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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



8046
Mishnah, Yoma, 3.3-3.4


אֵין אָדָם נִכְנָס לָעֲזָרָה לָעֲבוֹדָה, אֲפִלּוּ טָהוֹר, עַד שֶׁיִּטְבֹּל. חָמֵשׁ טְבִילוֹת וַעֲשָׂרָה קִדּוּשִׁין טוֹבֵל כֹּהֵן גָּדוֹל וּמְקַדֵּשׁ בּוֹ בַיּוֹם, וְכֻלָּן בַּקֹּדֶשׁ עַל בֵּית הַפַּרְוָה, חוּץ מִזּוֹ בִלְבָד:A man may not enter the Temple courtyard or to worship even if he was clean until he immerses himself. Five immersions and ten sanctifications did the high priest perform on that day. And all in sanctity in the Bet Haparvah with the exception of this one alone.


פֵּרְסוּ סָדִין שֶׁל בּוּץ בֵּינוֹ לְבֵין הָעָם. פָּשַׁט, יָרַד וְטָבַל, עָלָה וְנִסְתַּפֵּג. הֵבִיאוּ לוֹ בִגְדֵי זָהָב, וְלָבַשׁ וְקִדֵּשׁ יָדָיו וְרַגְלָיו. הֵבִיאוּ לוֹ אֶת הַתָּמִיד. קְרָצוֹ, וּמֵרַק אַחֵר שְׁחִיטָה עַל יָדוֹ. קִבֵּל אֶת הַדָּם וּזְרָקוֹ. נִכְנַס לְהַקְטִיר קְטֹרֶת שֶׁל שַׁחַר, וּלְהֵטִיב אֶת הַנֵּרוֹת, וּלְהַקְרִיב אֶת הָרֹאשׁ וְאֶת הָאֵבָרִים וְאֶת הַחֲבִתִּין וְאֶת הַיָּיִן:They spread out a linen sheet between him and the people. He stripped off [his clothes], went down and immersed himself, came up and dried himself. They brought him the golden garments, he put them on and sanctified his hands and feet. They brought him the tamid. He made the required cut and some one else finished it for him. He received the blood and sprinkled it. He went inside to smoke the morning incense and to trim the lamps; And to offer up the head and the limbs and the griddle cakes and the wine.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

31 results
1. Anon., Jubilees, 21.16 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

21.16. And as regards the wood of the sacrifices, beware lest thou bring (other) wood for the altar in addition to these: cypress, dêfrân, sagâd, pine, fir, cedar, savin, palm, olive, myrrh, laurel, and citron, juniper, and balsam.
2. Anon., Testament of Levi, 9.4 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. CE)

9.4. And he rose up early in the morning, and paid tithes of all to the Lord through me.
3. Philo of Alexandria, On The Special Laws, 1.261, 3.205 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

1.261. The body then, as I have already said, he purifies with ablutions and bespringklings, and does not allow a person after he has once washed and sprinkled himself, at once to enter within the sacred precincts, but bids him wait outside for seven days, and to be besprinkled twice, on the third day and on the seventh day; and after this it commands him to wash himself once more, and then it admits him to enter the sacred precincts and to share in the sacred ministrations.XLIX.
4. Philo of Alexandria, Against Flaccus, 123, 122 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

122. And when they had spent the whole night in hymns and songs, they poured out through the gates at the earliest dawn, and hastened to the nearest point of the shore, for they had been deprived of their usual places for prayer, and standing in a clear and open space, they cried out
5. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 14.257-14.259 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

14.257. Since we have ever a great regard to piety towards God, and to holiness; and since we aim to follow the people of the Romans, who are the benefactors of all men, and what they have written to us about a league of friendship and mutual assistance between the Jews and our city, and that their sacred offices and accustomed festivals and assemblies may be observed by them; 14.258. we have decreed, that as many men and women of the Jews as are willing so to do, may celebrate their Sabbaths, and perform their holy offices, according to the Jewish laws; and may make their proseuchae at the sea-side, according to the customs of their forefathers; and if any one, whether he be a magistrate or private person, hindereth them from so doing, he shall be liable to a fine, to be applied to the uses of the city.” 14.259. 24. The decree of the Sardians. “This decree was made by the senate and people, upon the representation of the praetors: Whereas those Jews who are fellowcitizens, and live with us in this city, have ever had great benefits heaped upon them by the people, and have come now into the senate
6. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 2.129 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.129. After this every one of them are sent away by their curators, to exercise some of those arts wherein they are skilled, in which they labor with great diligence till the fifth hour. After which they assemble themselves together again into one place; and when they have clothed themselves in white veils, they then bathe their bodies in cold water. And after this purification is over, they every one meet together in an apartment of their own, into which it is not permitted to any of another sect to enter; while they go, after a pure manner, into the dining-room, as into a certain holy temple
7. Mishnah, Bikkurim, 3.3-3.4, 3.6 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

3.3. Those who lived near [Jerusalem] would bring fresh figs and grapes, while those who lived far away would bring dried figs and raisins. An ox would go in front of them, his horns bedecked with gold and with an olive-crown on its head. The flute would play before them until they would draw close to Jerusalem. When they drew close to Jerusalem they would send messengers in advance, and they would adorn their bikkurim. The governors and chiefs and treasurers [of the Temple] would go out to greet them, and according to the rank of the entrants they would go forth. All the skilled artisans of Jerusalem would stand up before them and greet them saying, “Our brothers, men of such and such a place, we welcome you in peace.”" 3.4. The flute would play before them, until they reached the Temple Mount. When they reached the Temple Mount even King Agrippas would take the basket and place it on his shoulder and walk as far as the Temple Court. When he got to the Temple Court, the Levites would sing the song: “I will extol You, O Lord, for You have raised me up, and You have not let my enemies rejoice over me” (Psalms 30:2)." 3.6. While the basket was still on his shoulder he recites from: \"I acknowledge this day before the LORD your God that I have entered the land that the LORD swore to our fathers to assign us” (Deuteronomy 26:3) until he completes the passage. Rabbi Judah said: until [he reaches] “My father was a fugitive Aramean” (v.. When he reaches, “My father was a fugitive Aramean”, he takes the basket off his shoulder and holds it by its edges, and the priest places his hand beneath it and waves it. He then recites from “My father was a fugitive Aramean” until he completes the entire passage. He then deposits the basket by the side of the altar, bow and depart."
8. Mishnah, Berachot, 9.4 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

9.4. One who enters into a large city should say two prayers, one on entering and one on leaving. Ben Azzai says: four two on entering and two on leaving, he gives thanks for the past and cries out for the future."
9. Mishnah, Hagigah, 2.5-2.6, 3.6 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

2.5. They wash hands for [eating] unconsecrated [food], and [second] tithe, and for terumah [heave-offering]. But for sacred food they must immerse [their hands in a mikveh]. With regard to the [water of] purification, if one’s hands became impure, one’s [whole] body is impure." 2.6. If he immersed for unconsecrated [food], and was presumed to be fit to eat unconsecrated [food], he is prohibited from [eating second] tithe. If he immersed for [second] tithe, and was presumed to be fit to eat [second] tithe, he is prohibited from [eating] terumah. If he immersed for terumah, and was presumed to be fit to eat terumah, he is prohibited from [eating] holy things. If he immersed for holy things, and was presumed to be fit to eat holy things he is prohibited from [touching the waters of] purification. If one immersed for something possessing a stricter [degree of holiness], one is permitted [to have contact with] something possessing a lighter [degree of holiness]. If he immersed but without special intention, it is as though he had not immersed." 3.6. Tax-collectors who entered a house, and similarly thieves who restored [stolen] vessels are believed if they say, “We have not touched [anything].” And in Jerusalem they are believed in regard to sacred things, and during a festival also in regard to terumah."
10. Mishnah, Keritot, 2.1 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

2.1. There are four persons who require a ceremony of atonement, and there are four who bring a sacrifice for willful as well as for inadvertent transgression. The following are those who require a ceremony of atonement: the zav, the zavah, the woman who gave birth and the metzora. Rabbi Eliezer ben Jacob said: also a convert is regarded as a person who still requires a ceremony of atonement until the blood has been sprinkled for him; the same applies to the nazirite with reference to wine, haircutting and uncleanness."
11. Mishnah, Middot, 4.2, 5.4 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

4.2. The great gate had two small doors, one to the north and one to the south. By the one to the south no one ever went in, and concerning it was stated explicitly be Ezekiel, as it says, “And the Lord said to me: this gate shall be shut, it shall not be opened, neither shall any man enter in by it, for the Lord God of Israel has entered in by it; therefore it shall be shut” (Ezekiel 44:2). He [the priest] took the key and opened the [northern] door and went in to the cell, and from the cell he went into the Hekhal. Rabbi Judah says: he used to walk along in the thickness of the wall until he came to the space between the two gates. He would open the outer doors from within and the inner doors from without." 5.4. On the south were the wood chamber, the chamber of the exile and the chamber of hewn stones. The wood chamber: Rabbi Eliezer ben Jacob says: I forget what it was used for. Abba Shaul says: It was the chamber of the high priest, and it was behind the two of them, and one roof covered all three. In the chamber of the exile there was a fixed cistern, with a wheel over it, and from there water was provided for all of the courtyard. In the chamber of hewn stone the great Sanhedrin of Israel used to sit and judge the priesthood. A priest in whom was found a disqualification used to put on black garments and wrap himself in black and go away. One in whom no disqualification was found used to put on white garments and wrap himself in white and go in and serve along with his brother priests. They used to make a feast because no blemish had been found in the seed of Aaron the priest, and they used to say: Blessed is the Omnipresent, blessed is He, for no blemish has been found in the seed of Aaron. Blessed is He who chose Aaron and his sons to stand to minister before the Lord in the Holy of Holies."
12. Mishnah, Miqvaot, 5.4, 6.10 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

5.4. All seas are equivalent to a mikveh, for it is said, \"And the gathering (ulemikveh) of the waters He called the seas\" (Genesis 1:10), the words of Rabbi Meir. Rabbi Judah says: only the Great Sea is equivalent to a mikveh, for it says \"seas\" only because there are in it many kinds of seas. Rabbi Yose says: all seas afford cleanness when running, and yet they are unfit for zavim and metzoraim and for the preparation of the hatat waters." 6.10. The outlet of a bath-basin: if it is in the center, it renders [the bath] invalid [as a mikveh]; but if it is at the side, it does not render it invalid, because then it is like one mikveh adjoining another mikveh, the words of Rabbi Meir. But the sages say: if the bath- basin can contain a quarter-log of [water] before it reaches the outlet, it is valid; but if not, it is not valid. Rabbi Elazar bar Zadok says: if the outlet can contain any amount of [water], it is invalid."
13. Mishnah, Negaim, 14.2, 14.8, 14.10 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

14.2. He now comes to set free the living bird. He does not turn his face towards the sea or towards the city or towards the wilderness, for it is said, \"But he shall let the living bird go out of the city into the open field\" (Leviticus 14:53). He now comes to shave off the hair of the metzora. He passes a razor over the whole of his skin, and he [the metzora] washes his clothes and immerses himself. He is then clean so far as to not convey uncleanness by entrance, but he still conveys uncleanness as does a sheretz. He may enter within the walls [of Jerusalem], but must keep away from his house for seven days, and he is forbidden to have intercourse." 14.8. He comes to the guilt-offering and he puts his two hands on it. He then slaughters it. Two priests receive its blood, one in a vessel and the other in his hand. He who received it in the vessel proceeded to sprinkle it on the wall of the altar. The one who received it in his hand would approach the metzora. The metzora had in the meantime immersed himself in the chamber of the metzoraim. He would come and stand at the Nikanor gate. Rabbi Judah says: he did not require immersion." 14.10. [The priest] then took some [of the contents] of the log of oil and poured it into his colleague's hand; And if he poured it into his own hand, the obligation is fulfilled. He then dipped [his right forefinger] in the oil and sprinkled it seven times towards the Holy of Holies, dipping it for every sprinkling. He then approached the metzora, to the same places that he applied the blood he now applied the oil, as it is said, \"Over the same places as the blood of the guilt offering; 29 and what is left of the oil in his palm the priest shall put on the head of the one being cleansed, to make expiation for him before the Lord.\" (Leviticus 14:28-29). If he \"put upon,\" he has made atonement, but if he did not \"put upon,\" he did not make atonement, the words of Rabbi Akiba. Rabbi Yoha ben Nuri says: these are but the remainders of the mitzvah. Whether he \"put upon\" or did not \"put upon,\" atonement is made, only it is accounted to him as if he did not make atonement. If any oil was missing from the log before it was poured out it may be filled up again; if after it was poured out, other oil must be brought anew, the words of Rabbi Akiva. Rabbi Shimon says: if any oil was missing from the log before it was applied, it may be filled up; but if after it had been applied, other oil must be brought anew."
14. Mishnah, Parah, 3.3 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

3.3. They arrived at the Temple Mount and got down. Beneath the Temple Mount and the courts was a hollow which served as a protection against a grave in the depths. And at the entrance of the courtyard there was the jar of the ashes of the sin-offerings. They would bring a male from among the sheep and tie a rope between its horns, and a stick or a bushy twig was tied at the other end of the rope, and this was thrown into the jar. They then struck the male [sheep] was so that it started backwards. And [a child] took the ashes and put it [enough] so that it could be seen upon the water. Rabbi Yose said: do not give the Sadducees an opportunity to rule! Rather, [a child] himself took it and mixed it."
15. Mishnah, Pesahim, 5.5-5.10 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

5.5. The pesah is slaughtered in three divisions, as it is said, “And the whole assembly of the congregation of Israel shall slaughter it” (Exodus 12:6): “assembly,” “congregation,” and “Israel.” The first division entered, the Temple court was filled, and they closed the doors of the Temple court. They sounded a teki'ah, a teru'ah, and a teki'ah. The priests stood in rows, and in their hands were basins of silver and basins of gold, a row which was entirely of silver was of silver, and a row which was entirely of gold was of gold, they were not mixed. And the basins did not have flat bottoms, lest they put them down and the blood becomes congealed." 5.6. The Israelite killed [the lamb]; And the priest caught [the blood]. He would hand it to his colleague and his colleague [would hand it] to his colleague. And he would receive the full [basin] and give back the empty one. The priest nearest the altar would sprinkle it once over against the base [or the altar]." 5.7. The first division [then] went out and the second entered; the second went out and the third entered. As did the first, so did the second and the third. They recited the Hallel. If they finished it, they repeated, and if they repeated [and were not finished yet], they recited it a third time, though they never did recite it a third time. Rabbi Judah says: the third division never reached, “I love Lord for he hears” (Psalms, because the people for it were few." 5.8. As it was done on weekdays so it was done on Shabbat, except that the priests would mop up the Temple court, against the will of the sages. Rabbi Judah says: he [a priest] would fill a goblet with the mixed blood [and] he sprinkled it once on the altar, but the sages did not agree with him." 5.9. How did they hang up [the sacrifices] and flay [them]?There were iron hooks fixed in the walls and in the pillars, on which they hung up [the sacrifices] and flayed [them]. If any one had no place to suspend and flay [their sacrifice], there were there thin smooth staves which he placed on his shoulder and on his fellow’s shoulder, and so hung up [the animal] and flayed [it]. Rabbi Eliezer says: when the fourteenth fell on Shabbat, he placed his hand on his fellow’s shoulder and his fellow’s hand on his shoulder, and he hung up [the sacrifice] and flayed [it]." 5.10. Then he tore it and took out its inner fats, placed them in a tray and burnt them on the altar. The first division went out and sat down on the Temple mount, the second [sat] in the hel, while the third remained in its place. When it grew dark they went out and roasted their pesah lambs."
16. Mishnah, Sanhedrin, 3.6-3.7, 4.5, 11.2 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

3.6. How do they check the witnesses? They bring them in and warn them, and then they take them out and leave behind the most important of [the witnesses]. And they would say to him: “State [for us], how do you know that this one is in debt to this one?” If he said, “He said to me, ‘I am in debt to him’, or ‘So-and-so said to me that he was in debt to him’”, he has said nothing. He must be able to say, “In our presence he acknowledged to the other one that he owed him 200 zuz.” Afterward they bring in the second witness and check him. If their words were found to agree, the judges discuss the matter. If two say, “He is not guilty” and one says, “He is guilty”, he is not guilty. If two say, “He is guilty” and one says, “He is not guilty”, he is guilty. If one says, “He is not guilty”, and one says, “He is guilty”, and even if two declared him not guilty or declared him guilty while one said, “I do not know”, they must add more judges." 3.7. When the judges reached their decision they would bring in the litigants. The chief among the judges says: “You, so-and-so are not obligated”, or “You, so-and-so are obligated”. And from where do we know that after one of the judges has gone out that he may not say, “I declared him not obligated and my colleagues declared him obligated, so what can I do since they outvoted me?” of such a one it says, “Do not go about as a talebearer amongst your people” (Lev. 19:16) and it also says, “He that goes about as a talebearer reveals secrets” (Proverbs 11:13)." 4.5. How did they admonish witnesses in capital cases? They brought them in and admonished them, [saying], “Perhaps you will say something that is only a supposition or hearsay or secondhand, or even from a trustworthy man. Or perhaps you do not know that we shall check you with examination and inquiry? Know, moreover, that capital cases are not like non-capital cases: in non-capital cases a man may pay money and so make atonement, but in capital cases the witness is answerable for the blood of him [that is wrongfully condemned] and the blood of his descendants [that should have been born to him] to the end of the world.” For so have we found it with Cain that murdered his brother, for it says, “The bloods of your brother cry out” (Gen. 4:10). It doesn’t say, “The blood of your brother”, but rather “The bloods of your brother” meaning his blood and the blood of his descendants. Another saying is, “The bloods of your brother” that his blood was cast over trees and stones. Therefore but a single person was created in the world, to teach that if any man has caused a single life to perish from Israel, he is deemed by Scripture as if he had caused a whole world to perish; and anyone who saves a single soul from Israel, he is deemed by Scripture as if he had saved a whole world. Again [but a single person was created] for the sake of peace among humankind, that one should not say to another, “My father was greater than your father”. Again, [but a single person was created] against the heretics so they should not say, “There are many ruling powers in heaven”. Again [but a single person was created] to proclaim the greatness of the Holy Blessed One; for humans stamp many coins with one seal and they are all like one another; but the King of kings, the Holy Blessed One, has stamped every human with the seal of the first man, yet not one of them are like another. Therefore everyone must say, “For my sake was the world created.” And if perhaps you [witnesses] would say, “Why should we be involved with this trouble”, was it not said, “He, being a witness, whether he has seen or known, [if he does not speak it, then he shall bear his iniquity] (Lev. 5:1). And if perhaps you [witnesses] would say, “Why should we be guilty of the blood of this man?, was it not said, “When the wicked perish there is rejoicing” (Proverbs 11:10).]" 11.2. An elder rebelling against the ruling of the court [is strangled], for it says, “If there arise a matter too hard for you for judgement […you shall promptly repair to the place that the Lord your God will have chosen, and appear before the levitical priests, or the magistrate in charge at the time, and present your problem. When they have announced to you the verdict in the case, you shall carry out the verdict that is announced to you from that place that the Lord chose, observing scrupulously all their instructions to you. You shall act in accordance with the instructions given you and the ruling handed down to you; you must not deviate from the verdict that they announce to you either to the right or to the left. Should a man act presumptuously and disregard the priest charged with serving there the Lord your God, or the magistrate, that man shall die” (Deut. 17:8-13, JPS translation). Three courts of law were there, one situated at the entrance to the Temple mount, another at the door of the [Temple] court, and the third in the Chamber of Hewn Stone. They [first] went to the court which is at the entrance to the Temple mount, and he [the rebellious elder] stated, “Thus have I expounded and thus have my colleagues expounded; thus have I taught, and thus have my colleagues taught.” If [this first court] had heard [a ruling on the matter], they state it. If not, they go to the [second court] which is at the entrance of the Temple court, and he declares, “Thus have I expounded and thus have my colleagues expounded; thus have I taught, and thus have my colleagues taught.” If [this second court] had heard [a ruling on the matter] they state it; if not, they all proceed to the great court of the Chamber of Hewn Stone from whence instruction issued to all Israel, for it says, [you shall carry out the verdict that is announced to you] from that place that the Lord chose (Deut. 17:10). If he returned to his town and taught again as he did before, he is not liable. But if he gave a practical decision, he is guilty, for it says, “Should a man act presumptuously” (Deut. 17:12) he is liable only for a practical ruling. But if a disciple gave a practical decision [opposed to the court], he is exempt: thus his stringency is his leniency."
17. Mishnah, Sotah, 2.2, 3.4 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

2.2. [The priest] takes an earthenware bowl and pours half a log of water into it from the laver. Rabbi Judah says: a quarter [of a log]. Just as [Rabbi Judah] reduces the amount of writing, so he reduces the quantity of water. [Then the priest] enters the temple and turns to his right and there was a place there [on the floor] that was a cubit by a cubit, and a marble tablet, to which a ring was attached. When he would lift this up, he would take some dust from beneath it which he puts [into the bowl] so that it would be seen on top of the water; as it is said, “And of the dust that is on the floor of the Tabernacle the priest shall take, and put it into the water” (Numbers 5:17)." 3.4. She had barely finished drinking when her face turns yellow, her eyes protrude and her veins swell. And [those who see her] exclaim, “Remove her! Remove her, so that the temple-court should not be defiled”. If she had merit, it [causes the water] to suspend its effect upon her. Some merit suspends the effect for one year, some merit suspends the effects for two years, and some merit suspends the effect for three years. Hence Ben Azzai said: a person must teach his daughter Torah, so that if she has to drink [the water of bitterness], she should know that the merit suspends its effect. Rabbi Eliezer says: whoever teaches his daughter Torah teaches her lasciviousness. Rabbi Joshua says: a woman prefers one kav (of food) and sexual indulgence to nine kav and sexual separation. He used to say, a foolish pietist, a cunning wicked person, a female separatist, and the blows of separatists bring destruction upon the world."
18. Mishnah, Sukkah, 4.4, 4.9, 5.4 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

4.4. The mitzvah of the lulav how was it carried out? If the first day of the festival fell on Shabbat, they brought their lulavim to the Temple Mount, and the attendants would receive them and arrange them on top of the portico, and the elders laid theirs in the chamber. And they would teach the people to say, “Whoever gets my lulav in his hand, let it be his as a gift.” The next day they got up early, and came [to the Temple Mount] and the attendants threw down [their lulavim] before them, and they snatched at them, and so they used to come to blows with one another. When the court saw that they reached a state of danger, they instituted that each man should take [his lulav] in his own home." 4.9. How was the water libation [performed]? A golden flask holding three logs was filled from the Shiloah. When they arrived at the water gate, they sounded a teki'ah [long blast], a teru'ah [a staccato note] and again a teki'ah. [The priest then] went up the ascent [of the altar] and turned to his left where there were two silver bowls. Rabbi Judah says: they were of plaster [but they looked silver] because their surfaces were darkened from the wine. They had each a hole like a slender snout, one being wide and the other narrow so that both emptied at the same time. The one on the west was for water and the one on the east for wine. If he poured the flask of water into the bowl for wine, or that of wine into that for water, he has fulfilled his obligation. Rabbi Judah says: with one log he performed the ceremony of the water-libation all eight days. To [the priest] who performed the libation they used to say, “Raise your hand”, for one time, a certain man poured out the water over his feet, and all the people pelted him with their etrogs." 5.4. Men of piety and good deeds used to dance before them with lighted torches in their hands, and they would sing songs and praises. And Levites with innumerable harps, lyres, cymbals and trumpets and other musical instruments stood upon the fifteen steps leading down from the Court of the Israelites to the Court of the Women, corresponding to the fifteen songs of ascents in the Psalms, and it was on these [steps] that the Levites stood with their musical instruments and sang their songs. Two priests stood by the upper gate which leads down from the Court of the Israelites to the Court of the Women, with two trumpets in their hands. When the cock crowed they sounded a teki'ah [drawn-out blast], a teru'ah [staccato note] and again a teki'ah. When they reached the tenth step they sounded a teki'ah, a teru'ah and again a teki'ah. When they reached the Court [of the Women] they sounded a teki'ah, a teru'ah and again a teki'ah. They would sound their trumpets and proceed until they reached the gate which leads out to the east. When they reached the gate which leads out to the east, they turned their faces from east to west and said, “Our fathers who were in this place ‘their backs were toward the Temple of the Lord, and their faces toward the east, and they worshipped the sun toward the east’, but as for us, our eyes are turned to the Lord.” Rabbi Judah said: they used to repeat [the last words] and say “We are the Lord’s and our eyes are turned to the Lord.”"
19. Mishnah, Taanit, 2.1, 4.3 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

2.1. What is the order [of service] for fast days?They take the ark out to the open space of the city. And they put ashes on the ark and on the head of the Nasi and on the head of the head of the court (av bet. And everyone [else] puts ashes on his own head. The elder among them says in front of them words of admonition, “Brothers, it does not say of the people of Nineveh, ‘And God saw their sackcloth and their fasting,’ but, ‘And God saw their deeds, for they turned from their evil way. (Jonah 3:10)’ And in the prophets it says, ‘And rend your heart and not your garments” (Joel 2:13)." 4.3. The men of the maamad fasted on four days of that week, from Monday to Thursday; they did not fast on Friday out of respect for Shabbat or on Sunday in order not to switch from the rest and delight [of Shabbat] to weariness and fasting and [thereby] die. On Sunday [they read], “In the beginning,” and, “Let there be a firmament;” On Monday, “Let there be a firmament,” and, “Let the waters be gathered together;” On Tuesday, “Let the waters be gathered together,” and, “Let there be lights;” On Wednesday, “Let there be lights,” and, “Let the waters swarm;” On Thursday, “Let the waters swarm,” and, “Let the earth bring forth;” On Friday, “Let the earth bring forth,” and, “And the heavens [and the earth] were completed.” For a long section two people read and for a short section one person. [This is how they would read] at Shacharit and Mussaf. And at minhah they assemble and read the section by heart, as they recite the Shema. On Friday at minhah they did not assemble out of respect for Shabbat."
20. Mishnah, Tamid, 1.2-1.4, 2.2, 2.5, 3.4, 3.7, 3.9, 4.3, 5.6, 6.1, 7.1-7.3 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

1.2. Anyone who desired to remove the ashes from the altar used to rise early and bathe before the superintendent came. At what time did the superintendent come? He did not always come at the same time; sometimes he came just at cock-crow, sometimes a little before or a little after. The superintendent would come and knock and they would open for him, and he would say to them, let all who have bathed come and draw lots. So they drew lots, and whoever was successful." 1.3. He took the key and opened the small door, and went from the fire chamber into the Temple courtyard, and the priests went in after him carrying two lighted torches. They divided into two groups, one of which went along the portico to the east, while the other went along it to the west. They went along inspecting until they came to the place where the griddle-cakes were made. There the two groups met and said, Is all well (shalom)? All is well (shalom)! They then appointed they that made the griddle-cakes to make griddle-cakes." 1.4. The one who had merited to clear the ashes, would get ready to clear the ashes. They said to him: “Be careful not to touch any vessel until you have washed your hands and feet from the laver. See, the fire-pan is in the corner between the ascent and the altar on the west of the ascent.” No one entered with him, nor did he carry any light. Rather, he walked by the light of the altar fire. No-one saw him or heard a sound from him until they heard the noise of the wooden wheel which Ben Katin made for hauling up the laver, when they said, “The time has come.” He washed his hands and feet from the laver, then took the silver fire-pan and went up to the top of the altar and cleared away the cinders on either side and scooped up the ashes in the centre. He then descended and when he reached the floor he turned his face to the north and went along the east side of the ascent for about ten cubits, and he then made a heap of the cinders on the pavement three handbreadths away from the ascent, in the place where they used to put the crop of the birds and the ashes from the inner altar and the ash from the menorah." 2.2. They then began to throw the ashes on to the heap (tapuah). This heap was in the middle of the altar, and sometimes there was as much as three hundred kor on it. On festivals they did not use to clear away the ash because it was reckoned an ornament to the altar. It never happened that the priest was neglectful in taking out the ashes." 2.5. They picked out from there some good fig-tree branches to make a second fire for the incense near the south-western corner some four cubits to the north of it, using as much wood as he judged sufficient to form five seahs of coals, and on the Shabbat as much as he thought would make eight seahs of coals, because from there they used to take fire for the two dishes of frankincense for the showbread. The limbs and the pieces of fat which had not been consumed over night were put back on the wood. They then kindled the two fires and descended and went to the chamber of hewn stone." 3.4. They went into the chamber of the vessels and they took out ninety-three vessels of silver and gold. They gave the animal for the daily sacrifice a drink from a cup of gold. Although it had been examined on the previous evening it was now examined again by torchlight." 3.7. He then came to the small opening on the north. The great gate had two small openings, one on the north and one on the south. No one ever went in by the openings on the south, about which it is stated explicitly in Ezekiel, “And the Lord said to me, ‘This gate shall be closed, it shall not be opened, and no man shall enter by it, for the Lord God of Israel has entered by it” (Ezekiel 44:2). He took the key and opened the small opening and went in to the cell and from the cell to the Sanctuary, until he reached the great gate. When he reached the great gate he drew back the bolt and the latches and opened it. The slaughterer did not slaughter till he heard the sound of the great gate being opened." 3.9. The one who had been chosen for clearing the ashes from the inner altar went in carrying the teni which he set down in front of it, and he scooped up the ash in his fists and put it into it, and in the end he swept up what was left into it, and then he left it there and went out. The one who had been chosen to clear the ashes from the menorah went in. If he found the two eastern lights burning, he cleared the ash from the rest and left these two burning. If he found that these two had gone out, he cleared away their ash and kindled them from those which were still lit and then he cleared the ash from the rest. There was a stone in front of the candlestick with three steps on which the priest stood in order to trim the lights. He left the kuz on the second step and went out." 4.3. He then took a knife and separated the lung from the liver and the finger of the liver from the liver, but he did not remove it from its place. He cut out the breast and gave it to the one to the one who had merited [bringing it onto the ramp]. He came to the right flank and cut into it as far as the spine, without touching the spine, until he came to the place between two small ribs. He cut it off and gave it to the one who had merited [bringing it onto the ramp], with the liver attached to it. He then came to the neck, and he left two ribs on each side of it, cut it off and gave it to the one to the one who had merited [bringing it onto the ramp], with the windpipe and the heart and the lung attached to it. He then came to the left flank in which he left the two thin ribs above and two thin ribs below; and he had done similarly with the other flank. Thus he left two on each side above and two on each side below. He cut it off and gave it to the one to the one who had merited [bringing it onto the ramp], and the spine with it and the spleen attached to it. This was really the largest piece, but the right flank was called the largest, because the liver was attached to it. He then came to the tail bone, which he cut off and gave it to the one who had merited [bringing it onto the ramp], along with the tail, the finger of the liver and the two kidneys. He then took the left leg and cut it off and gave it to the one who had merited [bringing it onto the ramp]. Thus they were all standing in a row with the limbs in their hands The first had the head and the [right] hind leg. The head was in his right hand with its nose towards his arm, its horns between his fingers, and the place where it was severed turned upwards with the fat covering it. The right leg was in his left hand with the place where the flaying began turned away from him. The second had the two fore legs, the right leg in his right hand and the left leg in his left hand, the place where the flaying began turned away from him. The third had the tail bone and the other hind leg, the tail bone in his right hand with the tail hanging between his fingers and the finger of the liver and the two kidneys with it, and the left hind leg in his left hand with the place where the flaying began turned away from him. The fourth had the breast and the neck, the breast in his right hand and the neck in his left hand, its ribs being between two of his fingers. The fifth had the two flanks, the right one in his right hand, and the left one in his left hand, with the place where the flaying began turned away from him. The sixth had the innards on a platter with the knees on top of them. The seventh had the fine flour. The eighth had the griddle cakes. The ninth had the wine. They went and placed them on the lower half of the ramp on its western side, and salted them (see Leviticus 2:13). They then came down and went to the Chamber of Hewn Stone to recite the Shema." 5.6. When they came between the Sanctuary and the altar, one took the magrefah and threw it between the Sanctuary and the altar. People could not hear one another speak in Jerusalem from the noise of the magrefah. It served three purposes: When a priest heard the sound of it he knew that his fellow priests were going in to bow down, and he would run to join them. When a Levite heard the noise he knew that his fellow Levites were going in to sing, and he would run to join them. And the head of the Ma’amad used to make the unclean stand in the east gate." 6.1. They began to ascend the steps of the Sanctuary. Those who had won the right to clear the ashes from the inner altar and from the candlestick went in front. The one who won the right to clear the inner altar went in and took the teni and bowed down and went out again. The one who had been chosen to clear the candlestick went in, and if he found the two eastern lights still burning he cleared out the eastern one and left the western one burning, since from it he lit the candlestick for the evening. If he found that this one had gone out, he cleared the ash away and lit it from the altar of burnt-offering. He then took the kuz from the second step and bowed down and went out." 7.1. When the high priest went in to bow down, three priests supported him, one by his right and one by his left and one by the precious stones. When the superintendent heard the sound of the footsteps of the high priest as he was about to go out [from the Sanctuary], he raised the curtain for him. He went in, bowed down and went out, and then his fellow priests went in and bowed down and went out." 7.2. They went and stood on the steps of the Sanctuary. The first ones stood at the south side of their fellow priests with five vessels in their hands: one held the teni, the second the kuz, the third the firepan, the fourth the dish, and the fifth the spoon and its covering. They blessed the people with a single blessing, except in the country they recited it as three blessings, in the Temple as one. In the Temple they pronounced the divine name as it is written, but in the country by its substitute. In the country the priests raised their hands as high as their shoulders, but in the Temple above their heads, except the high priest, who did not raise his hands above the diadem. Rabbi Judah says: the high priest also raised his hands above the diadem, since it says, “And Aaron lifted up his hands toward the people and blessed them” (Leviticus 9:22)." 7.3. If the high priest wished to burn the offerings [himself], he would go up the ascent with the deputy high priest at his right. When he reached the middle of the ascent the deputy took hold of his right hand and helped him up. The first [of the other priests] then handed to him the head and the foot and he laid his hands on them and threw them [onto the altar]. The second then handed to the first the two fore legs. And he handed them to the high priest who laid his hands on them and threw them [onto the altar]. The second then went away. In the same way all the other limbs were handed to him and he laid his hands on them and threw them [on to the altar fire]. If he wanted, he could lay his hands and let others throw [them] on the fire. He then went around the altar. From where did he begin? From the southeastern corner; from there he went to the northeastern, then to the northwestern and then to the southwestern. They there handed him the wine for libation. The deputy high priest stood on the corner/horn of the altar with the flags in his hand, and two priests on the table of the fats with two trumpets in their hands. They blew a teki’ah, a teru’ah and a teki’ah. They then went and stood by Ben Arza, one on his right hand and one on his left. When he bent down to make the libation the deputy high priest waved the flags and Ben Arza struck the cymbals and the Levites sang the psalm. When they came to a pause they blew a teki’ah, and the public bowed down. At every pause there was a teki’ah and at every teki’ah a bowing down. This was the order of the regular daily sacrifice for the service of our Lord. May it be His will that it be rebuilt speedily in our days, Amen."
21. Mishnah, Yoma, 1.1, 3.4, 5.1, 7.1, 7.4 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

1.1. Seven days before Yom HaKippurim they remove the high priest from his house to the chamber of the counselors and they set up another priest to take his place lest something should occur to him to disqualify him [from being able to worship]. Rabbi Judah said: they even prepare another wife for him in case his wife should die, as it says “And he shall make atonement for himself and for his house” (Leviticus 16:6): “his house” this refers to his wife. They said to him: if so there would be no end to the matter." 3.4. They spread out a linen sheet between him and the people. He stripped off [his clothes], went down and immersed himself, came up and dried himself. They brought him the golden garments, he put them on and sanctified his hands and feet. They brought him the tamid. He made the required cut and some one else finished it for him. He received the blood and sprinkled it. He went inside to smoke the morning incense and to trim the lamps; And to offer up the head and the limbs and the griddle cakes and the wine." 5.1. They brought out to him the ladle and the pan and he took two hands full [of incense] and put it into the ladle, a large [high priest] according to his size, a small one according to his size and thus was its measure. He took the pan in his right hand and the ladle in his left hand. He walked through the Hechal until he came to the place between the two curtains which separated the Holy from the Holy of Holies; between them was [a space of] one cubit. Rabbi Yose says: there was but one curtain, as it is said: “And the curtain shall serve you as a partition between the Holy and the Holy of Holies” (Exodus 26:33). The outer curtain was looped on the south side and the inner curtain on the north side. He walked along between them until he reached the north side. When he reached the north side he turned round to the south and went on along the curtain, to his left, until he reached the Ark. When he reached the Ark he put the pan of burning coals between the two poles. He heaped up the incense upon the coals and the whole house became full with smoke. He came out by the way he entered and in the outer house he uttered a short prayer. He did not make the prayer long so as not to frighten Israel." 7.1. The high priest [then] came to read. If he wished to read in linen garments, he reads, and if not he reads in his own white cloak. The synagogue attendant would take a Torah scroll and give it to the head of the synagogue, and the head of the synagogue gives it to deputy high priest, and the deputy high priest gives it to the high priest, and the high priest stands and receives it, and reads, [section] beginning] “After the death …” (Leviticus 16:1-34) and “But on the tenth…” (Leviticus 23:26-32). Then he would roll up the Torah scroll and put it in his bosom and say, “More than what I have read out before you is written here.” And “On the tenth …” (Numbers 29:7-11) which is in the Book of Numbers he recites by heart. And he recites on it eight benedictions: “For the law”, “For the Temple service,” “For thanksgiving,” “For the forgiveness of sins” and “For the Temple” on its own, and “For Israel” on its own and “For Jerusalem” on its own, “For the priests” on their own and “For the rest of the prayer.”" 7.4. He then sanctified his hands and feet, stripped off his clothes, went down and immersed himself, came up and dried himself. They brought him the white clothes, he put them on and sanctified his hands and his feet. Then he went in to bring out the ladle and the fire-pan. He then sanctified his hands and feet, stripped off his clothes, went down and immersed himself, came up and dry himself. They brought him the golden clothes, he put them on, sanctified his hands and feet, and went in to burn up the dusk incense, and takes care of the lamp. He sanctified his hands and feet and stripped, went down, immersed himself, came up and dried himself. They brought him his own clothes and he put them on. And they would accompany him to his house. And he would make a day of festivity for his friends whenever he came out of the Holy [of Holies] in peace."
22. Mishnah, Zevahim, 5.3, 6.5 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

5.3. [Concerning] public and private hatats: (These are the public hatats: the goats of new moons and festivals) They are slaughtered in the north, and their blood is received in ministering vessels in the north, and their blood requires four applications on the four corners [of the altar]. How was it done? He went up the ascent, turned to the surrounding walkway, and came to the south-east corner, then the north-east, then the north-west, and then the south-west. He would pour the residue of the blood out at the southern base. They were eaten within the hangings [of the Tabernacle], by male priests, prepared in any fashion, the same day and night, until midnight." 6.5. How was the olah of a bird sacrificed? He [the priest] ascended the ramp, and turned to the surrounding walkway, and made his way to the southeast horn. There he pinched its head at the back of the neck, and severed it, and drained out its blood on the wall of the altar. He took the head, turned the part where it was nipped to the altar, saturated it with salt, and threw it on to the fires [of the altar]. Then he came to the body, and removed the crop, the feathers, and the entrails that came out of it, and threw them on to the burning place. He tore [the body], but did not sever it in half, but if he did sever it, it is still valid. Then he saturated it [the body] with salt, and threw it on to the fires of the altar."
23. Mishnah, Shekalim, 3.2-3.3 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

3.2. In three baskets each of [the capacity of] three seahs they make the appropriation [of shekels] from the chamber. And on them was inscribed: Aleph, Beth, Gimmel. Rabbi Ishmael says: Greek was inscribed on them, alpha, beta, gamla. The one who made the appropriation did not enter the chamber wearing either a bordered cloak or shoes or sandals or tefillin or an amulet, lest if he became poor people might say that he became poor because of a sin committed in the chamber, or if he became rich people might say that he became rich from the appropriation in the chamber. For it is one’s duty to seem be free of blame before others as before God, as it is said: “And you shall be guiltless before the Lord and before Israel” (Numbers 32:22), and it says: “And you will find favor and good understanding in the eyes of God and man” (Proverbs 3:4)." 3.3. [The members] of Rabban Gamaliel’s household used to enter [the chamber] with their shekel between their fingers, and throw it in front of him who made the appropriation, while he who made the appropriation purposely pressed it into the basket. He who made the appropriation did not make it until he first said to them: “Should I make the appropriation?” And they say to him three times: “Make the appropriation! Make the appropriation! Make the appropriation!”"
24. New Testament, Acts, 16.13 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

16.13. On the Sabbath day we went forth outside of the city by a riverside, where we supposed there was a place of prayer, and we sat down, and spoke to the women who had come together.
25. Tosefta, Miqvaot, 5.7-5.8, 6.3-6.4 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

26. Tosefta, Negaim, 8.9 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

27. Tosefta, Kippurim, 1.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

1.1. Why do they separate the Kohen Gadol from his household to Lishkat Parhedrin. The explanation of Rabbi Yehuda Ben Betira is that he may be with his wife, and there is a doubt as to whether she is a Niddah and he would become impure in the seven days before Yom Kippur. There was another reading that he was taken to Lishkat Barvatan."
28. Tertullian, To The Heathen, 13 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

29. Babylonian Talmud, Pesahim, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

92a. והמלקט לו עצמות טובל ואוכל בקדשים,גר שנתגייר בע"פ ב"ש אומרים טובל ואוכל את פסחו לערב וב"ה אומרים הפורש מן הערלה כפורש מן הקבר:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big מ"ט קא סבר אנינות דלילה דרבנן וגבי פסח לא העמידו דבריהם במקום כרת גבי קדשים העמידו דבריהם במקום עשה:,השומע על מתו וכו': מלקט עצמות הא בעי הזאת שלישי ושביעי אימא שליקטו לו עצמות:,גר שנתגייר וכו': אמר רבה בר בר חנה א"ר יוחנן מחלוקת בערל נכרי,דב"ה סברי גזירה שמא יטמא לשנה הבאה ויאמר אישתקד מי לא טבלתי ואכלתי עכשיו נמי אטבול ואוכל ולא ידע דאשתקד נכרי הוה ולא מקבל טומאה עכשיו ישראל ומקבל טומאה,וב"ש סברי לא גזרינן אבל ערל ישראל דברי הכל טובל ואוכל את פסחו לערב ולא גזרינן ערל ישראל משום ערל נכרי,תניא נמי הכי אמר ר"ש בן אלעזר לא נחלקו ב"ש וב"ה על ערל ישראל שטובל ואוכל את פסחו לערב על מה נחלקו על ערל נכרי שב"ש אומרים טובל ואוכל את פסחו לערב וב"ה אומרים הפורש מן הערלה כפורש מן הקבר:,אמר רבא ערל הזאה ואיזמל העמידו דבריהן במקום כרת אונן ומצורע ובית הפרס לא העמידו דבריהן במקום כרת,ערל הא דאמרן,הזאה דאמר מר הזאה שבות ואינו דוחה את השבת,איזמל דתניא כשם שאין מביאין אותו דרך רשות הרבים כך אין מביאין אותו דרך גגות ודרך חצרות ודרך קרפיפות,אונן הא דאמרן,מצורע מאי היא דתניא מצורע שחל שמיני שלו בערב הפסח וראה קרי בו ביום טובל ואוכל,אמרו חכמים אע"פ שטבול יום אינו נכנס זה נכנס מוטב יבא עשה שיש בו כרת וידחה עשה שאין בו כרת,וא"ר יוחנן דבר תורה אפילו עשה אין בו שנאמר (דברי הימים ב כ, ה) ויעמד יהושפט בקהל יהודה וירושלים בבית ה' לפני החצר החדשה מאי חצר החדשה שחדשו בו דבר ואמרו טבול יום לא יכנס במחנה לויה,בית הפרס דתנן ושוין ב"ש וב"ה 92a. bAnd one who gathersthe bbonesof his parents, who are buried in a temporary location for their flesh to decay and who is moving them to a permanent burial place must also observe a day of acute mourning by rabbinic decree. These mourners bimmerse and eatall types of bsacrificial foodat night. Since in these cases, even during the day, the mourning is by rabbinic decree, the Sages did not extend it into the evening.,With regard to ba convert who converted on Passover eve, Beit Shammai say: He immerses and eats his Paschal lamb in the evening. And Beit Hillel say: One who separates from the foreskinby being circumcised is ritually impure, blike one who separates from the graveafter coming in contact with a corpse. Consequently, he must first observe the seven-day purification process necessary to remove ritual impurity imparted by a corpse. Only then, from the eighth day onward, may he partake of sacrificial meat., strongGEMARA: /strong bWhat is the reasonthat an acute mourner may eat the Paschal lamb in the evening? The itannaof the mishna bholdsthat the observance of bacute mourning at nightafter the day of one’s relative’s death bis a rabbinicprohibition. bAnd with regard to the Paschal lamb,the Sages waived their prohibition because bthey did not uphold their statementprohibiting consumption of sacrificial food bin a situationin which doing so would violate a prohibition that carries the punishment bof ikaret /i,as is the case with one who neglects to offer the Paschal lamb. On the other hand, bwith regard toother bsacrificial food,they maintained the prohibition, because bthey upheld their statement in a situationin which neglecting to eat the sacrificial food entails only the neglect of ba positive mitzva. /b,We learned in the mishna: bOne who hears aboutthe death of bhis deadrelative more than thirty days after the death and one who gathers bones immerse and eat sacrificial food in the evening. The Gemara expresses surprise: Can this apply to bone who gathers bones? Butby doing so he came in contact with the bones of a corpse, and bhe needs sprinkling onthe bthird and seventhdays in order to become ritually pure. The Gemara answers: Emend the teaching of the mishna and instead bsay:One bfor whom they gathered bones,meaning that other people gathered the bones of his parents to transfer them to a new grave but he himself did not touch them, has a rabbinical requirement to observe a day of acute mourning, but he is not ritually impure.,We learned in the mishna: With regard to ba convert who convertedon Passover eve, there is a dispute between Beit Shammai and Beit Hillel as to whether he may immerse and eat the Paschal sacrifice in the evening. The Gemara discusses the scope of this dispute: bRabba bar bar Ḥana saidthat bRabbi Yoḥa saidthat bthe dispute is about an uncircumcised gentilethat was circumcised and converted on Passover eve., bBeit Hillel holdthat bthere is a rabbinic decreedue to a concern that bperhaps he will become contaminatedby a corpse bin the following year and he will say: Last year,even though I had come in contact with a corpse previous to Passover, bdid I not immerse and eatthe Paschal lamb without completing the purification process for impurity imparted by a corpse? bNow also, I will immerse and eat. And he does not knowand understand bthat last year,before his conversion on Passover eve, bhe was a gentile andtherefore bhe was not susceptible to ritual impurity,because gentiles do not contract ritual impurity according to Torah law, but bnow he is a Jew and is susceptible to ritual impurity.Therefore, the Sages decreed that he should complete the seven-day purification process for impurity imparted by a corpse before he can partake of sacrificial food in order to avoid such a mistake., bAnd Beit Shammai hold that we do not make a decreedue to this concern. bButwith regard to ban uncircumcised Jewwho for some reason had not been circumcised until Passover eve, ball agree that he may immerse and eat his Paschal lamb in the evening.The concern that he will err the following year does not apply, band we do not decreein the case of an buncircumcised Jewwho was circumcised on Passover eve, bdue toconcern that the case will be confused with that of ban uncircumcised gentilewho was circumcised and converted on Passover eve., bThat was also taughtin a ibaraita /i: bRabbi Shimon ben Elazar said: Beit Shammai and Beit Hillel did not disagree aboutthe fact that ban uncircumcised Jewwho was circumcised on Passover eve bmay immerse and eat his Paschal lamb in the evening. With regard to what did they disagree? With regard to an uncircumcised gentilewho converted on Passover eve. bBeit Shammai saythat bhe may immerse and eat his Paschal lamb in the evening, and Beit Hillel saythat bone who separates from the foreskin isritually impure blike one who separates from the grave. /b, bRava said:With regard to ban uncircumcisedgentile who converted, bsprinklingthe purification waters to purify impurity imparted by a corpse, banda circumcision bscalpel [ iizmel /i],the Sages bupheld their statementeven bin a situationin which doing so would violate a prohibition that carries the punishment bof ikaret /i.However, with regard to ban acute mourner, a leper, and a ibeit haperas /i,an area in which a doubt exists concerning the location of a grave or a corpse, bthey did not uphold their statement in a situationin which doing so would violate a prohibition that carries the punishment bof ikaret /i. /b,The Gemara details all the cases Rava referred to: The case of ban uncircumcisedgentile who converted is bas we have saidpreviously. Beit Hillel disqualify a convert from offering the Paschal lamb, despite the fact that neglecting to do so renders one liable to receive ikaret /i.,The case of bsprinklingthe purification waters to purify impurity imparted by a corpse is bas the Master saidin a mishna: bSprinklingis prohibited on Shabbat due to brabbinic decree, and it does not override Shabbateven on Passover eve, despite the fact that one who requires sprinkling will then be unable to offer the Paschal lamb.,The case of the circumcision bscalpelis bas it was taughtin a ibaraita /i: If a circumcision scalpel was not brought to the location of the baby from before Shabbat, bjust as we may not bring it through a public domainin violation of Torah law, bsotoo bwe may not bring it through roofs, through courtyards, and through enclosures,even though carrying in this manner is prohibited by rabbinic decree. One who has an uncircumcised member of his household may not bring a Paschal lamb and is liable for ikaret /i. The Sages maintained the prohibition of carrying the scalpel in all circumstances, even when doing so would mean the baby would remain uncircumcised on Passover eve, preventing his household from offering a Paschal lamb.,The Gemara lists the cases where the Sages waived their prohibition in the face of a prohibition carrying the punishment of ikaret /i: The case of an bacute mourner is that which we saidin the mishna.,The case of the bleper, what is it?It is bas it was taughtin a ibaraita /i: bA leperis ritually impure and must undergo an involved, eight-day purification process, which culminates on the eighth day with the bringing of various offerings in the Temple. If his beighth day occurs on Passover eve,such that it would be possible to bring his offerings and be fit to partake of the Paschal lamb that evening, band he saw an occurrenceof semen bon that day,and one who experiences such a discharge is ritually impure and prohibited from entering the Temple, bhe may immersein order to purify himself from the discharge and then bring his offerings band eatthe Paschal lamb at night., bThe Sages said: Althoughnormally, with regard to ritual impurity from seminal discharge, bone who has immersed on that day may not enterthe Temple until nightfall, bthis one may enter.The reason is that bit is better for a positive mitzva that hasa punishment of ikaret /i,i.e., the bringing of the Paschal lamb, bto come and override a positive mitzva that does not havea punishment of ikaret /i,i.e., the mitzva of “They shall send out from the camp every leper and whoever has had issue, and whoever is unclean by the dead” (Numbers 5:2), which requires the removal from the Temple of one who has immersed that day and will become pure only upon nightfall., bAndfurthermore, bRabbi Yoḥa said: By Torah law, there is not even a positive mitzvathat restricts one who has immersed that day and will become pure only upon nightfall from entering the Temple, bas it is stated: “And Jehoshaphat stood in the congregation of Judea and Jerusalem, in the House of the Lord, before the new courtyard”(II Chronicles 20:5). bWhatis indicated by identifying the courtyards as bthe new courtyard?It indicates bthat they innovated something in it, and they said: One who has immersed on that daybut will become pure only upon nightfall bmay not enter the Levite camp,which includes the entire Temple Mount. This suggests that the prohibition is of rabbinic origin and is not a positive mitzva.,The case of a ibeit haperas /i,in which the Sages did not uphold their decree, is bas it was taughtin a mishna: bAnd Beit Shammai and Beit Hillel agree /b
30. Babylonian Talmud, Yevamot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

71b. מעת לעת,והתני לודאה יום הבראתו כיום הולדו מאי לאו מה יום הולדו לא בעינן מעת לעת אף יום הבראתו לא בעינן מעת לעת,לא עדיף יום הבראתו מיום הולדו דאילו יום הולדו לא בעינן מעת לעת ואילו יום הבראתו בעינן מעת לעת,רב פפא אמר כגון דכאיב ליה עיניה לינוקא ואיתפח ביני וביני,רבא אמר כגון שהיו אביו ואמו חבושין בבית האסורין,רב כהנא בריה דרב נחמיה אמר כגון טומטום שנקרע ונמצא זכר ביני וביני,רב שרביא אמר כגון שהוציא ראשו חוץ לפרוזדור,ומי חיי והתניא כיון שיצא לאויר העולם נפתח הסתום ונסתם הפתוח שאלמלא כן אין יכול לחיות אפילו שעה אחת,הכא במאי עסקינן כגון דזנתיה אישתא אישתא דמאן אילימא אישתא דידיה אי הכי כל שבעה בעי אלא דזנתיה אישתא דאימיה ואיבעית אימא ה"מ היכא דלא מעוי אבל היכא דמעוי מחייא חיי,אמר ר' יוחנן משום רבי בנאה ערל מקבל הזאה שכן מצינו באבותינו שקבלו הזאה כשהן ערלים שנאמר (יהושע ד, יט) והעם עלו מן הירדן בעשור לחדש הראשון,בעשרה לא מהילי משום חולשא דאורחא הזאה אימת עביד להו לאו כשהן ערלים,ודלמא לא עבוד פסח כלל לא ס"ד דכתיב (יהושע ה, י) ויעשו את הפסח,מתקיף לה מר זוטרא ודלמא פסח הבא בטומאה היה א"ל רב אשי תניא בהדיא מלו וטבלו ועשו פסחיהן בטהרה,אמר רבה בר יצחק אמר רב לא ניתנה פריעת מילה לאברהם אבינו שנאמר (יהושע ה, ב) בעת ההיא אמר ה' אל יהושע עשה לך חרבות צורים וגו',ודלמא הנך דלא מהול דכתיב (יהושע ה, ה) כי מולים היו כל העם היוצאים וכל העם הילודים וגו',א"כ מאי שוב אלא לאו לפריעה ומאי שנית,לאקושי סוף מילה לתחלת מילה מה תחלת מילה מעכבת אף סוף מילה מעכבין בו דתנן אלו הן ציצין המעכבין את המילה בשר החופה את [רוב] העטרה ואין אוכל בתרומה,אמר רבינא ואיתימא רב ירמיה בר אבא אמר רב בשר החופה את רוב גובהה של עטרה,ובמדבר מאי טעמא לא מהול איבעית אימא משום חולשא דאורחא 71b. that during the recovery period one must wait bfromthe btimethe seven days began btothe exact same btimeseven days later, i.e., seven complete twenty-four-hour periods. Therefore, if the child recovered in the afternoon of a particular day, one is required to wait until that same time of day a week later, and only then is he circumcised.,The Gemara asks: bDidn’tthe Sage bfrom Lod teachthat bthe day of his healing is like the day of his birth? What, is it notthat bjust aswith regard to bthe day of his birth we need notwait bfromthe btimehe is born btothe same btimeon the eighth day to circumcise him, bso too,with regard to bthe day of his healing we need notwait bfromthe btimehe heals btothe same btimeseven days later?,The Gemara refutes this argument: bNo, the day of his healing is superior to the day of his birth: Whilefrom bthe day of his birthuntil circumcision bwe need notwait bfromthe btimehe is born btothe same btimeon the eighth day to circumcise him, i.e., the child may be circumcised already at the start of the eighth day, from bthe day of his healing we needto wait seven complete days bfromthe btimehe heals btothe same btimeseven days later.,The Gemara suggests other circumstances where a male child may be present at the time of the eating of the Paschal lamb but absent at the time of its preparation. bRav Pappa said:This would take place, bfor example, if the baby’s eye hurt himon the eighth day following his birth, which occurred on the eve of Passover, band he recovered in the meantimebetween the time of the preparation of the Paschal lamb and the time of its eating. In the case of a minor ailment such as eye pain, circumcision is not performed as long as the pain persists, but it may be performed as soon as the child has recovered, without first waiting seven days., bRava said:This would occur, bfor example, ifthe infant’s bfather and mother were incarcerated in a prisonat the time of the preparation of the Paschal lamb, and they slaughtered their offering by way of an agent, and there was no one available to circumcise the infant, and the parents were released from prison before the time for eating the Paschal lamb arrived., bRav Kahana, son of Rav Neḥemya, said:This would occur, bfor example,if the infant was ba itumtum /i,one whose external sexual organs are indeterminate and it is unclear whether the infant is male or female, and bin the meantimebetween the time of the preparation of the Paschal lamb and the time of its eating, bhe was tornopen, his gender was revealed, band he was foundto be ba male,so that the obligation to circumcise him went into effect., bRav Sherevya said:This would occur, bfor example, ifseven days earlier the baby had already bextended his head,but not the rest of his body, bout of the corridorto his mother’s womb. In such a situation he is considered born, but he is fit for circumcision only after his entire body has emerged. If this occurs between the time of the preparation of the Paschal lamb and the time of its eating, the child’s father may not eat of the offering until he has circumcised his son.,The Gemara poses a question: bButin a case such as this, bcanthe child blivefor such a long period with only his head outside? bIsn’t it taughtin a ibaraita /i: bOncea baby bemerges into the air of the world,that which had been bclosed,the mouth and nostrils, bopen, andthat which had been bopen,the umbilical cord, from which the child had previously received its sustece, bcloses, as, if thisdid bnotoccur bit could not live for even an hour,as it has no other way to receive nutrition. If so, this child whose head alone emerged from his mother’s womb would certainly starve, as it cannot take in any sustece.,The Gemara answers: bWith whatcase bare we dealing here?It is, bfor example,a case bwhere he was sustained bythe heat of ba feverand therefore did not need to eat. The Gemara asks: bWhose fever? If we sayit is bhis own fever,i.e., the baby himself had a fever, bif so,it should be bnecessaryto wait ba full sevendays after his entire body exits the womb before he can be circumcised, in accordance with the ihalakhagoverning an infant who was ill. bRather,it must be bthat he was sustained by his mother’s fever. And if you wish, saythat bthisprinciple that a child cannot survive in such conditions bapplies only when he does not cry, but when he cries hecan blive,as his crying indicates that he has already started to breathe.,§ bRabbi Yoḥa said in the name of Rabbi Bena’a: An uncircumcisedman bmay receivethe bsprinklingof the water mixed with the ashes of a red heifer in order to purify himself from ritual impurity imparted by a human corpse, as we do not say that this sprinkling is ineffective as long as he is uncircumcised. bAs we found that our forefathers receivedthe bsprinkling when they were uncircumcised, as it is stated: “And the people came up out of the Jordan on the tenth day of the first month”(Joshua 4:19), and the verses go on to relate that the men were all later circumcised before sacrificing the Paschal lamb on the fourteenth (see Joshua 5:10).,The Gemara clarifies: bOn the tenthday itself bthey did not circumcisethemselves bdue to the wearinesscaused by btheir journey. When,then, bwasthe bsprinkling done to themin order to remove the ritual impurity resulting from contact with a corpse, so that they would be fit to bring the Paschal lamb on the fourteenth? The first sprinkling must have taken place no later than the tenth, as there is a four-day waiting period between the first and second sprinklings. In that case, bwasn’tthe initial sprinkling performed bwhen they werestill buncircumcised?This proves that an one who is uncircumcised may receive the sprinkling of the purification waters.,The Gemara counters: bBut perhaps they did not sacrificethe bPaschal lamb at all.The Gemara answers: bThis cannot enter your mind, as it is written: “And they kept the Passover”(Joshua 5:10), meaning they brought the Paschal lamb., bMar Zutra strongly objects to this: But perhaps it was a Paschal lamb that comes ina state of bimpurity?If the majority of the community is ritually impure due to contact with a corpse, they may all sacrifice their Paschal lambs even though they are ritually impure, and there is no need for any sprinkling. bRav Ashi said to him: It is taught explicitlyin a ibaraitathat bthey circumcisedthemselves, bimmersedin a ritual bath, band performedthe ritual of btheir Paschal lambs ina state of bpurity. /b, bRabba bar Yitzḥak saidthat bRav said: Themitzva of buncoveringthe corona during bcircumcision was not given to our Patriarch Abraham.The command given to Avraham included only the mitzva of circumcision itself, i.e., the removal of the foreskin, but not the uncovering of the corona, i.e., the folding back of the thin membrane that lies under the foreskin. bAs it is stated: “At that time the Lord said to Joshua: Make yourself knives of flint,and circumcise again the children of Israel a second time” (Joshua 5:2). Why was it necessary to circumcise them? Apparently, it is because before the Torah was given on Mount Sinai, some of them had been circumcised in the manner of Abraham, without uncovering the corona, and therefore they needed to be circumcised a second time in accordance with the Torah law that requires uncovering the corona.,The Gemara asks: How may it be inferred that those who were already circumcised required a second circumcision? bPerhapsthe verse is referring to bthose who had not been circumcised at all, as it is written: “For all the people who came out were circumcised; but all the people who were bornin the wilderness…had not been circumcised” (Joshua 5:5)?,The Gemara responds: bIf so,that it was only those who had never been circumcised who required circumcision, bwhat isthe meaning of “circumcise bagain,”which indicates that they had to be circumcised a second time? bRather, is it notreferring bto uncoveringthe corona? bAnd what isthe meaning of b“a second time,”stated in the same verse? This phrase appears redundant, as the verse already stated: “Circumcise again.”,The Gemara explains: It comes bto equate the end of circumcision,when it is necessary to circumcise a second time in order to correct an improperly performed circumcision, bwith the beginning of circumcision: Just asan incomplete performance at bthe beginning of circumcision invalidatesthe circumcision, bso too,incomplete performance at bthe end of circumcision,i.e., the foreskin not being fully removed, binvalidatesthe circumcision. bAs we learnedin a mishna ( iShabbat137a): bThese are the shredsof flesh bthat invalidate the circumcisionif they are not cut. The essential element of circumcision is the removal of bthe flesh that covers most of the corona,and a child who was not circumcised in this manner is considered uncircumcised, band he does not partake of iteruma /i. /b,With regard to this issue bRavina said, and some sayit was bRav Yirmeya bar Abbawho said that bRav said:When the mishna mentioned most of the corona, it meant bthe flesh that covers most of the height of the coronaas well as most of its circumference.,The Gemara returns to the incident involving Joshua. bAnd what is the reasonthat bthey did not circumcisethemselves bin the wildernessafter the Torah had already been given? The Gemara answers: bIf you wish, sayit was bdue to the wearinesscaused by btheir journey.Since they were traveling continuously, they were too weak to undergo circumcision.
31. Babylonian Talmud, Yoma, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

35a. big strongגמ׳ /strong /big מאי פרוה אמר רב יוסף פרוה אמגושא,פרסו סדין של בוץ מאי שנא של בוץ אמר רב כהנא כדי שיכיר שעבודת היום בבגדי בוץ,בשחר היה לובש פלוסין של שמונה עשר וכו' ותנא מניינא אתא לאשמועינן הא קמ"ל דבציר מהני לא נעביד הא אי בציר מהני וטפי אהני לית לן בה,דכולי עלמא מיהת דשחר עדיפי מנא לן אמר רב הונא בריה דרב עילאי אמר קרא (ויקרא טז, ד) בד בד בד בד מובחר בבד 35a. strongGEMARA: /strong bWhat isthe meaning of the name iParva /i? Rav Yosef said: iParva /iis the name of a Persian bsorcerer,whose name is associated with the chamber due to a particular incident.,§ It was stated in the mishna: bThey spreadthere ba sheet of fine linen.The Gemara asks: bWhat is differentthat the sheet that they spread was made of bfine linen? Rav Kahana said:It was bso thatthe High Priest bwill be awareand remember bthat the service of the dayis performed bin fine linen. /b,§ The mishna continues: bIn the morning, he would weargarments bworth eighteen imaneh /i, and in the afternoon he would wear garments worth twelve imaneh /i. In total, the clothes were worth thirty imaneh /i. The Gemara expresses surprise at the total in the mishna: bDoes the itannacome to tell us the tallythat eighteen and twelve equal thirty? The Gemara answers: bThiscomes to bteach us thatone may bnot fashiongarments worth bless thanthe total of bthesemorning and afternoon garments. The Gemara elaborates: bIf one decreasesthe value bof thesemorning garments, and braisesthe value bof thoseafternoon garments, bwe have noproblem bwith it.One can distribute the total of thirty imanehbetween the two sets of garments in any manner that he chooses.,The Gemara comments: bHowever, everyone,both Rabbi Meir and the Rabbis, bagrees thatthe clothes of the bmorning are superiorand must be more valuable than those of the afternoon. bFrom where do wederive this? bRav Huna, son of Rav Ilai, saidthat with regard to the linen garments donned by the High Priest in the morning, bthe verse states:“He shall be dressed in a sacred blinentunic, and with blinentrousers next to his flesh, and he shall be girded with a blinenbelt, and he shall wear ba linenmitre” (Leviticus 16:4). From the fact that the verse repeats the term linen four times it is derived that the bchoicest linenshould be used for this purpose.


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
acts, synagogues, synagogues, near water Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 334
asham. see reparation offering ashes' Balberg, Blood for Thought: The Reinvention of Sacrifice in Early Rabbinic Literature (2017) 217
bathhouse Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 334
cistern, stepped Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 334
communitas Poorthuis and Schwartz, A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity (2006) 123
day of atonement, versus daily sacrificial routine Balberg, Blood for Thought: The Reinvention of Sacrifice in Early Rabbinic Literature (2017) 217
eliav, yaron, on the temple mount in the mishnah Cohn, The Memory of the Temple and the Making of the Rabbis (2013) 174
goats, on day of atonement Balberg, Blood for Thought: The Reinvention of Sacrifice in Early Rabbinic Literature (2017) 217
hajj Poorthuis and Schwartz, A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity (2006) 123
high priest Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 334
high priest (jewish) Secunda, The Iranian Talmud: Reading the Bavli in Its Sasanian Context (2014) 89; Secunda, The Talmud's Red Fence: Menstrual Impurity and Difference in Babylonian Judaism and its Sasanian Context (2020), 89
historicity Secunda, The Iranian Talmud: Reading the Bavli in Its Sasanian Context (2014) 89; Secunda, The Talmud's Red Fence: Menstrual Impurity and Difference in Babylonian Judaism and its Sasanian Context (2020), 89
immersion, in m. pesahim, yerushalmi and bavli, as proselyte baptism Cohen, The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism (2010) 320
immersion, in m. pesahim, yerushalmi and bavli, as statutory immersion required of all about to enter the temple Cohen, The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism (2010) 320
lottery (pais) Balberg, Blood for Thought: The Reinvention of Sacrifice in Early Rabbinic Literature (2017) 217
magic Secunda, The Iranian Talmud: Reading the Bavli in Its Sasanian Context (2014) 89; Secunda, The Talmud's Red Fence: Menstrual Impurity and Difference in Babylonian Judaism and its Sasanian Context (2020), 89
maon (judaea) Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 334
maon (nirim) Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 334
meal Poorthuis and Schwartz, A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity (2006) 123
merot, stepped cistern Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 334
miqveh (ritual bath, stepped cistern) Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 334
morning Balberg, Blood for Thought: The Reinvention of Sacrifice in Early Rabbinic Literature (2017) 217
night, continuity with day Balberg, Blood for Thought: The Reinvention of Sacrifice in Early Rabbinic Literature (2017) 217
parhedrin Secunda, The Iranian Talmud: Reading the Bavli in Its Sasanian Context (2014) 89; Secunda, The Talmud's Red Fence: Menstrual Impurity and Difference in Babylonian Judaism and its Sasanian Context (2020), 89
parva Secunda, The Iranian Talmud: Reading the Bavli in Its Sasanian Context (2014) 89; Secunda, The Talmud's Red Fence: Menstrual Impurity and Difference in Babylonian Judaism and its Sasanian Context (2020), 89
pharisees Poorthuis and Schwartz, A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity (2006) 123
philo of alexandria Poorthuis and Schwartz, A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity (2006) 123
priesthood Poorthuis and Schwartz, A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity (2006) 123
purity Poorthuis and Schwartz, A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity (2006) 123
rabbinic law Secunda, The Iranian Talmud: Reading the Bavli in Its Sasanian Context (2014) 89; Secunda, The Talmud's Red Fence: Menstrual Impurity and Difference in Babylonian Judaism and its Sasanian Context (2020), 89
rashi (r. shlomo yiẓḥaqi) Secunda, The Iranian Talmud: Reading the Bavli in Its Sasanian Context (2014) 89; Secunda, The Talmud's Red Fence: Menstrual Impurity and Difference in Babylonian Judaism and its Sasanian Context (2020), 89
ritual bath Poorthuis and Schwartz, A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity (2006) 123
samaritans, chronicles Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 334
samaritans, ritual bath (miqveh) Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 334
susiya synagogue, water installations Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 334
synagogue architecture, atriums and water installations Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 334
tamid, tractate, versus tractate yoma Balberg, Blood for Thought: The Reinvention of Sacrifice in Early Rabbinic Literature (2017) 217
temple, mount Poorthuis and Schwartz, A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity (2006) 123
temple Poorthuis and Schwartz, A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity (2006) 123
temples Secunda, The Iranian Talmud: Reading the Bavli in Its Sasanian Context (2014) 89; Secunda, The Talmud's Red Fence: Menstrual Impurity and Difference in Babylonian Judaism and its Sasanian Context (2020), 89
tertullian Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 334
water, location of synagogues near Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 334
yom kippur, temple Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 334
yoma, tractate, versus tractate tamid Balberg, Blood for Thought: The Reinvention of Sacrifice in Early Rabbinic Literature (2017) 217
yosef, rav Secunda, The Iranian Talmud: Reading the Bavli in Its Sasanian Context (2014) 89; Secunda, The Talmud's Red Fence: Menstrual Impurity and Difference in Babylonian Judaism and its Sasanian Context (2020), 89
zoroastrian priests Secunda, The Talmud's Red Fence: Menstrual Impurity and Difference in Babylonian Judaism and its Sasanian Context (2020), 89
zoroastrianism, as similar to jewish priests and rabbis Secunda, The Iranian Talmud: Reading the Bavli in Its Sasanian Context (2014) 89; Secunda, The Talmud's Red Fence: Menstrual Impurity and Difference in Babylonian Judaism and its Sasanian Context (2020), 89
ḥananel ben ḥushiel of kairouan, rabbi Secunda, The Iranian Talmud: Reading the Bavli in Its Sasanian Context (2014) 89; Secunda, The Talmud's Red Fence: Menstrual Impurity and Difference in Babylonian Judaism and its Sasanian Context (2020), 89