermeneutics (2021) 294
liberation Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 169, 190
libido Cheuk-Yin Yam, Trinity and Grace in Augustine (2019) 422
life Lynskey, Tyconius’ Book of Rules: An Ancient Invitation to Ecclesial Hermeneutics (2021) 294
literary contribution Lynskey, Tyconius’ Book of Rules: An Ancient Invitation to Ecclesial Hermeneutics (2021) 294
lucretius Kaplan, My Perfect One: Typology and Early Rabbinic Interpretation of Song of Songs (2015) 22
manichaeans, augustine on Yates and Dupont, The Bible in Christian North Africa: Part II: Consolidation of the Canon to the Arab Conquest (ca. 393 to 650 CE). (2023) 95
marcellinus Cheuk-Yin Yam, Trinity and Grace in Augustine (2019) 422
marriage Iricinschi et al., Beyond the Gnostic Gospels: Studies Building on the Work of Elaine Pagels (2013) 420
matter (material substance/existence) Linjamaa, The Ethics of The Tripartite Tractate (NHC I, 5): A Study of Determinism and Early Christian Philosophy of Ethics (2019) 76
mediation McDonough, Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine (2009) 158, 160
messianism Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 189
metals, gold Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 189
metriopatheia\u2003 Linjamaa, The Ethics of The Tripartite Tractate (NHC I, 5): A Study of Determinism and Early Christian Philosophy of Ethics (2019) 76
middle platonism Linjamaa, The Ethics of The Tripartite Tractate (NHC I, 5): A Study of Determinism and Early Christian Philosophy of Ethics (2019) 76
mind Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 189
miracles McDonough, Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine (2009) 160
moses, appearance Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 150
moses, art Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 150
moses, as paradigm of trust Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 79
moses, pagan literature Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 150
moses Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 150; Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 189; Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 109, 114; Visnjic, The Invention of Duty: Stoicism as Deontology (2021) 147
mystery Lynskey, Tyconius’ Book of Rules: An Ancient Invitation to Ecclesial Hermeneutics (2021) 309
nature/nature Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 73
neoplatonism Linjamaa, The Ethics of The Tripartite Tractate (NHC I, 5): A Study of Determinism and Early Christian Philosophy of Ethics (2019) 76
new covenant Visnjic, The Invention of Duty: Stoicism as Deontology (2021) 439
new person deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 254
noahide commandments Zetterholm, The Formation of Christianity in Antioch: A Social-Scientific Approach to the Separation Between Judaism and Christianity (2003) 146
numenius Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 721
old person deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 254
origen, on numenius Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 721
origin Lynskey, Tyconius’ Book of Rules: An Ancient Invitation to Ecclesial Hermeneutics (2021) 309
osiris Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 93
pagan/classical world, figurative/allegorical exegesis in Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 297
passio, passion Lynskey, Tyconius’ Book of Rules: An Ancient Invitation to Ecclesial Hermeneutics (2021) 294
passion Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 50
passions deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 254
passions (pathē) Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 168, 169, 170
passions emotions Linjamaa, The Ethics of The Tripartite Tractate (NHC I, 5): A Study of Determinism and Early Christian Philosophy of Ethics (2019) 76
past Lynskey, Tyconius’ Book of Rules: An Ancient Invitation to Ecclesial Hermeneutics (2021) 309
patriarchy, patriarchs Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 189
paul, his demonology Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 93
paul, jewish law Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 186
paul, last supper in Visnjic, The Invention of Duty: Stoicism as Deontology (2021) 439
paul, missionary activity Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 186
paul Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 150; Iricinschi et al., Beyond the Gnostic Gospels: Studies Building on the Work of Elaine Pagels (2013) 420; Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 50; Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 109, 110, 111, 112, 114, 141, 153
paul (the apostle) Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 169, 190
paul and pauline epistles, on literal vs. spiritual meaning Yates and Dupont, The Bible in Christian North Africa: Part II: Consolidation of the Canon to the Arab Conquest (ca. 393 to 650 CE). (2023) 95
paul and stoicism, relationship of Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 73
pauline epistles, figurative/allegorical exegesis in Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 721
persecution Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 189
philo Linjamaa, The Ethics of The Tripartite Tractate (NHC I, 5): A Study of Determinism and Early Christian Philosophy of Ethics (2019) 76
philo of alexandria Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 150; Iricinschi et al., Beyond the Gnostic Gospels: Studies Building on the Work of Elaine Pagels (2013) 420
places Lynskey, Tyconius’ Book of Rules: An Ancient Invitation to Ecclesial Hermeneutics (2021) 309
plato, exegesis of Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 297
plato Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 93; Kaplan, My Perfect One: Typology and Early Rabbinic Interpretation of Song of Songs (2015) 22; Linjamaa, The Ethics of The Tripartite Tractate (NHC I, 5): A Study of Determinism and Early Christian Philosophy of Ethics (2019) 76
plutarch Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 93; Linjamaa, The Ethics of The Tripartite Tractate (NHC I, 5): A Study of Determinism and Early Christian Philosophy of Ethics (2019) 76
populus nouissimus, last people Lynskey, Tyconius’ Book of Rules: An Ancient Invitation to Ecclesial Hermeneutics (2021) 294
praeceptum Cheuk-Yin Yam, Trinity and Grace in Augustine (2019) 422
prayer Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 56
preferreds (proēgmena) Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 168, 183
present Lynskey, Tyconius’ Book of Rules: An Ancient Invitation to Ecclesial Hermeneutics (2021) 309
promises of god Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 79
prophecy, israelite Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 189
prophecy James, Learning the Language of Scripture: Origen, Wisdom, and the Logic of Interpretation (2021) 121; Lynskey, Tyconius’ Book of Rules: An Ancient Invitation to Ecclesial Hermeneutics (2021) 294
prophet Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 190
prophetic Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 190
purification/purity Jeong, Pauline Baptism among the Mysteries: Ritual Messages and the Promise of Initiation (2023) 183
pythagoras Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 93
qumran, dead sea sect Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 189
recapitulation Lynskey, Tyconius’ Book of Rules: An Ancient Invitation to Ecclesial Hermeneutics (2021) 294
redemption Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 189
referent Lynskey, Tyconius’ Book of Rules: An Ancient Invitation to Ecclesial Hermeneutics (2021) 309
religion passim, idolatry Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 189
religion passim, priest(hood) Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 189
resurrection Lynskey, Tyconius’ Book of Rules: An Ancient Invitation to Ecclesial Hermeneutics (2021) 294
revelation, the apocalypse of jesus christ Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 56
revelation Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 150; Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 190
rhetoric, allegory, symbolism Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 189
salvation Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 168, 169; deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 254
sarah Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 189
satan Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 93
school Linjamaa, The Ethics of The Tripartite Tractate (NHC I, 5): A Study of Determinism and Early Christian Philosophy of Ethics (2019) 76
scriptures, jewish, as source of new testament ideas about pistis Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 79
self-control Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 50
septuagint Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 109, 114
significare, signify Lynskey, Tyconius’ Book of Rules: An Ancient Invitation to Ecclesial Hermeneutics (2021) 309
signs Lynskey, Tyconius’ Book of Rules: An Ancient Invitation to Ecclesial Hermeneutics (2021) 309
similitudo, likeness Lynskey, Tyconius’ Book of Rules: An Ancient Invitation to Ecclesial Hermeneutics (2021) 309
sin Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 169
sinai Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 150
slavery Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 168, 170, 183
song of moses McDonough, Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine (2009) 160
spirit, divine Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 189
spiritual sense James, Learning the Language of Scripture: Origen, Wisdom, and the Logic of Interpretation (2021) 121
stoicism, its view of demons Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 93
stoicism/stoics Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 190
stoicism Linjamaa, The Ethics of The Tripartite Tractate (NHC I, 5): A Study of Determinism and Early Christian Philosophy of Ethics (2019) 76
synagogue, gentile participation in Zetterholm, The Formation of Christianity in Antioch: A Social-Scientific Approach to the Separation Between Judaism and Christianity (2003) 146
telos Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 168
temporality Lynskey, Tyconius’ Book of Rules: An Ancient Invitation to Ecclesial Hermeneutics (2021) 294
terra, earth Lynskey, Tyconius’ Book of Rules: An Ancient Invitation to Ecclesial Hermeneutics (2021) 294
testing passim, vocabulary of Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 153
theology Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 189
theon Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 297
therapeutae Iricinschi et al., Beyond the Gnostic Gospels: Studies Building on the Work of Elaine Pagels (2013) 420
thought, imitative model Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 296
throne, enthroned Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 56
time Lynskey, Tyconius’ Book of Rules: An Ancient Invitation to Ecclesial Hermeneutics (2021) 294, 309
torah, giving of Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 150
transformation deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 254
tribulation Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 56
tropos, trope Lynskey, Tyconius’ Book of Rules: An Ancient Invitation to Ecclesial Hermeneutics (2021) 309
tunc, then Lynskey, Tyconius’ Book of Rules: An Ancient Invitation to Ecclesial Hermeneutics (2021) 294
two powers Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 56
typhon Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 93
typological exegesis, figurative/allegorical exegesis and Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 721
typology, greek terms for Kaplan, My Perfect One: Typology and Early Rabbinic Interpretation of Song of Songs (2015) 22
typology, in the new testament' Kaplan, My Perfect One: Typology and Early Rabbinic Interpretation of Song of Songs (2015) 22
typology, latin terms for Kaplan, My Perfect One: Typology and Early Rabbinic Interpretation of Song of Songs (2015) 22