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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



8144
Nag Hammadi, The Hypostasis Of The Archons, 91.4-91.10
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12 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 2.9, 2.15, 3.15, 3.22-3.24 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

2.9. וַיַּצְמַח יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים מִן־הָאֲדָמָה כָּל־עֵץ נֶחְמָד לְמַרְאֶה וְטוֹב לְמַאֲכָל וְעֵץ הַחַיִּים בְּתוֹךְ הַגָּן וְעֵץ הַדַּעַת טוֹב וָרָע׃ 2.15. וַיִּקַּח יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הָאָדָם וַיַּנִּחֵהוּ בְגַן־עֵדֶן לְעָבְדָהּ וּלְשָׁמְרָהּ׃ 3.15. וְאֵיבָה אָשִׁית בֵּינְךָ וּבֵין הָאִשָּׁה וּבֵין זַרְעֲךָ וּבֵין זַרְעָהּ הוּא יְשׁוּפְךָ רֹאשׁ וְאַתָּה תְּשׁוּפֶנּוּ עָקֵב׃ 3.22. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים הֵן הָאָדָם הָיָה כְּאַחַד מִמֶּנּוּ לָדַעַת טוֹב וָרָע וְעַתָּה פֶּן־יִשְׁלַח יָדוֹ וְלָקַח גַּם מֵעֵץ הַחַיִּים וְאָכַל וָחַי לְעֹלָם׃ 3.23. וַיְשַׁלְּחֵהוּ יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים מִגַּן־עֵדֶן לַעֲבֹד אֶת־הָאֲדָמָה אֲשֶׁר לֻקַּח מִשָּׁם׃ 3.24. וַיְגָרֶשׁ אֶת־הָאָדָם וַיַּשְׁכֵּן מִקֶּדֶם לְגַן־עֵדֶן אֶת־הַכְּרֻבִים וְאֵת לַהַט הַחֶרֶב הַמִּתְהַפֶּכֶת לִשְׁמֹר אֶת־דֶּרֶךְ עֵץ הַחַיִּים׃ 2.9. And out of the ground made the LORD God to grow every tree that is pleasant to the sight, and good for food; the tree of life also in the midst of the garden, and the tree of the knowledge of good and evil." 2.15. And the LORD God took the man, and put him into the garden of Eden to dress it and to keep it." 3.15. And I will put enmity between thee and the woman, and between thy seed and her seed; they shall bruise thy head, and thou shalt bruise their heel.’" 3.22. And the LORD God said: ‘Behold, the man is become as one of us, to know good and evil; and now, lest he put forth his hand, and take also of the tree of life, and eat, and live for ever.’" 3.23. Therefore the LORD God sent him forth from the garden of Eden, to till the ground from whence he was taken." 3.24. So He drove out the man; and He placed at the east of the garden of Eden the cherubim, and the flaming sword which turned every way, to keep the way to the tree of life."
2. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 2.19 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

2.19. וּצְבָאוֹ וּפְקֻדֵיהֶם אַרְבָּעִים אֶלֶף וַחֲמֵשׁ מֵאוֹת׃ 2.19. and his host, and those that were numbered of them, forty thousand and five hundred;"
3. Anon., Jubilees, 3 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

4. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 11.27, 40.1-40.9 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

40.1. Much labor was created for every man,and a heavy yoke is upon the sons of Adam,from the day they come forth from their mothers womb till the day they return to the mother of all. 40.1. All these were created for the wicked,and on their account the flood came. 40.2. Their perplexities and fear of heart -- their anxious thought is the day of death 40.2. Wine and music gladden the heart,but the love of wisdom is better than both. 40.3. from the man who sits on a splendid throne to the one who is humbled in dust and ashes 40.3. In the mouth of the shameless begging is sweet,but in his stomach a fire is kindled. 40.4. from the man who wears purple and a crown to the one who is clothed in burlap; 40.5. there is anger and envy and trouble and unrest,and fear of death, and fury and strife. And when one rests upon his bed,his sleep at night confuses his mind. 40.6. He gets little or no rest,and afterward in his sleep, as though he were on watch,he is troubled by the visions of his mind like one who has escaped from the battle-front; 40.7. at the moment of his rescue he wakes up,and wonders that his fear came to nothing. 40.8. With all flesh, both man and beast,and upon sinners seven times more 40.9. are death and bloodshed and strife and sword,calamities, famine and affliction and plague.
5. New Testament, 1 John, 2.27 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.27. As for you, the anointing which you received from him remains in you, and you don't need for anyone to teach you. But as his anointing teaches you concerning all things, and is true, and is no lie, and even as it taught you, you will remain in him.
6. New Testament, John, 3.14, 14.16-14.17, 15.26, 16.7-16.16 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.14. As Moses lifted up the serpent in the wilderness, even so must the Son of Man be lifted up 14.16. I will pray to the Father, and he will give you another Counselor, that he may be with you forever, -- 14.17. the Spirit of truth, whom the world can't receive; for it doesn't see him, neither knows him. You know him, for he lives with you, and will be in you. 15.26. When the Counselor has come, whom I will send to you from the Father, the Spirit of truth, who proceeds from the Father, he will testify about me. 16.7. Nevertheless I tell you the truth: It is to your advantage that I go away, for if I don't go away, the Counselor won't come to you. But if I go, I will send him to you. 16.8. When he has come, he will convict the world about sin, about righteousness, and about judgment; 16.9. about sin, because they don't believe in me; 16.10. about righteousness, because I am going to my Father, and you won't see me any more; 16.11. about judgment, because the prince of this world has been judged. 16.12. I have yet many things to tell you, but you can't bear them now. 16.13. However when he, the Spirit of truth, has come, he will guide you into all truth, for he will not speak from himself; but whatever he hears, he will speak. He will declare to you things that are coming. 16.14. He will glorify me, for he will take from what is mine, and will declare it to you. 16.15. All things whatever the Father has are mine; therefore I said that he takes of mine, and will declare it to you. 16.16. A little while, and you will not see me. Again a little while, and you will see me.
7. Theophilus, To Autolycus, 2.19, 2.22, 2.24 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

2.19. God having thus completed the heavens, and the earth, and the sea, and all that are in them, on the sixth day, rested on the seventh day from all His works which He made. Then holy Scripture gives a summary in these words: This is the book of the generation of the heavens and the earth, when they were created, in the day that the Lord made the heavens and the earth, and every green thing of the field, before it was made, and every herb of the field before it grew. For God had not caused it to rain upon the earth, and there was not a man to till the ground. Genesis 2:4-5 By this He signifies to us, that the whole earth was at that time watered by a divine fountain, and had no need that man should till it; but the earth produced all things spontaneously by the command of God, that man might not be wearied by tilling it. But that the creation of man might be made plain, so that there should not seem to be an insoluble problem existing among men, since God had said, Let Us make man; and since His creation was not yet plainly related, Scripture teaches us, saying: And a fountain went up out of the earth, and watered the face of the whole earth; and God made man of the dust of the earth, and breathed into his face the breath of life, and man became a living soul. Whence also by most persons the soul is called immortal. And after the formation of man, God chose out for him a region among the places of the East, excellent for light, brilliant with a very bright atmosphere, [abundant] in the finest plants; and in this He placed man. 2.22. You will say, then, to me: You said that God ought not to be contained in a place, and how do you now say that He walked in Paradise? Hear what I say. The God and Father, indeed, of all cannot be contained, and is not found in a place, for there is no place of His rest; but His Word, through whom He made all things, being His power and His wisdom, assuming the person of the Father and Lord of all, went to the garden in the person of God, and conversed with Adam. For the divine writing itself teaches us that Adam said that he had heard the voice. But what else is this voice but the Word of God, who is also His Son? Not as the poets and writers of myths talk of the sons of gods begotten from intercourse [with women], but as truth expounds, the Word, that always exists, residing within the heart of God. For before anything came into being He had Him as a counsellor, being His own mind and thought. But when God wished to make all that He determined on, He begot this Word, uttered, the first-born of all creation, not Himself being emptied of the Word [Reason], but having begotten Reason, and always conversing with His Reason. And hence the holy writings teach us, and all the spirit-bearing [inspired] men, one of whom, John, says, In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, John 1:1 showing that at first God was alone, and the Word in Him. Then he says, The Word was God; all things came into existence through Him; and apart from Him not one thing came into existence. The Word, then, being God, and being naturally produced from God, whenever the Father of the universe wills, He sends Him to any place; and He, coming, is both heard and seen, being sent by Him, and is found in a place. 2.24. God, then, caused to spring out of the earth every tree that is beautiful in appearance, or good for food. For at first there were only those things which were produced on the third day - plants, and seeds, and herbs; but the things which were in Paradise were made of a superior loveliness and beauty, since in it the plants were said to have been planted by God. As to the rest of the plants, indeed, the world contained plants like them; but the two trees - the tree of life and the tree of knowledge - the rest of the earth possessed not, but only Paradise. And that Paradise is earth, and is planted on the earth, the Scripture states, saying: Genesis 2:8 And the Lord God planted Paradise in Eden eastwards, and placed man there; and out of the ground made the Lord God to grow every tree that is pleasant to the sight and good for food. By the expressions, therefore, out of the ground, and eastwards, the holy writing clearly teaches us that Paradise is under this heaven, under which the east and the earth are. And the Hebrew word Eden signifies delight. And it was signified that a river flowed out of Eden to water Paradise, and after that divides into four heads; of which the two called Pison and Gihon water the eastern parts, especially Gihon, which encompasses the whole land of Ethiopia, and which, they say, reappears in Egypt under the name of Nile. And the other two rivers are manifestly recognisable by us - those called Tigris and Euphrates - for these border on our own regions. And God having placed man in Paradise, as has been said, to till and keep it, commanded him to eat of all the trees - manifestly of the tree of life also; but only of the tree of knowledge He commanded him not to taste. And God transferred him from the earth, out of which he had been produced, into Paradise, giving him means of advancement, in order that, maturing and becoming perfect, and being even declared a god, he might thus ascend into heaven in possession of immortality. For man had been made a middle nature, neither wholly mortal, nor altogether immortal, but capable of either; so also the place, Paradise, was made in respect of beauty intermediate between earth and heaven. And by the expression, till it, no other kind of labour is implied than the observance of God's command, lest, disobeying, he should destroy himself, as indeed he did destroy himself, by sin.
8. Nag Hammadi, On The Origin of The World, 120.17, 121.8 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

9. Nag Hammadi, The Gospel of Philip, 54.18-54.31, 74.16-74.24 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

10. Nag Hammadi, The Hypostasis of The Archons, 88.29, 88.30, 90.6, 90.11, 90.12, 90.13, 90.14, 90.15, 90.16, 90.17, 90.18, 90.19, 91.4, 91.5, 91.6, 91.7, 91.8, 91.9, 91.11, 93.2, 93.24, 93.25, 93.28, 93.29, 94.29, 94.30, 94.31, 94.32, 94.33, 94.34, 95.5, 95.6, 95.7, 95.8, 95.9, 95.10, 95.11, 95.12, 95.13, 95.13-96.3, 96.14, 96.19, 96.20, 96.21, 96.22, 96.23, 96.24, 96.25, 96.26, 96.27, 97.1, 97.2, 97.3, 97.5, 97.6, 97.7, 97.8, 97.9, 97.18, 97.19 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

11. Origen, Against Celsus, 7.50 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

7.50. Celsus has not explained how error accompanies the becoming, or product of generation; nor has he expressed himself with sufficient clearness to enable us to compare his ideas with ours, and to pass judgment on them. But the prophets, who have given some wise suggestions on the subject of things produced by generation, tell us that a sacrifice for sin was offered even for new-born infants, as not being free from sin. They say, I was shapen in iniquity, and in sin did my mother conceive me; also, They are estranged from the womb; which is followed by the singular expression, They go astray as soon as they are born, speaking lies. Besides, our wise men have such a contempt for all sensible objects, that sometimes they speak of all material things as vanity: thus, For the creature was made subject to vanity, not willingly, but by reason of him that subjected the same in hope; at other times as vanity of vanities, Vanity of vanities, says the Preacher, all is vanity. Who has given so severe an estimate of the life of the human soul here on earth, as he who says: Verily every man at his best estate is altogether vanity? He does not hesitate at all as to the difference between the present life of the soul and that which it is to lead hereafter. He does not say, Who knows if to die is not to live, and if to live is not death But he boldly proclaims the truth, and says, Our soul is bowed down to the dust; and, You have brought me into the dust of death; and similarly, Who will deliver me from the body of this death? also, Who will change the body of our humiliation. It is a prophet also who says, You have brought us down in a place of affliction; meaning by the place of affliction this earthly region, to which Adam, that is to say, man, came after he was driven out of paradise for sin. Observe also how well the different life of the soul here and hereafter has been recognised by him who says, Now we see in a glass, obscurely, but then face to face; and, Whilst we are in our home in the body, we are away from our home in the Lord; wherefore we are well content to go from our home in the body, and to come to our home with the Lord.
12. Melito of Sardis, On Pascha, 49



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
adam Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 145
angel Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 145
anointing Estes, The Tree of Life (2020) 258
apocalypse Estes, The Tree of Life (2020) 258
archon Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 145
ascent Estes, The Tree of Life (2020) 258
blessing Estes, The Tree of Life (2020) 258
blindness Estes, The Tree of Life (2020) 258
bridal chamber Estes, The Tree of Life (2020) 258
chaos Estes, The Tree of Life (2020) 258
cherubim, on way Graham, The Church as Paradise and the Way Therein: Early Christian Appropriation of Genesis 3:22–24 (2022) 112
chrism Estes, The Tree of Life (2020) 258
christ, coming of as true man Estes, The Tree of Life (2020) 258
creator archons, archons Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 145
curse Estes, The Tree of Life (2020) 258
death Estes, The Tree of Life (2020) 258
demons Estes, The Tree of Life (2020) 258
descent, of sophia/wisdom Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 145
devil, ἐκβάλλω Graham, The Church as Paradise and the Way Therein: Early Christian Appropriation of Genesis 3:22–24 (2022) 53
devil Graham, The Church as Paradise and the Way Therein: Early Christian Appropriation of Genesis 3:22–24 (2022) 112
eleleth Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 145
encratic texts Graham, The Church as Paradise and the Way Therein: Early Christian Appropriation of Genesis 3:22–24 (2022) 112
ennoia Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 145
enoch Graham, The Church as Paradise and the Way Therein: Early Christian Appropriation of Genesis 3:22–24 (2022) 51
eschatology Estes, The Tree of Life (2020) 258
eve, in irenaean corpus Graham, The Church as Paradise and the Way Therein: Early Christian Appropriation of Genesis 3:22–24 (2022) 112
eve Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 145
expulsion from Estes, The Tree of Life (2020) 258
expulsion narrative, in irenaean corpus Graham, The Church as Paradise and the Way Therein: Early Christian Appropriation of Genesis 3:22–24 (2022) 112
expulsion narrative Graham, The Church as Paradise and the Way Therein: Early Christian Appropriation of Genesis 3:22–24 (2022) 53
fruit Estes, The Tree of Life (2020) 258
gnosis, knowledge, tree of Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 145
gnostic texts Graham, The Church as Paradise and the Way Therein: Early Christian Appropriation of Genesis 3:22–24 (2022) 112
gnosticism, schools of thought Estes, The Tree of Life (2020) 258
god, expulsion actions Graham, The Church as Paradise and the Way Therein: Early Christian Appropriation of Genesis 3:22–24 (2022) 112
god, paradise and Graham, The Church as Paradise and the Way Therein: Early Christian Appropriation of Genesis 3:22–24 (2022) 53, 112
hebrews, book of Estes, The Tree of Life (2020) 258
holy spirit Estes, The Tree of Life (2020) 258; Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 145
humanity, immortality Graham, The Church as Paradise and the Way Therein: Early Christian Appropriation of Genesis 3:22–24 (2022) 53
humanity, outside paradise Graham, The Church as Paradise and the Way Therein: Early Christian Appropriation of Genesis 3:22–24 (2022) 51
ialdabaoth Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 145
instructor Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 145
irenaeus, polemical milieu of Graham, The Church as Paradise and the Way Therein: Early Christian Appropriation of Genesis 3:22–24 (2022) 112
israel, cultic activity Graham, The Church as Paradise and the Way Therein: Early Christian Appropriation of Genesis 3:22–24 (2022) 51
israel, exodus from egypt Graham, The Church as Paradise and the Way Therein: Early Christian Appropriation of Genesis 3:22–24 (2022) 51
israel, sacred spaces (see also tabernacle, temple) Graham, The Church as Paradise and the Way Therein: Early Christian Appropriation of Genesis 3:22–24 (2022) 51
jesus, recapitulative work Graham, The Church as Paradise and the Way Therein: Early Christian Appropriation of Genesis 3:22–24 (2022) 51
jesus, redeemer Graham, The Church as Paradise and the Way Therein: Early Christian Appropriation of Genesis 3:22–24 (2022) 51
jesus, sophia Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 145
knowledge, tree of Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 145
knowledge Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 145
life, tree of Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 145
light Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 145
melito of sardis Graham, The Church as Paradise and the Way Therein: Early Christian Appropriation of Genesis 3:22–24 (2022) 51
nakedness Estes, The Tree of Life (2020) 258
norea books of (except nh ix, person Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 145
oil, of anointing Estes, The Tree of Life (2020) 258
olive Estes, The Tree of Life (2020) 258
paradise, church and Graham, The Church as Paradise and the Way Therein: Early Christian Appropriation of Genesis 3:22–24 (2022) 51
paradise, delights of Graham, The Church as Paradise and the Way Therein: Early Christian Appropriation of Genesis 3:22–24 (2022) 53
paradise, divine presence in Graham, The Church as Paradise and the Way Therein: Early Christian Appropriation of Genesis 3:22–24 (2022) 53
paradise, humanitys maturation in Graham, The Church as Paradise and the Way Therein: Early Christian Appropriation of Genesis 3:22–24 (2022) 53
paradise, nourishment in Graham, The Church as Paradise and the Way Therein: Early Christian Appropriation of Genesis 3:22–24 (2022) 53
paradise Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 145
pistis (sophia) Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 145
psychic adam/eve/body Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 145
rabbinic texts Graham, The Church as Paradise and the Way Therein: Early Christian Appropriation of Genesis 3:22–24 (2022) 112
sabaoth Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 145
salvation/soteriology Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 145
serpent, agent of god Graham, The Church as Paradise and the Way Therein: Early Christian Appropriation of Genesis 3:22–24 (2022) 112
serpent, devil/in paradise Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 145
serpent Estes, The Tree of Life (2020) 258
sethian gnosticism Estes, The Tree of Life (2020) 258
sethian texts Graham, The Church as Paradise and the Way Therein: Early Christian Appropriation of Genesis 3:22–24 (2022) 51, 53, 112
sethians, sethianism Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 145
sophia, see also prunicus, wisdom, zoe Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 145
spirit, divine Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 145
spiritual, class Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 145
sword, flaming Graham, The Church as Paradise and the Way Therein: Early Christian Appropriation of Genesis 3:22–24 (2022) 112
trampling Estes, The Tree of Life (2020) 258
tree of knowledge, disobedience at Graham, The Church as Paradise and the Way Therein: Early Christian Appropriation of Genesis 3:22–24 (2022) 112
tree of knowledge, expulsion and Graham, The Church as Paradise and the Way Therein: Early Christian Appropriation of Genesis 3:22–24 (2022) 53
tree of wisdom, τρυφῆς Graham, The Church as Paradise and the Way Therein: Early Christian Appropriation of Genesis 3:22–24 (2022) 53
true man Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 145
two ways (tradition), valentinian texts Graham, The Church as Paradise and the Way Therein: Early Christian Appropriation of Genesis 3:22–24 (2022) 51
way, obstacles on Graham, The Church as Paradise and the Way Therein: Early Christian Appropriation of Genesis 3:22–24 (2022) 112
way, tree of life and Graham, The Church as Paradise and the Way Therein: Early Christian Appropriation of Genesis 3:22–24 (2022) 53
wisdom Estes, The Tree of Life (2020) 258
woman Estes, The Tree of Life (2020) 258
zoe, sophia-zoe' Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 145