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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



8045
Mishnah, Yevamot, 8.3


עַמּוֹנִי וּמוֹאָבִי, אֲסוּרִים, וְאִסּוּרָן אִסּוּר עוֹלָם, אֲבָל נְקֵבוֹתֵיהֶם מֻתָּרוֹת מִיָּד. מִצְרִי וַאֲדוֹמִי אֵינָם אֲסוּרִים אֶלָּא עַד שְׁלֹשָׁה דוֹרוֹת, אֶחָד זְכָרִים וְאֶחָד נְקֵבוֹת. רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן מַתִּיר אֶת הַנְּקֵבוֹת מִיָּד. אָמַר רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן, קַל וָחֹמֶר הַדְּבָרִים, וּמָה אִם בִּמְקוֹם שֶׁאָסַר אֶת הַזְּכָרִים אִסּוּר עוֹלָם, הִתִּיר אֶת הַנְּקֵבוֹת מִיָּד, מְקוֹם שֶׁלֹּא אָסַר אֶת הַזְּכָרִים אֶלָּא עַד שְׁלֹשָׁה דוֹרוֹת, אֵינוֹ דִין שֶׁנַּתִּיר אֶת הַנְּקֵבוֹת מִיָּד. אָמְרוּ לוֹ, אִם הֲלָכָה נְקַבֵּל, וְאִם לַדִּין, יֵשׁ תְּשׁוּבָה. אָמַר לָהֶם, לֹא כִי, הֲלָכָה אֲנִי אוֹמֵר. מַמְזֵרִין וּנְתִינִין, אֲסוּרִין, וְאִסּוּרָן אִסּוּר עוֹלָם, אֶחָד זְכָרִים, וְאֶחָד נְקֵבוֹת:An Ammonite and a Moabite are forbidden [to enter into the congregation of the Lord] and their prohibition is for ever. However, their women are permitted at once. An Egyptian and an Edomite are forbidden only until the third generation, whether they are males or females. Rabbi Shimon permits their women immediately. Said Rabbi Shimon: This is a kal vehomer: if where the males are forbidden for all time the females are permitted immediately, where the males are forbidden only until the third generation how much more should the females be permitted immediately. They said to him: If this is a halakhah, we shall accept it; but if it is only a logical reference, there is a refutation. He replied: This is not so, I am in fact saying a halakhah. Mamzerim and nethinim are forbidden, and their prohibition is forever, whether they be males or females.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

40 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 7.3-7.4, 23.4-23.9 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

7.3. וְלֹא תִתְחַתֵּן בָּם בִּתְּךָ לֹא־תִתֵּן לִבְנוֹ וּבִתּוֹ לֹא־תִקַּח לִבְנֶךָ׃ 7.4. כִּי־יָסִיר אֶת־בִּנְךָ מֵאַחֲרַי וְעָבְדוּ אֱלֹהִים אֲחֵרִים וְחָרָה אַף־יְהוָה בָּכֶם וְהִשְׁמִידְךָ מַהֵר׃ 23.4. לֹא־יָבֹא עַמּוֹנִי וּמוֹאָבִי בִּקְהַל יְהוָה גַּם דּוֹר עֲשִׂירִי לֹא־יָבֹא לָהֶם בִּקְהַל יְהוָה עַד־עוֹלָם׃ 23.5. עַל־דְּבַר אֲשֶׁר לֹא־קִדְּמוּ אֶתְכֶם בַּלֶּחֶם וּבַמַּיִם בַּדֶּרֶךְ בְּצֵאתְכֶם מִמִּצְרָיִם וַאֲשֶׁר שָׂכַר עָלֶיךָ אֶת־בִּלְעָם בֶּן־בְּעוֹר מִפְּתוֹר אֲרַם נַהֲרַיִם לְקַלְלֶךָּ׃ 23.6. וְלֹא־אָבָה יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לִשְׁמֹעַ אֶל־בִּלְעָם וַיַּהֲפֹךְ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לְּךָ אֶת־הַקְּלָלָה לִבְרָכָה כִּי אֲהֵבְךָ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ׃ 23.7. לֹא־תִדְרֹשׁ שְׁלֹמָם וְטֹבָתָם כָּל־יָמֶיךָ לְעוֹלָם׃ 23.8. לֹא־תְתַעֵב אֲדֹמִי כִּי אָחִיךָ הוּא לֹא־תְתַעֵב מִצְרִי כִּי־גֵר הָיִיתָ בְאַרְצוֹ׃ 23.9. בָּנִים אֲשֶׁר־יִוָּלְדוּ לָהֶם דּוֹר שְׁלִישִׁי יָבֹא לָהֶם בִּקְהַל יְהוָה׃ 7.3. neither shalt thou make marriages with them: thy daughter thou shalt not give unto his son, nor his daughter shalt thou take unto thy son." 7.4. For he will turn away thy son from following Me, that they may serve other gods; so will the anger of the LORD be kindled against you, and He will destroy thee quickly." 23.4. An Ammonite or a Moabite shall not enter into the assembly of the LORD; even to the tenth generation shall none of them enter into the assembly of the LORD for ever;" 23.5. because they met you not with bread and with water in the way, when ye came forth out of Egypt; and because they hired against thee Balaam the son of Beor from Pethor of Aram-naharaim, to curse thee." 23.6. Nevertheless the LORD thy God would not hearken unto Balaam; but the LORD thy God turned the curse into a blessing unto thee, because the LORD thy God loved thee." 23.7. Thou shalt not seek their peace nor their prosperity all thy days for ever." 23.8. Thou shalt not abhor an Edomite, for he is thy brother; thou shalt not abhor an Egyptian, because thou wast a stranger in his land." 23.9. The children of the third generation that are born unto them may enter into the assembly of the LORD."
2. Hebrew Bible, Esther, 8.17, 9.27 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

8.17. וּבְכָל־מְדִינָה וּמְדִינָה וּבְכָל־עִיר וָעִיר מְקוֹם אֲשֶׁר דְּבַר־הַמֶּלֶךְ וְדָתוֹ מַגִּיעַ שִׂמְחָה וְשָׂשׂוֹן לַיְּהוּדִים מִשְׁתֶּה וְיוֹם טוֹב וְרַבִּים מֵעַמֵּי הָאָרֶץ מִתְיַהֲדִים כִּי־נָפַל פַּחַד־הַיְּהוּדִים עֲלֵיהֶם׃ 9.27. קִיְּמוּ וקבל [וְקִבְּלוּ] הַיְּהוּדִים עֲלֵיהֶם וְעַל־זַרְעָם וְעַל כָּל־הַנִּלְוִים עֲלֵיהֶם וְלֹא יַעֲבוֹר לִהְיוֹת עֹשִׂים אֵת שְׁנֵי הַיָּמִים הָאֵלֶּה כִּכְתָבָם וְכִזְמַנָּם בְּכָל־שָׁנָה וְשָׁנָה׃ 8.17. And in every province, and in every city, whithersoever the king’s commandment and his decree came, the Jews had gladness and joy, a feast and a good day. And many from among the peoples of the land became Jews; for the fear of the Jews was fallen upon them." 9.27. the Jews ordained, and took upon them, and upon their seed, and upon all such as joined themselves unto them, so as it should not fail, that they would keep these two days according to the writing thereof, and according to the appointed time thereof, every year;"
3. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 9.25-9.26, 34.13-34.17 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

9.25. וַיֹּאמֶר אָרוּר כְּנָעַן עֶבֶד עֲבָדִים יִהְיֶה לְאֶחָיו׃ 9.26. וַיֹּאמֶר בָּרוּךְ יְהֹוָה אֱלֹהֵי שֵׁם וִיהִי כְנַעַן עֶבֶד לָמוֹ׃ 34.13. וַיַּעֲנוּ בְנֵי־יַעֲקֹב אֶת־שְׁכֶם וְאֶת־חֲמוֹר אָבִיו בְּמִרְמָה וַיְדַבֵּרוּ אֲשֶׁר טִמֵּא אֵת דִּינָה אֲחֹתָם׃ 34.14. וַיֹּאמְרוּ אֲלֵיהֶם לֹא נוּכַל לַעֲשׂוֹת הַדָּבָר הַזֶּה לָתֵת אֶת־אֲחֹתֵנוּ לְאִישׁ אֲשֶׁר־לוֹ עָרְלָה כִּי־חֶרְפָּה הִוא לָנוּ׃ 34.15. אַךְ־בְּזֹאת נֵאוֹת לָכֶם אִם תִּהְיוּ כָמֹנוּ לְהִמֹּל לָכֶם כָּל־זָכָר׃ 34.16. וְנָתַנּוּ אֶת־בְּנֹתֵינוּ לָכֶם וְאֶת־בְּנֹתֵיכֶם נִקַּח־לָנוּ וְיָשַׁבְנוּ אִתְּכֶם וְהָיִינוּ לְעַם אֶחָד׃ 34.17. וְאִם־לֹא תִשְׁמְעוּ אֵלֵינוּ לְהִמּוֹל וְלָקַחְנוּ אֶת־בִּתֵּנוּ וְהָלָכְנוּ׃ 9.25. And he said: Cursed be Canaan; a servant of servants shall he be unto his brethren." 9.26. And he said: Blessed be the LORD, the God of Shem; And let Canaan be their servant." 34.13. And the sons of Jacob answered Shechem and Hamor his father with guile, and spoke, because he had defiled Dinah their sister," 34.14. and said unto them: ‘We cannot do this thing, to give our sister to one that is uncircumcised; for that were a reproach unto us." 34.15. Only on this condition will we consent unto you: if ye will be as we are, that every male of you be circumcised;" 34.16. then will we give our daughters unto you, and we will take your daughters to us, and we will dwell with you, and we will become one people." 34.17. But if ye will not hearken unto us, to be circumcised; then will we take our daughter, and we will be gone.’"
4. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 12.14 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

12.14. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה וְאָבִיהָ יָרֹק יָרַק בְּפָנֶיהָ הֲלֹא תִכָּלֵם שִׁבְעַת יָמִים תִּסָּגֵר שִׁבְעַת יָמִים מִחוּץ לַמַּחֲנֶה וְאַחַר תֵּאָסֵף׃ 12.14. And the LORD said unto Moses: ‘If her father had but spit in her face, should she not hide in shame seven days? let her be shut up without the camp seven days, and after that she shall be brought in again.’"
5. Hebrew Bible, 1 Kings, 10.9, 11.1-11.2 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

10.9. יְהִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ בָּרוּךְ אֲשֶׁר חָפֵץ בְּךָ לְתִתְּךָ עַל־כִּסֵּא יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּאַהֲבַת יְהוָה אֶת־יִשְׂרָאֵל לְעֹלָם וַיְשִׂימְךָ לְמֶלֶךְ לַעֲשׂוֹת מִשְׁפָּט וּצְדָקָה׃ 11.1. וְהַמֶּלֶךְ שְׁלֹמֹה אָהַב נָשִׁים נָכְרִיּוֹת רַבּוֹת וְאֶת־בַּת־פַּרְעֹה מוֹאֲבִיּוֹת עַמֳּנִיּוֹת אֲדֹמִיֹּת צֵדְנִיֹּת חִתִּיֹּת׃ 11.1. וְצִוָּה אֵלָיו עַל־הַדָּבָר הַזֶּה לְבִלְתִּי־לֶכֶת אַחֲרֵי אֱלֹהִים אֲחֵרִים וְלֹא שָׁמַר אֵת אֲשֶׁר־צִוָּה יְהוָה׃ 11.2. וַתֵּלֶד לוֹ אֲחוֹת תַּחְפְּנֵיס אֵת גְּנֻבַת בְּנוֹ וַתִּגְמְלֵהוּ תַחְפְּנֵס בְּתוֹךְ בֵּית פַּרְעֹה וַיְהִי גְנֻבַת בֵּית פַּרְעֹה בְּתוֹךְ בְּנֵי פַרְעֹה׃ 11.2. מִן־הַגּוֹיִם אֲשֶׁר אָמַר־יְהוָה אֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל לֹא־תָבֹאוּ בָהֶם וְהֵם לֹא־יָבֹאוּ בָכֶם אָכֵן יַטּוּ אֶת־לְבַבְכֶם אַחֲרֵי אֱלֹהֵיהֶם בָּהֶם דָּבַק שְׁלֹמֹה לְאַהֲבָה׃ 10.9. Blessed be the LORD thy God, who delighted in thee, to set thee on the throne of Israel; because the LORD loved Israel for ever, therefore made He thee king, to do justice and righteousness.’" 11.1. Now king Solomon loved many foreign women, besides the daughter of Pharaoh, women of the Moabites, Ammonites, Edomites, Zidonians, and Hittites;" 11.2. of the nations concerning which the LORD said unto the children of Israel: ‘Ye shall not go among them, neither shall they come among you; for surely they will turn away your heart after their gods’; Solomon did cleave unto these in love."
6. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 10.13, 14.1, 56.3 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

10.13. כִּי אָמַר בְּכֹחַ יָדִי עָשִׂיתִי וּבְחָכְמָתִי כִּי נְבֻנוֹתִי וְאָסִיר גְּבוּלֹת עַמִּים ועתידתיהם [וַעֲתוּדוֹתֵיהֶם] שׁוֹשֵׂתִי וְאוֹרִיד כַּאבִּיר יוֹשְׁבִים׃ 14.1. כֻּלָּם יַעֲנוּ וְיֹאמְרוּ אֵלֶיךָ גַּם־אַתָּה חֻלֵּיתָ כָמוֹנוּ אֵלֵינוּ נִמְשָׁלְתָּ׃ 14.1. כִּי יְרַחֵם יְהוָה אֶת־יַעֲקֹב וּבָחַר עוֹד בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל וְהִנִּיחָם עַל־אַדְמָתָם וְנִלְוָה הַגֵּר עֲלֵיהֶם וְנִסְפְּחוּ עַל־בֵּית יַעֲקֹב׃ 56.3. וְאַל־יֹאמַר בֶּן־הַנֵּכָר הַנִּלְוָה אֶל־יְהוָה לֵאמֹר הַבְדֵּל יַבְדִּילַנִי יְהוָה מֵעַל עַמּוֹ וְאַל־יֹאמַר הַסָּרִיס הֵן אֲנִי עֵץ יָבֵשׁ׃ 10.13. For he hath said: By the strength of my hand I have done it, And by my wisdom, for I am prudent; In that I have removed the bounds of the peoples, And have robbed their treasures, And have brought down as one mighty the inhabitants;" 14.1. For the LORD will have compassion on Jacob, and will yet choose Israel, and set them in their own land; and the stranger shall join himself with them, and they shall cleave to the house of Jacob." 56.3. Neither let the alien, That hath joined himself to the LORD, speak, saying: ‘The LORD will surely separate me from His people’; Neither let the eunuch say: ‘Behold, I am a dry tree.’"
7. Hebrew Bible, Lamentations, 1.10 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

1.10. The adversary stretched forth his hand upon all her precious things, for she saw nations enter her Sanctuary, whom You did command not to enter into Your assembly. \t"
8. Hebrew Bible, Nehemiah, 13.23-13.27 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

13.23. גַּם בַּיָּמִים הָהֵם רָאִיתִי אֶת־הַיְּהוּדִים הֹשִׁיבוּ נָשִׁים אשדודיות [אַשְׁדֳּדִיּוֹת] עמוניות [עַמֳּנִיּוֹת] מוֹאֲבִיּוֹת׃ 13.24. וּבְנֵיהֶם חֲצִי מְדַבֵּר אַשְׁדּוֹדִית וְאֵינָם מַכִּירִים לְדַבֵּר יְהוּדִית וְכִלְשׁוֹן עַם וָעָם׃ 13.25. וָאָרִיב עִמָּם וָאֲקַלְלֵם וָאַכֶּה מֵהֶם אֲנָשִׁים וָאֶמְרְטֵם וָאַשְׁבִּיעֵם בֵּאלֹהִים אִם־תִּתְּנוּ בְנֹתֵיכֶם לִבְנֵיהֶם וְאִם־תִּשְׂאוּ מִבְּנֹתֵיהֶם לִבְנֵיכֶם וְלָכֶם׃ 13.26. הֲלוֹא עַל־אֵלֶּה חָטָא־שְׁלֹמֹה מֶלֶךְ יִשְׂרָאֵל וּבַגּוֹיִם הָרַבִּים לֹא־הָיָה מֶלֶךְ כָּמֹהוּ וְאָהוּב לֵאלֹהָיו הָיָה וַיִּתְּנֵהוּ אֱלֹהִים מֶלֶךְ עַל־כָּל־יִשְׂרָאֵל גַּם־אוֹתוֹ הֶחֱטִיאוּ הַנָּשִׁים הַנָּכְרִיּוֹת׃ 13.27. וְלָכֶם הֲנִשְׁמַע לַעֲשֹׂת אֵת כָּל־הָרָעָה הַגְּדוֹלָה הַזֹּאת לִמְעֹל בֵּאלֹהֵינוּ לְהֹשִׁיב נָשִׁים נָכְרִיּוֹת׃ 13.23. In those days also saw I the Jews that had married women of Ashdod, of Ammon, and of Moab;" 13.24. and their children spoke half in the speech of Ashdod, and could not speak in the Jews’language, but according to the language of each people." 13.25. And I contended with them, and cursed them, and smote certain of them, and plucked off their hair, and made them swear by God: ‘Ye shall not give your daughters unto their sons, nor take their daughters for your sons, or for yourselves." 13.26. Did not Solomon king of Israel sin by these things? yet among many nations was there no king like him, and he was beloved of his God, and God made him king over all Israel; nevertheless even him did the foreign women cause to sin." 13.27. Shall we then hearken unto you to do all this great evil, to break faith with our God in marrying foreign women?’"
9. Dead Sea Scrolls, 4Q174 (The Florilegium) 195, 199, 339, 1.6 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

10. Dead Sea Scrolls, Messianic Rule, 2.4-2.9 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

11. Hebrew Bible, Daniel, 3.28-3.33, 4.31-4.34, 6.26-6.28 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

3.28. עָנֵה נְבוּכַדְנֶצַּר וְאָמַר בְּרִיךְ אֱלָהֲהוֹן דִּי־שַׁדְרַךְ מֵישַׁךְ וַעֲבֵד נְגוֹ דִּי־שְׁלַח מַלְאֲכֵהּ וְשֵׁיזִב לְעַבְדוֹהִי דִּי הִתְרְחִצוּ עֲלוֹהִי וּמִלַּת מַלְכָּא שַׁנִּיו וִיהַבוּ גשמיהון [גֶשְׁמְהוֹן] דִּי לָא־יִפְלְחוּן וְלָא־יִסְגְּדוּן לְכָל־אֱלָהּ לָהֵן לֵאלָהֲהוֹן׃ 3.29. וּמִנִּי שִׂים טְעֵם דִּי כָל־עַם אֻמָּה וְלִשָּׁן דִּי־יֵאמַר שלה [שָׁלוּ] עַל אֱלָהֲהוֹן דִּי־שַׁדְרַךְ מֵישַׁךְ וַעֲבֵד נְגוֹא הַדָּמִין יִתְעֲבֵד וּבַיְתֵהּ נְוָלִי יִשְׁתַּוֵּה כָּל־קֳבֵל דִּי לָא אִיתַי אֱלָה אָחֳרָן דִּי־יִכֻּל לְהַצָּלָה כִּדְנָה׃ 3.31. נְבוּכַדְנֶצַּר מַלְכָּא לְכָל־עַמְמַיָּא אֻמַיָּא וְלִשָּׁנַיָּא דִּי־דארין [דָיְרִין] בְּכָל־אַרְעָא שְׁלָמְכוֹן יִשְׂגֵּא׃ 3.32. אָתַיָּא וְתִמְהַיָּא דִּי עֲבַד עִמִּי אֱלָהָא עליא [עִלָּאָה] שְׁפַר קָדָמַי לְהַחֲוָיָה׃ 3.33. אָתוֹהִי כְּמָה רַבְרְבִין וְתִמְהוֹהִי כְּמָה תַקִּיפִין מַלְכוּתֵהּ מַלְכוּת עָלַם וְשָׁלְטָנֵהּ עִם־דָּר וְדָר׃ 4.31. וְלִקְצָת יוֹמַיָּה אֲנָה נְבוּכַדְנֶצַּר עַיְנַי לִשְׁמַיָּא נִטְלֵת וּמַנְדְּעִי עֲלַי יְתוּב ולעליא [וּלְעִלָּאָה] בָּרְכֵת וּלְחַי עָלְמָא שַׁבְּחֵת וְהַדְּרֵת דִּי שָׁלְטָנֵהּ שָׁלְטָן עָלַם וּמַלְכוּתֵהּ עִם־דָּר וְדָר׃ 4.32. וְכָל־דארי [דָּיְרֵי] אַרְעָא כְּלָה חֲשִׁיבִין וּכְמִצְבְּיֵהּ עָבֵד בְּחֵיל שְׁמַיָּא ודארי [וְדָיְרֵי] אַרְעָא וְלָא אִיתַי דִּי־יְמַחֵא בִידֵהּ וְיֵאמַר לֵהּ מָה עֲבַדְתְּ׃ 4.33. בֵּהּ־זִמְנָא מַנְדְּעִי יְתוּב עֲלַי וְלִיקַר מַלְכוּתִי הַדְרִי וְזִוִי יְתוּב עֲלַי וְלִי הַדָּבְרַי וְרַבְרְבָנַי יְבַעוֹן וְעַל־מַלְכוּתִי הָתְקְנַת וּרְבוּ יַתִּירָה הוּסְפַת לִי׃ 4.34. כְּעַן אֲנָה נְבוּכַדְנֶצַּר מְשַׁבַּח וּמְרוֹמֵם וּמְהַדַּר לְמֶלֶךְ שְׁמַיָּא דִּי כָל־מַעֲבָדוֹהִי קְשֹׁט וְאֹרְחָתֵהּ דִּין וְדִי מַהְלְכִין בְּגֵוָה יָכִל לְהַשְׁפָּלָה׃ 6.26. בֵּאדַיִן דָּרְיָוֶשׁ מַלְכָּא כְּתַב לְכָל־עַמְמַיָּא אֻמַיָּא וְלִשָּׁנַיָּא דִּי־דארין [דָיְרִין] בְּכָל־אַרְעָא שְׁלָמְכוֹן יִשְׂגֵּא׃ 6.27. מִן־קֳדָמַי שִׂים טְעֵם דִּי בְּכָל־שָׁלְטָן מַלְכוּתִי לֶהֱוֺן זאעין [זָיְעִין] וְדָחֲלִין מִן־קֳדָם אֱלָהֵהּ דִּי־דָנִיֵּאל דִּי־הוּא אֱלָהָא חַיָּא וְקַיָּם לְעָלְמִין וּמַלְכוּתֵהּ דִּי־לָא תִתְחַבַּל וְשָׁלְטָנֵהּ עַד־סוֹפָא׃ 6.28. מְשֵׁיזִב וּמַצִּל וְעָבֵד אָתִין וְתִמְהִין בִּשְׁמַיָּא וּבְאַרְעָא דִּי שֵׁיזִיב לְדָנִיֵּאל מִן־יַד אַרְיָוָתָא׃ 3.28. Nebuchadnezzar spoke and said: ‘Blessed be the God of Shadrach, Meshach, and Abed-nego, who hath sent His angel, and delivered His servants that trusted in Him, and have changed the king’s word, and have yielded their bodies, that they might not serve nor worship any god, except their own God." 3.29. Therefore I make a decree, that every people, nation, and language, which speak any thing amiss against the God of Shadrach, Meshach, and Abed-nego, shall be cut in pieces, and their houses shall be made a dunghill; because there is no other god that is able to deliver after this sort.’" 3.30. Then the king promoted Shadrach, Meshach, and Abed-nego, in the province of Babylon." 3.31. ‘Nebuchadnezzar the king, unto all peoples, nations, and languages, that dwell in all the earth; peace be multiplied unto you." 3.32. It hath seemed good unto me to declare the signs and wonders that God Most High hath wrought toward me." 3.33. How great are His signs! And how mighty are His wonders! His kingdom is an everlasting kingdom, And His dominion is from generation to generation." 4.31. ‘And at the end of the days I Nebuchadnezzar lifted up mine eyes unto heaven, and mine understanding returned unto me, and I blessed the Most High, and I praised and honoured Him that liveth for ever; For His dominion is an everlasting dominion, And His kingdom from generation to generation;" 4.32. And all the inhabitants of the earth are reputed as nothing; And He doeth according to His will in the host of heaven, And among the inhabitants of the earth; And none can stay His hand, Or say unto Him: What doest Thou?" 4.33. At the same time mine understanding returned unto me; and for the glory of my kingdom, my majesty and my splendour returned unto me; and my ministers and my lords sought unto me; and I was established in my kingdom, and surpassing greatness was added unto me." 4.34. Now I Nebuchadnezzar praise and extol and honour the King of heaven; for all His works are truth, and His ways justice; and those that walk in pride He is able to abase.’" 6.26. Then king Darius wrote unto all the peoples, nations, and languages, that dwell in all the earth: ‘Peace be multiplied unto you." 6.27. I make a decree, that in all the dominion of my kingdom men tremble and fear before the God of Daniel; For He is the living God, And stedfast for ever, And His kingdom that which shall not be destroyed, And His dominion shall be even unto the end;" 6.28. He delivereth and rescueth, And He worketh signs and wonders In heaven and in earth; Who hath delivered Daniel from the power of the lions.’"
12. Septuagint, Judith, 5.5-5.21, 14.5 (2nd cent. BCE - 0th cent. CE)

5.5. Then Achior, the leader of all the Ammonites, said to him, "Let my lord now hear a word from the mouth of your servant, and I will tell you the truth about this people that dwells in the nearby mountain district. No falsehood shall come from your servant's mouth. 5.6. This people is descended from the Chaldeans. 5.7. At one time they lived in Mesopotamia, because they would not follow the gods of their fathers who were in Chaldea. 5.8. For they had left the ways of their ancestors, and they worshiped the God of heaven, the God they had come to know; hence they drove them out from the presence of their gods; and they fled to Mesopotamia, and lived there for a long time. 5.9. Then their God commanded them to leave the place where they were living and go to the land of Canaan. There they settled, and prospered, with much gold and silver and very many cattle. 5.10. When a famine spread over Canaan they went down to Egypt and lived there as long as they had food; and there they became a great multitude -- so great that they could not be counted. 5.11. So the king of Egypt became hostile to them; he took advantage of them and set them to making bricks, and humbled them and made slaves of them. 5.12. Then they cried out to their God, and he afflicted the whole land of Egypt with incurable plagues; and so the Egyptians drove them out of their sight. 5.13. Then God dried up the Red Sea before them 5.14. and he led them by the way of Sinai and Kadesh-barnea, and drove out all the people of the wilderness. 5.15. So they lived in the land of the Amorites, and by their might destroyed all the inhabitants of Heshbon; and crossing over the Jordan they took possession of all the hill country. 5.16. And they drove out before them the Canaanites and the Perizzites and the Jebusites and the Shechemites and all the Gergesites, and lived there a long time. 5.17. As long as they did not sin against their God they prospered, for the God who hates iniquity is with them. 5.18. But when they departed from the way which he had appointed for them, they were utterly defeated in many battles and were led away captive to a foreign country; the temple of their God was razed to the ground, and their cities were captured by their enemies. 5.19. But now they have returned to their God, and have come back from the places to which they were scattered, and have occupied Jerusalem, where their sanctuary is, and have settled in the hill country, because it was uninhabited. 5.20. Now therefore, my master and lord, if there is any unwitting error in this people and they sin against their God and we find out their offense, then we will go up and defeat them. 5.21. But if there is no transgression in their nation, then let my lord pass them by; for their Lord will defend them, and their God will protect them, and we shall be put to shame before the whole world. 14.5. But before you do all this, bring Achior the Ammonite to me, and let him see and recognize the man who despised the house of Israel and sent him to us as if to his death.
13. Mishnah, Avodah Zarah, 1.1, 1.5-1.6, 1.8, 2.1, 2.4, 2.7, 3.1 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

1.1. On the three days preceding the festivals of idolaters, it is forbidden to conduct business with them, to lend articles to them or borrow from them, to lend or borrow any money from them, to repay a debt, or receive repayment from them. Rabbi Judah says: we should receive repayment from them, as this can only depress them; But they [the Rabbis] said to him: even though it is depressing at the time, they are glad of it subsequently." 1.5. The following things are forbidden to be sold to idolaters: iztroblin, bnoth-shuah with their stems, frankincense, and a white rooster. Rabbi Judah says: it is permitted to sell a white rooster to an idolater among other roosters; but if it be by itself, one should clip its spur and then sell it to him, because a defective [animal] is not sacrificed to an idol. As for other things, if they are not specified their sale is permitted, but if specified it is forbidden. Rabbi Meir says: also a “good-palm”, hazab and niklivas are forbidden to be sold to idolaters." 1.6. In a place where it is the custom to sell small domesticated animals to non-Jews, such sale is permitted; but where the custom is not to sell, such sale is not permitted. In no place however is it permitted to sell large animals, calves or foals, whether whole or maimed. Rabbi Judah permits in the case of a maimed one. And Ben Bateira permits in the case of a horse." 1.8. One should not make jewelry for an idol [such as] necklaces, ear-rings, or finger-rings. Rabbi Eliezer says, for payment it is permitted. One should not sell to idolaters a thing which is attached to the soil, but when cut down it may be sold. R. Judah says, one may sell it on condition that it be cut down. One should not let houses to them in the land of Israel; and it is not necessary to mention fields. In Syria houses may be let to them, but not fields. Outside of the land of Israel, houses may be sold and fields let to them, these are the words of Rabbi Meir. Rabbi Yose says: in the land of Israel, one may let to them houses but not fields; In Syria, we may sell them houses and let fields; Outside of the land of Israel, both may be sold." 2.1. One should not place animals in inns of non-Jews, because they are suspected of bestiality. A woman should not be alone with them, because they are suspected of licentiousness; Nor should a man be alone with them, because they are suspected of shedding blood. A Jewish woman should not act as midwife to a non-Jewish woman, because she would be delivering a child for idolatry. But a non-Jewish woman may act as midwife to a Jewish woman. A Jewish woman should not suckle the child of a non-Jewish woman, But a non-Jewish woman may suckle the child of a Jewish woman in her premises." 2.4. Skin-bottles or flasks of non-Jews in which wine of a Jew is kept are forbidden and the prohibition extends to any benefit that may be derived from them, this is the opinion of Rabbi Meir. But the Sages say that the prohibition does not extend to deriving benefit. Grape seeds and grape-skins of non-Jews are forbidden, the prohibition extending to any benefit that may be derived from them, this is the opinion of Rabbi Meir. But the Sages say, when fresh they are forbidden but when dry they are permitted. Fish brine and Bithynian cheese of the non-Jews are forbidden, the prohibition extending to any benefit that may be derived from them, this is the opinion of Rabbi Meir. But the Sages say that the prohibition does not extend to deriving benefit." 2.7. The following are permitted to be eaten [by an israelite]:milk which a non-Jew milked with a Jew watching him; honey, grape-clusters even though these secrete moisture the law which renders food susceptible to defilement by a liquid does not apply to them preserves into which they are not accustomed to put wine or vinegar, pickled herring which has not been minced, brine containing fish, a leaf of asafoetida, and rolled olive-cakes. Rabbi Yose says: those olives having pits ready to drop out are prohibited. Locusts which come out of [a shopkeeper’s] basket are prohibited, but if from storage they are permitted. The same rule applies to terumah." 3.1. All images are prohibited because they are worshipped once a year, according to the opinion of Rabbi Meir; But the Sages say: [an image] is not prohibited except one that has a staff or bird or orb in its hand. Rabban Shimon b. Gamaliel says: any [image] which has anything in its hand [is prohibited]."
14. Mishnah, Bava Qamma, 4.3 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

4.3. An ox of an Israelite that gored an ox belonging to the Temple, or an ox belonging to the Temple that gored an ox of an Israelite, the owner is exempt, as it says, “The ox belonging to his neighbor” (Exodus 21:35), and not an ox belonging to the Temple. An ox of an Israelite that gores an ox of a gentile, the owner is exempt. And an ox of a gentile that gores the ox of an Israelite, whether the ox is harmless or an attested danger, its owner pays full damages."
15. Mishnah, Berachot, 3.4-3.6 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

3.4. One who has had a seminal emission utters the words [of the Shema] in his heart and he doesn’t say a blessing, neither before nor after. Over food he says a blessing afterwards, but not the blessing before. Rabbi Judah says: he blesses both before them and after them." 3.5. If a man was standing saying the tefillah and he remembers that he is one who has had a seminal emission, he should not stop but he should abbreviate [the blessings]. If he went down to immerse, if he is able to come up and cover himself and recite the Shema before the rising of the sun, he should go up and cover himself and recite, but if not he should cover himself with the water and recite. He should not cover himself either with foul water or with steeping water until he pours fresh water into it. How far should he remove himself from it and from excrement? Four cubits." 3.6. A zav who has had a seminal emission and a niddah from whom semen escapes and a woman who becomes niddah during intercourse require a mikveh. Rabbi Judah exempts them."
16. Mishnah, Gittin, 1.5, 9.8 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

1.5. Any document which has upon it the signature of a Samaritan is invalid, except for bills of divorce or a writ of emancipation. It happened that a bill of divorce was once brought before Rabban Gamaliel at Kefar Otnai and its witnesses were Samaritan, and he declared it valid. All documents which are accepted in the courts of non-Jew, even if those who signed on the documents are non-Jews, are valid except bills of divorce and of writs of emancipation. Rabbi Shimon says: these also are valid; they were only pronounced [to be invalid] when done by ordinary persons." 9.8. A get which was written in Hebrew and whose signatures are in Greek, or was written in Greek and whose signatures are in Hebrew, or which has one Hebrew signature and one Greek signature, or which was written by a scribe and signed by one witness, is valid. [If a man signs], “So-and-so, witness,” it is valid. [If he signs,] “Son of so-and-so, witness, it is valid. [If he signs,] “So-and-so son of so-and-so” and he didn’t write “witness”, it is valid. If he wrote his own family name and hers, the get is valid. And this is how the scrupulous in Jerusalem would do. A get given imposed by court: in the case of a Jewish court is valid, and in the case of a Gentile court is invalid. And with regard to Gentiles, if they beat him and say to him, “Do what the Israelites say to you,” (and it is valid)."
17. Mishnah, Hulin, 2.7 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

2.7. If one slaughtered for a non-Jew, the slaughtering is valid. Rabbi Eliezer declares it invalid. Rabbi Eliezer said: even if one slaughtered a beast with the intention that a non-Jew should eat [only] its liver, the slaughtering is invalid, for the thoughts of a non-Jew are usually directed towards idolatry. Rabbi Yose said: is there not a kal vehomer argument? For if in the case of consecrated animals, where a wrongful intention can render invalid, it is established that everything depends solely upon the intention of him who performs the service, how much more in the case of unconsecrated animals, where a wrongful intention cannot render invalid, is it not logical that everything should depend solely upon the intention of him who slaughters!"
18. Mishnah, Nazir, 7.4 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

7.4. Rabbi Elazar said in the name of Rabbi Joshua: for every defilement [conveyed] by a corpse on account of which a nazirite must shave, people are liable for entering the sanctuary, and for every defilement [conveyed] by a corpse on account of which a nazirite does not shave, people are not liable for one entering the sanctuary. Rabbi Meir said: such [defilement] should not be less serious than [defilement through] a dead creeping thing. Rabbi Akiba said: I argued in the presence of Rabbi Eliezer: Now if on account of a barley-corn’s bulk of bone which does not defile a man by overshadowing, a nazirite shaves should he touch it or carry it, then surely a quarter-log of blood which defiles a man by overshadowing, should cause a nazirite to shave should he touch it or carry it? He replied: What is this Akiva! We do not make here an ‘all the more so’ (a kal vehomer) argument. When I afterwards went and recounted these words to Rabbi Joshua, he said to me, “You spoke well, but thus they have ruled the halakhah.”"
19. Mishnah, Peah, 4.6 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

4.6. A non-Jew who harvested his field and then converted, he is exempt from [leaving] gleanings, the forgotten sheaf and peah. Rabbi Judah makes him liable to leave the forgotten sheaf, since he becomes liable for the forgotten sheaf at the time of their binding."
20. Mishnah, Zevahim, 4.5 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

4.5. The sacrifices of non-Jews: one is not liable on their account for piggul, remt, or defilement, and if [a priest] slaughters them outside [the Temple], he is not liable, the words of Rabbi Meir. But Rabbi Yose declares him liable. The things for which one is not liable on account of piggul, one is liable on account of remt and defilement except blood. Rabbi Shimon declares one liable for anything which is normally eaten, but for wood, frankincense and incense, one is not liable for [transgressions involving] defilement."
21. Mishnah, Shekalim, 7.6 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

7.6. Rabbi Shimon said: there were seven things that the court decree and that was one of them. [The others were the following:]A non-Jew who sent a burnt-offering from overseas and he sent with it its libation-offerings, they are offered out of his own; But if [he did] not [send its libation-offerings], they should be offered out of public funds. So too [in the case of] a convert who had died and left sacrifices, if he had also left its libation-offerings they are offered out of his own; But if not, they should be offered out of public funds. It was also a condition laid down by the court in the case of a high priest who had died that his minhah should be offered out of public funds. Rabbi Judah says: [it was offered out] of the property of his heirs, And had to be offered of the whole [tenth]."
22. Mishnah, Yadayim, 4.4 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

4.4. On that day Judah, an Ammonite convert, came and stood before them in the house of study. He said to them: Do I have the right to enter into the assembly? Rabban Gamaliel said to him: you are forbidden. Rabbi Joshua said to him: you are permitted. Rabban Gamaliel said to him: the verse says, \"An Ammonite or a Moabite shall not enter into the assembly of the Lord: even to the tenth generation\" (Deuteronomy 23:4). R. Joshua said to him: But are the Ammonites and Moabites still in their own territory? Sanheriv, the king of Assyria, has long since come up and mingled all the nations, as it is said: \"In that I have removed the bounds of the peoples, and have robbed their treasures, and have brought down as one mighty the inhabitants\" (Isaiah 10:1. Rabban Gamaliel said to him: the verse says, \"But afterward I will bring back the captivity of the children of Ammon,\" (Jeremiah 49:6) they have already returned. Rabbi Joshua said to him: [another] verse says, \"I will return the captivity of my people Israel and Judah\" (Amos 9:14). Yet they have not yet returned. So they permitted him to enter the assembly."
23. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 1.2, 10.32, 11.16, 11.22, 15.9 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.2. to the assembly of God whichis at Corinth; those who are sanctified in Christ Jesus, called to besaints, with all who call on the name of our Lord Jesus Christ in everyplace, both theirs and ours: 10.32. Give no occasions for stumbling, either to Jews, or to Greeks,or to the assembly of God; 11.16. But if any man seems to be contentious, we have nosuch custom, neither do God's assemblies. 11.22. What, don't you have houses to eat and to drink in?Or do you despise God's assembly, and put them to shame who don't have?What shall I tell you? Shall I praise you? In this I don't praise you. 15.9. For I am the least of theapostles, who is not worthy to be called an apostle, because Ipersecuted the assembly of God.
24. New Testament, 1 Thessalonians, 2.14-2.16 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.14. For you, brothers, became imitators of the assemblies of God which are in Judea in Christ Jesus; for you also suffered the same things from your own countrymen, even as they did from the Jews; 2.15. who killed both the Lord Jesus and their own prophets, and drove us out, and didn't please God, and are contrary to all men; 2.16. forbidding us to speak to the Gentiles that they may be saved; to fill up their sins always. But wrath has come on them to the uttermost.
25. New Testament, 2 Corinthians, 1.1, 6.14-7.1 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

26. New Testament, 2 Thessalonians, 1.4 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.4. so that we ourselves boast about you in the assemblies of God for your patience and faith in all your persecutions and in the afflictions which you endure.
27. New Testament, Ephesians, 3.10 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.10. to the intent that now through the assembly the manifold wisdom of God might be made known to the principalities and the powers in the heavenly places
28. New Testament, Galatians, 1.13 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.13. For you have heard of my way ofliving in time past in the Jews' religion, how that beyond measure Ipersecuted the assembly of God, and ravaged it.
29. New Testament, Romans, 3.1, 16.4, 16.16 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.1. Then what advantage does the Jew have? Or what is the profit of circumcision? 16.4. who for my life, laid down their own necks; to whom not only I give thanks, but also all the assemblies of the Gentiles. 16.16. Greet one another with a holy kiss. The assemblies of Christ greet you.
30. Tosefta, Avodah Zarah, 3.3 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

31. Tosefta, Bava Qamma, 4.3 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

32. Tosefta, Berachot, 2.12-2.14 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

2.12. Zavim, Zavot, Niddot, and women who gave birth are permitted to read the Torah and to learn Mishna, Midrash, laws, and Aggadot. And men who had a seminal emission (Baalei Keraim) are forbidden in all of them. Rebbi Yossi says, “He can learn the laws that he is familiar with, as long as he does not arrange the Mishna.”" 2.13. “A man who had a seminal emission (Baal Keri) who does not have water to dip in may read the Shema, but he may not [read it loud enough so that he can] hear [himself talking] with his own ear, and does not say the Beracha (blessing) not before it and not after it.” [These are] the words of Rebbi Meir. And the Chachamim (Sages) say, ”He may read the Shema and he may [read it loud enough so that he can] hear [himself talking] with his own ear, and he says the Beracha [both] before it and after it.” Rebbi Meir said, “One time we were sitting in the Bet Midrash (Study Hall) in front of Rebbi Akiva and we were reading the Shema, but we were not saying it loud enough to be able to hear ourselves, because of one inquisitor who was standing by the door.” They (i.e. Chachamim) said [back] to him, “The time of danger is not a proof.”" 2.14. One that was standing in the field naked or that was doing his work naked should cover himself with straw and with stubble or anything [else for that matter] and may read [the Shema]. Even though they (i.e. the Rabbis) said that it is not praiseworthy for a person to be sitting naked, because the Holy One Blessed Be He did not create man naked as it says, “I clothed him in a cloud and [made] mist his shroud.” (Job 38:9) “Clothed him in a cloud” that [refers to] the sack of the fetus, “and [made] mist his shroud” that [refers to] the placenta. [If] there was a wrap of cloth or of skin wrapped around his loins he may read [the Shema]. Either way he should not pray [Shmoneh Esreh] until he covers his heart."
33. Tosefta, Hulin, 2.24 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

34. Tosefta, Ketuvot, 5.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

5.1. The adult woman is like (sic!) one claimed—they give her 12 months. If she were a minor, either she or her father is able to delay [the marriage until she is of majority age]. Rabbi Tarfon says: They give her everything terumah [if she is claimed by a priest and the time limit of 12 months is up and they are still not married, she eats entirely terumah]. When does this apply? From betrothal [i.e. when the claiming 12 months is up, she is betrothed but still not married], but from marriage, Rabbi Tarfon agrees that they give her half hullin and half terumah. When does this apply? With a kohen's daughter [married to a] kohen, but an Israelite's daughter to a kohen, everyone agrees they raise all of her food from hullin. Rabbi Yehudah ben Betera says: Two parts terumah and one hullin. Rabbi Yehudah says: She should sell the terumah and buy with its value hullin. Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: Any place where they [the sages] mention \"terumah\", he gives double hullin. This was the original mishnah. Our rabbis said: A wife who is an Israelite's daughter doesn't eat terumah until she enters the bridal chamber, and a yevamah doesn't [eat terumah] until she has sex [with her levir]. If her husband dies [after the time of claiming has passed], he inherits her. Said Rabbi Menahem ben Nafah in the name of Rabbi Liezer Ha-Kappar: A case, that Rabbi Tarfon who betrothed 300 wives for them to eat terumah, for they were years of famine. But Yoha ben Bagbag already sent to Rabbi Yehudah ben Beterah to Netzivin, he said to him: I heard about you that you say a betrothed Israelite's daughter betrothed to a kohen can eat terumah. He replied to him and said to him: I had assumed that you were an expert in the chambers of Torah, but you don't know how to do a kal va-homer! Just as a Canaanite slavegirl, whose sex [with a kohen] does not acquire her to allow her to eat terumah, isn't it logical that money would acquire her to eat terumah!? But what can I do? For the Hakhamim said: A betrothed Israelite's daughter can't eat terumah until she enters the bridal chamber. If she dies, her father inherits her."
35. Tosefta, Peah, 4.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

36. Tosefta, Sanhedrin, 13.2 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

37. Tosefta, Yevamot, 8.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

38. Anon., Sifre Deuteronomy, 253 (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

39. Anon., Sifre Numbers, 117, 108 (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

40. Babylonian Talmud, Yevamot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

76a. ממולאי אמריתו מילי מוליתא במקומה מבשלה שלא במקומה לא מבשלה,אמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל ניקב ונסתם כל שאילו נקרי ונקרע פסול ואי לאו כשר הוי בה רבא היכא אילימא למטה מעטרה אפי' נכרת נמי אלא בעטרה עצמה איתמר נמי אמר רב מרי בר מר אמר מר עוקבא אמר שמואל ניקב בעטרה עצמה ונסתם כל שאילו נקרי ונקרע פסול ואי לאו כשר,שלח ליה רבא בריה דרבה לרב יוסף ילמדנו רבינו היכי עבדינן א"ל מייתינן נהמא חמימא דשערי ומנחינן ליה אבי פוקרי ומקרי וחזינן ליה,אמר אביי אטו כ"ע יעקב אבינו הואי דכתיב ביה (בראשית מט, ג) כחי וראשית אוני שלא ראה קרי מימיו,אלא אמר אביי מעברינן קמיה בגדי צבעונין אמר רבא אטו כ"ע ברזילי הגלעדי הוא אלא מחוורתא כדשנין מעיקרא,ת"ר ניקב פסול מפני שהוא שותת נסתם כשר מפני שהוא מוליד וזהו פסול שחוזר להכשירו זהו למעוטי מאי למעוטי קרום שעלה מחמת מכה בריאה דאינו קרום,שלח ליה רב אידי בר אבין לאביי היכי עבדינן מייתינן שערתא ומסרטינן ליה ומייתינן תרבא ושייפינן ומייתינן שומשנא גמלא ומנכתינן ליה ופסקינן ליה לרישיה ודוקא שערתא אבל פרזלא מזרף זריף וה"מ קטן אבל גדול מיקפולי מיקפל,אמר רבה בר רב הונא המטיל מים משתי מקומות פסול אמר רבא לית הלכתא לא כברא ולא כאבא ברא הא דאמרן אבא דא"ר הונא נשים המסוללות זו בזו פסולות לכהונה,ואפילו לרבי אלעזר דאמר פנוי הבא על הפנויה שלא לשם אישות עשאה זונה ה"מ איש אבל אשה פריצותא בעלמא:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big פצוע דכא וכרות שפכה מותרין בגיורת ומשוחררת ואינן אסורין אלא מלבא בקהל שנאמר (דברים כג, ב) לא יבא פצוע דכא וכרות שפכה בקהל ה':, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big בעו מיניה מרב ששת פצוע דכא כהן מהו בגיורת ומשוחררת בקדושתיה קאי ואסיר או דלמא לאו בקדושתיה קאי ושרי,א"ל רב ששת תניתוה פצוע דכא ישראל מותר בנתינה ואי ס"ד בקדושתיה קאי אקרי כאן (דברים ז, ג) לא תתחתן בם,אמר רבא אטו התם משום קדושה ולאו קדושה הוא דלמא מוליד בן ואזיל פלח לעבודת כוכבים וה"מ בהיותן עובדי כוכבים כי מגיירי בישראל שרו ורבנן הוא דגזרו בהו וכי גזרו בהו רבנן בהנך דבני אולודי אבל האי דלאו בר אולודי לא גזרו ביה רבנן,אלא מעתה ממזר דבר אולודי הכי נמי דאסיר והא תנן ממזרים ונתינים מותרים לבא זה בזה אלא כי גזור רבנן בכשרים בפסולים לא גזור רבנן,הדר אמר רבא לאו מילתא היא בהיותן עובדי כוכבים לית להו חתנות נתגיירו אית להו חתנות,מתיב רב יוסף (מלכים א ג, א) ויתחתן שלמה את בת פרעה מלך מצרים גייורי גיירה והא לא קבלו גרים לא בימי דוד ולא בימי שלמה מידי הוא טעמא אלא לשולחן מלכים 76a. bfrom truncated [ imimula’ei /i] people,as Rav Beivai’s family traced their lineage to the house of Eli, all of whose descendants were destined to be short-lived (see I Samuel 2:31), byou speak truncated [ imulayata /i]and unsound bmatters.When the semen passes through bitsproper bplace, it fertilizes;but if it does bnotpass through bitsproper bplace, it does not fertilize.Since he cannot father children, he is like one whose testicles have been crushed, and therefore he may not enter into the congregation., bRav Yehuda saidthat bShmuel said:If a man’s member bhad been punctured and itlater healed and the hole bclosedup with flesh, in banycase bwhere,if bhe would emit semen, it would tearopen again, he is bunfitto enter into the congregation; bbut if not,he is bfit. Rava discussedthis ruling and raised a question: bWhereis this perforation? bIf we sayit is bbelow the corona,at the end of the man’s member, why should this perforation render him unfit? bEven ifthe member bwasentirely bsevered,he would balsobe fit. bRather,the hole is bin the corona itself,that is, at the point where the corona meets the rest of the member. bIt was also statedexplicitly that this is the case, as bRav Mari bar Mar saidthat bMar Ukva saidthat bShmuel said:If a man’s member bhad been punctured in the corona itself, and itlater healed and the hole bclosedup with flesh, in banycase bwhereif bhe would emit semen it would tearopen again, he is bunfit; but if not,he is bfit. /b,With regard to this issue, bRava, son of Rabba, sentthe following question bto Rav Yosef: Let our teacher teach us, whatshould bwe doto verify whether or not the perforation was adequately closed? Rav Yosef bsaid to him: We bring warm barley bread and place it upon his anus [ ibei pukrei /i], andowing to the heat bhe emits semen, and we observewhat happens and see whether or not the perforation remains closed., bAbaye said: Is that to saythat beveryone islike bour Patriarch Jacob, with regard to whom it is written:“Reuben, you are my firstborn, bmy might and the first fruits of my strength”(Genesis 49:3), implying bthatJacob bnever experienced an emission of semen in all his days,so that his eldest son Reuben was conceived from his first drop of seed, i.e., “the first fruits of my strength.” The implication is that there is certainly no need for such measures in order to bring a man to ejaculate., bRather, Abaye saidthat a different method is used: bWe pass before him colorful garmentsof a woman, and thereby bring him to arousal, so that he will experience an emission. bRava said: Is that to saythat beveryone islike bBarzilai the Gileadite,traditionally known for his licentious character? Not all men are brought to excitement when they merely see such clothes. bRather,the Gemara rejects this proposal and states that bit is clear as we initially answered,that we follow the former procedure even though not all men require it., bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: If a man’s member bwas punctured,he is bunfitto enter into the congregation of Israel bbecausehis semen bis discharged gentlyand does not fertilize; if the perforation later bclosedup with flesh, he is bfit, becausenow bhe can fatherchildren. bAnd this isan instance of one who is bunfit who returns to hisprevious state of bfitness.The Gemara asks: bWhatdoes the word bthiscome bto exclude?The Gemara explains that it comes bto excludea case involving an entirely different matter, that of ba membrane that formed on the lungof an animal bin the wake of a wound, which is notconsidered baproper bmembrane,as it is likely to rupture. If a puncture in the lung became covered with such a membrane the animal does not regain its former kosher status.,With regard to this issue, bRav Idi bar Avin sentthe following question bto Abaye: Whatshould bwe doto expedite the healing of such a perforation? Abaye answered: bWe bringa sharp-edged grain of bbarley and laceratethe area around the hole with it. bWethen bbring fat and rub iton the spot, bandafterward bwe bring a large ant [ ishumshena /i] and let it biteinside the hole. This leads to bleeding and the formation of a scab, which eventually heals as new flesh grows there. bWealso bcut offthe ant’s bheadso that it should remain in place until the wound is fully healed. The Gemara comments: bAndthis procedure must be done bspecificallywith a grain of bbarley, butan birontool would bcause inflammation [ izareif].The Gemara adds: bAnd this applies onlyto ba smallperforation, bbut a large one willeventually bpeeloff and reopen., bRabba bar Rav Huna said: One who passes water from two places,so that he appears to have a hole or some other blemish in his member, is bunfitto enter into the congregation of Israel, as is a man with crushed testicles. bRava said:With regard to these matters, the ihalakhais in accordance neither withthe opinion of bthe son nor withthat of bthe father. The son,this refers to bthatopinion of Rabba bar Rav Huna, bwhich wejust bstated.As for the ruling of bthe father,this is referring to that which bRav Huna said: Women who rub against one anothermotivated by sexual desire bare unfit tomarry into bthe priesthood,as such conduct renders a woman a izona /i, whom a priest is prohibited from marrying. It was about this that Rava said that the ihalakhais not in accordance with Rav Huna’s opinion., bAnd even according tothe opinion of bRabbi Elazar, who said that an unmarried man who has intercourse with an unmarried woman not for the sake of marriage renders her a izona /i,a woman who has had sexual relations with a man forbidden to her by the Torah, bthis applies only tointercourse with ba man, butlewd behavior with another bwoman is mere licentiousnessthat does not render her a izona /i, and therefore she is still permitted to marry into the priesthood., strongMISHNA: /strong bA man with crushed testiclesor with other wounds to his genitals band one whose penis has been severed are permittedto marry a female bconvert or an emancipatedmaidservant, band they are prohibited only from entering into the congregationand marrying a woman who was born Jewish, bas it is stated: “A man wounded with crushed testicles or a severed penis shall not enter into the congregation of the Lord”(Deuteronomy 23:2)., strongGEMARA: /strong bThey raised a dilemma before Rav Sheshet: What isthe ihalakhagoverning ba priest with crushed testicles with respect toa female bconvert or an emancipatedmaidservant? The Gemara clarifies the two sides of this dilemma: Does bhe retain hisstate of bsanctitylike any other priest band istherefore bprohibitedfrom marrying either one of these women, bor perhaps he does not retain hisstate of bsanctity andtherefore bis permittedto marry a convert, like an ordinary Israelite with crushed testicles?, bRav Sheshet said to them: Youalready blearnedthe answer to bthisquestion in the following ibaraita /i: bIt is permitted for anordinary bIsraelite with crushed testiclesto marry ba Gibeonite woman. Now, if it enters your mindthat he bretains his sanctityas a Jew, one should bapply herethe prohibition stated with regard to Canaanites: b“You shall not marry them”(Deuteronomy 7:3). Apparently, then, one whose testicles have been crushed loses his former sanctity, and the same should apply to a priest., bRava said:This is no proof, as bis that to saythat the prohibition bthereagainst marrying Canaanites bis due to sanctity or lack of sanctity?Rather, the reason for the prohibition is that bperhaps one will father a childfrom his Canaanite wife bandthat child bwilllater bgooff and engage in bidolatrous worship. Now, thisconcern bapplies only whenthey are still bgentiles,but bwhenthey bconvert,as did the Gibeonites, they are bpermitted to Jews. And it is the Sages who decreedthat Gibeonites are forbidden like imamzerimeven after their conversion. bAnd when the Sages decreedthat one may not marry them, the decree was limited bto those who are capable of having children, butwith regard to bthis one,a man with crushed testicles bwho is incapable of having children, the Sages did not issue a decree. /b,The Gemara raises an objection against Rava: bHowever, if that is so,then with regard to ba imamzer /i, who is capable of having children, so tooone would say bthat he is prohibitedfrom marrying a Gibeonite. bBut didn’t we learnotherwise in a mishna ( iKiddushin69a): iMamzerimand Gibeonites are permitted to marry one another. Rather,retract this explanation and replace it with the following: bWhen the Sages decreedthat one may not marry a Gibeonite, they limited their decree btothose who are bfit,so as to prevent them from mingling with Gibeonites; but bwith regard tothose who are bunfitto enter into the congregation, bthe Sages did not issue a decree. /b, bRava thenreconsidered and bsaidthat what he had previously argued, that the prohibition against marrying them applies only when they are gentiles, bis not correct.The prohibition cannot be referring to gentiles, as bwhen they are gentiles there can be novalid bmarriage with themat all. It is only after bthey have convertedthat bthere can bevalid bmarriage with them,and therefore the prohibition against entering into marriage with them applies. Nevertheless, it is permitted for a man with crushed testicles to marry a Gibeonite woman., bRav Yosef raised an objectionfrom the verse that states: b“And Solomon married the daughter of Pharaoh, king of Egypt”(I Kings 3:1), which indicates that there can, in fact, be valid marriage even with gentiles. The Gemara answers: Before Solomon took Pharaoh’s daughter as his wife, bhe converted her.The Gemara asks: bBut isn’tit so that bthey did not accept converts, neither in the days of David nor in the days of Solomon?The Gemara answers: bBut isn’t the reasonthat they did not accept converts during those periods bonlydue btoconcern that the converts were not acting for the sake of Heaven but in fact desired the power of bthe table of kings,David and Solomon?


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abandoned child Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 154
abravanel, isaac Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 634
achior, an ammonite Gera, Judith (2014) 419
achior, conversion Gera, Judith (2014) 419
akiva, r. Hidary, Rabbis and Classical Rhetoric: Sophistic Education and Oratory in the Talmud and Midrash (2017) 203
alexandria Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 634
ammon and ammonites Gera, Judith (2014) 419
ammonites Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 68, 222, 286
animals Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 222
aqiba Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 129, 150
aramaic Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 449
asherot Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 286
assyria Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 634
balaam Gera, Judith (2014) 419
bar kokhba (revolt) Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 286
barber Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 154
bath-house Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 154
ben bathyra Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 150
bible, texts and exegesis relating to egypt Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 634
boaz Sigal, The Halakhah of Jesus of Nazareth According to the Gospel of Matthew (2007) 61
book of judith, date Gera, Judith (2014) 419
bread Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 154
brooks Eilberg-Schwartz, The Human Will in Judaism: The Mishnah's Philosophy of Intention (1986) 226
buying and/or selling Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 68, 154, 286
canaanite slaves Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 154, 286
captives (prisoners) Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 68
cheese Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 154
children Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 68
circumcision Gera, Judith (2014) 419
conversion, of wives of solomon Cohen, The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism (2010) 382
court Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 286
damages (injury) Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 154, 222, 286
dangerous gentile Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 286
darius of daniel Gera, Judith (2014) 419
de rossi, azariah Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 634
durkheim Eilberg-Schwartz, The Human Will in Judaism: The Mishnah's Philosophy of Intention (1986) 226
edomites Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 68, 222, 286
egyptians Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 68, 222, 286
ekklêsia Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 449
eliezer, r. Hidary, Rabbis and Classical Rhetoric: Sophistic Education and Oratory in the Talmud and Midrash (2017) 203
eliezer Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 129
eliezer b. jacob Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 150
essenes (see also qumran) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 449
gentiles Gera, Judith (2014) 419
god, belief in Gera, Judith (2014) 419
hasmoneans, influence on judith Gera, Judith (2014) 419
hebrew language Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 449
hellenism, hellenistic Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 449
hermeneutics Hidary, Rabbis and Classical Rhetoric: Sophistic Education and Oratory in the Talmud and Midrash (2017) 203
hillel, school of Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 449
hillel the elder Hidary, Rabbis and Classical Rhetoric: Sophistic Education and Oratory in the Talmud and Midrash (2017) 203; Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 449
intermarriage, to egyptian, moabite, ammonite, or edomite men Cohen, The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism (2010) 382
jerusalem church Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 449
judaea (roman province; see also yehud) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 449
law, jewish (courts, jewish legal) Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 634
levi Gera, Judith (2014) 419
maimonides (moses ben maimon) Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 634
mekhilta de rabbi ishmael Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 634
moab Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 634
moab and moabites Gera, Judith (2014) 419
nebuchadnezzar, biblical Gera, Judith (2014) 419
nineveh Gera, Judith (2014) 419
palestine (eretz israel, holy land) Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 634
paul (saul) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 449
proselyte, proselytism Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 449
qal va-ḥomer Hidary, Rabbis and Classical Rhetoric: Sophistic Education and Oratory in the Talmud and Midrash (2017) 203
qumran community Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 449
rabbinic tradition/literature, halakha Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 449
rabbis, on conversion Gera, Judith (2014) 419
rabbis Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 449
ruth Gera, Judith (2014) 419
sacrifices Gera, Judith (2014) 419
shammai, school Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 449
shammai (see also subject index) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 449
shechem, city and people Gera, Judith (2014) 419
shimon bar yoḥai, r., on hermeneutics Hidary, Rabbis and Classical Rhetoric: Sophistic Education and Oratory in the Talmud and Midrash (2017) 203
simeon, and levi Gera, Judith (2014) 419
synagogues (proseuchai), alexandrian basilica-synagogue Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 634
synagogues (proseuchai) Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 634
talmud, palestinian Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 634
temple in jerusalem Gera, Judith (2014) 419
topos/topoi Hidary, Rabbis and Classical Rhetoric: Sophistic Education and Oratory in the Talmud and Midrash (2017) 203
tosefta Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 634
trajan Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 634
yehoshua, r.' Hidary, Rabbis and Classical Rhetoric: Sophistic Education and Oratory in the Talmud and Midrash (2017) 203
yehuda the ammonite Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 449
yoshua, r. Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 449