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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



8234
New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 10.27-10.29


εἴ τις καλεῖ ὑμᾶς τῶν ἀπίστων καὶ θέλετε πορεύεσθαι, πᾶν τὸ παρατιθέμενον ὑμῖν ἐσθίετε μηδὲν ἀνακρίνοντες διὰ τὴν συνείδησιν·But if one of those who don't believe invitesyou to a meal, and you are inclined to go, eat whatever is set beforeyou, asking no questions for the sake of conscience.


ἐὰν δέ τις ὑμῖν εἴπῃ Τοῦτο ἱερόθυτόν ἐστιν, μὴ ἐσθίετε διʼ ἐκεῖνον τὸν μηνύσαντα καὶ τὴν συνείδησιν·But ifanyone says to you, "This was offered to idols," don't eat it for thesake of the one who told you, and for the sake of conscience. For "theearth is the Lord's, and all its fullness.


συνείδησιν δὲ λέγω οὐχὶ τὴν ἑαυτοῦ ἀλλὰ τὴν τοῦ ἑτέρου· ἵνα τί γὰρ ἡ ἐλευθερία μου κρίνεται ὑπὸ ἄλλης συνειδήσεως;Conscience, I say,not your own, but the other's conscience. For why is my liberty judgedby another conscience?


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

31 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 1.31 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.31. וַיַּרְא אֱלֹהִים אֶת־כָּל־אֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה וְהִנֵּה־טוֹב מְאֹד וַיְהִי־עֶרֶב וַיְהִי־בֹקֶר יוֹם הַשִּׁשִּׁי׃ 1.31. And God saw every thing that He had made, and, behold, it was very good. And there was evening and there was morning, the sixth day."
2. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 11.4 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

11.4. וְהָאסַפְסֻף אֲשֶׁר בְּקִרְבּוֹ הִתְאַוּוּ תַּאֲוָה וַיָּשֻׁבוּ וַיִּבְכּוּ גַּם בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיֹּאמְרוּ מִי יַאֲכִלֵנוּ בָּשָׂר׃ 11.4. And the mixed multitude that was among them fell a lusting; and the children of Israel also wept on their part, and said: ‘Would that we were given flesh to eat!"
3. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 23.1, 24.1 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

23.1. מִזְמוֹר לְדָוִד יְהוָה רֹעִי לֹא אֶחְסָר׃ 24.1. לְדָוִד מִזְמוֹר לַיהוָה הָאָרֶץ וּמְלוֹאָהּ תֵּבֵל וְיֹשְׁבֵי בָהּ׃ 24.1. מִי הוּא זֶה מֶלֶךְ הַכָּבוֹד יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת הוּא מֶלֶךְ הַכָּבוֹד סֶלָה׃ 23.1. A Psalm of David. The LORD is my shepherd; I shall not want." 24.1. A Psalm of David. The earth is the LORD’S, and the fulness thereof; the world, and they that dwell therein."
4. Anon., Jubilees, 15.26 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

15.26. This law is for all the generations for ever
5. Cicero, On Duties, 3.42 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

3.42. Nec tamen nostrae nobis utilitates omittendae sunt aliisque tradendae, cum iis ipsi egeamus, sed suae cuique utilitati, quod sine alterius iniuria fiat, serviendum est. Scite Chrysippus, ut multa: Qui stadium, inquit, currit, eniti et contendere debet, quam maxime possit, ut vincat, supplantare eum, quicum certet, aut manu depellere nullo modo debet; sic in vita sibi quemque petere, quod pertineat ad usum, non iniquum est, alteri deripere ius non est. 3.42.  And yet we are not required to sacrifice our own interest and surrender to others what we need for ourselves, but each one should consider his own interests, as far as he may without injury to his neighbour's. "When a man enters the foot-race," says Chrysippus with his usual aptness, "it is his duty to put forth all his strength and strive with all his might to win; but he ought never with his foot to trip, or with his hand to foul a competitor. Thus in the stadium of life, it is not unfair for anyone to seek to obtain what is needful for his own advantage, but he has no right to wrest it from his neighbour.
6. Cicero, Topica, 2.8 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

7. Septuagint, 4 Maccabees, 5.2 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

5.2. ordered the guards to seize each and every Hebrew and to compel them to eat pork and food sacrificed to idols.
8. Anon., Didache, 6.3 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

9. Epictetus, Discourses, 1.19.15, 2.22.15, 2.22.19-2.22.20 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

10. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, None (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

11. New Testament, 1 Thessalonians, 1.9 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.9. For they themselves report concerning us what kind of a reception we had from you; and how you turned to God from idols, to serve a living and true God
12. New Testament, 1 Timothy, 4.1-4.5 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4.1. But the Spirit says expressly that in later times some will fall away from the faith, paying attention to seducing spirits and doctrines of demons 4.2. through the hypocrisy of men who speak lies, branded in their own conscience as with a hot iron; 4.3. forbidding marriage and commanding to abstain from foods which God created to be received with thanksgiving by those who believe and know the truth. 4.4. For every creature of God is good, and nothing is to be rejected, if it is received with thanksgiving. 4.5. For it is sanctified through the word of God and prayer.
13. New Testament, 2 Thessalonians, 3.6-3.15 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.6. Now we command you, brothers, in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, that you withdraw yourselves from every brother who walks in rebellion, and not after the tradition which they received from us. 3.7. For you know how you ought to imitate us. For we didn't behave ourselves rebelliously among you 3.8. neither did we eat bread from anyone's hand without paying for it, but in labor and travail worked night and day, that we might not burden any of you; 3.9. not because we don't have the right, but to make ourselves an example to you, that you should imitate us. 3.10. For even when we were with you, we commanded you this: "If anyone will not work, neither let him eat. 3.11. For we hear of some who walk among you in rebellion, who don't work at all, but are busybodies. 3.12. Now those who are that way, we command and exhort in the Lord Jesus Christ, that with quietness they work, and eat their own bread. 3.13. But you, brothers, don't be weary in doing well. 3.14. If any man doesn't obey our word in this letter, note that man, that you have no company with him, to the end that he may be ashamed. 3.15. Don't count him as an enemy, but admonish him as a brother.
14. New Testament, Acts, 15.20, 15.25, 15.28-15.29, 21.25 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

15.20. but that we write to them that they abstain from the pollution of idols, from sexual immorality, from what is strangled, and from blood. 15.25. it seemed good to us, having come to one accord, to choose out men and send them to you with our beloved Barnabas and Paul 15.28. For it seemed good to the Holy Spirit, and to us, to lay no greater burden on you than these necessary things: 15.29. that you abstain from things sacrificed to idols, from blood, from things strangled, and from sexual immorality, from which if you keep yourselves, it will be well with you. Farewell. 21.25. But concerning the Gentiles who believe, we have written our decision that they should observe no such thing, except that they should keep themselves from food offered to idols, from blood, from strangled things, and from sexual immorality.
15. New Testament, Apocalypse, 2.10, 2.14, 2.20, 2.24 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.10. Don't be afraid of the things which you are about to suffer. Behold, the devil is about to throw some of you into prison, that you may be tested; and you will have oppression for ten days. Be faithful to death, and I will give you the crown of life. 2.14. But I have a few things against you, because you have there some who hold the teaching of Balaam, who taught Balak to throw a stumbling block before the children of Israel , to eat things sacrificed to idols, and to commit sexual immorality. 2.20. But I have this against you, that you tolerate your woman, Jezebel, who calls herself a prophetess. She teaches and seduces my servants to commit sexual immorality, and to eat things sacrificed to idols. 2.24. But to you I say, to the rest who are in Thyatira, as many as don't have this teaching, who don't know what some call 'the deep things of Satan,' to you I say, I am not putting any other burden on you.
16. New Testament, Colossians, 2.8-2.23 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.8. Be careful that you don't let anyone rob you through his philosophy and vain deceit, after the tradition of men, after the elements of the world, and not after Christ. 2.9. For in him all the fullness of the Godhead dwells bodily 2.10. and in him you are made full, who is the head of all principality and power; 2.11. in whom you were also circumcised with a circumcision not made with hands, in the putting off of the body of the sins of the flesh, in the circumcision of Christ; 2.12. having been buried with him in baptism, in which you were also raised with him through faith in the working of God, who raised him from the dead. 2.13. You were dead through your trespasses and the uncircumcision of your flesh. He made you alive together with him, having forgiven us all our trespasses; 2.14. having wiped out the handwriting in ordices that was against us, which was contrary to us: and he has taken it out of the way, nailing it to the cross; 2.15. having stripped the principalities and the powers, he made a show of them openly, triumphing over them in it. 2.16. Let no man therefore judge you in eating, or in drinking, or with respect to a feast day or a new moon or a Sabbath day 2.17. which are a shadow of the things to come; but the body is Christ's. 2.18. Let no one rob you of your prize by a voluntary humility and worshipping of the angels, dwelling in the things which he has not seen, vainly puffed up by his fleshly mind 2.19. and not holding firmly to the Head, from whom all the body, being supplied and knit together through the joints and ligaments, grows with God's growth. 2.20. If you died with Christ from the elements of the world, why, as though living in the world, do you subject yourselves to ordices 2.21. Don't handle, nor taste, nor touch 2.22. (all of which perish with use), according to the precepts and doctrines of men? 2.23. Which things indeed appear like wisdom in self-imposed worship, and humility, and severity to the body; but aren't of any value against the indulgence of the flesh.
17. New Testament, Galatians, 2.16, 3.2 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.16. yet knowing that a man is not justified by the works of the law butthrough the faith of Jesus Christ, even we believed in Christ Jesus,that we might be justified by faith in Christ, and not by the works ofthe law, because no flesh will be justified by the works of the law. 3.2. I just want to learn this from you. Did you receivethe Spirit by the works of the law, or by hearing of faith?
18. New Testament, Romans, 3.20, 3.27-3.28, 14.3, 14.5-14.6, 14.13-14.22, 15.1-15.3, 16.23 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.20. Because by the works of the law, no flesh will be justified in his sight. For through the law comes the knowledge of sin. 3.27. Where then is the boasting? It is excluded. By what manner of law? of works? No, but by a law of faith. 3.28. We maintain therefore that a man is justified by faith apart from the works of the law. 14.3. Don't let him who eats despise him who doesn't eat. Don't let him who doesn't eat judge him who eats, for God has received him. 14.5. One man esteems one day as more important. Another esteems every day alike. Let each man be fully assured in his own mind. 14.6. He who observes the day, observes it to the Lord; and he who does not observe the day, to the Lord he does not observe it. He who eats, eats to the Lord, for he gives God thanks. He who doesn't eat, to the Lord he doesn't eat, and gives God thanks. 14.13. Therefore let's not judge one another any more, but judge this rather, that no man put a stumbling block in his brother's way, or an occasion for falling. 14.14. I know, and am persuaded in the Lord Jesus, that nothing is unclean of itself; except that to him who considers anything to be unclean, to him it is unclean. 14.15. Yet if because of food your brother is grieved, you walk no longer in love. Don't destroy with your food him for whom Christ died. 14.16. Then don't let your good be slandered 14.17. for the Kingdom of God is not eating and drinking, but righteousness, peace, and joy in the Holy Spirit. 14.18. For he who serves Christ in these things is acceptable to God and approved by men. 14.19. So then, let us follow after things which make for peace, and things by which we may build one another up. 14.20. Don't overthrow God's work for food's sake. All things indeed are clean, however it is evil for that man who creates a stumbling block by eating. 14.21. It is good to not eat meat, drink wine, nor do anything by which your brother stumbles, is offended, or is made weak. 14.22. Do you have faith? Have it to yourself before God. Happy is he who doesn't judge himself in that which he approves. 15.1. Now we who are strong ought to bear the weaknesses of the weak, and not to please ourselves. 15.2. Let each one of us please his neighbor for that which is good, to be building him up. 15.3. For even Christ didn't please himself. But, as it is written, "The reproaches of those who reproached you fell on me. 16.23. Gaius, my host and host of the whole assembly, greets you. Erastus, the treasurer of the city, greets you, as does Quartus, the brother.
19. New Testament, Titus, 1.10-1.16 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.10. For there are also many unruly men, vain talkers and deceivers, especially those of the circumcision 1.11. whose mouths must be stopped; men who overthrow whole houses, teaching things which they ought not, for dishonest gain's sake. 1.12. One of them, a prophet of their own, said, "Cretans are always liars, evil beasts, and idle gluttons. 1.13. This testimony is true. For this cause, reprove them sharply, that they may be sound in the faith 1.14. not paying attention to Jewish fables and commandments of men who turn away from the truth. 1.15. To the pure, all things are pure; but to those who are defiled and unbelieving, nothing is pure; but both their mind and their conscience are defiled. 1.16. They profess that they know God, but by their works they deny him, being abominable, disobedient, and unfit for any good work.
20. New Testament, Mark, 7.7-7.8 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

7.7. But in vain do they worship me, Teaching as doctrines the commandments of men.' 7.8. For you set aside the commandment of God, and hold tightly to the tradition of men -- the washing of pitchers and cups, and you do many other such things.
21. Tosefta, Berachot, 4.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

4.1. A person should not taste anything until he makes a Beracha (blessing) [on it], as it is said, “To Hashem is the Earth and its fullness…” (Psalms 24:1) [A person] who receives pleasure from this world without a Beracha makes inappropriate use of sacred property, until all of the Mitzvot (commandments) [that must be done over this object] will permit it to him. A person should use his face, his hands and his feet only for the honor of his Creator, as it is said, “Every creation of Hashem is for His sake.” (Proverbs 16:4)"
22. Anon., Acts of Thomas, 29, 20 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

20. Now when the king came to the city he inquired of his friends concerning the palace which Judas that is called Thomas was building for him. And they told him: Neither hath he built a palace nor done aught else of that he promised to perform, but he goeth about the cities and countries, and whatsoever he hath he giveth unto the poor, and teacheth of a new God, and healeth the sick, and driveth out devils, and doeth many other wonderful things; and we think him to be a sorcerer. Yet his compassions and his cures which are done of him freely, and moreover the simplicity and kindness of him and his faith, do declare that he is a righteous man or an apostle of the new God whom he preacheth; for he fasteth continually and prayeth, and eateth bread only, with salt, and his drink is water, and he weareth but one garment alike in fair weather and in winter, and receiveth nought of any man, and that he hath he giveth unto others. And when the king heard that, he rubbed his face with his hands, and shook his head for a long space.
23. Anon., Didascalia Apostolorum, 19, 15 (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

24. Clement of Alexandria, Christ The Educator, 2.1.16.3 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

25. Irenaeus, Refutation of All Heresies, 2.26.1 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

26. Justin, Dialogue With Trypho, 35 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

35. Trypho: I believe, however, that many of those who say that they confess Jesus, and are called Christians, eat meats offered to idols, and declare that they are by no means injured in consequence. Justin: The fact that there are such men confessing themselves to be Christians, and admitting the crucified Jesus to be both Lord and Christ, yet not teaching His doctrines, but those of the spirits of error, causes us who are disciples of the true and pure doctrine of Jesus Christ, to be more faithful and steadfast in the hope announced by Him. For what things He predicted would take place in His name, these we do see being actually accomplished in our sight. For he said, 'Many shall come in My name, clothed outwardly in sheep's clothing, but inwardly they are ravening wolves.' Matthew 7:15 And, 'There shall be schisms and heresies.' 1 Corinthians 11:19 And, 'Beware of false prophets, who shall come to you clothed outwardly in sheep's clothing, but inwardly they are ravening wolves.' Matthew 7:15 And, 'Many false Christs and false apostles shall arise, and shall deceive many of the faithful.' Matthew 24:11 There are, therefore, and there were many, my friends, who, coming forward in the name of Jesus, taught both to speak and act impious and blasphemous things; and these are called by us after the name of the men from whom each doctrine and opinion had its origin. (For some in one way, others in another, teach to blaspheme the Maker of all things, and Christ, who was foretold by Him as coming, and the God of Abraham, and of Isaac, and of Jacob, with whom we have nothing in common, since we know them to be atheists, impious, unrighteous, and sinful, and confessors of Jesus in name only, instead of worshippers of Him. Yet they style themselves Christians, just as certain among the Gentiles inscribe the name of God upon the works of their own hands, and partake in nefarious and impious rites.) Some are called Marcians, and some Valentinians, and some Basilidians, and some Saturnilians, and others by other names; each called after the originator of the individual opinion, just as each one of those who consider themselves philosophers, as I said before, thinks he must bear the name of the philosophy which he follows, from the name of the father of the particular doctrine. So that, in consequence of these events, we know that Jesus foreknew what would happen after Him, as well as in consequence of many other events which He foretold would befall those who believed on and confessed Him, the Christ. For all that we suffer, even when killed by friends, He foretold would take place; so that it is manifest no word or act of His can be found fault with. Wherefore we pray for you and for all other men who hate us; in order that you, having repented along with us, may not blaspheme Him who, by His works, by the mighty deeds even now wrought through His name, by the words He taught, by the prophecies announced concerning Him, is the blameless, and in all things irreproachable, Christ Jesus; but, believing on Him, may be saved in His second glorious advent, and may not be condemned to fire by Him.
27. Lucian, The Runaways, 14 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

14. The externals of philosophy, as you know, are easily aped: it is a simple matter to assume the cloak and wallet, walk with a stick, and bawl, and bark, and bray, against all corners. They know that they are safe; their cloth protects them. Liberty is thus within their grasp: no need to ask their master's leave; should he attempt to reclaim them, their sticks are at his service. No more short commons for them now, no more of crusts whose dryness is mitigated only by herbs or salt fish: they have choice of meats, drink the best of wines, and take money where they will, shearing the sheep, as they call it when they levy contributions, in the certainty that many will give, from respect to their garb or fear of their tongues.
28. Lucian, Philosophies For Sale, 11 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

29. Pliny The Younger, Letters, 10.96 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

30. Pliny The Younger, Letters, 10.96 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

31. Diogenes Laertius, Lives of The Philosophers, 4.40, 7.160-7.161 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

4.40. Once indeed, when at Athens, he stopped too long in the Piraeus, discussing themes, out of friendship for Hierocles, and for this he was censured by certain persons. He was very lavish, in short another Aristippus, and he was fond of dining well, but only with those who shared his tastes. He lived openly with Theodete and Phila, the Elean courtesans, and to those who censured him he quoted the maxims of Aristippus. He was also fond of boys and very susceptible. Hence he was accused by Ariston of Chios, the Stoic, and his followers, who called him a corrupter of youth and a shameless teacher of immorality. 7.160. 2. ARISTONAriston the Bald, of Chios, who was also called the Siren, declared the end of action to be a life of perfect indifference to everything which is neither virtue nor vice; recognizing no distinction whatever in things indifferent, but treating them all alike. The wise man he compared to a good actor, who, if called upon to take the part of a Thersites or of an Agamemnon, will impersonate them both becomingly. He wished to discard both Logic and Physics, saying that Physics was beyond our reach and Logic did not concern us: all that did concern us was Ethics. 7.161. Dialectical reasonings, he said, are like spiders' webs, which, though they seem to display some artistic workmanship, are yet of no use. He would not admit a plurality of virtues with Zeno, nor again with the Megarians one single virtue called by many names; but he treated virtue in accordance with the category of relative modes. Teaching this sort of philosophy, and lecturing in the Cynosarges, he acquired such influence as to be called the founder of a sect. At any rate Miltiades and Diphilus were denominated Aristoneans. He was a plausible speaker and suited the taste of the general public. Hence Timon's verse about him:One who from wily Ariston's line boasts his descent.


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abraham, descent from Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 127
admirers, double loyalties of Zetterholm, The Formation of Christianity in Antioch: A Social-Scientific Approach to the Separation Between Judaism and Christianity (2003) 146
advantage (sumpheron, utilitas) Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 177, 183
alimentary Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 79
apostle Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 593
apostolic council Zetterholm, The Formation of Christianity in Antioch: A Social-Scientific Approach to the Separation Between Judaism and Christianity (2003) 146, 148
apostolic decree Zetterholm, The Formation of Christianity in Antioch: A Social-Scientific Approach to the Separation Between Judaism and Christianity (2003) 146, 148
appropriation (oikeiōsis) Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 183
asceticism Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 68
benefactors Zetterholm, The Formation of Christianity in Antioch: A Social-Scientific Approach to the Separation Between Judaism and Christianity (2003) 146
blood Rosenblum, The Jewish Dietary Laws in the Ancient World (2016) 79
body of christ (community), and kingdom of god Dürr, Paul on the Human Vocation: Reason Language in Romans and Ancient Philosophical Tradition (2022) 288
brotherly love Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 594
christianity, convert Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 594
churches/tradition of paul pauline Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 593
cicero Tite, Valentinian Ethics and Paraenetic Discourse: Determining the Social Function of Moral Exhortation in Valentinian Christianity (2009) 227
circumcision Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 127
clement of alexandria, assimilation of heresy to paganism Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 323
communes loci (commonplaces) Tite, Valentinian Ethics and Paraenetic Discourse: Determining the Social Function of Moral Exhortation in Valentinian Christianity (2009) 227
conscience Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 69
contagion and touch Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 68
cook-shops McGowan, Ascetic Eucharists: Food and Drink in Early Christian Ritual Meals (1999) 223
creation, essentially good Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 79
demons in paul Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 69
desires Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 112
dietary laws in pauline epistles Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 68, 69
dietary laws in the second-and third-century texts Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 79
disputes, schools (of shammai and hillel) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 593
epistemology, pauls Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 183, 206
eucharist, of bread and water McGowan, Ascetic Eucharists: Food and Drink in Early Christian Ritual Meals (1999) 223
exorcism Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 79
fasting Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 79
food, impurity of according to paul Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 68, 69
food, impurity of in second- and third-century sources Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 79
food, impurity of offered to idols Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 68, 69
food (dietary) laws, kashrut Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 593
food laws Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 127
freedom (eleutheria) Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 177, 183
friendship Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 594
gentile christians / gentile churches Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 593
gnosticism, orthodox criticism of morality of Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 323
good (agathos) Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 177, 183, 206
graeco-roman piety Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 125, 179, 183
halakhah Zetterholm, The Formation of Christianity in Antioch: A Social-Scientific Approach to the Separation Between Judaism and Christianity (2003) 148
hillel, school of Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 593
identity Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 68
idleness Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 594
idol food Allison, Saving One Another: Philodemus and Paul on Moral Formation in Community (2020) 125
idolatry Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 68, 69; Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 127; Zetterholm, The Formation of Christianity in Antioch: A Social-Scientific Approach to the Separation Between Judaism and Christianity (2003) 146
idols, food offered to Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 593
idols, food sacrificed to' McDonough, Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine (2009) 153
idols, food sacrificed to Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 127
instruction Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 594
intention Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 69
irenaeus, on heresy and paganism Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 130
israel, israelites Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 112
jerusalem, agreement at Zetterholm, The Formation of Christianity in Antioch: A Social-Scientific Approach to the Separation Between Judaism and Christianity (2003) 146, 148
jesus-believing gentiles, and the torah Zetterholm, The Formation of Christianity in Antioch: A Social-Scientific Approach to the Separation Between Judaism and Christianity (2003) 148
jewish practices/torah observance Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 125, 126, 183
judaizing Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 183
kingdom of god, and united community of those in christ Dürr, Paul on the Human Vocation: Reason Language in Romans and Ancient Philosophical Tradition (2022) 288
knowledge, pauline Allison, Saving One Another: Philodemus and Paul on Moral Formation in Community (2020) 125, 129, 130, 132, 134
knowledge Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 69
language, law, works of Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 127
libertinism/license Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 323
lords prayer Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 593
lucian Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 594
manual labor Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 594
market Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 593
marriage Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 323
marriage (see also divorce) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 593
meat Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 79; McGowan, Ascetic Eucharists: Food and Drink in Early Christian Ritual Meals (1999) 223
mission, to the gentiles Zetterholm, The Formation of Christianity in Antioch: A Social-Scientific Approach to the Separation Between Judaism and Christianity (2003) 148
monotheism Zetterholm, The Formation of Christianity in Antioch: A Social-Scientific Approach to the Separation Between Judaism and Christianity (2003) 148
moral formation, adaptation in Allison, Saving One Another: Philodemus and Paul on Moral Formation in Community (2020) 129, 130, 132, 134
moral formation, frank criticism in Allison, Saving One Another: Philodemus and Paul on Moral Formation in Community (2020) 132, 134
moral formation, love in Allison, Saving One Another: Philodemus and Paul on Moral Formation in Community (2020) 134
moral formation, protocol of Allison, Saving One Another: Philodemus and Paul on Moral Formation in Community (2020) 129, 130, 132, 134
moral formation, via meals Allison, Saving One Another: Philodemus and Paul on Moral Formation in Community (2020) 125, 129, 130
noahide commandments Zetterholm, The Formation of Christianity in Antioch: A Social-Scientific Approach to the Separation Between Judaism and Christianity (2003) 146
of Dürr, Paul on the Human Vocation: Reason Language in Romans and Ancient Philosophical Tradition (2022) 288
paganism, heresy assimilated to Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 130, 323
passions (pathē) Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 179
paul, 1 corinthians McGowan, Ascetic Eucharists: Food and Drink in Early Christian Ritual Meals (1999) 223
paul, and the torah Zetterholm, The Formation of Christianity in Antioch: A Social-Scientific Approach to the Separation Between Judaism and Christianity (2003) 148
paul Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 594; McGowan, Ascetic Eucharists: Food and Drink in Early Christian Ritual Meals (1999) 223; Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 112; Tite, Valentinian Ethics and Paraenetic Discourse: Determining the Social Function of Moral Exhortation in Valentinian Christianity (2009) 227
paul (saul) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 593
penance, penitence Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 79
peregrinus proteus Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 594
philosophy, positive invocation and use of Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 323
philosophy Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 594
porneia (zenut, unchastity) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 593
prayer Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 79
preferreds (proēgmena) Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 183
prophecy, false Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 79
relativization of impurity Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 69
sabbath Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 68; Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 127
sacrifice to idols/pagan gods Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 68, 69
salvation Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 177
sexual relations abstinence from Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 79
shammai, school Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 593
slavery Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 183
space, sacred Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 68
stoicism, orthodox borrowing from Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 323
stoicism Tite, Valentinian Ethics and Paraenetic Discourse: Determining the Social Function of Moral Exhortation in Valentinian Christianity (2009) 227
strong McGowan, Ascetic Eucharists: Food and Drink in Early Christian Ritual Meals (1999) 223
synagogue, gentile participation in Zetterholm, The Formation of Christianity in Antioch: A Social-Scientific Approach to the Separation Between Judaism and Christianity (2003) 146
theissen, gerd McGowan, Ascetic Eucharists: Food and Drink in Early Christian Ritual Meals (1999) 223
thessalonians Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 594
timothy Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 594
tomson, peter Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 69
topos Tite, Valentinian Ethics and Paraenetic Discourse: Determining the Social Function of Moral Exhortation in Valentinian Christianity (2009) 227
torah, and gentiles Zetterholm, The Formation of Christianity in Antioch: A Social-Scientific Approach to the Separation Between Judaism and Christianity (2003) 148
value (axia) Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 183
vegetarianism Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 79
vision of god, purification before Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 79
weak McGowan, Ascetic Eucharists: Food and Drink in Early Christian Ritual Meals (1999) 223
weakness, of corinthian believers Allison, Saving One Another: Philodemus and Paul on Moral Formation in Community (2020) 129, 130, 132, 134
weakness, of epicurean students Allison, Saving One Another: Philodemus and Paul on Moral Formation in Community (2020) 132, 134
wilderness passim, place Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 112
wine Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 79
εἰδωλόθυτον Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 130
πορνεία Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 130, 323
ἀδιαφορία Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 323
ἀδιαφόρως Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 323