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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



8234
New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 10.20


ἀλλʼ ὅτι ἃ θύουσιν [τὰ ἔθνη],δαιμονίοις καὶ οὐ θεῷ θύουσιν,οὐ θέλω δὲ ὑμᾶς κοινωνοὺς τῶν δαιμονίων γίνεσθαι.But I say that thethings which the Gentiles sacrifice, they sacrifice to demons, and notto God, and I don't desire that you would have communion with demons.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

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1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 10.16, 12.8, 32.4, 32.15-32.42 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

10.16. וּמַלְתֶּם אֵת עָרְלַת לְבַבְכֶם וְעָרְפְּכֶם לֹא תַקְשׁוּ עוֹד׃ 12.8. לֹא תַעֲשׂוּן כְּכֹל אֲשֶׁר אֲנַחְנוּ עֹשִׂים פֹּה הַיּוֹם אִישׁ כָּל־הַיָּשָׁר בְּעֵינָיו׃ 32.4. כִּי־אֶשָּׂא אֶל־שָׁמַיִם יָדִי וְאָמַרְתִּי חַי אָנֹכִי לְעֹלָם׃ 32.4. הַצּוּר תָּמִים פָּעֳלוֹ כִּי כָל־דְּרָכָיו מִשְׁפָּט אֵל אֱמוּנָה וְאֵין עָוֶל צַדִּיק וְיָשָׁר הוּא׃ 32.15. וַיִּשְׁמַן יְשֻׁרוּן וַיִּבְעָט שָׁמַנְתָּ עָבִיתָ כָּשִׂיתָ וַיִּטֹּשׁ אֱלוֹהַ עָשָׂהוּ וַיְנַבֵּל צוּר יְשֻׁעָתוֹ׃ 32.16. יַקְנִאֻהוּ בְּזָרִים בְּתוֹעֵבֹת יַכְעִיסֻהוּ׃ 32.17. יִזְבְּחוּ לַשֵּׁדִים לֹא אֱלֹהַ אֱלֹהִים לֹא יְדָעוּם חֲדָשִׁים מִקָּרֹב בָּאוּ לֹא שְׂעָרוּם אֲבֹתֵיכֶם׃ 32.18. צוּר יְלָדְךָ תֶּשִׁי וַתִּשְׁכַּח אֵל מְחֹלְלֶךָ׃ 32.19. וַיַּרְא יְהוָה וַיִּנְאָץ מִכַּעַס בָּנָיו וּבְנֹתָיו׃ 32.21. הֵם קִנְאוּנִי בְלֹא־אֵל כִּעֲסוּנִי בְּהַבְלֵיהֶם וַאֲנִי אַקְנִיאֵם בְּלֹא־עָם בְּגוֹי נָבָל אַכְעִיסֵם׃ 32.22. כִּי־אֵשׁ קָדְחָה בְאַפִּי וַתִּיקַד עַד־שְׁאוֹל תַּחְתִּית וַתֹּאכַל אֶרֶץ וִיבֻלָהּ וַתְּלַהֵט מוֹסְדֵי הָרִים׃ 32.23. אַסְפֶּה עָלֵימוֹ רָעוֹת חִצַּי אֲכַלֶּה־בָּם׃ 32.24. מְזֵי רָעָב וּלְחֻמֵי רֶשֶׁף וְקֶטֶב מְרִירִי וְשֶׁן־בְּהֵמוֹת אֲשַׁלַּח־בָּם עִם־חֲמַת זֹחֲלֵי עָפָר׃ 32.25. מִחוּץ תְּשַׁכֶּל־חֶרֶב וּמֵחֲדָרִים אֵימָה גַּם־בָּחוּר גַּם־בְּתוּלָה יוֹנֵק עִם־אִישׁ שֵׂיבָה׃ 32.26. אָמַרְתִּי אַפְאֵיהֶם אַשְׁבִּיתָה מֵאֱנוֹשׁ זִכְרָם׃ 32.27. לוּלֵי כַּעַס אוֹיֵב אָגוּר פֶּן־יְנַכְּרוּ צָרֵימוֹ פֶּן־יֹאמְרוּ יָדֵינוּ רָמָה וְלֹא יְהוָה פָּעַל כָּל־זֹאת׃ 32.28. כִּי־גוֹי אֹבַד עֵצוֹת הֵמָּה וְאֵין בָּהֶם תְּבוּנָה׃ 32.29. לוּ חָכְמוּ יַשְׂכִּילוּ זֹאת יָבִינוּ לְאַחֲרִיתָם׃ 32.31. כִּי לֹא כְצוּרֵנוּ צוּרָם וְאֹיְבֵינוּ פְּלִילִים׃ 32.32. כִּי־מִגֶּפֶן סְדֹם גַּפְנָם וּמִשַּׁדְמֹת עֲמֹרָה עֲנָבֵמוֹ עִנְּבֵי־רוֹשׁ אַשְׁכְּלֹת מְרֹרֹת לָמוֹ׃ 32.33. חֲמַת תַּנִּינִם יֵינָם וְרֹאשׁ פְּתָנִים אַכְזָר׃ 32.34. הֲלֹא־הוּא כָּמֻס עִמָּדִי חָתֻם בְּאוֹצְרֹתָי׃ 32.35. לִי נָקָם וְשִׁלֵּם לְעֵת תָּמוּט רַגְלָם כִּי קָרוֹב יוֹם אֵידָם וְחָשׁ עֲתִדֹת לָמוֹ׃ 32.36. כִּי־יָדִין יְהוָה עַמּוֹ וְעַל־עֲבָדָיו יִתְנֶחָם כִּי יִרְאֶה כִּי־אָזְלַת יָד וְאֶפֶס עָצוּר וְעָזוּב׃ 32.37. וְאָמַר אֵי אֱלֹהֵימוֹ צוּר חָסָיוּ בוֹ׃ 32.38. אֲשֶׁר חֵלֶב זְבָחֵימוֹ יֹאכֵלוּ יִשְׁתּוּ יֵין נְסִיכָם יָקוּמוּ וְיַעְזְרֻכֶם יְהִי עֲלֵיכֶם סִתְרָה׃ 32.39. רְאוּ עַתָּה כִּי אֲנִי אֲנִי הוּא וְאֵין אֱלֹהִים עִמָּדִי אֲנִי אָמִית וַאֲחַיֶּה מָחַצְתִּי וַאֲנִי אֶרְפָּא וְאֵין מִיָּדִי מַצִּיל׃ 32.41. אִם־שַׁנּוֹתִי בְּרַק חַרְבִּי וְתֹאחֵז בְּמִשְׁפָּט יָדִי אָשִׁיב נָקָם לְצָרָי וְלִמְשַׂנְאַי אֲשַׁלֵּם׃ 32.42. אַשְׁכִּיר חִצַּי מִדָּם וְחַרְבִּי תֹּאכַל בָּשָׂר מִדַּם חָלָל וְשִׁבְיָה מֵרֹאשׁ פַּרְעוֹת אוֹיֵב׃ 10.16. Circumcise therefore the foreskin of your heart, and be no more stiffnecked." 12.8. Ye shall not do after all that we do here this day, every man whatsoever is right in his own eyes;" 32.4. The Rock, His work is perfect; For all His ways are justice; A God of faithfulness and without iniquity, Just and right is He. ." 32.15. But Jeshurun waxed fat, and kicked— Thou didst wax fat, thou didst grow thick, thou didst become gross— And he forsook God who made him, And contemned the Rock of his salvation." 32.16. They roused Him to jealousy with strange gods, With abominations did they provoke Him." 32.17. They sacrificed unto demons, no-gods, Gods that they knew not, New gods that came up of late, Which your fathers dreaded not." 32.18. of the Rock that begot thee thou wast unmindful, And didst forget God that bore thee. ." 32.19. And the LORD saw, and spurned, Because of the provoking of His sons and His daughters." 32.20. And He said: ‘I will hide My face from them, I will see what their end shall be; For they are a very froward generation, Children in whom is no faithfulness." 32.21. They have roused Me to jealousy with a no-god; They have provoked Me with their vanities; And I will rouse them to jealousy with a no-people; I will provoke them with a vile nation." 32.22. For a fire is kindled in My nostril, And burneth unto the depths of the nether-world, And devoureth the earth with her produce, And setteth ablaze the foundations of the mountains." 32.23. I will heap evils upon them; I will spend Mine arrows upon them;" 32.24. The wasting of hunger, and the devouring of the fiery bolt, And bitter destruction; And the teeth of beasts will I send upon them, With the venom of crawling things of the dust." 32.25. Without shall the sword bereave, And in the chambers terror; Slaying both young man and virgin, The suckling with the man of gray hairs." 32.26. I thought I would make an end of them, I would make their memory cease from among men;" 32.27. Were it not that I dreaded the enemy’s provocation, Lest their adversaries should misdeem, Lest they should say: Our hand is exalted, And not the LORD hath wrought all this.’" 32.28. For they are a nation void of counsel, And there is no understanding in them." 32.29. If they were wise, they would understand this, They would discern their latter end." 32.30. How should one chase a thousand, And two put ten thousand to flight, Except their Rock had given them over And the LORD had delivered them up?" 32.31. For their rock is not as our Rock, Even our enemies themselves being judges." 32.32. For their vine is of the vine of Sodom, And of the fields of Gomorrah; Their grapes are grapes of gall, Their clusters are bitter;" 32.33. Their wine is the venom of serpents, And the cruel poison of asps." 32.34. ’Is not this laid up in store with Me, Sealed up in My treasuries?" 32.35. Vengeance is Mine, and recompense, Against the time when their foot shall slip; For the day of their calamity is at hand, And the things that are to come upon them shall make haste." 32.36. For the LORD will judge His people, And repent Himself for His servants; When He seeth that their stay is gone, And there is none remaining, shut up or left at large." 32.37. And it is said: Where are their gods, The rock in whom they trusted;" 32.38. Who did eat the fat of their sacrifices, and drank the wine of their drink-offering? Let him rise up and help you, Let him be your protection." 32.39. See now that I, even I, am He, And there is no god with Me; I kill, and I make alive; I have wounded, and I heal; And there is none that can deliver out of My hand." 32.40. For I lift up My hand to heaven, And say: As I live for ever," 32.41. If I whet My glittering sword, And My hand take hold on judgment; I will render vengeance to Mine adversaries, And will recompense them that hate Me." 32.42. I will make Mine arrows drunk with blood, And My sword shall devour flesh; With the blood of the slain and the captives, From the long-haired heads of the enemy.’"
2. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 22.27, 34.12 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

22.27. אֱלֹהִים לֹא תְקַלֵּל וְנָשִׂיא בְעַמְּךָ לֹא תָאֹר׃ 34.12. הִשָּׁמֶר לְךָ פֶּן־תִּכְרֹת בְּרִית לְיוֹשֵׁב הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר אַתָּה בָּא עָלֶיהָ פֶּן־יִהְיֶה לְמוֹקֵשׁ בְּקִרְבֶּךָ׃ 22.27. Thou shalt not revile God, nor curse a ruler of thy people." 34.12. Take heed to thyself, lest thou make a covet with the inhabitants of the land whither thou goest, lest they be for a snare in the midst of thee."
3. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 1.1-1.2, 6.2, 6.4 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.1. וַיִּקְרָא אֱלֹהִים לַיַּבָּשָׁה אֶרֶץ וּלְמִקְוֵה הַמַּיִם קָרָא יַמִּים וַיַּרְא אֱלֹהִים כִּי־טוֹב׃ 1.1. בְּרֵאשִׁית בָּרָא אֱלֹהִים אֵת הַשָּׁמַיִם וְאֵת הָאָרֶץ׃ 1.2. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים יִשְׁרְצוּ הַמַּיִם שֶׁרֶץ נֶפֶשׁ חַיָּה וְעוֹף יְעוֹפֵף עַל־הָאָרֶץ עַל־פְּנֵי רְקִיעַ הַשָּׁמָיִם׃ 1.2. וְהָאָרֶץ הָיְתָה תֹהוּ וָבֹהוּ וְחֹשֶׁךְ עַל־פְּנֵי תְהוֹם וְרוּחַ אֱלֹהִים מְרַחֶפֶת עַל־פְּנֵי הַמָּיִם׃ 6.2. וַיִּרְאוּ בְנֵי־הָאֱלֹהִים אֶת־בְּנוֹת הָאָדָם כִּי טֹבֹת הֵנָּה וַיִּקְחוּ לָהֶם נָשִׁים מִכֹּל אֲשֶׁר בָּחָרוּ׃ 6.2. מֵהָעוֹף לְמִינֵהוּ וּמִן־הַבְּהֵמָה לְמִינָהּ מִכֹּל רֶמֶשׂ הָאֲדָמָה לְמִינֵהוּ שְׁנַיִם מִכֹּל יָבֹאוּ אֵלֶיךָ לְהַחֲיוֹת׃ 6.4. הַנְּפִלִים הָיוּ בָאָרֶץ בַּיָּמִים הָהֵם וְגַם אַחֲרֵי־כֵן אֲשֶׁר יָבֹאוּ בְּנֵי הָאֱלֹהִים אֶל־בְּנוֹת הָאָדָם וְיָלְדוּ לָהֶם הֵמָּה הַגִּבֹּרִים אֲשֶׁר מֵעוֹלָם אַנְשֵׁי הַשֵּׁם׃ 1.1. In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth." 1.2. Now the earth was unformed and void, and darkness was upon the face of the deep; and the spirit of God hovered over the face of the waters." 6.2. that the sons of nobles saw the daughters of men that they were fair; and they took them wives, whomsoever they chose." 6.4. The Nephilim were in the earth in those days, and also after that, when the sons of nobles came in unto the daughters of men, and they bore children to them; the same were the mighty men that were of old, the men of renown."
4. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 17.7, 19.14 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

17.7. וְלֹא־יִזְבְּחוּ עוֹד אֶת־זִבְחֵיהֶם לַשְּׂעִירִם אֲשֶׁר הֵם זֹנִים אַחֲרֵיהֶם חֻקַּת עוֹלָם תִּהְיֶה־זֹּאת לָהֶם לְדֹרֹתָם׃ 19.14. לֹא־תְקַלֵּל חֵרֵשׁ וְלִפְנֵי עִוֵּר לֹא תִתֵּן מִכְשֹׁל וְיָרֵאתָ מֵּאֱלֹהֶיךָ אֲנִי יְהוָה׃ 17.7. And they shall no more sacrifice their sacrifices unto the satyrs, after whom they go astray. This shall be a statute for ever unto them throughout their generations. ." 19.14. Thou shalt not curse the deaf, nor put a stumbling-block before the blind, but thou shalt fear thy God: I am the LORD."
5. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 11.4, 21.5-21.9 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

11.4. וְהָאסַפְסֻף אֲשֶׁר בְּקִרְבּוֹ הִתְאַוּוּ תַּאֲוָה וַיָּשֻׁבוּ וַיִּבְכּוּ גַּם בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיֹּאמְרוּ מִי יַאֲכִלֵנוּ בָּשָׂר׃ 21.5. וַיְדַבֵּר הָעָם בֵּאלֹהִים וּבְמֹשֶׁה לָמָה הֶעֱלִיתֻנוּ מִמִּצְרַיִם לָמוּת בַּמִּדְבָּר כִּי אֵין לֶחֶם וְאֵין מַיִם וְנַפְשֵׁנוּ קָצָה בַּלֶּחֶם הַקְּלֹקֵל׃ 21.6. וַיְשַׁלַּח יְהוָה בָּעָם אֵת הַנְּחָשִׁים הַשְּׂרָפִים וַיְנַשְּׁכוּ אֶת־הָעָם וַיָּמָת עַם־רָב מִיִּשְׂרָאֵל׃ 21.7. וַיָּבֹא הָעָם אֶל־מֹשֶׁה וַיֹּאמְרוּ חָטָאנוּ כִּי־דִבַּרְנוּ בַיהוָה וָבָךְ הִתְפַּלֵּל אֶל־יְהוָה וְיָסֵר מֵעָלֵינוּ אֶת־הַנָּחָשׁ וַיִּתְפַּלֵּל מֹשֶׁה בְּעַד הָעָם׃ 21.8. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה עֲשֵׂה לְךָ שָׂרָף וְשִׂים אֹתוֹ עַל־נֵס וְהָיָה כָּל־הַנָּשׁוּךְ וְרָאָה אֹתוֹ וָחָי׃ 21.9. וַיַּעַשׂ מֹשֶׁה נְחַשׁ נְחֹשֶׁת וַיְשִׂמֵהוּ עַל־הַנֵּס וְהָיָה אִם־נָשַׁךְ הַנָּחָשׁ אֶת־אִישׁ וְהִבִּיט אֶל־נְחַשׁ הַנְּחֹשֶׁת וָחָי׃ 11.4. And the mixed multitude that was among them fell a lusting; and the children of Israel also wept on their part, and said: ‘Would that we were given flesh to eat!" 21.5. And the people spoke against God, and against Moses: ‘Wherefore have ye brought us up out of Egypt to die in the wilderness? for there is no bread, and there is no water; and our soul loatheth this light bread.’" 21.6. And the LORD sent fiery serpents among the people, and they bit the people; and much people of Israel died." 21.7. And the people came to Moses, and said: ‘We have sinned, because we have spoken against the LORD, and against thee; pray unto the LORD, that He take away the serpents from us.’ And Moses prayed for the people." 21.8. And the LORD said unto Moses: ‘Make thee a fiery serpent, and set it upon a pole; and it shall come to pass, that every one that is bitten, when he seeth it, shall live.’" 21.9. And Moses made a serpent of brass, and set it upon the pole; and it came to pass, that if a serpent had bitten any man, when he looked unto the serpent of brass, he lived."
6. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 69.22, 95.5, 96.5, 105.37, 106.37 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

69.22. וַיִּתְּנוּ בְּבָרוּתִי רֹאשׁ וְלִצְמָאִי יַשְׁקוּנִי חֹמֶץ׃ 95.5. אֲשֶׁר־לוֹ הַיָּם וְהוּא עָשָׂהוּ וְיַבֶּשֶׁת יָדָיו יָצָרוּ׃ 96.5. כִּי כָּל־אֱלֹהֵי הָעַמִּים אֱלִילִים וַיהוָה שָׁמַיִם עָשָׂה׃ 105.37. וַיּוֹצִיאֵם בְּכֶסֶף וְזָהָב וְאֵין בִּשְׁבָטָיו כּוֹשֵׁל׃ 106.37. וַיִּזְבְּחוּ אֶת־בְּנֵיהֶם וְאֶת־בְּנוֹתֵיהֶם לַשֵּׁדִים׃ 69.22. Yea, they put poison into my food; And in my thirst they gave me vinegar to drink." 95.5. The sea is His, and He made it; And His hands formed the dry land." 96.5. For all the gods of the peoples are things of nought; But the LORD made the heavens." 105.37. And He brought them forth with silver and gold; And there was none that stumbled among His tribes." 106.37. Yea, they sacrificed their sons and their daughters unto demons,"
7. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 2.8, 65.11 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

2.8. וַתִּמָּלֵא אַרְצוֹ אֱלִילִים לְמַעֲשֵׂה יָדָיו יִשְׁתַּחֲווּ לַאֲשֶׁר עָשׂוּ אֶצְבְּעֹתָיו׃ 65.11. וְאַתֶּם עֹזְבֵי יְהוָה הַשְּׁכֵחִים אֶת־הַר קָדְשִׁי הַעֹרְכִים לַגַּד שֻׁלְחָן וְהַמְמַלְאִים לַמְנִי מִמְסָךְ׃ 2.8. Their land also is full of idols; Every one worshippeth the work of his own hands, That which his own fingers have made." 65.11. But ye that forsake the LORD, That forget My holy mountain, That prepare a table for Fortune, And that offer mingled wine in full measure unto Destiny,"
8. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 36.24 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

36.24. וְלֹא פָחֲדוּ וְלֹא קָרְעוּ אֶת־בִּגְדֵיהֶם הַמֶּלֶךְ וְכָל־עֲבָדָיו הַשֹּׁמְעִים אֵת כָּל־הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה׃ 36.24. Yet they were not afraid, nor rent their garments, neither the king, nor any of his servants that heard all these words."
9. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 30.13 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

30.13. כֹּה־אָמַר אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה וְהַאֲבַדְתִּי גִלּוּלִים וְהִשְׁבַּתִּי אֱלִילִים מִנֹּף וְנָשִׂיא מֵאֶרֶץ־מִצְרַיִם לֹא יִהְיֶה־עוֹד וְנָתַתִּי יִרְאָה בְּאֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם׃ 30.13. Thus saith the Lord GOD: I will also destroy the idols, And I will cause the things of nought to cease from Noph; And there shall be no more a prince out of the land of Egypt; And I will put a fear in the land of Egypt."
10. Plato, Laws, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

11. Anon., 1 Enoch, 19.1, 99.7 (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

19.1. And Uriel said to me: 'Here shall stand the angels who have connected themselves with women, and their spirits assuming many different forms are defiling mankind and shall lead them astray into sacrificing to demons as gods, (here shall they stand,) till the day of the great judgement in 99.7. And again I swear to you, ye sinners, that sin is prepared for a day of unceasing bloodshed. And they who worship stones, and grave images of gold and silver and wood (and stone) and clay, and those who worship impure spirits and demons, and all kinds of idols not according to knowledge, shall get no manner of help from them.
12. Anon., Jubilees, 1.11, 15.26, 22.17-22.18 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.11. and this witness shall be heard for a witness against them. brFor they will forget all My commandments, (even) all that I command them, and they will walk after the Gentiles 15.26. This law is for all the generations for ever 22.17. Be strong in the presence of men, And exercise authority over all the seed of Seth. Then thy ways and the ways of thy sons will be justified, So that they shall become a holy nation. 22.18. May the Most High God give thee all the blessings Wherewith he hath blessed me And wherewith He blessed Noah and Adam; May they rest on the sacred head of thy seed from generation to generation for ever.
13. Anon., Testament of Solomon, 8.2, 18.2 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. CE)

14. Anon., Testament of Judah, 23.1 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. CE)

15. Cicero, On The Ends of Good And Evil, 3.69-3.70 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

3.69. Ut vero conservetur omnis homini erga hominem societas, coniunctio, caritas, et emolumenta et detrimenta, quae w)felh/mata et bla/mmata appellant, communia esse voluerunt; quorum altera prosunt, nocent altera. neque solum ea communia, verum etiam paria esse dixerunt. incommoda autem et commoda—ita enim eu)xrhsth/mata et dusxrhsth/mata appello—communia esse voluerunt, paria noluerunt. illa enim, quae prosunt aut quae nocent, aut bona sunt aut mala, quae sint paria necesse est. commoda autem et incommoda in eo genere sunt, quae praeposita et reiecta diximus; dicimus BE ea possunt paria non esse. sed emolumenta communia emolumenta et detrimenta communia Lamb. esse dicuntur, recte autem facta et peccata non habentur communia. 3.70. Amicitiam autem adhibendam esse censent, quia sit ex eo genere, quae prosunt. quamquam autem in amicitia alii dicant aeque caram esse sapienti rationem amici ac suam, alii autem sibi cuique cariorem suam, tamen hi quoque posteriores fatentur alienum esse a iustitia, ad quam nati esse videamur, detrahere quid de aliquo, quod sibi adsumat. minime vero probatur huic disciplinae, de qua loquor, aut iustitiam aut amicitiam propter utilitates adscisci aut probari. eaedem enim utilitates poterunt eas labefactare atque pervertere. etenim nec iustitia nec amicitia iustitia nec amicitia Mdv. iusticie nec amicicie esse omnino poterunt, poterunt esse omnino BE nisi ipsae per se expetuntur. expetantur V 3.69.  "To safeguard the universal alliance, solidarity and affection that subsist between man and man, the Stoics held that both 'benefits' and 'injuries' (in their terminology, ōphelēmata and blammata) are common, the former doing good and the latter harm; and they pronounce them to be not only 'common' but also 'equal.' 'Disadvantages' and 'advantages' (for so I render euchrēstēmata and duschrēstēmata) they held to be 'common' but not 'equal.' For things 'beneficial' and 'injurious' are goods and evils respectively, and these must needs be equal; but 'advantages' and 'disadvantages' belong to the class we speak of as 'preferred' and 'rejected,' and these may differ in degree. But whereas 'benefits' and 'injuries' are pronounced to be 'common,' righteous and sinful acts are not considered 'common.' 3.70.  "They recommend the cultivation of friendship, classing it among 'things beneficial.' In friendship some profess that the Wise Man will hold his friends' interests as dear as his own, while others say that a man's own interests must necessarily be dearer to him; at the same time the latter admit that to enrich oneself by another's loss is an action repugt to that justice towards which we seem to possess a natural propensity. But the school I am discussing emphatically rejects the view that we adopt or approve either justice or friendship for the sake of their utility. For if it were so, the same claims of utility would be able to undermine and overthrow them. In fact the very existence of both justice and friendship will be impossible if they are not desired for their own sake.
16. Cicero, On Duties, 1.55 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

1.55. magnum est enim eadem habere monumenta maiorum, eisdem uti sacris, sepulcra habere communia. Sed omnium societatum nulla praestantior est, nulla firmior, quam cum viri boni moribus similes sunt familiaritate coniuncti; illud enim honestum quod saepe dicimus, etiam si in alio cernimus, tamen nos movet atque illi, in quo id inesse videtur, amicos facit. 1.55.  for it means much to share in common the same family traditions, the same forms of domestic worship, and the same ancestral tombs. But of all the bonds of fellowship, there is none more noble, none more powerful than when good men of congenial character are joined in intimate friendship; for really, if we discover in another that moral goodness on which I dwell so much, it attracts us and makes us friends to the one in whose character it seems to dwell.
17. Septuagint, Wisdom of Solomon, 13.10-13.19, 14.11 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

13.10. But miserable, with their hopes set on dead things, are the men who give the name "gods" to the works of mens hands,gold and silver fashioned with skill,and likenesses of animals,or a useless stone, the work of an ancient hand. 13.11. A skilled woodcutter may saw down a tree easy to handle and skilfully strip off all its bark,and then with pleasing workmanship make a useful vessel that serves lifes needs 13.12. and burn the castoff pieces of his work to prepare his food, and eat his fill. 13.13. But a castoff piece from among them, useful for nothing,a stick crooked and full of knots,he takes and carves with care in his leisure,and shapes it with skill gained in idleness;he forms it like the image of a man 13.14. or makes it like some worthless animal,giving it a coat of red paint and coloring its surface red and covering every blemish in it with paint; 13.15. then he makes for it a niche that befits it,and sets it in the wall, and fastens it there with iron. 13.16. So he takes thought for it, that it may not fall,because he knows that it cannot help itself,for it is only an image and has need of help. 13.17. When he prays about possessions and his marriage and children,he is not ashamed to address a lifeless thing. 13.18. For health he appeals to a thing that is weak;for life he prays to a thing that is dead;for aid he entreats a thing that is utterly inexperienced;for a prosperous journey, a thing that cannot take a step; 13.19. for money-making and work and success with his hands he asks strength of a thing whose hands have no strength. 14.11. Therefore there will be a visitation also upon the heathen idols,because, though part of what God created, they became an abomination,and became traps for the souls of men and a snare to the feet of the foolish.
18. Anon., Sibylline Oracles, 8.381-8.394 (1st cent. BCE - 5th cent. CE)

8.381. And faithless he shall come, and they will give 8.382. To God rude buffetings with impure hand 8.383. And poisonous spittle with polluted mouths. 8.384. And he to whips will openly give then 8.385. 385 His holy back; [for he unto the world 8.386. A holy virgin shall himself commit.] 8.387. And silent he will be when buffeted 8.388. Lest anyone should know whose son he i 8.389. Or whence he came, that he may talk to the dead. 8.390. 390 And he shall also wear a crown of thorns; 8.391. For of thorns is the crown an ornament 8.392. Elect, eternal. They shall pierce his side 8.393. With a reed that they may fulfill their law; 8.394. For of reeds shaken by another spirit
19. Lucretius Carus, On The Nature of Things, 5.1198-5.1203 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

20. Philo of Alexandria, On The Migration of Abraham, 154-157, 151 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

151. for this is that disposition which attaches itself to the soul in such a manner as to be difficult to shake off, hindering it from proceeding swiftly on its progress towards virtue. This, too, when we leave Egypt, that is to say, the whole of the district connected with the body, being anxious to unlearn our subjection to the passions, in accordance with the language and precepts of the prophet Moses, follows us close, checking and impeding our zeal in the departure, and out of envy causing delay to the rapidity of setting forth;
21. Philo of Alexandria, On The Sacrifices of Cain And Abel, 9-10 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

10. In reference to which it is said of Moses, "That no one is said to know of his Tomb;" for who could be competent to perceive the migration of a perfect soul to the living God? Nor do I even believe that the soul itself while awaiting this event was conscious of its own improvement, inasmuch as it was at that time becoming gradually divine; for God, in the case of those persons whom he is about to benefit, does not take him who is to receive the advantage into his counsels, but is accustomed rather to pour his benefits ungrudgingly upon him without his having any previous anticipation of them. This is something like the meaning of God's adding the creation of what is good to the perfect mind. But the good is holiness, the name of which is Abel. IV.
22. Philo of Alexandria, On Dreams, 2.189 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

2.189. for when," the scripture say, "the high priest goes into the Holy of Holies he will not be a Man." What then will he be if he is not a man? Will he be a God? I would not venture to say that (for the chief prophet, Moses, did receive the inheritance of this name while he was still in Egypt, being called "the god of Pharaoh;") nor again is he man, but he touches both these extremities as if he touched both the feet and the head. XXIX.
23. Philo of Alexandria, On The Special Laws, 1.53, 4.126-4.131 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

1.53. Moreover, he also enjoins his people that, after they have given the proselytes an equal share in all their laws, and privileges, and immunities, on their forsaking the pride of their fathers and forefathers, they must not give a license to their jealous language and unbridled tongues, blaspheming those beings whom the other body looks upon as gods, lest the proselytes should be exasperated at such treatment, and in return utter impious language against the true and holy God; for from ignorance of the difference between them, and by reason of their having from their infancy learnt to look upon what was false as if it had been true, and having been bred up with it, they would be likely to err. 4.126. The lawgiver blames some persons of his time as gluttons, and as believing that the mere indulgence of luxury is the happiest of all possible conditions, not being content to live in this manner only in cities in which there were abundant supplies and stores of all kinds of necessary things, but carrying their effeminacy even into pathless and untrodden deserts, and choosing in them also to have markets for fish and meat, and all things which can contribute to an easy life: 4.127. then, when a scarcity arose, they assembled together and raised an outcry, and looked miserable, and with shameless audacity impeached their ruler, and did not desist from creating disturbances till they obtained what they desired; and they obtained it to their destruction, for two reasons: first of all, that it might be shown that all things are possible to God, who can find a way in the most difficult and apparently hopeless circumstances; and secondly, that punishment might fall on those who were intemperate in their gluttonous appetites, and obstinate resisters of holiness. 4.128. For a vast cloud being Raised{28}{#ex 16:13.} out of the sea showered down quails about the time of sunrise, and the camp and all the district around it for a day's journey for a well-girt active man was overshadowed all about with the Birds.{29}{#nu 11:31.} And the height of the flight of the birds was distant from the ground a height of about two cubits, in order that they might be easily caught. 4.129. It would have been natural therefore for them, being amazed at the marvellous nature of the prodigy which they beheld, to be satisfied with the sight, and being filled with piety to nourish their souls on that, and to abstain from eating flesh; but these men, on the contrary, stirred up their desires even more than before, and pursued these birds as the greatest good imaginable, and catching hold of them with both their hands filled their bosoms; then, having stored them up in their tents, they sallied forth to catch others, for immoderate covetousness has no limit. And when they had collected every description of food they devoured it insatiably, being about, vain-minded generation that they were, to perish by their own fulness; 4.130. and indeed at no distant time they did perish by the purging of their bile, {30}{#nu 11:20.} so that the place itself derived its name from the calamity which fell upon them, for it was called the graves of their lust, {31}{see #Nu 11:34: "And he called the name of that place Kibroth-hattaavah, because there they buried the people that lusted."} than which there is not in the soul, as the scripture teaches, us, any greater evil. 4.131. For which reason Moses says with great beauty in his recommendations, "Let not every man do that which seemeth good to his own Eyes,"{32}{#de 11:8.} which is equivalent to saying, let not any one gratify his own desire, but let each person seek to please God, and the world, and nature, and wise men, repudiating self-love, if he would become a good and virtuous man.XXV.
24. Philo of Alexandria, On The Life of Moses, 1.158 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

1.158. What more shall I say? Has he not also enjoyed an even greater communion with the Father and Creator of the universe, being thought unworthy of being called by the same appellation? For he also was called the god and king of the whole nation, and he is said to have entered into the darkness where God was; that is to say, into the invisible, and shapeless, and incorporeal world, the essence, which is the model of all existing things, where he beheld things invisible to mortal nature; for, having brought himself and his own life into the middle, as an excellently wrought picture, he established himself as a most beautiful and Godlike work, to be a model for all those who were inclined to imitate him.
25. Anon., Epistle of Barnabas, 16.7 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

16.7. I find then that there is a temple, How then shall it be built in the name of the Lord? Understand ye. Before we believed on God, the abode of our heart was corrupt and weak, a temple truly built by hands; for it was full of idolatry and was a house of demons, because we did whatsoever was contrary to God.
26. Anon., Didache, 14 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

14. But every Lord's day gather yourselves together, and break bread, and give thanksgiving after having confessed your transgressions, that your sacrifice may be pure. But let no one that is at variance with his fellow come together with you, until they be reconciled, that your sacrifice may not be profaned. For this is that which was spoken by the Lord: In every place and time offer to me a pure sacrifice; for I am a great King, says the Lord, and my name is wonderful among the nations.
27. Epictetus, Discourses, 1.18.1, 2.19.27-2.19.28 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

28. Ignatius, To The Smyrnaeans, 7.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

29. Josephus Flavius, Against Apion, 2.252-2.253 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.252. The painters also, and statuaries of Greece, had herein great power, as each of them could contrive a shape [proper for a god]; the one to be formed out of clay, and the other by making a bare picture of such a one; but those workmen that were principally admired, had the use of ivory and of gold as the constant materials for their new statues; 2.253. [whereby it comes to pass that some temples are quite deserted, while others are in great esteem, and adorned with all the rites of all kinds of purification]. Besides this, the first gods, who have long flourished in the honors done them, are now grown old [while those that flourished after them are come in their room as a second rank, that I may speak the most honorably of them that I can]:
30. New Testament, 1 John, 2.18-2.28, 5.4 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.18. Little children, these are the end times, and as you heard that the Antichrist is coming, even now many antichrists have arisen. By this we know that it is the end times. 2.19. They went out from us, but they didn't belong to us; for if they had belonged to us, they would have continued with us. But they left, that they might be revealed that none of them belong to us. 2.20. You have an anointing from the Holy One, and you know the truth. 2.21. I have not written to you because you don't know the truth, but because you know it, and because no lie is of the truth. 2.22. Who is the liar but he who denies that Jesus is the Christ? This is the Antichrist, he who denies the Father and the Son. 2.23. Whoever denies the Son, the same doesn't have the Father. He who confesses the Son has the Father also. 2.24. Therefore, as for you, let that remain in you which you heard from the beginning. If that which you heard from the beginning remains in you, you also will remain in the Son, and in the Father. 2.25. This is the promise which he promised us, the eternal life. 2.26. These things I have written to you concerning those who would lead you astray. 2.27. As for you, the anointing which you received from him remains in you, and you don't need for anyone to teach you. But as his anointing teaches you concerning all things, and is true, and is no lie, and even as it taught you, you will remain in him. 2.28. Now, little children, remain in him, that when he appears, we may have boldness, and not be ashamed before him at his coming. 5.4. For whatever is born of God overcomes the world. This is the victory that has overcome the world: your faith.
31. New Testament, 1 Peter, 5.8, 5.10 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

5.8. Be sober and self-controlled. Be watchful. Your adversary the devil, walks around like a roaring lion, seeking whom he may devour. 5.10. But may the God of all grace (who called you to his eternal glory by Christ Jesus), after you have suffered a while, perfect, establish, strengthen, and settle you.
32. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, None (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

33. New Testament, 1 Thessalonians, 1.8-1.9, 2.18 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.8. For from you has sounded forth the word of the Lord, not only in Macedonia and Achaia, but also in every place your faith toward God has gone forth; so that we need not to say anything. 1.9. For they themselves report concerning us what kind of a reception we had from you; and how you turned to God from idols, to serve a living and true God 2.18. because we wanted to come to you -- indeed, I, Paul, once and again -- but Satan hindered us.
34. New Testament, 1 Timothy, 5.13 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

5.13. Besides, they also learn to be idle, going about from house to house. Not only idle, but also gossips and busybodies, saying things which they ought not.
35. New Testament, 2 Corinthians, 2.11, 2.14-2.16, 4.3-4.4, 4.9, 5.9-5.10, 6.16, 7.1, 9.13-9.14, 10.4, 12.7, 13.5 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

36. New Testament, 2 Thessalonians, 2.9, 2.11, 2.15, 3.11 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.9. even he whose coming is according to the working of Satan with all power and signs and lying wonders 2.11. Because of this, God sends them a working of error, that they should believe a lie; 2.15. So then, brothers, stand firm, and hold the traditions which you were taught by us, whether by word, or by letter. 3.11. For we hear of some who walk among you in rebellion, who don't work at all, but are busybodies.
37. New Testament, Acts, 15.20, 15.29, 16.16, 17.28, 19.18-19.19 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

15.20. but that we write to them that they abstain from the pollution of idols, from sexual immorality, from what is strangled, and from blood. 15.29. that you abstain from things sacrificed to idols, from blood, from things strangled, and from sexual immorality, from which if you keep yourselves, it will be well with you. Farewell. 16.16. It happened, as we were going to prayer, that a certain girl having a spirit of divination met us, who brought her masters much gain by fortune telling. 17.28. 'For in him we live, and move, and have our being.' As some of your own poets have said, 'For we are also his offspring.' 19.18. Many also of those who had believed came, confessing, and declaring their deeds. 19.19. Many of those who practiced magical arts brought their books together and burned them in the sight of all. They counted the price of them, and found it fifty thousand pieces of silver.
38. New Testament, Apocalypse, 1.5, 2.2, 2.10, 2.13-2.16, 2.19-2.25, 3.8, 9.20, 14.1-14.5, 19.11, 20.4 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.5. and from Jesus Christ, the faithful witness, the firstborn of the dead, and the ruler of the kings of the earth. To him who loves us, and washed us from our sins by his blood; 2.2. I know your works, and your toil and perseverance, and that you can't tolerate evil men, and have tested those who call themselves apostles, and they are not, and found them false. 2.10. Don't be afraid of the things which you are about to suffer. Behold, the devil is about to throw some of you into prison, that you may be tested; and you will have oppression for ten days. Be faithful to death, and I will give you the crown of life. 2.13. I know your works and where you dwell, where Satan's throne is. You hold firmly to my name, and didn't deny my faith in the days of Antipas my witness, my faithful one, who was killed among you, where Satan dwells. 2.14. But I have a few things against you, because you have there some who hold the teaching of Balaam, who taught Balak to throw a stumbling block before the children of Israel , to eat things sacrificed to idols, and to commit sexual immorality. 2.15. So you also have some who hold to the teaching of the Nicolaitans in the same way. 2.16. Repent therefore, or else I am coming to you quickly, and I will make war against them with the sword of my mouth. 2.19. I know your works, your love, faith, service, patient endurance, and that your last works are more than the first. 2.20. But I have this against you, that you tolerate your woman, Jezebel, who calls herself a prophetess. She teaches and seduces my servants to commit sexual immorality, and to eat things sacrificed to idols. 2.21. I gave her time to repent, but she refuses to repent of her sexual immorality. 2.22. Behold, I will throw her into a bed, and those who commit adultery with her into great oppression, unless they repent of her works. 2.23. I will kill her children with Death, and all the assemblies will know that I am he who searches the minds and hearts. I will give to each one of you according to your deeds. 2.24. But to you I say, to the rest who are in Thyatira, as many as don't have this teaching, who don't know what some call 'the deep things of Satan,' to you I say, I am not putting any other burden on you. 2.25. Nevertheless that which you have, hold firmly until I come. 3.8. I know your works (behold, I have set before you an open door, which no one can shut), that you have a little power, and kept my word, and didn't deny my name. 9.20. The rest of mankind, who were not killed with these plagues, didn't repent of the works of their hands, that they wouldn't worship demons, and the idols of gold, and of silver, and of brass, and of stone, and of wood; which can neither see, nor hear, nor walk. 14.1. I saw, and behold, the Lamb standing on Mount Zion, and with him a number, one hundred forty-four thousand, having his name, and the name of his Father, written on their foreheads. 14.2. I heard a sound from heaven, like the sound of many waters, and like the sound of a great thunder. The sound which I heard was like that of harpers playing on their harps. 14.3. They sing a new song before the throne, and before the four living creatures and the elders. No one could learn the song except the one hundred forty-four thousand, those who had been redeemed out of the earth. 14.4. These are those who were not defiled with women, for they are virgins. These are those who follow the Lamb wherever he goes. These were redeemed by Jesus from among men, the first fruits to God and to the Lamb. 14.5. In their mouth was found no lie, for they are blameless. 19.11. I saw the heaven opened, and behold, a white horse, and he who sat on it is called Faithful and True. In righteousness he judges and makes war. 20.4. I saw thrones, and they sat on them, and judgment was given to them. I saw the souls of those who had been beheaded for the testimony of Jesus, and for the word of God, and such as didn't worship the beast nor his image, and didn't receive the mark on their forehead and on their hand. They lived, and reigned with Christ for the thousand years.
39. New Testament, James, 4.7 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4.7. Be subject therefore to God. But resist the devil, and he will flee from you.
40. New Testament, Colossians, 1.3, 1.10-1.11, 1.13, 3.11, 4.11 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.3. We give thanks to God the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, praying always for you 1.10. that you may walk worthily of the Lord, to please him in all respects, bearing fruit in every good work, and increasing in the knowledge of God; 1.11. strengthened with all power, according to the might of his glory, for all endurance and perseverance with joy; 1.13. who delivered us out of the power of darkness, and translated us into the Kingdom of the Son of his love; 3.11. where there can't be Greek and Jew, circumcision and uncircumcision, barbarian, Scythian, bondservant, freeman; but Christ is all, and in all. 4.11. and Jesus who is called Justus, who are of the circumcision. These are my only fellow workers for the Kingdom of God, men who have been a comfort to me.
41. New Testament, Ephesians, 1.5, 1.18-1.22, 2.1-2.3, 2.6, 2.8, 2.11-2.13, 3.10, 4.6, 4.17, 4.22, 5.1-5.14, 5.32, 6.12, 6.16 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.5. having predestined us for adoption as sons through Jesus Christ to himself, according to the good pleasure of his desire 1.18. having the eyes of your hearts enlightened, that you may know what is the hope of his calling, and what are the riches of the glory of his inheritance in the saints 1.19. and what is the exceeding greatness of his power toward us who believe, according to that working of the strength of his might 1.20. which he worked in Christ, when he raised him from the dead, and made him to sit at his right hand in the heavenly places 1.21. far above all rule, and authority, and power, and dominion, and every name that is named, not only in this world, but also in that which is to come. 1.22. He put all things in subjection under his feet, and gave him to be head over all things for the assembly 2.1. You were made alive when you were dead in transgressions and sins 2.2. in which you once walked according to the course of this world, according to the prince of the powers of the air, the spirit who now works in the sons of disobedience; 2.3. among whom we also all once lived in the lust of our flesh, doing the desires of the flesh and of the mind, and were by nature children of wrath, even as the rest. 2.6. and raised us up with him, and made us to sit with him in the heavenly places in Christ Jesus 2.8. for by grace you have been saved through faith, and that not of yourselves; it is the gift of God 2.11. Therefore remember that once you, the Gentiles in the flesh, who are called "uncircumcision" by that which is called "circumcision," (in the flesh, made by hands); 2.12. that you were at that time separate from Christ, alienated from the commonwealth of Israel, and strangers from the covets of the promise, having no hope and without God in the world. 2.13. But now in Christ Jesus you who once were far off are made near in the blood of Christ. 3.10. to the intent that now through the assembly the manifold wisdom of God might be made known to the principalities and the powers in the heavenly places 4.6. one God and Father of all, who is over all, and through all, and in us all. 4.17. This I say therefore, and testify in the Lord, that you no longer walk as the rest of the Gentiles also walk, in the futility of their mind 4.22. that you put away, as concerning your former way of life, the old man, that grows corrupt after the lusts of deceit; 5.1. Be therefore imitators of God, as beloved children. 5.2. Walk in love, even as Christ also loved you, and gave himself up for us, an offering and a sacrifice to God for a sweet-smelling fragrance. 5.3. But sexual immorality, and all uncleanness, or covetousness, let it not even be mentioned among you, as becomes saints; 5.4. nor filthiness, nor foolish talking, nor jesting, which are not appropriate; but rather giving of thanks. 5.5. Know this for sure, that no sexually immoral person, nor unclean person, nor covetous man, who is an idolater, has any inheritance in the Kingdom of Christ and God. 5.6. Let no one deceive you with empty words. For because of these things, the wrath of God comes on the sons of disobedience. 5.7. Therefore don't be partakers with them. 5.8. For you were once darkness, but are now light in the Lord. Walk as children of light 5.9. for the fruit of the Spirit is in all goodness and righteousness and truth 5.10. proving what is well-pleasing to the Lord. 5.11. Have no fellowship with the unfruitful works of darkness, but rather even reprove them. 5.12. For the things which are done by them in secret, it is a shame even to speak of. 5.13. But all things, when they are reproved, are revealed by the light, for everything that is revealed is light. 5.14. Therefore he says, "Awake, you who sleep, and arise from the dead, and Christ will shine on you. 5.32. This mystery is great, but I speak concerning Christ and of the assembly. 6.12. For our wrestling is not against flesh and blood, but against the principalities, against the powers, against the world's rulers of the darkness of this age, and against the spiritual hosts of wickedness in the heavenly places. 6.16. above all, taking up the shield of faith, with which you will be able to quench all the fiery darts of the evil one.
42. New Testament, Galatians, 1.16, 2.2-2.3, 2.7-2.9, 2.12, 2.16, 3.2, 4.8-4.9, 5.2-5.3, 5.6, 5.11, 5.16-5.23, 6.12-6.13, 6.15 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.16. to reveal his Son in me,that I might preach him among the Gentiles, I didn't immediately conferwith flesh and blood 2.2. I went up byrevelation, and I laid before them the gospel which I preach among theGentiles, but privately before those who were respected, for fear thatI might be running, or had run, in vain. 2.3. But not even Titus, whowas with me, being a Greek, was compelled to be circumcised. 2.7. but to the contrary, when they saw that Ihad been entrusted with the gospel for the uncircumcision, even asPeter with the gospel for the circumcision 2.8. (for he who appointedPeter to the apostleship of the circumcision appointed me also to theGentiles); 2.9. and when they perceived the grace that was given tome, James and Cephas and John, they who were reputed to be pillars,gave to me and Barnabas the right hand of fellowship, that we should goto the Gentiles, and they to the circumcision. 2.12. For before some people came fromJames, he ate with the Gentiles. But when they came, he drew back andseparated himself, fearing those who were of the circumcision. 2.16. yet knowing that a man is not justified by the works of the law butthrough the faith of Jesus Christ, even we believed in Christ Jesus,that we might be justified by faith in Christ, and not by the works ofthe law, because no flesh will be justified by the works of the law. 3.2. I just want to learn this from you. Did you receivethe Spirit by the works of the law, or by hearing of faith? 4.8. However at that time, not knowing God, youwere in bondage to those who by nature are not gods. 4.9. But now thatyou have come to know God, or rather to be known by God, why do youturn back again to the weak and miserable elements, to which you desireto be in bondage all over again? 5.2. Behold, I, Paul, tell you that if you receive circumcision, Christ willprofit you nothing. 5.3. Yes, I testify again to every man whoreceives circumcision, that he is a debtor to do the whole law. 5.6. For in Christ Jesusneither circumcision amounts to anything, nor uncircumcision, but faithworking through love. 5.11. But I, brothers, if I still preach circumcision, why am Istill persecuted? Then the stumbling-block of the cross has beenremoved. 5.16. But I say, walk by the Spirit, and you won't fulfill the lust ofthe flesh. 5.17. For the flesh lusts against the Spirit, and theSpirit against the flesh; and these are contrary to one other, that youmay not do the things that you desire. 5.18. But if you are led by theSpirit, you are not under the law. 5.19. Now the works of the fleshare obvious, which are: adultery, sexual immorality, uncleanness,lustfulness 5.20. idolatry, sorcery, hatred, strife, jealousies,outbursts of anger, rivalries, divisions, heresies 5.21. envyings,murders, drunkenness, orgies, and things like these; of which Iforewarn you, even as I also forewarned you, that those who practicesuch things will not inherit the Kingdom of God. 5.22. But the fruit of the Spirit is love, joy, peace, patience,kindness, goodness, faithfulness 5.23. gentleness, and self-control.Against such things there is no law. 6.12. As many as desire to look good in the flesh, they compel you tobe circumcised; only that they may not be persecuted for the cross ofChrist. 6.13. For even they who receive circumcision don't keep thelaw themselves, but they desire to have you circumcised, that they mayboast in your flesh. 6.15. For in Christ Jesus neitheris circumcision anything, nor uncircumcision, but a new creation.
43. New Testament, Hebrews, 2.8, 2.14 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.8. You have put all things in subjection under his feet."For in that he subjected all things to him, he left nothing that is not subject to him. But now we don't see all things subjected to him, yet. 2.14. Since then the children have shared in flesh and blood, he also himself in like manner partook of the same, that through death he might bring to nothing him who had the power of death, that is, the devil
44. New Testament, Philippians, 2.10, 2.17, 3.3, 3.5, 4.18 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.10. that at the name of Jesus every knee should bow, of those in heaven, those on earth, and those under the earth 2.17. Yes, and if I am poured out on the sacrifice and service of your faith, I rejoice, and rejoice with you all. 3.3. For we are the circumcision, who worship God in the Spirit, and rejoice in Christ Jesus, and have no confidence in the flesh; 3.5. circumcised the eighth day, of the stock of Israel, of the tribe of Benjamin, a Hebrew of Hebrews; concerning the law, a Pharisee; 4.18. But I have all things, and abound. I am filled, having received from Epaphroditus the things that came from you, a sweet-smelling fragrance, an acceptable and well-pleasing sacrifice to God.
45. New Testament, Romans, 1.5, 1.9, 2.12, 2.25-2.29, 3.1, 3.8, 3.20, 3.27-3.28, 3.30, 4.9-4.12, 6.1-6.23, 8.2-8.14, 8.38, 9.4, 9.32-9.33, 11.9, 11.11-11.13, 12.1, 13.12, 14.1-14.3, 14.13, 14.15, 14.20-14.21, 15.8, 15.16, 15.25-15.32, 16.5, 16.20 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.5. through whom we received grace and apostleship, for obedience of faith among all the nations, for his name's sake; 1.9. For God is my witness, whom I serve in my spirit in the gospel of his Son, how unceasingly I make mention of you always in my prayers 2.12. For as many as have sinned without law will also perish without the law. As many as have sinned under the law will be judged by the law. 2.25. For circumcision indeed profits, if you are a doer of the law, but if you are a transgressor of the law, your circumcision has become uncircumcision. 2.26. If therefore the uncircumcised keep the ordices of the law, won't his uncircumcision be accounted as circumcision? 2.27. Won't the uncircumcision which is by nature, if it fulfills the law, judge you, who with the letter and circumcision are a transgressor of the law? 2.28. For he is not a Jew who is one outwardly, neither is that circumcision which is outward in the flesh; 2.29. but he is a Jew who is one inwardly, and circumcision is that of the heart, in the spirit not in the letter; whose praise is not from men, but from God. 3.1. Then what advantage does the Jew have? Or what is the profit of circumcision? 3.8. Why not (as we are slanderously reported, and as some affirm that we say), "Let us do evil, that good may come?" Those who say so are justly condemned. 3.20. Because by the works of the law, no flesh will be justified in his sight. For through the law comes the knowledge of sin. 3.27. Where then is the boasting? It is excluded. By what manner of law? of works? No, but by a law of faith. 3.28. We maintain therefore that a man is justified by faith apart from the works of the law. 3.30. since indeed there is one God who will justify the circumcised by faith, and the uncircumcised through faith. 4.9. Is this blessing then pronounced on the circumcised, or on the uncircumcised also? For we say that faith was accounted to Abraham for righteousness. 4.10. How then was it counted? When he was in circumcision, or in uncircumcision? Not in circumcision, but in uncircumcision. 4.11. He received the sign of circumcision, a seal of the righteousness of the faith which he had while he was in uncircumcision, that he might be the father of all those who believe, though they be in uncircumcision, that righteousness might also be accounted to them. 4.12. The father of circumcision to those who not only are of the circumcision, but who also walk in the steps of that faith of our father Abraham, which he had in uncircumcision. 6.1. What shall we say then? Shall we continue in sin, that grace may abound? 6.2. May it never be! We who died to sin, how could we live in it any longer? 6.3. Or don't you know that all we who were baptized into Christ Jesus were baptized into his death? 6.4. We were buried therefore with him through baptism to death, that just like Christ was raised from the dead through the glory of the Father, so we also might walk in newness of life. 6.5. For if we have become united with him in the likeness of his death, we will also be part of his resurrection; 6.6. knowing this, that our old man was crucified with him, that the body of sin might be done away with, so that we would no longer be in bondage to sin. 6.7. For he who has died has been freed from sin. 6.8. But if we died with Christ, we believe that we will also live with him; 6.9. knowing that Christ, being raised from the dead, dies no more. Death no more has dominion over him! 6.10. For the death that he died, he died to sin one time; but the life that he lives, he lives to God. 6.11. Thus also consider yourselves also to be dead to sin, but alive to God in Christ Jesus our Lord. 6.12. Therefore don't let sin reign in your mortal body, that you should obey it in its lusts. 6.13. Neither present your members to sin as instruments of unrighteousness, but present yourselves to God, as alive from the dead, and your members as instruments of righteousness to God. 6.14. For sin will not have dominion over you. For you are not under law, but under grace. 6.15. What then? Shall we sin, because we are not under law, but under grace? May it never be! 6.16. Don't you know that to whom you present yourselves as servants to obedience, his servants you are whom you obey; whether of sin to death, or of obedience to righteousness? 6.17. But thanks be to God, that, whereas you were bondservants of sin, you became obedient from the heart to that form of teaching whereunto you were delivered. 6.18. Being made free from sin, you became bondservants of righteousness. 6.19. I speak in human terms because of the weakness of your flesh, for as you presented your members as servants to uncleanness and to wickedness upon wickedness, even so now present your members as servants to righteousness for sanctification. 6.20. For when you were servants of sin, you were free in regard to righteousness. 6.21. What fruit then did you have at that time in the things of which you are now ashamed? For the end of those things is death. 6.22. But now, being made free from sin, and having become servants of God, you have your fruit of sanctification, and the result of eternal life. 6.23. For the wages of sin is death, but the free gift of God is eternal life in Christ Jesus our Lord. 8.2. For the law of the Spirit of life in Christ Jesus made me free from the law of sin and of death. 8.3. For what the law couldn't do, in that it was weak through the flesh, God did, sending his own Son in the likeness of sinful flesh and for sin, he condemned sin in the flesh; 8.4. that the ordice of the law might be fulfilled in us, who walk not after the flesh, but after the Spirit. 8.5. For those who live according to the flesh set their minds on the things of the flesh, but those who live according to the Spirit, the things of the Spirit. 8.6. For the mind of the flesh is death, but the mind of the Spirit is life and peace; 8.7. because the mind of the flesh is hostile towards God; for it is not subject to God's law, neither indeed can it be. 8.8. Those who are in the flesh can't please God. 8.9. But you are not in the flesh but in the Spirit, if it is so that the Spirit of God dwells in you. But if any man doesn't have the Spirit of Christ, he is not his. 8.10. If Christ is in you, the body is dead because of sin, but the spirit is alive because of righteousness. 8.11. But if the Spirit of him who raised up Jesus from the dead dwells in you, he who raised up Christ Jesus from the dead will also give life to your mortal bodies through his Spirit who dwells in you. 8.12. So then, brothers, we are debtors, not to the flesh, to live after the flesh. 8.13. For if you live after the flesh, you must die; but if by the Spirit you put to death the deeds of the body, you will live. 8.14. For as many as are led by the Spirit of God, these are children of God. 8.38. For I am persuaded, that neither death, nor life, nor angels, nor principalities, nor things present, nor things to come, nor powers 9.4. who are Israelites; whose is the adoption, the glory, the covets, the giving of the law, the service, and the promises; 9.32. Why? Because they didn't seek it by faith, but as it were by works of the law. They stumbled over the stumbling stone; 9.33. even as it is written, "Behold, I lay in Zion a stumbling stone and a rock of offense; And no one who believes in him will be put to shame. 11.9. David says, "Let their table be made a snare, and a trap, A stumbling block, and a retribution to them. 11.11. I ask then, did they stumble that they might fall? May it never be! But by their fall salvation has come to the Gentiles, to provoke them to jealousy. 11.12. Now if their fall is the riches of the world, and their loss the riches of the Gentiles; how much more their fullness? 11.13. For I speak to you who are Gentiles. Since then as I am an apostle to Gentiles, I glorify my ministry; 12.1. Therefore I urge you, brothers, by the mercies of God, to present your bodies a living sacrifice, holy, acceptable to God, which is your spiritual service. 13.12. The night is far gone, and the day is near. Let's therefore throw off the works of darkness, and let's put on the armor of light. 14.1. Now receive one who is weak in faith, but not for disputes over opinions. 14.2. One man has faith to eat all things, but he who is weak eats only vegetables. 14.3. Don't let him who eats despise him who doesn't eat. Don't let him who doesn't eat judge him who eats, for God has received him. 14.13. Therefore let's not judge one another any more, but judge this rather, that no man put a stumbling block in his brother's way, or an occasion for falling. 14.15. Yet if because of food your brother is grieved, you walk no longer in love. Don't destroy with your food him for whom Christ died. 14.20. Don't overthrow God's work for food's sake. All things indeed are clean, however it is evil for that man who creates a stumbling block by eating. 14.21. It is good to not eat meat, drink wine, nor do anything by which your brother stumbles, is offended, or is made weak. 15.8. Now I say that Christ has been made a minister of the circumcision for the truth of God, that he might confirm the promises given to the fathers 15.16. that I should be a servant of Christ Jesus to the Gentiles, ministering as a priest the gospel of God, that the offering up of the Gentiles might be made acceptable, sanctified by the Holy Spirit. 15.25. But now, I say, I am going to Jerusalem, serving the saints. 15.26. For it has been the good pleasure of Macedonia and Achaia to make a certain contribution for the poor among the saints who are at Jerusalem. 15.27. Yes, it has been their good pleasure, and they are their debtors. For if the Gentiles have been made partakers of their spiritual things, they owe it to them also to serve them in fleshly things. 15.28. When therefore I have accomplished this, and have sealed to them this fruit, I will go on by way of you to Spain. 15.29. I know that, when I come to you, I will come in the fullness of the blessing of the gospel of Christ. 15.30. Now I beg you, brothers, by our Lord Jesus Christ, and by the love of the Spirit, that you strive together with me in your prayers to God for me 15.31. that I may be delivered from those who are disobedient in Judea, and that my service which I have for Jerusalem may be acceptable to the saints; 15.32. that I may come to you in joy through the will of God, and together with you, find rest. 16.5. Greet the assembly that is in their house. Greet Epaenetus, my beloved, who is the first fruits of Achaia to Christ. 16.20. And the God of peace will quickly crush Satan under your feet. The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with you.
46. New Testament, Titus, 1.10, 2.13-2.14 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.10. For there are also many unruly men, vain talkers and deceivers, especially those of the circumcision 2.13. looking for the blessed hope and appearing of the glory of our great God and Savior, Jesus Christ; 2.14. who gave himself for us, that he might redeem us from all iniquity, and purify for himself a people for his own possession, zealous for good works.
47. New Testament, John, 13.2, 13.27 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

13.2. After supper, the devil having already put into the heart of Judas Iscariot, Simon's son, to betray him 13.27. After the piece of bread, then Satan entered into him. Then Jesus said to him, "What you do, do quickly.
48. New Testament, Luke, 4.13, 11.15-11.18, 22.3, 22.17-22.20 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4.13. When the devil had completed every temptation, he departed from him until another time. 11.15. But some of them said, "He casts out demons by Beelzebul, the prince of the demons. 11.16. Others, testing him, sought from him a sign from heaven. 11.17. But he, knowing their thoughts, said to them, "Every kingdom divided against itself is brought to desolation. A house divided against itself falls. 11.18. If Satan also is divided against himself, how will his kingdom stand? For you say that I cast out demons by Beelzebul. 22.3. Satan entered into Judas, who was surnamed Iscariot, who was numbered with the twelve. 22.17. He received a cup, and when he had given thanks, he said, "Take this, and share it among yourselves 22.18. for I tell you, I will not drink at all again from the fruit of the vine, until the Kingdom of God comes. 22.19. He took bread, and when he had given thanks, he broke it, and gave to them, saying, "This is my body which is given for you. Do this in memory of me. 22.20. Likewise, he took the cup after supper, saying, "This cup is the new covet in my blood, which is poured out for you.
49. New Testament, Mark, 1.21-1.28, 1.32-1.34, 3.10-3.12, 3.22-3.23, 4.35-4.41, 5.1-5.20, 6.45-6.52, 7.24-7.31, 9.14-9.29, 14.22-14.25, 16.15-16.18 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.21. They went into Capernaum, and immediately on the Sabbath day he entered into the synagogue and taught. 1.22. They were astonished at his teaching, for he taught them as having authority, and not as the scribes. 1.23. Immediately there was in their synagogue a man with an unclean spirit, and he cried out 1.24. saying, "Ha! What do we have to do with you, Jesus, you Nazarene? Have you come to destroy us? I know you who you are: the Holy One of God! 1.25. Jesus rebuked him, saying, "Be quiet, and come out of him! 1.26. The unclean spirit, convulsing him and crying with a loud voice, came out of him. 1.27. They were all amazed, so that they questioned among themselves, saying, "What is this? A new teaching? For with authority he commands even the unclean spirits, and they obey him! 1.28. The report of him went out immediately everywhere into all the region of Galilee and its surrounding area. 1.32. At evening, when the sun had set, they brought to him all who were sick, and those who were possessed by demons. 1.33. All the city was gathered together at the door. 1.34. He healed many who were sick with various diseases, and cast out many demons. He didn't allow the demons to speak, because they knew him. 3.10. For he had healed many, so that as many as had diseases pressed on him that they might touch him. 3.11. The unclean spirits, whenever they saw him, fell down before him, and cried, "You are the Son of God! 3.12. He sternly warned them that they should not make him known. 3.22. The scribes who came down from Jerusalem said, "He has Beelzebul," and, "By the prince of the demons he casts out the demons. 3.23. He summoned them, and said to them in parables, "How can Satan cast out Satan? 4.35. On that day, when evening had come, he said to them, "Let's go over to the other side. 4.36. Leaving the multitude, they took him with them, even as he was, in the boat. Other small boats were also with him. 4.37. There arose a great wind storm, and the waves beat into the boat, so much that the boat was already filled. 4.38. He himself was in the stern, asleep on the cushion, and they woke him up, and told him, "Teacher, don't you care that we are dying? 4.39. He awoke, and rebuked the wind, and said to the sea, "Peace! Be still!" The wind ceased, and there was a great calm. 4.40. He said to them, "Why are you so afraid? How is it that you have no faith? 4.41. They were greatly afraid, and said to one another, "Who then is this, that even the wind and the sea obey him? 5.1. They came to the other side of the sea, into the country of the Gadarenes. 5.2. When he had come out of the boat, immediately there met him out of the tombs a man with an unclean spirit 5.3. who had his dwelling in the tombs. Nobody could bind him any more, not even with chains 5.4. because he had been often bound with fetters and chains, and the chains had been torn apart by him, and the fetters broken in pieces. Nobody had the strength to tame him. 5.5. Always, night and day, in the tombs and in the mountains, he was crying out, and cutting himself with stones. 5.6. When he saw Jesus from afar, he ran and bowed down to him 5.7. and crying out with a loud voice, he said, "What have I to do with you, Jesus, you Son of the Most High God? I adjure you by God, don't torment me. 5.8. For he said to him, "Come out of the man, you unclean spirit! 5.9. He asked him, "What is your name?"He said to him, "My name is Legion, for we are many. 5.10. He begged him much that he would not send them away out of the country. 5.11. Now there was on the mountainside a great herd of pigs feeding. 5.12. All the demons begged him, saying, "Send us into the pigs, that we may enter into them. 5.13. At once Jesus gave them permission. The unclean spirits came out and entered into the pigs. The herd of about two thousand rushed down the steep bank into the sea, and they were drowned in the sea. 5.14. Those who fed them fled, and told it in the city and in the country. The people came to see what it was that had happened. 5.15. They came to Jesus, and saw him who had been possessed by demons sitting, clothed, and in his right mind, even him who had the legion; and they were afraid. 5.16. Those who saw it declared to them how it happened to him who was possessed by demons, and about the pigs. 5.17. They began to beg him to depart from their region. 5.18. As he was entering into the boat, he who had been possessed by demons begged him that he might be with him. 5.19. He didn't allow him, but said to him, "Go to your house, to your friends, and tell them what great things the Lord has done for you, and how he had mercy on you. 5.20. He went his way, and began to proclaim in Decapolis how Jesus had done great things for him, and everyone marveled. 6.45. Immediately he made his disciples get into the boat, and to go ahead to the other side, to Bethsaida, while he himself sent the multitude away. 6.46. After he had taken leave of them, he went up the mountain to pray. 6.47. When evening had come, the boat was in the midst of the sea, and he was alone on the land. 6.48. Seeing them distressed in rowing, for the wind was contrary to them, about the fourth watch of the night he came to them, walking on the sea, and he would have passed by them 6.49. but they, when they saw him walking on the sea, supposed that it was a ghost, and cried out; 6.50. for they all saw him, and were troubled. But he immediately spoke with them, and said to them, "Cheer up! It is I! Don't be afraid. 6.51. He got into the boat with them; and the wind ceased, and they were very amazed among themselves, and marveled; 6.52. for they hadn't understood about the loaves, but their hearts were hardened. 7.24. From there he arose, and went away into the borders of Tyre and Sidon. He entered into a house, and didn't want anyone to know it, but he couldn't escape notice. 7.25. For a woman, whose little daughter had an unclean spirit, having heard of him, came and fell down at his feet. 7.26. Now the woman was a Greek, a Syrophoenician by race. She begged him that he would cast the demon out of her daughter. 7.27. But Jesus said to her, "Let the children be filled first, for it is not appropriate to take the children's bread and throw it to the dogs. 7.28. But she answered him, "Yes, Lord. Yet even the dogs under the table eat the children's crumbs. 7.29. He said to her, "For this saying, go your way. The demon has gone out of your daughter. 7.30. She went away to her house, and found the child lying on the bed, with the demon gone out. 7.31. Again he departed from the borders of Tyre and Sidon, and came to the sea of Galilee, through the midst of the region of Decapolis. 9.14. Coming to the disciples, he saw a great multitude around them, and scribes questioning them. 9.15. Immediately all the multitude, when they saw him, were greatly amazed, and running to him greeted him. 9.16. He asked the scribes, "What are you asking them? 9.17. One of the multitude answered, "Teacher, I brought to you my son, who has a mute spirit; 9.18. and wherever it seizes him, it throws him down, and he foams at the mouth, and grinds his teeth, and wastes away. I asked your disciples to cast it out, and they weren't able. 9.19. He answered him, "Unbelieving generation, how long shall I be with you? How long shall I bear with you? Bring him to me. 9.20. They brought him to him, and when he saw him, immediately the spirit convulsed him, and he fell on the ground, wallowing and foaming at the mouth. 9.21. He asked his father, "How long has it been since this has come to him?"He said, "From childhood. 9.22. often it has cast him both into the fire and into the water, to destroy him. But if you can do anything, have compassion on us, and help us. 9.23. Jesus said to him, "If you can believe, all things are possible to him who believes. 9.24. Immediately the father of the child cried out with tears, "I believe. Help my unbelief! 9.25. When Jesus saw that a multitude came running together, he rebuked the unclean spirit, saying to him, "You mute and deaf spirit, I command you, come out of him, and never enter him again! 9.26. Having cried out, and convulsed greatly, it came out of him. The boy became like one dead; so much that most of them said, "He is dead. 9.27. But Jesus took him by the hand, and raised him up; and he arose. 9.28. When he had come into the house, his disciples asked him privately, "Why couldn't we cast it out? 9.29. He said to them, "This kind can come out by nothing, except by prayer and fasting. 14.22. As they were eating, Jesus took bread, and when he had blessed, he broke it, and gave to them, and said, "Take, eat. This is my body. 14.23. He took the cup, and when he had given thanks, he gave to them. They all drank of it. 14.24. He said to them, "This is my blood of the new covet, which is poured out for many. 14.25. Most assuredly I tell you, I will no more drink of the fruit of the vine, until that day when I drink it anew in the Kingdom of God. 16.15. He said to them, "Go into all the world, and preach the gospel to the whole creation. 16.16. He who believes and is baptized will be saved; but he who disbelieves will be condemned. 16.17. These signs will accompany those who believe: in my name they will cast out demons; they will speak with new languages; 16.18. they will take up serpents; and if they drink any deadly thing, it will in no way hurt them; they will lay hands on the sick, and they will recover.
50. New Testament, Matthew, 12.24-12.26, 13.41, 24.15, 26.26-26.29 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

12.24. But when the Pharisees heard it, they said, "This man does not cast out demons, except by Beelzebul, the prince of the demons. 12.25. Knowing their thoughts, Jesus said to them, "Every kingdom divided against itself is brought to desolation, and every city or house divided against itself will not stand. 12.26. If Satan casts out Satan, he is divided against himself. How then will his kingdom stand? 13.41. The Son of Man will send out his angels, and they will gather out of his kingdom all things that cause stumbling, and those who do iniquity 24.15. When, therefore, you see the abomination of desolation, which was spoken of through Daniel the prophet, standing in the holy place (let the reader understand) 26.26. As they were eating, Jesus took bread, gave thanks for it, and broke it. He gave to the disciples, and said, "Take, eat; this is my body. 26.27. He took the cup, gave thanks, and gave to them, saying, "All of you drink it 26.28. for this is my blood of the new covet, which is poured out for many for the remission of sins. 26.29. But I tell you that I will not drink of this fruit of the vine from now on, until that day when I drink it anew with you in my Father's kingdom.
51. Plutarch, Alexander The Great, 2.8 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

52. Plutarch, On The Obsolescence of Oracles, None (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

53. Tosefta, Pesahim, 7.13 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

54. Anon., Acts of Peter, 13 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

55. Athenagoras, Apology Or Embassy For The Christians, 24-27, 31, 23 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

23. You may say, however, since you excel all men in understanding, How comes it to pass, then, that some of the idols manifest power, if those to whom we erect the statues are not gods? For it is not likely that images destitute of life and motion can of themselves do anything without a mover. That in various places, cities, and nations, certain effects are brought about in the name of idols, we are far from denying. None the more, however, if some have received benefit, and others, on the contrary, suffered harm, shall we deem those to be gods who have produced the effects in either case. But I have made careful inquiry, both why it is that you think the idols to have this power, and who they are that, usurping their names, produce the effects. It is necessary for me, however, in attempting to show who they are that produce the effects ascribed to the idols, and that they are not gods, to have recourse to some witnesses from among the philosophers. First Thales, as those who have accurately examined his opinions report, divides [superior beings] into God, demons, and heroes. God he recognises as the Intelligence (νοῦς) of the world; by demons he understands beings possessed of soul (ψυχικαί); and by heroes the separated souls of men, the good being the good souls, and the bad the worthless. Plato again, while withholding his assent on other points, also divides [superior beings] into the uncreated God and those produced by the uncreated One for the adornment of heaven, the planets, and the fixed stars, and into demons; concerning which demons, while he does not think fit to speak himself, he thinks that those ought to be listened to who have spoken about them. To speak concerning the other demons, and to know their origin, is beyond our powers; but we ought to believe those who have before spoken, the descendants of gods, as they say - and surely they must be well acquainted with their own ancestors: it is impossible, therefore, to disbelieve the sons of gods, even though they speak without probable or convincing proofs; but as they profess to tell of their own family affairs, we are bound, in pursuance of custom, to believe them. In this way, then, let us hold and speak as they do concerning the origin of the gods themselves. of Gê and Ouranos were born Oceanus and Tethys; and of these Phorcus, Kronos, and Rhea, and the rest; and of Kronos and Rhea, Zeus, Hera, and all the others, who, we know, are all called their brothers; besides other descendants again of these. Did, then, he who had contemplated the eternal Intelligence and God who is apprehended by reason, and declared His attributes - His real existence, the simplicity of His nature, the good that flows forth from Him that is truth, and discoursed of primal power, and how all things are about the King of all, and all things exist for His sake, and He is the cause of all; and about two and three, that He is the second moving about the seconds, and the third about the thirds; - did this man think, that to learn the truth concerning those who are said to have been produced from sensible things, namely earth and heaven, was a task transcending his powers? It is not to be believed for a moment. But because he thought it impossible to believe that gods beget and are brought forth, since everything that begins to be is followed by an end, and (for this is much more difficult) to change the views of the multitude, who receive the fables without examination, on this account it was that he declared it to be beyond his powers to know and to speak concerning the origin of the other demons, since he was unable either to admit or teach that gods were begotten. And as regards that saying of his, The great sovereign in heaven, Zeus, driving a winged car, advances first, ordering and managing all things, and there follow him a host of gods and demons, this does not refer to the Zeus who is said to have sprung from Kronos; for here the name is given to the Maker of the universe. This is shown by Plato himself: not being able to designate Him by another title that should be suitable, he availed himself of the popular name, not as peculiar to God, but for distinctness, because it is not possible to discourse of God to all men as fully as one might; and he adds at the same time the epithet Great, so as to distinguish the heavenly from the earthly, the uncreated from the created, who is younger than heaven and earth, and younger than the Cretans, who stole him away, that he might not be killed by his father.
56. Irenaeus, Refutation of All Heresies, 1.13, 2.26.1 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

1.13. One Ecphantus, a native of Syracuse, affirmed that it is not possible to attain a true knowledge of things. He defines, however, as he thinks, primary bodies to be indivisible, and that there are three variations of these, viz., bulk, figure, capacity, from which are generated the objects of sense. But that there is a determinable multitude of these, and that this is infinite. And that bodies are moved neither by weight nor by impact, but by divine power, which he calls mind and soul; and that of this the world is a representation; wherefore also it has been made in the form of a sphere by divine power. And that the earth in the middle of the cosmical system is moved round its own centre towards the east.
57. Justin, First Apology, 2.4-2.5, 5.2 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

58. Justin, Dialogue With Trypho, 19.5-19.6 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

10. And when they ceased, I again addressed them. Justin: Is there any other matter, my friends, in which we are blamed, than this, that we live not after the law, and are not circumcised in the flesh as your forefathers were, and do not observe sabbaths as you do? Are our lives and customs also slandered among you? And I ask this: have you also believed concerning us, that we eat men; and that after the feast, having extinguished the lights, we engage in promiscuous concubinage? Or do you condemn us in this alone, that we adhere to such tenets, and believe in an opinion, untrue, as you think? Trypho: This is what we are amazed at, but those things about which the multitude speak are not worthy of belief; for they are most repugt to human nature. Moreover, I am aware that your precepts in the so-called Gospel are so wonderful and so great, that I suspect no one can keep them; for I have carefully read them. But this is what we are most at a loss about: that you, professing to be pious, and supposing yourselves better than others, are not in any particular separated from them, and do not alter your mode of living from the nations, in that you observe no festivals or sabbaths, and do not have the rite of circumcision; and further, resting your hopes on a man that was crucified, you yet expect to obtain some good thing from God, while you do not obey His commandments. Have you not read, that that soul shall be cut off from his people who shall not have been circumcised on the eighth day? And this has been ordained for strangers and for slaves equally. But you, despising this covet rashly, reject the consequent duties, and attempt to persuade yourselves that you know God, when, however, you perform none of those things which they do who fear God. If, therefore, you can defend yourself on these points, and make it manifest in what way you hope for anything whatsoever, even though you do not observe the law, this we would very gladly hear from you, and we shall make other similar investigations.
59. Lucian, The Passing of Peregrinus, 11 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

60. Minucius Felix, Octavius, 9.6, 31.1, 31.5 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

61. Pliny The Younger, Letters, 10.96 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

62. Pliny The Younger, Letters, 10.96 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

63. Tatian, Oration To The Greeks, 29 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

64. Tertullian, To The Heathen, 1.7 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

1.7. Whence comes it to pass, you will say to us, that such a character could have been attributed to you, as to have justified the lawmakers perhaps by its imputation? Let me ask on my side, what voucher they had then, or you now, for the truth of the imputation? (You answer,) Fame. Well, now, is not this - Fama malum, quo non aliud velocius ullum? Now, why a plague, if it be always true? It never ceases from lying; nor even at the moment when it reports the truth is it so free from the wish to lie, as not to interweave the false with the true, by processes of addition, diminution, or confusion of various facts. Indeed, such is its condition, that it can only continue to exist while it lies. For it lives only just so long as it fails to prove anything. As soon as it proves itself true, it falls; and, as if its office of reporting news were at an end, it quits its post: thenceforward the thing is held to be a fact, and it passes under that name. No one, then, says, to take an instance, The report is that this happened at Rome, or, The rumour goes that he has got a province; but, He has got a province, and, This happened at Rome. Nobody mentions a rumour except at an uncertainty, because nobody can be sure of a rumour, but only of certain knowledge; and none but a fool believes a rumour, because no wise man puts faith in an uncertainty. In however wide a circuit a report has been circulated, it must needs have originated some time or other from one mouth; afterwards it creeps on somehow to ears and tongues which pass it on and so obscures the humble error in which it began, that no one considers whether the mouth which first set it a-going disseminated a falsehood - a circumstance which often happens either from a temper of rivalry, or a suspicious turn, or even the pleasure of feigning news. It is, however, well that time reveals all things, as your own sayings and proverbs testify; yea, as nature herself attests, which has so ordered it that nothing lies hid, not even that which fame has not reported. See, now, what a witness you have suborned against us: it has not been able up to this time to prove the report it set in motion, although it has had so long a time to recommend it to our acceptance. This name of ours took its rise in the reign of Augustus; under Tiberius it was taught with all clearness and publicity; under Nero it was ruthlessly condemned, and you may weigh its worth and character even from the person of its persecutor. If that prince was a pious man, then the Christians are impious; if he was just, if he was pure, then the Christians are unjust and impure; if he was not a public enemy, we are enemies of our country: what sort of men we are, our persecutor himself shows, since he of course punished what produced hostility to himself. Now, although every other institution which existed under Nero has been destroyed, yet this of ours has firmly remained - righteous, it would seem, as being unlike the author (of its persecution). Two hundred and fifty years, then, have not yet passed since our life began. During the interval there have been so many criminals; so many crosses have obtained immortality; so many infants have been slain; so many loaves steeped in blood; so many extinctions of candles; so many dissolute marriages. And up to the present time it is mere report which fights against the Christians. No doubt it has a strong support in the wickedness of the human mind, and utters its falsehoods with more success among cruel and savage men. For the more inclined you are to maliciousness, the more ready are you to believe evil; in short, men more easily believe the evil that is false, than the good which is true. Now, if injustice has left any place within you for the exercise of prudence in investigating the truth of reports, justice of course demanded that you should examine by whom the report could have been spread among the multitude, and thus circulated through the world. For it could not have been by the Christians themselves, I suppose, since by the very constitution and law of all mysteries the obligation of silence is imposed. How much more would this be the case in such (mysteries as are ascribed to us), which, if divulged, could not fail to bring down instant punishment from the prompt resentment of men! Since, therefore, the Christians are not their own betrayers, it follows that it must be strangers. Now I ask, how could strangers obtain knowledge of us, when even true and lawful mysteries exclude every stranger from witnessing them, unless illicit ones are less exclusive? Well, then, it is more in keeping with the character of strangers both to be ignorant (of the true state of a case), and to invent (a false account). Our domestic servants (perhaps) listened, and peeped through crevices and holes, and stealthily got information of our ways. What, then, shall we say when our servants betray them to you? It is better, (to be sure,) for us all not to be betrayed by any; but still, if our practices be so atrocious, how much more proper is it when a righteous indignation bursts asunder even all ties of domestic fidelity? How was it possible for it to endure what horrified the mind and affrighted the eye? This is also a wonderful thing, both that he who was so overcome with impatient excitement as to turn informer, did not likewise desire to prove (what he reported), and that he who heard the informer's story did not care to see for himself, since no doubt the reward is equal both for the informer who proves what he reports, and for the hearer who convinces himself of the credibility of what he hears. But then you say that (this is precisely what has taken place): first came the rumour, then the exhibition of the proof; first the hearsay, then the inspection; and after this, fame received its commission. Now this, I must say, surpasses all admiration, that that was once for all detected and divulged which is being for ever repeated, unless, forsooth, we have by this time ceased from the reiteration of such things (as are alleged of us). But we are called still by the same (offensive) name, and we are supposed to be still engaged in the same practices, and we multiply from day to day; the more we are, to the more become we objects of hatred. Hatred increases as the material for it increases. Now, seeing that the multitude of offenders is ever advancing, how is it that the crowd of informers does not keep equal pace therewith? To the best of my belief, even our manner of life has become better known; you know the very days of our assemblies; therefore we are both besieged, and attacked, and kept prisoners actually in our secret congregations. Yet who ever came upon a half-consumed corpse (among us)? Who has detected the traces of a bite in our blood-steeped loaf? Who has discovered, by a sudden light invading our darkness, any marks of impurity, I will not say of incest, (in our feasts)? If we save ourselves by a bribe from being dragged out before the public gaze with such a character, how is it that we are still oppressed? We have it indeed in our own power not to be thus apprehended at all; for who either sells or buys information about a crime, if the crime itself has no existence? But why need I disparagingly refer to strange spies and informers, when you allege against us such charges as we certainly do not ourselves divulge with very much noise - either as soon as you hear of them, if we previously show them to you, or after you have yourselves discovered them, if they are for the time concealed from you? For no doubt, when any desire initiation in the mysteries, their custom is first to go to the master or father of the sacred rites. Then he will say (to the applicant), You must bring an infant, as a guarantee for our rites, to be sacrificed, as well as some bread to be broken and dipped in his blood; you also want candles, and dogs tied together to upset them, and bits of meat to rouse the dogs. Moreover, a mother too, or a sister, is necessary for you. What, however, is to be said if you have neither? I suppose in that case you could not be a genuine Christian. Now, do let me ask you, Will such things, when reported by strangers, bear to be spread about (as charges against us)? It is impossible for such persons to understand proceedings in which they take no part. The first step of the process is perpetrated with artifice; our feasts and our marriages are invented and detailed by ignorant persons, who had never before heard about Christian mysteries. And though they afterwards cannot help acquiring some knowledge of them, it is even then as having to be administered by others whom they bring on the scene. Besides, how absurd is it that the profane know mysteries which the priest knows not! They keep them all to themselves, then, and take them for granted; and so these tragedies, (worse than those) of Thyestes or Œdipus, do not at all come forth to light, nor find their way to the public. Even more voracious bites take nothing away from the credit of such as are initiated, whether servants or masters. If, however, none of these allegations can be proved to be true, how incalculable must be esteemed the grandeur (of that religion) which is manifestly not overbalanced even by the burden of these vast atrocities! O you heathen; who have and deserve our pity, behold, we set before you the promise which our sacred system offers. It guarantees eternal life to such as follow and observe it; on the other hand, it threatens with the eternal punishment of an unending fire those who are profane and hostile; while to both classes alike is preached a resurrection from the dead. We are not now concerned about the doctrine of these (verities), which are discussed in their proper place. Meanwhile, however, believe them, even as we do ourselves, for I want to know whether you are ready to reach them, as we do, through such crimes. Come, whosoever you are, plunge your sword into an infant; or if that is another's office, then simply gaze at the breathing creature dying before it has lived; at any rate, catch its fresh blood in which to steep your bread; then feed yourself without stint; and while this is going on, recline. Carefully distinguish the places where your mother or your sister may have made their bed; mark them well, in order that, when the shades of night have fallen upon them, putting of course to the test the care of every one of you, you may not make the awkward mistake of alighting on somebody else: you would have to make an atonement, if you failed of the incest. When you have effected all this, eternal life will be in store for you. I want you to tell me whether you think eternal life worth such a price. No, indeed, you do not believe it: even if you did believe it, I maintain that you would be unwilling to give (the fee); or if willing, would be unable. But why should others be able if you are unable? Why should you be able if others are unable? What would you wish impunity (and) eternity to stand you in? Do you suppose that these (blessings) can be bought by us at any price? Have Christians teeth of a different sort from others? Have they more ample jaws? Are they of different nerve for incestuous lust? I think not. It is enough for us to differ from you in condition by truth alone.
65. Tertullian, Apology, 39.15 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

22. And we affirm indeed the existence of certain spiritual essences; nor is their name unfamiliar. The philosophers acknowledge there are demons; Socrates himself waiting on a demon's will. Why not? Since it is said an evil spirit attached itself specially to him even from his childhood - turning his mind no doubt from what was good. The poets are all acquainted with demons too; even the ignorant common people make frequent use of them in cursing. In fact, they call upon Satan, the demon-chief, in their execrations, as though from some instinctive soul-knowledge of him. Plato also admits the existence of angels. The dealers in magic, no less, come forward as witnesses to the existence of both kinds of spirits. We are instructed, moreover, by our sacred books how from certain angels, who fell of their own free-will, there sprang a more wicked demon-brood, condemned of God along with the authors of their race, and that chief we have referred to. It will for the present be enough, however, that some account is given of their work. Their great business is the ruin of mankind. So, from the very first, spiritual wickedness sought our destruction. They inflict, accordingly, upon our bodies diseases and other grievous calamities, while by violent assaults they hurry the soul into sudden and extraordinary excesses. Their marvellous subtleness and tenuity give them access to both parts of our nature. As spiritual, they can do no harm; for, invisible and intangible, we are not cognizant of their action save by its effects, as when some inexplicable, unseen poison in the breeze blights the apples and the grain while in the flower, or kills them in the bud, or destroys them when they have reached maturity; as though by the tainted atmosphere in some unknown way spreading abroad its pestilential exhalations. So, too, by an influence equally obscure, demons and angels breathe into the soul, and rouse up its corruptions with furious passions and vile excesses; or with cruel lusts accompanied by various errors, of which the worst is that by which these deities are commended to the favour of deceived and deluded human beings, that they may get their proper food of flesh-fumes and blood when that is offered up to idol-images. What is daintier food to the spirit of evil, than turning men's minds away from the true God by the illusions of a false divination? And here I explain how these illusions are managed. Every spirit is possessed of wings. This is a common property of both angels and demons. So they are everywhere in a single moment; the whole world is as one place to them; all that is done over the whole extent of it, it is as easy for them to know as to report. Their swiftness of motion is taken for divinity, because their nature is unknown. Thus they would have themselves thought sometimes the authors of the things which they announce; and sometimes, no doubt, the bad things are their doing, never the good. The purposes of God, too, they took up of old from the lips of the prophets, even as they spoke them; and they gather them still from their works, when they hear them read aloud. Thus getting, too, from this source some intimations of the future, they set themselves up as rivals of the true God, while they steal His divinations. But the skill with which their responses are shaped to meet events, your Crœsi and Pyrrhi know too well. On the other hand, it was in that way we have explained, the Pythian was able to declare that they were cooking a tortoise with the flesh of a lamb; in a moment he had been to Lydia. From dwelling in the air, and their nearness to the stars, and their commerce with the clouds, they have means of knowing the preparatory processes going on in these upper regions, and thus can give promise of the rains which they already feel. Very kind too, no doubt, they are in regard to the healing of diseases. For, first of all, they make you ill; then, to get a miracle out of it, they command the application of remedies either altogether new, or contrary to those in use, and straightway withdrawing hurtful influence, they are supposed to have wrought a cure. What need, then, to speak of their other artifices, or yet further of the deceptive power which they have as spirits: of these Castor apparitions, of water carried by a sieve, and a ship drawn along by a girdle, and a beard reddened by a touch, all done with the one object of showing that men should believe in the deity of stones, and not seek after the only true God?
66. Athanasius, Life of Anthony, 37 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

67. Babylonian Talmud, Sukkah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

52b. רע כל היום אמר רבי שמעון בן לקיש יצרו של אדם מתגבר עליו בכל יום ומבקש להמיתו שנאמר (תהלים לז, לב) צופה רשע לצדיק ומבקש להמיתו ואלמלא הקב"ה שעוזר לו אינו יכול לו שנאמ' (תהלים לז, לג) ה' לא יעזבנו בידו ולא ירשיענו בהשפטו,תנא דבי רבי ישמעאל אם פגע בך מנוול זה משכהו לבית המדרש אם אבן הוא נימוח אם ברזל הוא מתפוצץ אם אבן הוא נימוח דכתיב (ישעיהו נה, א) הוי כל צמא לכו למים וכתיב (איוב יד, יט) אבנים שחקו מים אם ברזל הוא מתפוצץ דכתיב (ירמיהו כג, כט) הלא כה דברי כאש נאם ה' וכפטיש יפוצץ סלע,א"ר שמואל בר נחמני א"ר יונתן יצר הרע מסיתו לאדם בעוה"ז ומעיד עליו לעולם הבא שנאמר (משלי כט, כא) מפנק מנוער עבדו ואחריתו יהיה מנון שכן באטב"ח של ר' חייא קורין לסהדה מנון,רב הונא רמי כתיב (הושע ד, יב) כי רוח זנונים התעה וכתיב (הושע ה, ד) בקרבם בתחלה התעם ולבסוף בקרבם,אמר רבא בתחלה קראו הלך ולבסוף קראו אורח ולבסוף קראו איש שנאמר (שמואל ב יב, ד) ויבא הלך לאיש העשיר ויחמול לקחת מצאנו ומבקרו לעשות לאורח וכתיב ויקח את כבשת האיש הרש ויעשה לאיש הבא אליו,אמר רבי יוחנן אבר קטן יש לו לאדם מרעיבו שבע משביעו רעב שנאמר (הושע יג, ו) כמרעיתם וישבעו וגו',אמר רב חנא בר אחא אמרי בי רב ארבעה מתחרט עליהן הקב"ה שבראם ואלו הן גלות כשדים וישמעאלים ויצר הרע גלות דכתיב (ישעיהו נב, ה) ועתה מה לי פה נאם ה' כי לקח עמי חנם וגו' כשדים דכתיב (ישעיהו כג, יג) הן ארץ כשדים זה העם לא היה,ישמעאלים דכתיב (איוב יב, ו) ישליו אהלים לשודדים ובטוחות למרגיזי אל לאשר הביא אלוה בידו יצר הרע דכתיב (מיכה ד, ו) ואשר הרעתי,אמר רבי יוחנן אלמלא שלש מקראות הללו נתמוטטו רגליהם של שונאיהן של ישראל חד דכתיב ואשר הרעתי וחד דכתיב (ירמיהו יח, ו) הנה כחומר ביד היוצר כן אתם וגו' ואידך (יחזקאל לו, כו) והסרתי את לב האבן מבשרכם ונתתי לכם לב בשר,רב פפא אמר אף מהאי נמי (יחזקאל לו, כז) ואת רוחי אתן בקרבכם וגו',(זכריה ב, ג) ויראני ה' ארבעה חרשים מאן נינהו ארבעה חרשים אמר רב חנא בר ביזנא אמר רבי שמעון חסידא משיח בן דוד ומשיח בן יוסף ואליהו וכהן צדק מתיב רב ששת אי הכי היינו דכתיב (זכריה ב, ד) ויאמר אלי אלה הקרנות אשר זרו את יהודה הני לשובה אתו,א"ל שפיל לסיפיה דקרא ויבואו אלה להחריד אותם לידות את קרנות הגוים הנושאים קרן אל ארץ יהודה לזרותה וגו' א"ל בהדי חנא באגדתא למה לי,(מיכה ה, ד) והיה זה שלום אשור כי יבא בארצנו וכי ידרוך בארמנותינו והקמנו עליו שבעה רועים ושמנה נסיכי אדם מאן נינהו שבעה רועים דוד באמצע אדם שת ומתושלח מימינו אברהם יעקב ומשה בשמאלו ומאן נינהו שמנה נסיכי אדם ישי ושאול ושמואל עמוס וצפניה צדקיה ומשיח ואליהו:,ארבעה סולמות כו': תנא גובהה של מנורה חמשים אמה (כו'): וארבעה ילדים של פרחי כהונה ובידיהם כדי שמן של מאה ועשרים לוג: איבעיא להו מאה ועשרים לוג כולהו או דלמא לכל חד וחד תא שמע ובידיהם כדי שמן של שלשים שלשים לוג שהם כולם מאה ועשרים לוג,תנא והן משובחין היו יותר מבנה של מרתא בת בייתוס אמרו על בנה של מרתא בת בייתוס שהיה נוטל שתי יריכות של שור הגדול שלקוח באלף זוז ומהלך עקב בצד גודל ולא הניחוהו אחיו הכהנים לעשות כן משום (משלי יד, כח) ברב עם הדרת מלך,מאי משובחים אילימא משום יוקרא הני יקירי טפי אלא התם כבש ומרובע ולא זקיף הכא סולמות וזקיף טובא:,ולא היה חצר בירושלים: תנא 52b. bevil all day”(Genesis 6:5). All day long his thoughts and desires are for evil. bRabbi Shimon ben Lakish said: A person’sevil binclination overcomes him each day and seeks to kill him, as it stated: “The wicked watches the righteous and seeks to kill him”(Psalms 37:32); the wicked here is referring to the wickedness inside one’s heart. bAnd if not for the Holy One, Blessed be He, Who assistshim with the good inclination, bhe would not overcome it, as it is stated: “The Lord will not leave him in his hand, nor suffer him to be condemned when he is judged”(Psalms 37:33)., bThe school of Rabbi Yishmael taught: If this scoundrel,the evil inclination, baccosted you,seeking to tempt you to sin, bdrag it to the study halland study Torah. bIf it islike ba stone, it will be dissolvedby the Torah. bIf it islike biron, it will be shattered.The Gemara elaborates: bIf it islike bstone, it will be dissolved, as it is written: “Ho, everyone who is thirsty, come you for the water”(Isaiah 55:1), water in this context meaning Torah; band it is written: “Stones were worn by water”(Job 14:19). bIf it islike biron, it will be shattered, as it is written: “Is not My word like fire, says the Lord; and like a hammer that shatters rock”(Jeremiah 23:29)., bRabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani saidthat bRabbi Yoḥa said: The evil inclination incites a personto sin bin this world, andthen btestifies against him in the next world, as it is stated: “He that delicately brings up his servant from a child shall have him become a master [ imanon /i] at the last”(Proverbs 29:21). Initially, in one’s youth, the evil inclination, which should have been enslaved to him, takes control of him and causes him to sin. Then, ultimately, that same evil inclination becomes his imanon /i. iManonmeans witness, bas in Rabbi Ḥiyya’scoded alphabet in which ialef /iand itet /iand ibeit /iand iḥet /i,etc., are interchanged. bWitness[isahada/b] bis called imanon /i.The letters imemand isamekh /i, inunand iheh /i, and ivavand idaletare interchanged with other letters., bRav Huna raised a contradictionbetween two verses. bIt is written: “For the spirit of harlotry causedthem bto err”(Hosea 4:12), indicating that this spirit was a temporary phenomenon and not an integral part of their persona. bAnd it isalso bwritten:“For the spirit of harlotry bis within them”(Hosea 5:4), indicating that it is an integral part of their persona. The Gemara explains: bInitially, it causes them to errfrom without, band ultimately,it is from bwithin them. /b, bRava said: Initially,the verse bcalledthe evil inclination ba travelercoming from afar. bSubsequently,the verse bcalls it a guest,as one welcomes it. bUltimately,the verse bcalls it man,indicating significance, as it became the homeowner. bAs it is statedin the parable of the poor man’s lamb that Nathan the prophet said to David: b“And there came a traveler to the rich man, and he was reluctant to take of his own flock and of his own herd, to prepare for the guest”(II Samuel 12:4). bAnd it is writtenin the same verse: b“And he took the poor man’s lamb, and prepared it for the man that was come to him.”In other words, the evil inclination that began as a traveler gradually rose in prominence., bRabbi Yoḥa said: A man has a small organused in sexual relations. bIf he starvesthe organ, and does not overindulge, it bis satiated;however, bif he satiatesthe organ and overindulges in sexual relations, it bis starving,and desires more, bas it is stated: “When they were fed, they became full,they were filled, and their heart was exalted; therefore have they forgotten Me” (Hosea 13:6)., bRav Ḥana bar Aḥa saidthat the Sages bin the school of Rav say:There are bfourcreations that bthe Holy One, Blessed be He,created, yet He, as it were, bregrets that He created them,as they do more harm than good. bAnd these are they: Exile, Chaldeans, and Ishmaelites, and the evil inclination. Exile, as it is written: “Now therefore, for what am I here, says the Lord, seeing that My people is taken away for naught”(Isaiah 52:5). God Himself is asking: For what am I here? bChaldeans, as it is written: “Behold the land of the Chaldeans, this is the people that was not”(Isaiah 23:13), meaning, if only they never were., bIshmaelites, as it is written: “The tents of robbers prosper, and they that provoke God are secure, in whatsoever God brings with His hand”(Job 12:6). God brought upon Himself these Arabs that dwell in the deserts in tents. bThe evil inclination, as it is written:“On that day, says the Lord, will I assemble her that is lame, and I will gather her that is driven away, band her that I corrupted”(Micah 4:6). God is saying that He created the evil inclination that led the people to sin and to be cast into exile., bRabbi Yoḥa said: Were it not for these three versesthat follow that indicate that God controls people’s hearts, bthe legs of the enemies ofthe bJewish people,a euphemism for the Jewish people themselves, bwould have collapsed,unable to withstand the repercussions of their sins. bOne, as it is written: “And her that I corrupted,”indicating God’s regret for doing so. bAnd one, as it is written: “Behold, as the clay in the potter’s hand, so are youin My hand, O house of Israel” (Jeremiah 18:6). bAnd the otherverse: b“And I will take away the heart of stone out of your flesh, and I will give you a heart of flesh”(Ezekiel 36:26), indicating that the matter is not solely in human hands, but in the hands of God as well., bRav Pappa said:It is derived bfrom thisverse bas well: “And I will put My spirit within you,and cause you to walk in My statutes, and you shall keep My ordices, and do them” (Ezekiel 36:27).,§ Apropos the end of days, the Gemara cites another verse and interprets it homiletically. It is stated: b“The Lord then showed me four craftsmen”(Zechariah 2:3). bWho are these four craftsmen? Rav Ḥana bar Bizna saidthat bRabbi Shimon Ḥasida said:They are bMessiah ben David, Messiah ben Yosef, Elijah, and the righteousHigh bPriest,who will serve in the Messianic era. bRav Sheshet raised an objection: If so,if that is the identity of the four craftsmen, then bthat which is writtenin the previous verse: b“And he said to me: These are the horns that scattered Judea”(Zechariah 2:4), is difficult; bthesefour in the first verse bare coming for their enemies,and are not redeemers.,Rav Ḥana bsaid toRav Sheshet: bGo to the end of the verse: “These then are come to frighten them, to cast down the horns of the nations, which lifted uptheir bhorn against the land of Judah to scatter it.”This indicates that the horns refer to the nations that exiled the Jewish people and that the four craftsmen will hurl those horns aside. Rav Sheshet bsaid to him: Whyshould bIdisagree bwithRav bḤana inmatters of iaggada /i,where he is more expert than I, and I cannot prevail?,The Gemara continues homiletically interpreting verses that relate to the end of days. It is stated: b“And this shall be peace: When the Assyrian shall come into our land, and when he shall tread in our palaces, then shall we raise against him seven shepherds, and eight princes among men”(Micah 5:4). The Gemara asks: bWho are these seven shepherds?The Gemara explains: bDavidis bin the middle; Adam, Seth, and Methuselah are to his right; Abraham, Jacob, and Moses are to his left. And who are the eight princes among men?They are bYishai, Saul, Samuel, Amos, Zephania, Zedekiah, Messiah, and Elijah. /b,§ The mishna continues: bAnd there were four laddersfor each pole. One of the Sages btaught: The height of the candelabrumupon the pole bis fifty cubits. Andthere were bfour children from the priesthood traineesholding band in their hands jugs of oilwith a capacity bof 120 ilog /iof oil. bA dilemma was raised:Was it b120 ilogaltogether, or perhaps each and everychild carried that amount? bComeand bhearproof from this ibaraita /i: bAnd in their handswere bjugs of oil, eachwith a capacity bof thirty ilog /i, that were alltogether b120 ilog /i. /b,One of the Sages btaught: And theseyoung priests who held the pitchers bwere superiorin strength bto the son of Marta, daughter of Baitos,who was a priest renowned for his might. bThey said about the son of Marta, daughter of Baitos, that he would take two thighs of a large bullthat was so large bthatit would be bpurchased for one thousand izuz /i, and walkup the ramp in small steps, bheel to toe,without hurrying, due to his strength. However, bhis brethren the priests would not allow him do so, due tothe principle: b“In the multitude of people is the King’s glory”(Proverbs 14:28). The more priests engaged in the Temple service, the greater glory for God. Therefore, it is preferable for the thighs to be carried to the altar by multiple priests.,The Gemara asks: In bwhatsense were these young priests bsuperior? If we say it is due to the weightof the pitchers that they carried, bthesetwo bthighs are heavierthan the thirty ilogof oil. The Gemara answers: bRather,the difference is that bthere,in the case of the son of Marta, he walked on a brampthat was wide, bandwith a moderate gradient of only one cubit every bfourcubits of length, bandit is bnot steep; herethey climbed bladders, andthose are bvery steep. /b,§ The mishna continues: bAnd there was not a courtyard in Jerusalemthat was not illuminated from the light of the Place of the Drawing of the Water. One of the Sages btaught: /b
68. Diogenes Laertius, Lives of The Philosophers, 7.89, 7.94-7.95, 7.116, 7.124 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

7.89. By the nature with which our life ought to be in accord, Chrysippus understands both universal nature and more particularly the nature of man, whereas Cleanthes takes the nature of the universe alone as that which should be followed, without adding the nature of the individual.And virtue, he holds, is a harmonious disposition, choice-worthy for its own sake and not from hope or fear or any external motive. Moreover, it is in virtue that happiness consists; for virtue is the state of mind which tends to make the whole of life harmonious. When a rational being is perverted, this is due to the deceptiveness of external pursuits or sometimes to the influence of associates. For the starting-points of nature are never perverse. 7.94. Good in general is that from which some advantage comes, and more particularly what is either identical with or not distinct from benefit. Whence it follows that virtue itself and whatever partakes of virtue is called good in these three senses – viz. as being (1) the source from which benefit results; or (2) that in respect of which benefit results, e.g. the virtuous act; or (3) that by the agency of which benefit results, e.g. the good man who partakes in virtue.Another particular definition of good which they give is the natural perfection of a rational being qua rational. To this answers virtue and, as being partakers in virtue, virtuous acts and good men; as also its supervening accessories, joy and gladness and the like. 7.95. So with evils: either they are vices, folly, cowardice, injustice, and the like; or things which partake of vice, including vicious acts and wicked persons as well as their accompaniments, despair, moroseness, and the like.Again, some goods are goods of the mind and others external, while some are neither mental nor external. The former include the virtues and virtuous acts; external goods are such as having a good country or a good friend, and the prosperity of such. Whereas to be good and happy oneself is of the class of goods neither mental nor external. 7.116. Also they say that there are three emotional states which are good, namely, joy, caution, and wishing. Joy, the counterpart of pleasure, is rational elation; caution, the counterpart of fear, rational avoidance; for though the wise man will never feel fear, he will yet use caution. And they make wishing the counterpart of desire (or craving), inasmuch as it is rational appetency. And accordingly, as under the primary passions are classed certain others subordinate to them, so too is it with the primary eupathies or good emotional states. Thus under wishing they bring well-wishing or benevolence, friendliness, respect, affection; under caution, reverence and modesty; under joy, delight, mirth, cheerfulness. 7.124. He will, however, submit to training to augment his powers of bodily endurance.And the wise man, they say, will offer prayers, and ask for good things from the gods: so Posidonius in the first book of his treatise On Duties, and Hecato in his third book On Paradoxes. Friendship, they declare, exists only between the wise and good, by reason of their likeness to one another. And by friendship they mean a common use of all that has to do with life, wherein we treat our friends as we should ourselves. They argue that a friend is worth having for his own sake and that it is a good thing to have many friends. But among the bad there is, they hold, no such thing as friendship, and thus no bad man has a friend. Another of their tenets is that the unwise are all mad, inasmuch as they are not wise but do what they do from that madness which is the equivalent of their folly.
69. Lactantius, Divine Institutes, 2.15-2.16 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

2.15. When, therefore, the number of men had begun to increase, God in His forethought, lest the devil, to whom from the beginning He had given power over the earth, should by his subtlety either corrupt or destroy men, as he had done at first, sent angels for the protection and improvement of the human race; and inasmuch as He had given these a free will, He enjoined them above all things not to defile themselves with contamination from the earth, and thus lose the dignity of their heavenly nature. He plainly prohibited them from doing that which He knew that they would do, that they might entertain no hope of pardon. Therefore, while they abode among men, that most deceitful ruler of the earth, by his very association, gradually enticed them to vices, and polluted them by intercourse with women. Then, not being admitted into heaven on account of the sins into which they had plunged themselves, they fell to the earth. Thus from angels the devil makes them to become his satellites and attendants. But they who were born from these, because they were neither angels nor men, but bearing a kind of mixed nature, were not admitted into hell, as their fathers were not into heaven. Thus there came to be two kinds of demons; one of heaven, the other of the earth. The latter are the wicked spirits, the authors of all the evils which are done, and the same devil is their prince. Whence Trismegistus calls him the ruler of the demons. But grammarians say that they are called demons, as though dœmones, that is, skilled and acquainted with matters: for they think that these are gods. They are acquainted, indeed, with many future events, but not all, since it is not permitted them entirely to know the counsel of God; and therefore they are accustomed to accommodate their answers to ambiguous results. The poets both know them to be demons, and so describe them. Hesiod thus speaks:- These are the demons according to the will of Zeus, Good, living on the earth, the guardians of mortal men.And this is said for this purpose, because God had sent them as guardians to the human race; but they themselves also, though they are the destroyers of men, yet wish themselves to appear as their guardians, that they themselves may be worshipped, and God may not be worshipped. The philosophers also discuss the subject of these beings. For Plato attempted even to explain their natures in his Banquet; and Socrates said that there was a demon continually about him, who had become attached to him when a boy, by whose will and direction his life was guided. The art also and power of the Magi altogether consists in the influences of these; invoked by whom they deceive the sight of men with deceptive illusions, so that they do not see those things which exist, and think that they see those things which do not exist. These contaminated and abandoned spirits, as I say, wander over the whole earth, and contrive a solace for their own perdition by the destruction of men. Therefore they fill every place with snares, deceits, frauds, and errors; for they cling to individuals, and occupy whole houses from door to door, and assume to themselves the name of genii; for by this word they translate demons in the Latin language. They consecrate these in their houses, to these they daily pour out libations of wine, and worship the wise demons as gods of the earth, and as averters of those evils which they themselves cause and impose. And these, since spirits are without substance and not to be grasped, insinuate themselves into the bodies of men; and secretly working in their inward parts, they corrupt the health, hasten diseases, terrify their souls with dreams, harass their minds with phrenzies, that by these evils they may compel men to have recourse to their aid. 2.16. And the nature of all these deceits is obscure to those who are without the truth. For they think that those demons profit them when they cease to injure, whereas they have no power except to injure. Some one may perchance say that they are therefore to be worshipped, that they may not injure, since they have the power to injure. They do indeed injure, but those only by whom they are feared, whom the powerful and lofty hand of God does not protect, who are uninitiated in the mystery of truth. But they fear the righteous, that is, the worshippers of God, adjured by whose name they depart from the bodies of the possessed: for, being lashed by their words as though by scourges, they not only confess themselves to be demons, but even utter their own names - those which are adored in the temples - which they generally do in the presence of their own worshippers; not, it is plain, to the disgrace of religion, but to the disgrace of their own honour, because they cannot speak falsely to God, by whom they are adjured, nor to the righteous, by whose voice they are tortured. Therefore ofttimes having uttered the greatest howlings, they cry out that they are beaten, and are on fire, and that they are just on the point of coming forth: so much power has the knowledge of God, and righteousness! Whom, therefore, can they injure, except those whom they have in their own power? In short, Hermes affirms that those who have known God are not only safe from the attacks of demons, but that they are not even bound by fate. The only protection, he says, is piety, for over a pious man neither evil demon nor fate has any power: for God rescues the pious man from all evil; for the one and only good thing among men is piety. And what piety is, he testifies in another place, in these words: For piety is the knowledge of God. Asclepius also, his disciple, more fully expressed the same sentiment in that finished discourse which he wrote to the king. Each of them, in truth, affirms that the demons are the enemies and harassers of men, and on this account Trismegistus calls them wicked angels; so far was he from being ignorant that from heavenly beings they were corrupted, and began to be earthly.
70. Origen, Against Celsus, 5.2-5.6, 8.32, 8.48 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

5.2. We have now, then, to refute that statement of his which runs as follows: O Jews and Christians, no God or son of a God either came or will come down (to earth). But if you mean that certain angels did so, then what do you call them? Are they gods, or some other race of beings? Some other race of beings (doubtless), and in all probability demons. Now as Celsus here is guilty of repeating himself (for in the preceding pages such assertions have been frequently advanced by him), it is unnecessary to discuss the matter at greater length, seeing what we have already said upon this point may suffice. We shall mention, however, a few considerations out of a greater number, such as we deem in harmony with our former arguments, but which have not altogether the same bearing as they, and by which we shall show that in asserting generally that no God, or son of God, ever descended (among men), he overturns not only the opinions entertained by the majority of mankind regarding the manifestation of Deity, but also what was formerly admitted by himself. For if the general statement, that no God or son of God has come down or will come down, be truly maintained by Celsus, it is manifest that we have here overthrown the belief in the existence of gods upon the earth who had descended from heaven either to predict the future to mankind or to heal them by means of divine responses; and neither the Pythian Apollo, nor Æsculapius, nor any other among those supposed to have done so, would be a god descended from heaven. He might, indeed, either be a god who had obtained as his lot (the obligation) to dwell on earth for ever, and be thus a fugitive, as it were, from the abode of the gods, or he might be one who had no power to share in the society of the gods in heaven; or else Apollo, and Æsculapius, and those others who are believed to perform acts on earth, would not be gods, but only certain demons, much inferior to those wise men among mankind, who on account of their virtue ascend to the vault of heaven. 5.3. But observe how, in his desire to subvert our opinions, he who never acknowledged himself throughout his whole treatise to be an Epicurean, is convicted of being a deserter to that sect. And now is the time for you, (reader), who peruse the works of Celsus, and give your assent to what has been advanced, either to overturn the belief in a God who visits the human race, and exercises a providence over each individual man, or to grant this, and prove the falsity of the assertions of Celsus. If you, then, wholly annihilate providence, you will falsify those assertions of his in which he grants the existence of God and a providence, in order that you may maintain the truth of your own position; but if, on the other hand, you still admit the existence of providence, because you do not assent to the dictum of Celsus, that neither has a God nor the son of a God come down nor is to come down to mankind, why not rather carefully ascertain from the statements made regarding Jesus, and the prophecies uttered concerning Him, who it is that we are to consider as having come down to the human race as God, and the Son of God?- whether that Jesus who said and ministered so much, or those who under pretence of oracles and divinations, do not reform the morals of their worshippers, but who have besides apostatized from the pure and holy worship and honour due to the Maker of all things, and who tear away the souls of those who give heed to them from the one only visible and true God, under a pretence of paying honour to a multitude of deities? 5.4. But since he says, in the next place, as if the Jews or Christians had answered regarding those who come down to visit the human race, that they were angels: But if you say that they are angels, what do you call them? he continues, Are they gods, or some other race of beings? and then again introduces us as if answering, Some other race of beings, and probably demons,- let us proceed to notice these remarks. For we indeed acknowledge that angels are ministering spirits, and we say that they are sent forth to minister for them who shall be heirs of salvation; and that they ascend, bearing the supplications of men, to the purest of the heavenly places in the universe, or even to supercelestial regions purer still; and that they come down from these, conveying to each one, according to his deserts, something enjoined by God to be conferred by them upon those who are to be the recipients of His benefits. Having thus learned to call these beings angels from their employments, we find that because they are divine they are sometimes termed god in the sacred Scriptures, but not so that we are commanded to honour and worship in place of God those who minister to us, and bear to us His blessings. For every prayer, and supplication, and intercession, and thanksgiving, is to be sent up to the Supreme God through the High Priest, who is above all the angels, the living Word and God. And to the Word Himself shall we also pray and make intercessions, and offer thanksgivings and supplications to Him, if we have the capacity of distinguishing between the proper use and abuse of prayer. 5.5. For to invoke angels without having obtained a knowledge of their nature greater than is possessed by men, would be contrary to reason. But, conformably to our hypothesis, let this knowledge of them, which is something wonderful and mysterious, be obtained. Then this knowledge, making known to us their nature, and the offices to which they are severally appointed, will not permit us to pray with confidence to any other than to the Supreme God, who is sufficient for all things, and that through our Saviour the Son of God, who is the Word, and Wisdom, and Truth, and everything else which the writings of God's prophets and the apostles of Jesus entitle Him. And it is enough to secure that the holy angels of God be propitious to us, and that they do all things on our behalf, that our disposition of mind towards God should imitate as far as it is within the power of human nature the example of these holy angels, who again follow the example of their God; and that the conceptions which we entertain of His Son, the Word, so far as attainable by us, should not be opposed to the clearer conceptions of Him which the holy angels possess, but should daily approach these in clearness and distinctness. But because Celsus has not read our holy Scriptures, he gives himself an answer as if it came from us, saying that we assert that the angels who come down from heaven to confer benefits on mankind are a different race from the gods, and adds that in all probability they would be called demons by us: not observing that the name demons is not a term of indifferent meaning like that of men, among whom some are good and some bad, nor yet a term of excellence like that of the gods, which is applied not to wicked demons, or to statues, or to animals, but (by those who know divine things) to what is truly divine and blessed; whereas the term demons is always applied to those wicked powers, freed from the encumbrance of a grosser body, who lead men astray, and fill them with distractions and drag them down from God and supercelestial thoughts to things here below. 5.6. He next proceeds to make the following statement about the Jews:- The first point relating to the Jews which is fitted to excite wonder, is that they should worship the heaven and the angels who dwell therein, and yet pass by and neglect its most venerable and powerful parts, as the sun, the moon, and the other heavenly bodies, both fixed stars and planets, as if it were possible that 'the whole' could be God, and yet its parts not divine; or (as if it were reasonable) to treat with the greatest respect those who are said to appear to such as are in darkness somewhere, blinded by some crooked sorcery, or dreaming dreams through the influence of shadowy spectres, while those who prophesy so clearly and strikingly to all men, by means of whom rain, and heat, and clouds, and thunder (to which they offer worship), and lightnings, and fruits, and all kinds of productiveness, are brought about - by means of whom God is revealed to them - the most prominent heralds among those beings that are above - those that are truly heavenly angels - are to be regarded as of no account! In making these statements, Celsus appears to have fallen into confusion, and to have penned them from false ideas of things which he did not understand; for it is patent to all who investigate the practices of the Jews, and compare them with those of the Christians, that the Jews who follow the law, which, speaking in the person of God, says, You shall have no other gods before Me: you shall not make unto you an image, nor a likeness of anything that is in heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the waters under the earth; you shall not bow down to them, nor serve them, worship nothing else than the Supreme God, who made the heavens, and all things besides. Now it is evident that those who live according to the law, and worship the Maker of heaven, will not worship the heaven at the same time with God. Moreover, no one who obeys the law of Moses will bow down to the angels who are in heaven; and, in like manner, as they do not bow down to sun, moon, and stars, the host of heaven, they refrain from doing obeisance to heaven and its angels, obeying the law which declares: Lest you lift up your eyes to heaven, and when you see the sun, and the moon, and the stars, even all the host of heaven, should be driven to worship them, and serve them, which the Lord your God has divided unto all nations. 8.32. The Psalmist bears witness that divine justice employs certain evil angels to inflict calamities upon men: He cast upon them the fierceness of His anger, wrath, and indignation, and trouble, sent by evil angels. Whether demons ever go beyond this when they are suffered to do what they are ever ready, though through the restraint put upon them they are not always able to do, is a question to be solved by that man who can conceive, in so far as human nature will allow, how it accords with the divine justice, that such multitudes of human souls are separated from the body while walking in the paths which lead to certain death. For the judgments of God are so great, that a soul which is still clothed with a mortal body cannot comprehend them; and they cannot be expressed: therefore by unnurtured souls they are not in any measure to be understood. And hence, too, rash spirits, by their ignorance in these matters, and by recklessly setting themselves against the Divine Being, multiply impious objections against providence. It is not from demons, then, that men receive any of those things which meet the necessities of life, and least of all ourselves, who have been taught to make a proper use of these things. And they who partake of grain and wine, and the fruits of trees, of water and of air, do not feed with demons, but rather do they feast with divine angels, who are appointed for this purpose, and who are as it were invited to the table of the pious man, who hearkens to the precept of the word, which says, Whether you eat or drink, or whatever you do, do all to the glory of God. And again, in another place it is written, Do all things in the name of God. When, therefore, we eat and drink and breathe to the glory of God, and act in all things according to what is right, we feast with no demons, but with divine angels: For every creature is good, and nothing to be refused, if it be received with thanksgiving: for it is sanctified by the word of God and prayer. But it could not be good, and it could not be sanctified, if these things were, as Celsus supposes, entrusted to the charge of demons. 8.48. In the next place, Celsus, after referring to the enthusiasm with which men will contend unto death rather than abjure Christianity, adds strangely enough some remarks, in which he wishes to show that our doctrines are similar to those delivered by the priests at the celebration of the heathen mysteries. He says, Just as you, good sir, believe in eternal punishments, so also do the priests who interpret and initiate into the sacred mysteries. The same punishments with which you threaten others, they threaten you. Now it is worthy of examination, which of the two is more firmly established as true; for both parties contend with equal assurance that the truth is on their side. But if we require proofs, the priests of the heathen gods produce many that are clear and convincing, partly from wonders performed by demons, and partly from the answers given by oracles, and various other modes of divination. He would, then, have us believe that we and the interpreters of the mysteries equally teach the doctrine of eternal punishment, and that it is a matter for inquiry on which side of the two the truth lies. Now I should say that the truth lies with those who are able to induce their hearers to live as men who are convinced of the truth of what they have heard. But Jews and Christians have been thus affected by the doctrines they hold about what we speak of as the world to come, and the rewards of the righteous, and the punishments of the wicked. Let Celsus then, or any one who will, show us who have been moved in this way in regard to eternal punishments by the teaching of heathen priests and mystagogues. For surely the purpose of him who brought to light this doctrine was not only to reason upon the subject of punishments, and to strike men with terror of them, but to induce those who heard the truth to strive with all their might against those sins which are the causes of punishment. And those who study the prophecies with care, and are not content with a cursory perusal of the predictions contained in them, will find them such as to convince the intelligent and sincere reader that the Spirit of God was in those men, and that with their writings there is nothing in all the works of demons, responses of oracles, or sayings of soothsayers, for one moment to be compared.
71. Papyri, Papyri Graecae Magicae, 12.404 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

72. Porphyry, Letter To Anebo, 53 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

73. Augustine, On Christian Doctrine, 2.23.36 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

74. Augustine, The City of God, 9.23 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

9.23. If the Platonists prefer to call these angels gods rather than demons, and to reckon them with those whom Plato, their founder and master, maintains were created by the supreme God, they are welcome to do so, for I will not spend strength in fighting about words. For if they say that these beings are immortal, and yet created by the supreme God, blessed but by cleaving to their Creator and not by their own power, they say what we say, whatever name they call these beings by. And that this is the opinion either of all or the best of the Platonists can be ascertained by their writings. And regarding the name itself, if they see fit to call such blessed and immortal creatures gods, this need not give rise to any serious discussion between us, since in our own Scriptures we read, The God of gods, the Lord has spoken; and again, Confess to the God of gods; and again, He is a great King above all gods. And where it is said, He is to be feared above all gods, the reason is immediately added, for it follows, for all the gods of the nations are idols, but the Lord made the heavens. He said, above all gods, but added, of the nations; that is to say, above all those whom the nations count gods, in other words, demons. By them He is to be feared with that terror in which they cried to the Lord, Have You come to destroy us? But where it is said, the God of gods, it cannot be understood as the god of the demons; and far be it from us to say that great King above all gods means great King above all demons. But the same Scripture also calls men who belong to God's people gods: I have said, You are gods, and all of you children of the Most High. Accordingly, when God is styled God of gods, this may be understood of these gods; and so, too, when He is styled a great King above all gods. Nevertheless, some one may say, if men are called gods because they belong to God's people, whom He addresses by means of men and angels, are not the immortals, who already enjoy that felicity which men seek to attain by worshipping God, much more worthy of the title? And what shall we reply to this, if not that it is not without reason that in holy Scripture men are more expressly styled gods than those immortal and blessed spirits to whom we hope to be equal in the resurrection, because there was a fear that the weakness of unbelief, being overcome with the excellence of these beings, might presume to constitute some of them a god? In the case of men this was a result that need not be guarded against. Besides, it was right that the men belonging to God's people should be more expressly called gods, to assure and certify them that He who is called God of gods is their God; because, although those immortal and blessed spirits who dwell in the heavens are called gods, yet they are not called gods of gods, that is to say, gods of the men who constitute God's people, and to whom it is said, I have said, You are gods, and all of you the children of the Most High. Hence the saying of the apostle, Though there be that are called gods, whether in heaven or in earth, as there be gods many and lords many, but to us there is but one God, the Father, of whom are all things, and we in Him; and one Lord Jesus Christ, by whom are all things, and we by Him. 1 Corinthians 8:5-6 We need not, therefore, laboriously contend about the name, since the reality is so obvious as to admit of no shadow of doubt. That which we say, that the angels who are sent to announce the will of God to men belong to the order of blessed immortals, does not satisfy the Platonists, because they believe that this ministry is discharged, not by those whom they call gods, in other words, not by blessed immortals, but by demons, whom they dare not affirm to be blessed, but only immortal, or if they do rank them among the blessed immortals, yet only as good demons, and not as gods who dwell in the heaven of heavens remote from all human contact. But, though it may seem mere wrangling about a name, yet the name of demon is so detestable that we cannot bear in any sense to apply it to the holy angels. Now, therefore, let us close this book in the assurance that, whatever we call these immortal and blessed spirits, who yet are only creatures, they do not act as mediators to introduce to everlasting felicity miserable mortals, from whom they are severed by a twofold distinction. And those others who are mediators, in so far as they have immortality in common with their superiors, and misery in common with their inferiors (for they are justly miserable in punishment of their wickedness), cannot bestow upon us, but rather grudge that we should possess, the blessedness from which they themselves are excluded. And so the friends of the demons have nothing considerable to allege why we should rather worship them as our helpers than avoid them as traitors to our interests. As for those spirits who are good, and who are therefore not only immortal but also blessed, and to whom they suppose we should give the title of gods, and offer worship and sacrifices for the sake of inheriting a future life, we shall, by God's help, endeavor in the following book to show that these spirits, call them by what name, and ascribe to them what nature you will, desire that religious worship be paid to God alone, by whom they were created, and by whose communications of Himself to them they are blessed.


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abraham, descent from Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 127
action, and cult Mackey, Belief and Cult: Rethinking Roman Religion (2022) 158
action, joint Mackey, Belief and Cult: Rethinking Roman Religion (2022) 158
acts of john Poorthuis and Schwartz, A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity (2006) 73
acts of thomas Poorthuis and Schwartz, A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity (2006) 73
admirers, double loyalties of Zetterholm, The Formation of Christianity in Antioch: A Social-Scientific Approach to the Separation Between Judaism and Christianity (2003) 146
advantage (sumpheron, utilitas) Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 124, 168, 170, 174, 175, 183
agape Alikin, The Earliest History of the Christian Gathering (2009) 104
agency, all things McDonough, Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine (2009) 158
agency Rüpke, The individual in the religions of the ancient Mediterranean (2014) 276
alexandria Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 52
altar Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 266
angel Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 52, 298, 300
angels, uriel/ouriel Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 401
angels Dijkstra and Raschle, Religious Violence in the Ancient World: From Classical Athens to Late Antiquity (2020) 192
angels of the nations Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 52, 300
aniconism Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 52
apocryphal acts of thomas Poorthuis and Schwartz, A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity (2006) 73
apologists Harkins and Maier, Experiencing the Shepherd of Hermas (2022) 166
apostle, paul Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 109
apostles, apostolic Rohmann, Christianity, Book-Burning and Censorship in Late Antiquity (2016) 112
apostolic council Zetterholm, The Formation of Christianity in Antioch: A Social-Scientific Approach to the Separation Between Judaism and Christianity (2003) 146, 147
apostolic decree Zetterholm, The Formation of Christianity in Antioch: A Social-Scientific Approach to the Separation Between Judaism and Christianity (2003) 146, 147
appropriation (oikeiōsis) Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 124, 183
apuleius Harkins and Maier, Experiencing the Shepherd of Hermas (2022) 166
artemis, goddess and cult, divine attributes Immendörfer, Ephesians and Artemis: The Cult of the Great Goddess of Ephesus As the Epistle's Context (2017) 206
associations Alikin, The Earliest History of the Christian Gathering (2009) 4, 35
astray, to lead/go/wander Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 401
athenagoras Dillon and Timotin, Platonic Theories of Prayer (2015) 96
athletics/training Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 168
atonement (kapparah) Balberg, Blood for Thought: The Reinvention of Sacrifice in Early Rabbinic Literature (2017) 89
baptism Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 139
belief, deontic Mackey, Belief and Cult: Rethinking Roman Religion (2022) 158
belief, shared Mackey, Belief and Cult: Rethinking Roman Religion (2022) 158
believers - non-believers, christian Rüpke, The individual in the religions of the ancient Mediterranean (2014) 276
benefaction Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 109
benefactors Zetterholm, The Formation of Christianity in Antioch: A Social-Scientific Approach to the Separation Between Judaism and Christianity (2003) 146
blood, as means of atonement/purification Balberg, Blood for Thought: The Reinvention of Sacrifice in Early Rabbinic Literature (2017) 89
blood Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 266
body, blood Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 109
body, cause Dillon and Timotin, Platonic Theories of Prayer (2015) 96
body Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 266
books burnt in ephesus Rohmann, Christianity, Book-Burning and Censorship in Late Antiquity (2016) 112
boundaries Poorthuis and Schwartz, A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity (2006) 73
bread Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 266
breastplate of trust Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 120
camplani, a. Dillon and Timotin, Platonic Theories of Prayer (2015) 96
canon, canonisation Rohmann, Christianity, Book-Burning and Censorship in Late Antiquity (2016) 112
canonization Rüpke, The individual in the religions of the ancient Mediterranean (2014) 276
celsus deJauregui, Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity (2010), 277
christ, as son McDonough, Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine (2009) 158
christian, christianity Dillon and Timotin, Platonic Theories of Prayer (2015) 96
christianity/christians, and rabbinic thought Balberg, Blood for Thought: The Reinvention of Sacrifice in Early Rabbinic Literature (2017) 89
chrysippus Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 93; Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 171
church Albrecht, The Divine Father: Religious and Philosophical Concepts of Divine Parenthood in Antiquity (2014) 251
circumcision Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 127; Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 176; Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 109
clement of alexandria Dillon and Timotin, Platonic Theories of Prayer (2015) 96
collegia Alikin, The Earliest History of the Christian Gathering (2009) 35
communion (koinō nia) Balberg, Blood for Thought: The Reinvention of Sacrifice in Early Rabbinic Literature (2017) 89
communities, christian Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 266
community, borders of Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 139
community, christian Rüpke, The individual in the religions of the ancient Mediterranean (2014) 276
cook-shops McGowan, Ascetic Eucharists: Food and Drink in Early Christian Ritual Meals (1999) 223
corinth Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 109
corinthian assembly, correspondence Gunderson, The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White (2022) 42
cosmic conflict Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 120
cosmic deity Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 298
cosmopolitanism Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 174
cosmos Immendörfer, Ephesians and Artemis: The Cult of the Great Goddess of Ephesus As the Epistle's Context (2017) 206
covenant Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 109
creation and ownership, through christ McDonough, Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine (2009) 158
creator, creation Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 52, 300
cult, action Mackey, Belief and Cult: Rethinking Roman Religion (2022) 158
cult, official Zetterholm, The Formation of Christianity in Antioch: A Social-Scientific Approach to the Separation Between Judaism and Christianity (2003) 147
cult Dillon and Timotin, Platonic Theories of Prayer (2015) 96; Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 25, 52, 298
cult places, neighborhood and cult Rüpke, The individual in the religions of the ancient Mediterranean (2014) 276
curiosity Rohmann, Christianity, Book-Burning and Censorship in Late Antiquity (2016) 112
daemon, demon Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 52, 298
daemones, demons Rüpke, The individual in the religions of the ancient Mediterranean (2014) 276
daemons (daimonia) Gunderson, The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White (2022) 42
day, of great judgement Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 401
death Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 266
demon Harkins and Maier, Experiencing the Shepherd of Hermas (2022) 166; Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 266
demon (daimon) Dillon and Timotin, Platonic Theories of Prayer (2015) 96
demonisation Klutz, The Exorcism Stories in Luke-Acts: A Sociostylistic Reading (2004) 246
demons, and celsus Rosen-Zvi, Demonic Desires: Yetzer Hara and the Problem of Evil in Late Antiquity (2011). 154
demons, and monotheism Rosen-Zvi, Demonic Desires: Yetzer Hara and the Problem of Evil in Late Antiquity (2011). 154
demons, as cosmological entities in stoicism Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 93
demons, as gentile gods Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 93
demons, nature of Rosen-Zvi, Demonic Desires: Yetzer Hara and the Problem of Evil in Late Antiquity (2011). 154
demons, worship of Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 401
demons Dijkstra and Raschle, Religious Violence in the Ancient World: From Classical Athens to Late Antiquity (2020) 192; McDonough, Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine (2009) 158, 160; Rohmann, Christianity, Book-Burning and Censorship in Late Antiquity (2016) 112
deontology Mackey, Belief and Cult: Rethinking Roman Religion (2022) 158
desires Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 109, 112
devil Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 120; Rohmann, Christianity, Book-Burning and Censorship in Late Antiquity (2016) 112
devotion Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 25
diaspora Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 176
dibelius, m. Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 93
differentiation Immendörfer, Ephesians and Artemis: The Cult of the Great Goddess of Ephesus As the Epistle's Context (2017) 206
dining Gunderson, The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White (2022) 42
discernment Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 139
divination, oracular Dillon and Timotin, Platonic Theories of Prayer (2015) 96
divination Dillon and Timotin, Platonic Theories of Prayer (2015) 96; Klutz, The Exorcism Stories in Luke-Acts: A Sociostylistic Reading (2004) 246
divine-human relationships Jeong, Pauline Baptism among the Mysteries: Ritual Messages and the Promise of Initiation (2023) 185
divine being, the devil Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 109
divine name Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 298
divine presence Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 220
dream Harkins and Maier, Experiencing the Shepherd of Hermas (2022) 166
durkheim, émile Mackey, Belief and Cult: Rethinking Roman Religion (2022) 158
early high christology Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 298, 300
elohim\u2003 Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 52
emotion Mackey, Belief and Cult: Rethinking Roman Religion (2022) 158
empedocles Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 93
emperor cult, emperor worship Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 298
enochic literature Harkins and Maier, Experiencing the Shepherd of Hermas (2022) 166
ephesians, hapax legomena Immendörfer, Ephesians and Artemis: The Cult of the Great Goddess of Ephesus As the Epistle's Context (2017) 206
epiphanies Harkins and Maier, Experiencing the Shepherd of Hermas (2022) 166
epistemology, pauls Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 173, 174, 175, 183
epistemology, suneidēsis Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 180
eschatology, resurrection Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 109
eschaton Immendörfer, Ephesians and Artemis: The Cult of the Great Goddess of Ephesus As the Epistle's Context (2017) 206
eternity Immendörfer, Ephesians and Artemis: The Cult of the Great Goddess of Ephesus As the Epistle's Context (2017) 206
ethnicity Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 109
etymologies deJauregui, Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity (2010), 277
eucharist, comparability to sacrifice in late antique world Ayres Champion and Crawford, The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions (2023) 169
eucharist, of bread and water McGowan, Ascetic Eucharists: Food and Drink in Early Christian Ritual Meals (1999) 223, 226
eucharist Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 139; Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 219, 220, 221; Visnjic, The Invention of Duty: Stoicism as Deontology (2021) 431
evil Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 120
excommunication Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 139
exorcism, exorcists Rohmann, Christianity, Book-Burning and Censorship in Late Antiquity (2016) 112
exorcism Rüpke, The individual in the religions of the ancient Mediterranean (2014) 276
experience, religious, personal Rüpke, The individual in the religions of the ancient Mediterranean (2014) 276
family Gunderson, The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White (2022) 42
father, fatherhood Albrecht, The Divine Father: Religious and Philosophical Concepts of Divine Parenthood in Antiquity (2014) 251
father Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 298
fear Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 401
feast Balberg, Blood for Thought: The Reinvention of Sacrifice in Early Rabbinic Literature (2017) 89
flesh Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 109
food Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 266
food laws Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 127
foodways Rosenblum, The Jewish Dietary Laws in the Ancient World (2016) 156
foreknowledge Dillon and Timotin, Platonic Theories of Prayer (2015) 96
freedom (eleutheria) Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 168, 180, 183
friendship, divine-human Allison, Saving One Another: Philodemus and Paul on Moral Formation in Community (2020) 140
gender Gunderson, The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White (2022) 42
gentile Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 109
gentile gods Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 52, 300
gentiles Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 52; Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 401
gentiles (ethnē) Gunderson, The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White (2022) 42
glory Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 298
gluttons, gluttony Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 109
god-fearers, double loyalties of Zetterholm, The Formation of Christianity in Antioch: A Social-Scientific Approach to the Separation Between Judaism and Christianity (2003) 147
god (pauline), involvement in human affairs Allison, Saving One Another: Philodemus and Paul on Moral Formation in Community (2020) 140
gods Harkins and Maier, Experiencing the Shepherd of Hermas (2022) 166
good, right actions (kathorthōmata) Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 180
good (agathos) Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 183
gospels Rohmann, Christianity, Book-Burning and Censorship in Late Antiquity (2016) 112
grace, as gods beneficence deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 254
grace, response to deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 254
graeco-roman piety Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 171, 172, 173, 174, 175, 180, 183
greece, greek Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 52
greed Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 109
health, and purity Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 139
heaven/heavenly Immendörfer, Ephesians and Artemis: The Cult of the Great Goddess of Ephesus As the Epistle's Context (2017) 206
heaven Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 52
hebrew Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 52
hebrews/israelites, and idolatry Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 198
hierarchy Gunderson, The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White (2022) 42; Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 300
honor Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 109
honor and dishonor deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 254
hymn Alikin, The Earliest History of the Christian Gathering (2009) 31
iamblichus Dillon and Timotin, Platonic Theories of Prayer (2015) 96
iconography Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 52
idol, idolatry Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 52, 300
idol food Allison, Saving One Another: Philodemus and Paul on Moral Formation in Community (2020) 125, 128
idolatry, denounced in jewish texts Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 198
idolatry, in paul Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 198
idolatry Bar Asher Siegal, Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud (2018) 99; Dijkstra and Raschle, Religious Violence in the Ancient World: From Classical Athens to Late Antiquity (2020) 192; Gunderson, The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White (2022) 42; Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 266; Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 127; Rüpke, The individual in the religions of the ancient Mediterranean (2014) 276; Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 401; Wiebe, Fallen Angels in the Theology of St Augustine (2021) 166; Zetterholm, The Formation of Christianity in Antioch: A Social-Scientific Approach to the Separation Between Judaism and Christianity (2003) 146, 147
idols, as demons McDonough, Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine (2009) 158, 160
idols, as mediators McDonough, Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine (2009) 158, 160
idols, food sacrificed to Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 127; McDonough, Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine (2009) 153, 158
idols Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 401
imitation, of christ Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 120
impure/unclean Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 401
individuation, and christian, discourse Rüpke, The individual in the religions of the ancient Mediterranean (2014) 276
inheritance deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 254
intentionality, shared Mackey, Belief and Cult: Rethinking Roman Religion (2022) 158
interdependence, morally formative Allison, Saving One Another: Philodemus and Paul on Moral Formation in Community (2020) 140
interpretation words Alikin, The Earliest History of the Christian Gathering (2009) 127
irenaeus, on heresy and paganism Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 130
isis Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 93
israel, israelites Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 109, 112
israel Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 109
jerusalem, agreement at Zetterholm, The Formation of Christianity in Antioch: A Social-Scientific Approach to the Separation Between Judaism and Christianity (2003) 146, 147
jesus, as a sacrifice Balberg, Blood for Thought: The Reinvention of Sacrifice in Early Rabbinic Literature (2017) 89
jesus, christ Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 266
jesus, healer Rüpke, The individual in the religions of the ancient Mediterranean (2014) 276
jesus, last supper of Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 219, 220, 221
jesus, return of deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 254
jesus Rüpke, The individual in the religions of the ancient Mediterranean (2014) 276
jewish practices/torah observance Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 124, 126, 172, 183
jews/judeans/ioudaioi, and idolatry Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 198
jews Rohmann, Christianity, Book-Burning and Censorship in Late Antiquity (2016) 112
john, apostle Rüpke, The individual in the religions of the ancient Mediterranean (2014) 276
josephus Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 198
judaean/jewish, animal sacrifice Dijkstra and Raschle, Religious Violence in the Ancient World: From Classical Athens to Late Antiquity (2020) 192
judaism Rüpke, The individual in the religions of the ancient Mediterranean (2014) 276
judaizing Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 183
judea Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 25
judgment deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 254
justin Dillon and Timotin, Platonic Theories of Prayer (2015) 96
justin martyr Dijkstra and Raschle, Religious Violence in the Ancient World: From Classical Athens to Late Antiquity (2020) 192; Harkins and Maier, Experiencing the Shepherd of Hermas (2022) 166
knowledge, pauline Allison, Saving One Another: Philodemus and Paul on Moral Formation in Community (2020) 125, 128, 129, 132, 140
kurios, kyrios Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 25, 298
lamb, jesus as Balberg, Blood for Thought: The Reinvention of Sacrifice in Early Rabbinic Literature (2017) 89
language, law, works of Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 127
last supper Poorthuis and Schwartz, A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity (2006) 73; Visnjic, The Invention of Duty: Stoicism as Deontology (2021) 431
legislation, rabbinic, versus christian/roman imperial thought Balberg, Blood for Thought: The Reinvention of Sacrifice in Early Rabbinic Literature (2017) 89
liturgy Moss, The Other Christs: Imitating Jesus in Ancient Christian Ideologies of Martyrdom (2010) 81
livy Mackey, Belief and Cult: Rethinking Roman Religion (2022) 158
lord Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 52, 298
lords supper Alikin, The Earliest History of the Christian Gathering (2009) 104, 127; Moss, The Other Christs: Imitating Jesus in Ancient Christian Ideologies of Martyrdom (2010) 81
love Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 120
lucian Jeong, Pauline Baptism among the Mysteries: Ritual Messages and the Promise of Initiation (2023) 185
macedon/macedonians Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 198
madness, insanity, mental disorder Rohmann, Christianity, Book-Burning and Censorship in Late Antiquity (2016) 112
maenadism deJauregui, Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity (2010), 277
magic Immendörfer, Ephesians and Artemis: The Cult of the Great Goddess of Ephesus As the Epistle's Context (2017) 206; Rohmann, Christianity, Book-Burning and Censorship in Late Antiquity (2016) 112
magical papyri Rohmann, Christianity, Book-Burning and Censorship in Late Antiquity (2016) 112
mark Rüpke, The individual in the religions of the ancient Mediterranean (2014) 276
martyrdom sacrifice Moss, The Other Christs: Imitating Jesus in Ancient Christian Ideologies of Martyrdom (2010) 81
maturity Allison, Saving One Another: Philodemus and Paul on Moral Formation in Community (2020) 140
maximus of tyre Dillon and Timotin, Platonic Theories of Prayer (2015) 96
meal Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 266
meals, christian Bar Asher Siegal, Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud (2018) 99
meals, communal, purity requirements for Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 139
meals, group Alikin, The Earliest History of the Christian Gathering (2009) 4, 35, 127
meals, pagan Alikin, The Earliest History of the Christian Gathering (2009) 35
meat Alikin, The Earliest History of the Christian Gathering (2009) 35; McGowan, Ascetic Eucharists: Food and Drink in Early Christian Ritual Meals (1999) 223, 226
mediation McDonough, Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine (2009) 158, 160
messiah Albrecht, The Divine Father: Religious and Philosophical Concepts of Divine Parenthood in Antiquity (2014) 251
messianism, messianic Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 25, 298
metaphor Balberg, Blood for Thought: The Reinvention of Sacrifice in Early Rabbinic Literature (2017) 89; Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 220, 221
mind Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 109
miracle-healing Rohmann, Christianity, Book-Burning and Censorship in Late Antiquity (2016) 112
miracles McDonough, Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine (2009) 160; Rüpke, The individual in the religions of the ancient Mediterranean (2014) 276
monotheism Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 300
moral formation, adaptation in Allison, Saving One Another: Philodemus and Paul on Moral Formation in Community (2020) 128, 129, 132, 140
moral formation, frank criticism in Allison, Saving One Another: Philodemus and Paul on Moral Formation in Community (2020) 132
moral formation, involvement of god/gods within Allison, Saving One Another: Philodemus and Paul on Moral Formation in Community (2020) 140
moral formation, love in Allison, Saving One Another: Philodemus and Paul on Moral Formation in Community (2020) 140
moral formation, protocol of Allison, Saving One Another: Philodemus and Paul on Moral Formation in Community (2020) 128, 129, 132, 140
moral formation, via imitation Allison, Saving One Another: Philodemus and Paul on Moral Formation in Community (2020) 140
moral formation, via meals Allison, Saving One Another: Philodemus and Paul on Moral Formation in Community (2020) 125, 128, 129
moses Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 52, 298; Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 109
music deJauregui, Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity (2010), 277
nature, natural phenomena, air Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 109
nature, natural phenomena, heaven, sky Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 109
neither/nothing (oudeteros/ouden) Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 172, 173, 174
new person deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 254
new religionsgeschichtliche schule Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 25
noahide commandments Zetterholm, The Formation of Christianity in Antioch: A Social-Scientific Approach to the Separation Between Judaism and Christianity (2003) 146
nomos deJauregui, Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity (2010), 277
offering Dillon and Timotin, Platonic Theories of Prayer (2015) 96
offerings Gunderson, The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White (2022) 42
old person deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 254
orality, pagan Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 266
osiris Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 93
pagan, paganism Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 25, 298
pagan gods, helios Immendörfer, Ephesians and Artemis: The Cult of the Great Goddess of Ephesus As the Epistle's Context (2017) 206
pagan gods, hermes Immendörfer, Ephesians and Artemis: The Cult of the Great Goddess of Ephesus As the Epistle's Context (2017) 206
pagan gods, serapis Immendörfer, Ephesians and Artemis: The Cult of the Great Goddess of Ephesus As the Epistle's Context (2017) 206
paganism, heresy assimilated to Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 130
paganism Klutz, The Exorcism Stories in Luke-Acts: A Sociostylistic Reading (2004) 246
passion Dillon and Timotin, Platonic Theories of Prayer (2015) 96; Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 109
passions deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 254
passions (pathē) Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 168, 170, 171, 172, 173, 174
passover (pesah)̣ Balberg, Blood for Thought: The Reinvention of Sacrifice in Early Rabbinic Literature (2017) 89
patience Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 120
paul, 1 corinthians McGowan, Ascetic Eucharists: Food and Drink in Early Christian Ritual Meals (1999) 223, 226
paul, his demonology Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 93
paul, on idolatry Gunderson, The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White (2022) 42
paul, pauline, paulinism Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 25, 52, 298, 300
paul, romans McGowan, Ascetic Eucharists: Food and Drink in Early Christian Ritual Meals (1999) 226
paul Balberg, Blood for Thought: The Reinvention of Sacrifice in Early Rabbinic Literature (2017) 89; Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 198; Gunderson, The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White (2022) 42; Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 266; Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 219, 220, 221; McGowan, Ascetic Eucharists: Food and Drink in Early Christian Ritual Meals (1999) 223; Rüpke, The individual in the religions of the ancient Mediterranean (2014) 276; Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 109, 112
pedagogy Albrecht, The Divine Father: Religious and Philosophical Concepts of Divine Parenthood in Antiquity (2014) 251
perierga Rohmann, Christianity, Book-Burning and Censorship in Late Antiquity (2016) 112
persona Rüpke, The individual in the religions of the ancient Mediterranean (2014) 276
philippi Klutz, The Exorcism Stories in Luke-Acts: A Sociostylistic Reading (2004) 246
philo Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 220
plato Dillon and Timotin, Platonic Theories of Prayer (2015) 96; Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 93
plutarch Dillon and Timotin, Platonic Theories of Prayer (2015) 96; Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 93
poetry, poets Rohmann, Christianity, Book-Burning and Censorship in Late Antiquity (2016) 112
polytheism Rüpke, The individual in the religions of the ancient Mediterranean (2014) 276
porphyry Dillon and Timotin, Platonic Theories of Prayer (2015) 96
prayereucharistic Alikin, The Earliest History of the Christian Gathering (2009) 127
pre-election Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 120
preaching Alikin, The Earliest History of the Christian Gathering (2009) 31
preferreds (proēgmena) Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 168, 183
priest, priesthood Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 298