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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



8052
Mishnah, Yadayim, 4.5-4.6


תַּרְגּוּם שֶׁבְּעֶזְרָא וְשֶׁבְּדָנִיֵּאל, מְטַמֵּא אֶת הַיָּדַיִם. תַּרְגּוּם שֶׁכְּתָבוֹ עִבְרִית וְעִבְרִית שֶׁכְּתָבוֹ תַּרְגּוּם, וּכְתָב עִבְרִי, אֵינוֹ מְטַמֵּא אֶת הַיָּדַיִם. לְעוֹלָם אֵינוֹ מְטַמֵּא, עַד שֶׁיִּכְתְּבֶנּוּ אַשּׁוּרִית, עַל הָעוֹר, וּבִדְיוֹ:The Aramaic sections in Ezra and Daniel defile the hands. If an Aramaic section was written in Hebrew, or a Hebrew section was written in Aramaic, or [Hebrew which was written with] Hebrew script, it does not defile the hands. It never defiles the hands until it is written in the Assyrian script, on parchment, and in ink.


אוֹמְרִים צְדוֹקִים, קוֹבְלִין אָנוּ עֲלֵיכֶם, פְּרוּשִׁים, שֶׁאַתֶּם אוֹמְרִים, כִּתְבֵי הַקֹּדֶשׁ מְטַמְּאִין אֶת הַיָּדַיִם, וְסִפְרֵי הוֹמֵרִיס אֵינוֹ מְטַמֵּא אֶת הַיָּדַיִם. אָמַר רַבָּן יוֹחָנָן בֶּן זַכַּאי, וְכִי אֵין לָנוּ עַל הַפְּרוּשִׁים אֶלָּא זוֹ בִלְבָד. הֲרֵי הֵם אוֹמְרִים, עַצְמוֹת חֲמוֹר טְהוֹרִים וְעַצְמוֹת יוֹחָנָן כֹּהֵן גָּדוֹל טְמֵאִים. אָמְרוּ לוֹ, לְפִי חִבָּתָן הִיא טֻמְאָתָן, שֶׁלֹּא יַעֲשֶׂה אָדָם עַצְמוֹת אָבִיו וְאִמּוֹ תַּרְוָדוֹת. אָמַר לָהֶם, אַף כִּתְבֵי הַקֹּדֶשׁ לְפִי חִבָּתָן הִיא טֻמְאָתָן, וְסִפְרֵי הוֹמֵרִיס, שֶׁאֵינָן חֲבִיבִין, אֵינָן מְטַמְּאִין אֶת הַיָּדָיִם:The Sadducees say: we complain against you, Pharisees, because you say that the Holy Scriptures defile the hands, but the books of Homer do not defile the hands. Rabban Yohanan ben Zakkai said: Have we nothing against the Pharisees but this? Behold they say that the bones of a donkey are clean, yet the bones of Yohanan the high priest are unclean. They said to him: according to the affection for them, so is their impurity, so that nobody should make spoons out of the bones of his father or mother. He said to them: so also are the Holy Scriptures according to the affection for them, so is their uncleanness. The books of Homer which are not precious do not defile the hands.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

30 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 6.13 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

6.13. אֶת־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ תִּירָא וְאֹתוֹ תַעֲבֹד וּבִשְׁמוֹ תִּשָּׁבֵעַ׃ 6.13. Thou shalt fear the LORD thy God; and Him shalt thou serve, and by His name shalt thou swear."
2. Hebrew Bible, 2 Kings, 23, 22 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

3. Hebrew Bible, Ezra, 7.12-7.26 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

7.12. אַרְתַּחְשַׁסְתְּא מֶלֶךְ מַלְכַיָּא לְעֶזְרָא כָהֲנָא סָפַר דָּתָא דִּי־אֱלָהּ שְׁמַיָּא גְּמִיר וּכְעֶנֶת׃ 7.13. מִנִּי שִׂים טְעֵם דִּי כָל־מִתְנַדַּב בְּמַלְכוּתִי מִן־עַמָּה יִשְׂרָאֵל וְכָהֲנוֹהִי וְלֵוָיֵא לִמְהָךְ לִירוּשְׁלֶם עִמָּךְ יְהָךְ׃ 7.14. כָּל־קֳבֵל דִּי מִן־קֳדָם מַלְכָּא וְשִׁבְעַת יָעֲטֹהִי שְׁלִיחַ לְבַקָּרָא עַל־יְהוּד וְלִירוּשְׁלֶם בְּדָת אֱלָהָךְ דִּי בִידָךְ׃ 7.15. וּלְהֵיבָלָה כְּסַף וּדְהַב דִּי־מַלְכָּא וְיָעֲטוֹהִי הִתְנַדַּבוּ לֶאֱלָהּ יִשְׂרָאֵל דִּי בִירוּשְׁלֶם מִשְׁכְּנֵהּ׃ 7.16. וְכֹל כְּסַף וּדְהַב דִּי תְהַשְׁכַּח בְּכֹל מְדִינַת בָּבֶל עִם הִתְנַדָּבוּת עַמָּא וְכָהֲנַיָּא מִתְנַדְּבִין לְבֵית אֱלָהֲהֹם דִּי בִירוּשְׁלֶם׃ 7.17. כָּל־קֳבֵל דְּנָה אָסְפַּרְנָא תִקְנֵא בְּכַסְפָּא דְנָה תּוֹרִין דִּכְרִין אִמְּרִין וּמִנְחָתְהוֹן וְנִסְכֵּיהוֹן וּתְקָרֵב הִמּוֹ עַל־מַדְבְּחָה דִּי בֵּית אֱלָהֲכֹם דִּי בִירוּשְׁלֶם׃ 7.18. וּמָה דִי עליך [עֲלָךְ] וְעַל־אחיך [אֶחָךְ] יֵיטַב בִּשְׁאָר כַּסְפָּא וְדַהֲבָה לְמֶעְבַּד כִּרְעוּת אֱלָהֲכֹם תַּעַבְדוּן׃ 7.19. וּמָאנַיָּא דִּי־מִתְיַהֲבִין לָךְ לְפָלְחָן בֵּית אֱלָהָךְ הַשְׁלֵם קֳדָם אֱלָהּ יְרוּשְׁלֶם׃ 7.21. וּמִנִּי אֲנָה אַרְתַּחְשַׁסְתְּא מַלְכָּא שִׂים טְעֵם לְכֹל גִּזַּבְרַיָּא דִּי בַּעֲבַר נַהֲרָה דִּי כָל־דִּי יִשְׁאֲלֶנְכוֹן עֶזְרָא כָהֲנָה סָפַר דָּתָא דִּי־אֱלָהּ שְׁמַיָּא אָסְפַּרְנָא יִתְעֲבִד׃ 7.22. עַד־כְּסַף כַּכְּרִין מְאָה וְעַד־חִנְטִין כֹּרִין מְאָה וְעַד־חֲמַר בַּתִּין מְאָה וְעַד־בַּתִּין מְשַׁח מְאָה וּמְלַח דִּי־לָא כְתָב׃ 7.23. כָּל־דִּי מִן־טַעַם אֱלָהּ שְׁמַיָּא יִתְעֲבֵד אַדְרַזְדָּא לְבֵית אֱלָהּ שְׁמַיָּא דִּי־לְמָה לֶהֱוֵא קְצַף עַל־מַלְכוּת מַלְכָּא וּבְנוֹהִי׃ 7.24. וּלְכֹם מְהוֹדְעִין דִּי כָל־כָּהֲנַיָּא וְלֵוָיֵא זַמָּרַיָּא תָרָעַיָּא נְתִינַיָּא וּפָלְחֵי בֵּית אֱלָהָא דְנָה מִנְדָּה בְלוֹ וַהֲלָךְ לָא שַׁלִּיט לְמִרְמֵא עֲלֵיהֹם׃ 7.25. וְאַנְתְּ עֶזְרָא כְּחָכְמַת אֱלָהָךְ דִּי־בִידָךְ מֶנִּי שָׁפְטִין וְדַיָּנִין דִּי־לֶהֱוֺן דאנין [דָּאיְנִין] לְכָל־עַמָּה דִּי בַּעֲבַר נַהֲרָה לְכָל־יָדְעֵי דָּתֵי אֱלָהָךְ וְדִי לָא יָדַע תְּהוֹדְעוּן׃ 7.26. וְכָל־דִּי־לָא לֶהֱוֵא עָבֵד דָּתָא דִי־אֱלָהָךְ וְדָתָא דִּי מַלְכָּא אָסְפַּרְנָא דִּינָה לֶהֱוֵא מִתְעֲבֵד מִנֵּהּ הֵן לְמוֹת הֵן לשרשו [לִשְׁרֹשִׁי] הֵן־לַעֲנָשׁ נִכְסִין וְלֶאֱסוּרִין׃ 7.12. ’Artaxerxes, king of kings, unto Ezra the priest, the scribe of the Law of the God of heaven, and so forth. And now" 7.13. I make a decree, that all they of the people of Israel, and their priests and the Levites, in my realm, that are minded of their own free will to go with thee to Jerusalem, go." 7.14. Forasmuch as thou art sent of the king and his seven counsellors, to inquire concerning Judah and Jerusalem, according to the law of thy God which is in thy hand;" 7.15. and to carry the silver and gold, which the king and his counsellors have freely offered unto the God of Israel, whose habitation is in Jerusalem," 7.16. and all the silver and gold that thou shalt find in all the province of Babylon, with the freewill-offering of the people, and of the priests, offering willingly for the house of their God which is in Jerusalem;" 7.17. therefore thou shalt with all diligence buy with this money bullocks, rams, lambs, with their meal-offerings and their drink-offerings, and shalt offer them upon the altar of the house of your God which is in Jerusalem." 7.18. And whatsoever shall seem good to thee and to thy brethren to do with the rest of the silver and the gold, that do ye after the will of your God." 7.19. And the vessels that are given thee for the service of the house of thy God, deliver thou before the God of Jerusalem." 7.20. And whatsoever more shall be needful for the house of thy God, which thou shalt have occasion to bestow, bestow it out of the king’s treasure-house." 7.21. And I, even I Artaxerxes the king, do make a decree to all the treasurers that are beyond the River, that whatsoever Ezra the priest, the scribe of the Law of the God of heaven, shall require of you, it be done with all diligence," 7.22. unto a hundred talents of silver, and to a hundred measures of wheat, and to a hundred baths of wine, and to a hundred baths of oil, and salt without prescribing how much." 7.23. Whatsoever is commanded by the God of heaven, let it be done exactly for the house of the God of heaven; for why should there be wrath against the realm of the king and his sons?" 7.24. Also we announce to you, that touching any of the priests and Levites, the singers, porters, Nethinim, or servants of this house of God, it shall not be lawful to impose tribute, impost, or toll, upon them." 7.25. And thou, Ezra, after the wisdom of thy God that is in thy hand, appoint magistrates and judges, who may judge all the people that are beyond the River, all such as know the laws of thy God; and teach ye him that knoweth them not." 7.26. And whosoever will not do the law of thy God, and the law of the king, let judgment be executed upon him with all diligence, whether it be unto death, or to banishment, or to confiscation of goods, or to imprisonment.’ ."
4. Dead Sea Scrolls, Damascus Covenant, 14.18-14.22 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

5. Dead Sea Scrolls, (Cairo Damascus Covenant) Cd-A, 14.18-14.22 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

6. Philo of Alexandria, That Every Good Person Is Free, 75 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

75. Moreover Palestine and Syria too are not barren of exemplary wisdom and virtue, which countries no slight portion of that most populous nation of the Jews inhabits. There is a portion of those people called Essenes, in number something more than four thousand in my opinion, who derive their name from their piety, though not according to any accurate form of the Grecian dialect, because they are above all men devoted to the service of God, not sacrificing living animals, but studying rather to preserve their own minds in a state of holiness and purity.
7. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 2.119 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.119. 2. For there are three philosophical sects among the Jews. The followers of the first of which are the Pharisees; of the second, the Sadducees; and the third sect, which pretends to a severer discipline, are called Essenes. These last are Jews by birth, and seem to have a greater affection for one another than the other sects have.
8. Mishnah, Avodah Zarah, 3.1 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

3.1. All images are prohibited because they are worshipped once a year, according to the opinion of Rabbi Meir; But the Sages say: [an image] is not prohibited except one that has a staff or bird or orb in its hand. Rabban Shimon b. Gamaliel says: any [image] which has anything in its hand [is prohibited]."
9. Mishnah, Eruvin, 6.2 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

6.2. Rabban Gamaliel said: A Sadducee once lived with us in the same alley in Jerusalem and father told us: “Hurry up and carry out all vessels into the alley before he carries out his and thereby restricts you”. Rabbi Judah said [the instruction was given] in different language: “Hurry up and perform all of your needs in the alley before he carries out his and thereby restricts you”."
10. Mishnah, Menachot, 10.3 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

10.3. How would they do it [reap the omer]?The agents of the court used to go out on the day before the festival and tie the unreaped grain in bunches to make it the easier to reap. All the inhabitants of the towns near by assembled there, so that it might be reaped with a great demonstration. As soon as it became dark he says to them: “Has the sun set?” And they answer, “Yes.” “Has the sun set?” And they answer, “Yes.” “With this sickle?” And they answer, “Yes.” “With this sickle?” And they answer, “Yes.” “Into this basket?” And they answer, “Yes.” “Into this basket?” And they answer, “Yes.” On the Sabbath he says to them, “On this Sabbath?” And they answer, “Yes.” “On this Sabbath?” And they answer, “Yes.” “Shall I reap?” And they answer, “Reap.” “Shall I reap?” And they answer, “Reap.” He repeated every matter three times, and they answer, “yes, yes, yes.” And why all of this? Because of the Boethusians who held that the reaping of the omer was not to take place at the conclusion of the [first day of the] festival."
11. Mishnah, Niddah, 4.2 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

4.2. The daughters of the Sadducees, so long as they are accustomed to walking in the paths of their fathers, are to be regarded as Samaritan women. If they left those paths to walk in the paths of Israel, they are to be regarded as Israelite women. Rabbi Yose says: they are always regarded as Israelite women unless they leave the paths of Israel to walk in the paths of their fathers."
12. Mishnah, Sanhedrin, 10.1 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

10.1. All Israel have a portion in the world to come, for it says, “Your people, all of them righteous, shall possess the land for ever; They are the shoot that I planted, my handiwork in which I glory” (Isaiah 60:2. And these are the ones who have no portion in the world to come: He who maintains that resurrection is not a biblical doctrine, that the torah was not divinely revealed, and an epikoros. Rabbi Akiva says: “Even one who reads non-canonical books and one who whispers [a charm] over a wound and says, “I will not bring upon you any of the diseases whichbrought upon the Egyptians: for I the lord am you healer” (Exodus 15:26). Abba Shaul says: “Also one who pronounces the divine name as it is spelled.”"
13. Mishnah, Shevuot, 4.13 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

4.13. [If he said]: \"I adjure you\"; \"I command you\"; \"I bind you\"; they are liable. \"By heaven and earth!\", they are exempt. \"By Alef Daleth\"; \"By Yod He\"; \"By God Almighty\"; \"By The Lord of Hosts; \"By the Merciful and Gracious one\"; \"By the Long Suffering One\"; \"By the One Abounding in Kindness\"; or by any of the substitutes [for the name], they are liable. He who blasphemes by any of them is liable, according to the words of Rabbi Meir. And the Sages exempt him. He who curses his father or mother by any of them is liable according to the words of Rabbi Meir. And the Sages exempt him. He who curses himself or his neighbor by any of them transgresses a negative precept. [If he said,] \"May God smite you\"; or \"Yea, may God smite you\"; this is the curse written in the Torah. \"May [God] not smite you\"; or \"May he bless you\"; Or \"May he do good unto you [if you bear testimony for me]\": Rabbi Meir makes [them] liable, and the Sages exempt [them]."
14. Mishnah, Sotah, 3.4 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

3.4. She had barely finished drinking when her face turns yellow, her eyes protrude and her veins swell. And [those who see her] exclaim, “Remove her! Remove her, so that the temple-court should not be defiled”. If she had merit, it [causes the water] to suspend its effect upon her. Some merit suspends the effect for one year, some merit suspends the effects for two years, and some merit suspends the effect for three years. Hence Ben Azzai said: a person must teach his daughter Torah, so that if she has to drink [the water of bitterness], she should know that the merit suspends its effect. Rabbi Eliezer says: whoever teaches his daughter Torah teaches her lasciviousness. Rabbi Joshua says: a woman prefers one kav (of food) and sexual indulgence to nine kav and sexual separation. He used to say, a foolish pietist, a cunning wicked person, a female separatist, and the blows of separatists bring destruction upon the world."
15. Mishnah, Yoma, 3.8, 4.2, 6.2 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

3.8. He came to his bull and his bull was standing between the Ulam and the altar, its head to the south and its face to the west. And the priest stands on the eastside facing the west. And he lays both his hands upon it and confesses. And thus he would say: “Please, ‘Hashem’! I have done wrong, I have transgressed, I have sinned before You, I and my house. Please, ‘Hashem’! Forgive the wrongdoings, the transgressions, the sins which I have committed and transgressed and sinned before You, I and my house, as it is written in the torah of Moses Your servant: “For on this day shall atonement be made for you [to cleanse you of all your sins; you shall be clean before the Lord”] (Leviticus 16:30). And they answered after him: “Blessed be the name of His glorious kingdom for ever and ever!”" 4.2. He bound a thread of crimson wool on the head of the goat which was to be sent away, and he placed it at the gate where it was later to be sent away, and on the goat that was to be slaughtered [he placed a thread of crimson wool on its neck] at the place of the slaughtering. He came to his bull a second time, pressed his two hands upon it and made confession. And thus he would say: “Please, ‘Hashem’! I have done wrong, I have transgressed, I have sinned before You, I and my house and the sons of Aaron Your holy people. Please, ‘Hashem’! Forgive the wrongdoings, the transgressions, the sins which I have committed and transgressed and sinned before You, I and my house and the sons of Aaron Your holy people, as it is written in the torah of Moses Your servant: “For on this day shall atonement be made for you [to cleanse you of all your sins; you shall be clean before the Lord”] (Leviticus 16:30). And they answered after him: “Blessed be the name of His glorious kingdom for ever and ever!”" 6.2. He then came to the scapegoat and laid his two hands upon it and he made confession. And thus he would say: “Please, ‘Hashem’! They have done wrong, they have transgressed, they have sinned before You, Your people the House of Israel. Please, in the name of Hashem (Bashem)! Forgive the wrongdoings, the transgressions, the sins which your people, the House of Israel, have committed and transgressed and sinned before You, as it is written in the torah of Moses Your servant: “For on this day shall atonement be made for you [to cleanse you of all your sins; you shall be clean before the Lord”] (Leviticus 16:30). And the priests and the people standing in the courtyard, when they would hear God’s name explicated coming out of the high priest’s mouth, would bend their knees, bow down and fall on their faces and say “Blessed be the name of His glorious kingdom for ever and ever!”"
16. Mishnah, Toharot, 4.12 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

4.12. \"A condition of doubt concerning non-sacred food\"--this refers to the cleanness practiced by Pharisees. \"A condition of doubt concerning a sheretz\" –according [to their condition at] the time they are found. \"A condition of doubt concerning negaim\" it is deemed clean in the beginning before it had been determined to be unclean, but after it had been determined to be unclean, a condition of doubt is deemed unclean. \"A condition of doubt concerning a nazirite vow\" [in such a condition of doubt he] is permitted [all that is forbidden to a nazirite]. \"A condition of doubt concerning first-borns\" whether they are human firstborn or firstborn of cattle, whether the firstborn of an unclean beast or a clean one, for the one who wishes to extract from his fellow bears the burden of proof."
17. Mishnah, Yadayim, 4.3, 4.6-4.8 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

4.3. On that day they said: what is the law applying to Ammon and Moab in the seventh year? Rabbi Tarfon decreed tithe for the poor. And Rabbi Elazar ben Azariah decreed second tithe. Rabbi Ishmael said: Elazar ben Azariah, you must produce your proof because you are expressing the stricter view and whoever expresses a stricter view has the burden to produce the proof. Rabbi Elazar ben Azariah said to him: Ishmael, my brother, I have not deviated from the sequence of years, Tarfon, my brother, has deviated from it and the burden is upon him to produce the proof. Rabbi Tarfon answered: Egypt is outside the land of Israel, Ammon and Moab are outside the land of Israel: just as Egypt must give tithe for the poor in the seventh year, so must Ammon and Moab give tithe for the poor in the seventh year. Rabbi Elazar ben Azariah answered: Babylon is outside the land of Israel, Ammon and Moab are outside the land of Israel: just as Babylon must give second tithe in the seventh year, so must Ammon and Moab give second tithe in the seventh year. Rabbi Tarfon said: on Egypt which is near, they imposed tithe for the poor so that the poor of Israel might be supported by it during the seventh year; so on Ammon and Moab which are near, we should impose tithe for the poor so that the poor of Israel may be supported by it during the seventh year. Rabbi Elazar ben Azariah said to him: Behold, you are like one who would benefit them with gain, yet you are really as one who causes them to perish. Would you rob the heavens so that dew or rain should not descend? As it is said, \"Will a man rob God? Yet you rob me. But you: How have we robbed You? In tithes and heave-offerings\" (Malakhi 3:8). Rabbi Joshua said: Behold, I shall be as one who replies on behalf of Tarfon, my brother, but not in accordance with the substance of his arguments. The law regarding Egypt is a new act and the law regarding Babylon is an old act, and the law which is being argued before us is a new act. A new act should be argued from [another] new act, but a new act should not be argued from an old act. The law regarding Egypt is the act of the elders and the law regarding Babylon is the act of the prophets, and the law which is being argued before us is the act of the elders. Let one act of the elders be argued from [another] act of the elders, but let not an act of the elders be argued from an act of the prophets. The votes were counted and they decided that Ammon and Moab should give tithe for the poor in the seventh year. And when Rabbi Yose ben Durmaskit visited Rabbi Eliezer in Lod he said to him: what new thing did you have in the house of study today? He said to him: their votes were counted and they decided that Ammon and Moab must give tithe for the poor in the seventh year. Rabbi Eliezer wept and said: \"The counsel of the Lord is with them that fear him: and his covet, to make them know it\" (Psalms 25:14). Go and tell them: Don't worry about your voting. I received a tradition from Rabbi Yoha ben Zakkai who heard it from his teacher, and his teacher from his teacher, and so back to a halachah given to Moses from Sinai, that Ammon and Moab must give tithe for the poor in the seventh year." 4.6. The Sadducees say: we complain against you, Pharisees, because you say that the Holy Scriptures defile the hands, but the books of Homer do not defile the hands. Rabban Yoha ben Zakkai said: Have we nothing against the Pharisees but this? Behold they say that the bones of a donkey are clean, yet the bones of Yoha the high priest are unclean. They said to him: according to the affection for them, so is their impurity, so that nobody should make spoons out of the bones of his father or mother. He said to them: so also are the Holy Scriptures according to the affection for them, so is their uncleanness. The books of Homer which are not precious do not defile the hands." 4.7. The Sadducees say: we complain against you, Pharisees, that you declare an uninterrupted flow of a liquid to be clean. The Pharisees say: we complain against you, Sadducees, that you declare a stream of water which flows from a burial-ground to be clean? The Sadducees say: we complain against you, Pharisees, that you say, my ox or donkey which has done injury is liable, yet my male or female slave who has done injury is not liable. Now if in the case of my ox or my donkey for which I am not responsible if they do not fulfill religious duties, yet I am responsible for their damages, in the case of my male or female slave for whom I am responsible to see that they fulfill mitzvot, how much more so that I should be responsible for their damages? They said to them: No, if you argue about my ox or my donkey which have no understanding, can you deduce from there anything concerning a male or female slave who do have understanding? So that if I were to anger either of them and they would go and burn another person's stack, should I be liable to make restitution?" 4.8. A Galilean min said: I complain against you Pharisees, that you write the name of the ruler and the name of Moses together on a divorce document. The Pharisees said: we complain against you, Galilean min, that you write the name of the ruler together with the divine name on a single page [of Torah]? And furthermore that you write the name of the ruler above and the divine name below? As it is said, \"And Pharoah said, Who is the Lord that I should hearken to his voice to let Israel go?\" (Exodus 5:2) But when he was smitten what did he say? \"The Lord is righteous\" (Exodus 9:27)."
18. New Testament, Acts, 9.36 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

9.36. Now there was at Joppa a certain disciple named Tabitha, which when translated, means Dorcas. This woman was full of good works and acts of mercy which she did.
19. New Testament, Apocalypse, 16.16 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

16.16. He gathered them together into the place which is called in Hebrew, Megiddo.
20. New Testament, John, 4.25, 5.2, 9.17, 11.16, 20.16, 20.24, 21.2 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4.25. The woman said to him, "I know that Messiah comes," (he who is called Christ). "When he has come, he will declare to us all things. 5.2. Now in Jerusalem by the sheep gate, there is a pool, which is called in Hebrew, "Bethesda," having five porches. 9.17. Therefore they asked the blind man again, "What do you say about him, because he opened your eyes?"He said, "He is a prophet. 11.16. Thomas therefore, who is called Didymus, said to his fellow disciples, "Let's go also, that we may die with him. 20.16. Jesus said to her, "Mary."She turned and said to him, "Rhabbouni!" which is to say, "Teacher! 20.24. But Thomas, one of the twelve, called Didymus, wasn't with them when Jesus came. 21.2. Simon Peter, Thomas called Didymus, Nathanael of Cana in Galilee, and the sons of Zebedee, and two others of his disciples were together.
21. Tosefta, Megillah, 3.13 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

22. Tosefta, Nedarim, 1.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

23. Tosefta, Parah, 3.8 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

24. Tosefta, Shabbat, 13.2 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

25. Tosefta, Kippurim, 1.1, 1.8 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

1.1. Why do they separate the Kohen Gadol from his household to Lishkat Parhedrin. The explanation of Rabbi Yehuda Ben Betira is that he may be with his wife, and there is a doubt as to whether she is a Niddah and he would become impure in the seven days before Yom Kippur. There was another reading that he was taken to Lishkat Barvatan."
26. Tosefta, Yadayim, 2.13-2.14 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

27. Babylonian Talmud, Avodah Zarah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

18a. הוגה את השם באותיותיו והיכי עביד הכי והתנן אלו שאין להם חלק לעולם הבא האומר אין תורה מן השמים ואין תחיית המתים מן התורה אבא שאול אומר אף ההוגה את השם באותיותיו,להתלמד עבד כדתניא (דברים יח, ט) לא תלמד לעשות אבל אתה למד להבין ולהורות,אלא מאי טעמא אענש משום הוגה את השם בפרהסיא דהוי ועל אשתו להריגה דלא מיחה ביה מכאן אמרו כל מי שיש בידו למחות ואינו מוחה נענש עליו,ועל בתו לישב בקובה של זונות דאמר ר' יוחנן פעם אחת היתה בתו מהלכת לפני גדולי רומי אמרו כמה נאות פסיעותיה של ריבה זו מיד דקדקה בפסיעותיה והיינו דאמר ר' שמעון בן לקיש מאי דכתיב (תהלים מט, ו) עון עקבי יסבני עונות שאדם דש בעקביו בעולם הזה מסובין לו ליום הדין,בשעה שיצאו שלשתן צדקו עליהם את הדין הוא אמר (דברים לב, ד) הצור תמים פעלו [וגו'] ואשתו אמרה (דברים לב, ד) אל אמונה ואין עול בתו אמרה (ירמיהו לב, יט) גדול העצה ורב העליליה אשר עיניך פקוחות על כל דרכי וגו' אמר רבי [כמה] גדולים צדיקים הללו שנזדמנו להן שלש מקראות של צדוק הדין בשעת צדוק הדין,תנו רבנן כשחלה רבי יוסי בן קיסמא הלך רבי חנינא בן תרדיון לבקרו אמר לו חנינא אחי (אחי) אי אתה יודע שאומה זו מן השמים המליכוה שהחריבה את ביתו ושרפה את היכלו והרגה את חסידיו ואבדה את טוביו ועדיין היא קיימת ואני שמעתי עליך שאתה יושב ועוסק בתורה [ומקהיל קהלות ברבים] וספר מונח לך בחיקך,אמר לו מן השמים ירחמו אמר לו אני אומר לך דברים של טעם ואתה אומר לי מן השמים ירחמו תמה אני אם לא ישרפו אותך ואת ספר תורה באש אמר לו רבי מה אני לחיי העולם הבא,אמר לו כלום מעשה בא לידך אמר לו מעות של פורים נתחלפו לי במעות של צדקה וחלקתים לעניים אמר לו אם כן מחלקך יהי חלקי ומגורלך יהי גורלי,אמרו לא היו ימים מועטים עד שנפטר רבי יוסי בן קיסמא והלכו כל גדולי רומי לקברו והספידוהו הספד גדול ובחזרתן מצאוהו לרבי חנינא בן תרדיון שהיה יושב ועוסק בתורה ומקהיל קהלות ברבים וס"ת מונח לו בחיקו,הביאוהו וכרכוהו בס"ת והקיפוהו בחבילי זמורות והציתו בהן את האור והביאו ספוגין של צמר ושראום במים והניחום על לבו כדי שלא תצא נשמתו מהרה אמרה לו בתו אבא אראך בכך אמר לה אילמלי אני נשרפתי לבדי היה הדבר קשה לי עכשיו שאני נשרף וס"ת עמי מי שמבקש עלבונה של ס"ת הוא יבקש עלבוני,אמרו לו תלמידיו רבי מה אתה רואה אמר להן גליון נשרפין ואותיות פורחות אף אתה פתח פיך ותכנס בך האש אמר להן מוטב שיטלנה מי שנתנה ואל יחבל הוא בעצמו,אמר לו קלצטונירי רבי אם אני מרבה בשלהבת ונוטל ספוגין של צמר מעל לבך אתה מביאני לחיי העולם הבא אמר לו הן השבע לי נשבע לו מיד הרבה בשלהבת ונטל ספוגין של צמר מעל לבו יצאה נשמתו במהרה אף הוא קפץ ונפל לתוך האור,יצאה בת קול ואמרה רבי חנינא בן תרדיון וקלצטונירי מזומנין הן לחיי העולם הבא בכה רבי ואמר יש קונה עולמו בשעה אחת ויש קונה עולמו בכמה שנים,ברוריא דביתהו דר' מאיר ברתיה דר' חנינא בן תרדיון הואי אמרה לו זילא בי מלתא דיתבא אחתאי בקובה של זונות שקל תרקבא דדינרי ואזל אמר אי לא איתעביד בה איסורא מיתעביד ניסא אי עבדה איסורא לא איתעביד לה ניסא,אזל נקט נפשיה כחד פרשא אמר לה השמיעני לי אמרה ליה דשתנא אנא אמר לה מתרחנא מרתח אמרה לו נפישין טובא (ואיכא טובא הכא) דשפירן מינאי אמר ש"מ לא עבדה איסורא כל דאתי אמרה ליה הכי,אזל לגבי שומר דידה א"ל הבה ניהלה אמר ליה מיסתפינא ממלכותא אמר ליה שקול תרקבא דדינרא פלגא פלח ופלגא להוי לך א"ל וכי שלמי מאי איעביד א"ל אימא אלהא דמאיר ענני ומתצלת א"ל 18a. bpronounce theineffable bnameof God bwithall of bits letters,i.e., as it is spelled. The Gemara asks: bAnd how could he do that? But didn’t we learnin the mishna ( iSanhedrin90a): bTheseare the people bwho have no share in the World-to-Come: One who saysthat bthe Torah is not from Heaven orthat bthere is nosource bfrom the Torahfor bthe resurrection of the dead. Abba Shaul says: Also one who pronounces theineffable bnameas it is written, bwithall of bits letters,has no share in the World-to-Come.,The Gemara answers: Rabbi Ḥanina ben Teradyon bdid it to teach himself, as it is taughtin a ibaraitawith regard to the prohibition against sorcery: b“You shall not learn to do”(Deuteronomy 18:9); this indicates: bBut you may learn to understand and to teach.In other words, certain prohibitions do not apply when one is acting only in order to acquire knowledge of the subject.,The Gemara asks: bRather, what is the reasonthat bhe was punished?The Gemara answers: He was punished bbecause he would pronounce theineffable bnameof God bin public,instead of privately. bAnd his wifewas condemned bto executionby decapitation bbecause she did not protest hisdoing so. bFrom herethe Sages bstated: Anyone who has the capability to protesteffectively the sinful conduct of another band does not protest is punished forthat person’s sin.,The Gemara asks: bAndwhy was bhis daughtercondemned bto sit in a brothel? As Rabbi Yoḥa says: Once, the daughter ofRabbi Ḥanina ben Teradyon bwas walking before the nobles of Rome,and they bsaidto each other: bHow pleasant are the steps of this young woman.Upon hearing this, bshe immediately took careto keep walking in such a fashion that bher stepswould continue to be pleasing to them. bAnd this isthe same as that bwhich Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish says: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “The iniquity of my heel encircles me”(Psalms 49:6)? It means that bthe sins that a person tramples with one’s heel in this world,i.e., dismisses and pays no attention to them as they seem to lack importance, e.g., the way that one walks, come and bencircle him on the Day of Judgment. /b,The Gemara relates: bWhen the three of them went outafter being sentenced, bthey accepted thejustice of God’s bjudgment.Rabbi Ḥanina ben Teradyon bsaid: “The Rock, His work is perfect;for all His ways are justice” (Deuteronomy 32:4). bAnd his wife saidthe continuation of the verse: b“A God of faithfulness and without iniquity.” His daughter said: “Great in counsel, and mighty in work; whose eyes are open upon all the waysof the sons of men, to give every one according to his ways” (Jeremiah 32:19). bRabbiYehuda HaNasi bsaid: How great are these righteous people, thatthese bthree verses,which speak bofthe bacceptance ofGod’s bjudgment, occurred to them at the time of accepting therighteousness of His bjudgment. /b,§ bThe Sages taught: When Rabbi Yosei ben Kisma fell ill, Rabbi Ḥanina ben Teradyon went to visit him.Rabbi Yosei ben Kisma bsaid to him: Ḥanina my brother, do you not know that this nation has been given reign bya decree from bHeaven?The proof is bthatRome has bdestroyedGod’s bTemple, and burned His Sanctuary, and killed His pious ones, and destroyed His best ones, and it still exists.Evidently, all of this is by Divine decree. bAndyet bI heard about you that you sit and engage in Torahstudy, band convene assemblies in public, and havea Torah bscroll placed in your lap,thereby demonstrating complete disregard for the decrees issued by the Romans.,Rabbi Ḥanina ben Teradyon bsaid to him: Heaven will have mercyand protect me. Rabbi Yosei ben Kisma bsaid to him: I am saying reasonable matters to you, and you say to me: Heaven will have mercy? I wonder ifthe Romans bwill not burnboth byou andyour bTorah scroll by fire.Rabbi Ḥanina ben Teradyon bsaid to him: My teacher, whatwill become of bme?Am I destined bfor life in the World-to-Come? /b,Rabbi Yosei ben Kisma bsaid to him: Did anyspecial bincident occur to youwhich might serve as an indication? Rabbi Ḥanina ben Teradyon bsaid to him: I confusedmy own bcoinsthat I needed bforthe festivities of bPurim with coins of charity, and I distributed themall bto the poorat my own expense. Rabbi Yosei ben Kisma bsaid to him: Ifthat is bso, may my portion be of your portion, and may my lot be of your lot. /b,The Sages bsaid: Noteven ba few dayspassed bbefore Rabbi Yosei ben Kisma diedof his illness, band all of the Roman notables went to bury him, andthey beulogized himwith ba great eulogy. And upon their return, they found Rabbi Ḥanina ben Teradyon, who was sitting and engaging in Torahstudy band convening assemblies in public, with a Torah scroll placed in his lap. /b, bThey brought himto be sentenced, band wrapped him in the Torah scroll, and encircled him with bundles of branches, and they set fire to it. And they brought tufts of wool and soaked them in water, and placed them on his heart, so that his soul should not leavehis body bquickly,but he would die slowly and painfully. bHis daughter said to him: Father, must I see you like this?Rabbi Ḥanina ben Teradyon bsaid to her: If I alone were being burned, it would be difficult for me,but bnow that I am burning along with a Torah scroll, He who will seekretribution for bthe insultaccorded bto the Torah scroll will also seekretribution for bthe insultaccorded bto me. /b, bHis students said to him:Our bteacher, what do you see?Rabbi Ḥanina ben Teradyon bsaid to them:I see the bparchment burning, butits bletters are flyingto the heavens. They said to him: bYou too should open your mouth and the fire will enter you,and you will die quickly. Rabbi Ḥanina ben Teradyon bsaid to them: It is preferable that He who gaveme my soul bshould take it away, and one should not harm oneselfto speed his death., bThe executioner [ ikaltzatoniri /i] said to him: My teacher, if I increase the flame and take off the tufts of wool from your heart,so that you will die sooner and suffer less, bwill you bring me to the life of the World-to-Come?Rabbi Ḥanina ben Teradyon bsaid tothe executioner: bYes.The executioner said: bTake an oath for me,that what you say is true. Rabbi Ḥanina ben Teradyon btookthe boath for him,and the executioner bimmediately increased the flame and took off the tufts of wool from his heart,causing bhis soulto bleavehis body bquickly.The executioner btoo leaped and fell into the fireand died., bA Divine Voice emerged and said: Rabbi Ḥanina ben Teradyon and the executioner are destined for the life of the World-to-Come.Upon hearing this, bRabbiYehuda HaNasi bwept and said: There isone who bacquires hisshare in the bWorld /b-to-Come bin one moment,such as the executioner, band there isone who bacquires hisshare in the bWorld /b-to-Come only bafter many yearsof toil, such as Rabbi Ḥanina ben Teradyon.,§ The Gemara relates: bBerurya, the wife of Rabbi Meir, was a daughter of Rabbi Ḥanina ben Teradyon. She said toRabbi Meir: bIt is a disrespectful matter for me that my sister is sitting in a brothel;you must do something to save her. Rabbi Meir btook a vessel [ itarkeva /i]full bof dinars and went. He saidto himself: bIf no transgression was committed with her, a miracle will be performedfor her; bif she committed a transgression, no miracle will be performed for her. /b,Rabbi Meir bwent and dressed asa Roman bknight,and bsaid to her: Accede to mywishes, i.e., engage in intercourse with me. bShe said to him: I am menstruating [ idashtana /i]and cannot. bHe said to her: I will wait. She said to him: There are manywomen in the brothel, band there are manywomen bhere who are more beautiful than I. He saidto himself: I can bconclude fromher responses that bshe did not commit a transgression,as bshepresumably bsaid this to all who come. /b, bRabbi Meir went over to her guard,and bsaid to him: Give herto me. The guard bsaid to him: I fearthat if I do so, I will be punished bby the government.Rabbi Meir bsaid to him: Takethis bvesselfull bof dinars; give half to the government as a bribe, band half will be for you.The guard bsaid to him: But whenthe money bis finished, what shall I do?Rabbi Meir bsaid to him: Say: God of Meir answer me! And you will be saved.The guard bsaid to him: /b
28. Babylonian Talmud, Bava Batra, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

115b. הא כיצד נחלה ממשמשת והולכת עד ראובן ולימא עד יעקב אמר אביי גמירי דלא כלה שבטא,אמר רב הונא אמר רב כל האומר תירש בת עם בת הבן אפילו נשיא שבישראל אין שומעין לו שאינן אלא מעשה צדוקין דתניא בארבעה ועשרים בטבת תבנא לדיננא שהיו צדוקין אומרין תירש הבת עם בת הבן,נטפל להן רבן יוחנן בן זכאי אמר להם שוטים מנין זה לכם ולא היה אדם שהחזירו דבר חוץ מזקן אחד שהיה מפטפט כנגדו ואומר ומה בת בנו הבאה מכח בנו תירשנו בתו הבאה מכחו לא כל שכן,קרא עליו את המקרא הזה (בראשית לו, כ) אלה בני שעיר החורי יושבי הארץ לוטן ושובל וצבעון וענה וכתיב (בראשית לו, כד) אלה בני צבעון ואיה וענה אלא מלמד שבא צבעון על אמו והוליד ענה,ודלמא תרי ענה הוו אמר רבה אמינא מלתא דלא אמרה שבור מלכא ומנו שמואל איכא דאמרי אמר רב פפא אמינא מלתא דלא אמרה שבור מלכא ומנו רבה אמר קרא (בראשית לו, כד) הוא ענה הוא ענה דמעיקרא,אמר ליה רבי בכך אתה פוטרני אמר לו שוטה 115b. The Gemara asks: bHow so,i.e., how is the investigation performed when he has no offspring at all? The Gemara answers: The family lineage that determines the binheritance is successively examined up to Reuben,son of Jacob, i.e., the heirs are determined by investigating the family genealogy, and that investigation can extend all the way to Reuben, son of our forefather Jacob. The Gemara asks: bAnd letit bsay: Until Jacobhimself, rather than until Reuben, since if none of Reuven’s descendants survive, one would have to examine Jacob’s descendants. bAbaye saidin reply: It bis learnedas a tradition bthat a tribe will not be eliminatedentirely, and some descendants will always remain.,§ bRav Huna saysthat bRav says:With regard to banyone who saysthat ba daughterof the deceased bshould inheritthe estate of her father along bwith the daughter of the sonof the deceased, bevenif he is ba prince of the Jewish people,one bshould not listen to him, as this is nothing other than an act of the Sadducees,and runs counter to the ruling of the mishna that the descendants of a son inherit before a daughter. bAs it is taughtin a ibaraitain iMegillat Ta’anit /i, which describes various minor holidays on which it is forbidden to fast or eulogize: bOn the twenty-fourth of Tevet, we returned to our law,i.e., the ihalakhawas reestablished in accordance with the opinion of the Sages after having been dictated by the Sadducees. bAs the Sadducees would say: A daughter should inheritthe estate of her father along bwith the daughter of the sonof the deceased.,The ibaraitacontinues: bRabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai joined themto discuss their ruling, and bsaid to them: Imbeciles, from wheredo byouderive bthisruling? bAnd there was no person that answered him anything, except for one oldman bwho was chattering at him and sayingthat it is an ia fortioriinference: bAnd just as a daughter ofthe deceased’s bson, who comesto claim her inheritance from her grandfather bby virtue of his son, inheritsher grandfather’s property, so too, with regard to the deceased’s own bdaughter, who comesto inherit bby virtue ofthe deceased, ball the more sois it bnotclear that she should inherit his property?,Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai brecited this verse about him: “These are the sons of Seir the Horite, the inhabitants of the land: Lotan and Shobal and Zibeon and Anah”(Genesis 36:20), band it is written: “And these are the children of Zibeon: Aiah and Anah”(Genesis 36:24). The first verse portrays Zibeon and Anah as brothers, while the second states that they are father and son. bRather,this bteaches that Zibeon engaged in sexual intercourse with his mother and begot Anah,so that he was both Anah’s father and his brother. From the fact that the first verse equates Zibeon and Anah by referring to both of them as Seir’s sons despite Anah being a grandson of Seir, it is clear that grandchildren are equal to children, contrary to the Sadducees’ assertion.,The Gemara interrupts the recounting of the ibaraitaand questions Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai’s inference: bBut perhaps there were twopeople named bAnah,so that one Anah was Zibeon’s son, and the other his brother? bRabba said: I will state a matterthat even bKing Shapur did not state. And who isthis King Shapur? This cannot be a reference to Shapur, king of Persia; rather, it must be a moniker for someone else. He is bShmuel,whose legal rulings were accepted by the public like the edicts of a king by his subjects. bSome statea different version, that it was bRav Pappawho bsaid: I will state a matterthat even bKing Shapur did not state. And who isthis King Shapur? He is bRabba. The versegoes on to bstate: “This is Anah”(Genesis 36:24), indicating that bhe isthe same bAnahmentioned binitially,earlier in the verse. Accordingly, there was only one Anah, who was both Zibeon’s brother and Zibeon’s son.,The ibaraitacontinues: The Sadducee bsaid toRabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai: bMy teacher, you dismiss me with thisretort? I agree that the son of a son precedes a daughter, as the verse you quoted suggests; I am asserting that a daughter inherits together with the daughter of a son, and the verse you quoted has no bearing on that claim. Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai bsaid to him: Imbecile, /b
29. Babylonian Talmud, Menachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

65a. bAnd this is as we learnedin a mishna ( iShekalim13b): bPetaḥyawas responsible bfor the nestsof birds, i.e., the doves or pigeons brought by a izav /i, a izava /i, a woman after childbirth, and a leper. These individuals would place the appropriate sum of money into the horn designated for this purpose, and each day Petaḥya oversaw the purchase of birds from that money and their sacrifice in the proper manner. bThisSage bis Mordekhai;and bwhy was he called Petaḥya,which resembles the word for opening [ ipetaḥ /i]? The reason is bthat he would open,i.e., elucidate, difficult btopics and interpret themto the people, bandbecause bhe knewall bseventy languagesknown in that region at the time.,The Gemara asks: What was unique about Petaḥya? bAllof the members of the bSanhedrin also knowall bseventy languages. As Rabbi Yoḥa says:They bplace on theGreat bSanhedrin onlymen bof wisdom, and ofpleasant bappearance, and ofhigh bstature, and ofsuitable bageso that they will be respected. bAndthey must also be bmasters of sorcery,i.e., they know the nature of sorcery, so that they can judge sorcerers, bandthey must bknowall bseventy languagesin order bthat the Sanhedrin will notneed to bheartestimony bfrom the mouth of a translatorin a case where a witness speaks a different language.,The Gemara answers: bRather,Petaḥya was unique bashe not only knew all seventy languages, but also had the ability to bcombinevarious blanguages and interpretthem. bThis isthe meaning of that bwhich is written with regard to Mordekhai: “Bilshan”(Nehemiah 7:7). Bilshan is interpreted as another name for Mordekhai, as he would combine [ ibalil /i] languages [ ilashon /i]., strongMISHNA: /strong bHow would they performthe rite of the harvest of the iomer /i? bEmissaries of the courtwould bemerge on the eve of the festivalof Passover band fashionthe stalks of barley into bsheaves whilethe stalks were still battached to the ground, so that it would be convenient to reapthem. The residents of ball the towns adjacent tothe site of the harvest bwould assemble there, so that it would be harvested with great fanfare. /b, bOnce it grew dark,the court emissary bsays tothose assembled: bDid the sun set?The assembly bsaysin response: bYes.The emissary repeats: bDid the sun set?They again bsay: Yes.The court emissary next says to those assembled: Shall I reap the sheaves with bthis sickle?The assembly bsaysin response: bYes.The emissary repeats: With bthis sickle?The assembly bsays: Yes.The court emissary then says to those assembled: Shall I place the gathered sheaves in bthis basket?The assembly bsaysin response: bYes.The emissary repeats: In bthis basket?The assembly bsays: Yes. /b,If the sixteenth of Nisan occurs bon Shabbat,the court emissary bsays tothe assembled: Shall I cut the sheaves on bthis Shabbat?The assembly bsaysin response: bYes.The emissary repeats: On bthis Shabbat?The assembly bsays: Yes.The court emissary says to those assembled: bShall I cutthe sheaves? bAnd they say to himin response: bCut.The emissary repeats: bShall I cutthe sheaves? bAnd they sayto him: bCut. /b,The emissary asks bthree times with regard to each and every matter, andthe assembly bsays to him: Yes, yes, yes.The mishna asks: bWhy do Ineed those involved to publicize each stage of the rite bto that extent?The mishna answers: It is bdue to the Boethusians, as theydeny the validity of the Oral Law and bwould say: There is no harvest of the iomerat the conclusion of thefirst bFestivalday of Passover unless it occurs at the conclusion of Shabbat. The publicity was to underscore that the sixteenth of Nisan was the proper time for the iomerharvest., strongGEMARA: /strong bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: bThese are the days on which fasting is prohibited, and on some of them eulogizing is prohibitedas well: bFrom the New Moon of Nisan until the eighth ofthe month, the proper sacrifice of bthe daily offering was established,and therefore it was decreed bnot to eulogizeon these dates. bAndfurthermore, bfrom the eighth ofNisan buntil the end of the festivalof Passover, the correct date for the bfestival of iShavuotwas restored,and it was similarly decreed bnot to eulogizeduring this period.,The Gemara discusses the ibaraita /i: bFrom the New Moon of Nisan until the eighth ofthe month the proper sacrifice of bthe daily offering was established,and therefore it was decreed bnot to eulogizeon these dates. The Gemara explains bthat the Sadducees would say: An individual may donate and bringthe bdaily offering,in opposition to the accepted tradition that the daily offering must be brought from communal funds. bWhatverse did the Sadducees bexpound? “The one lamb shall you offer [ ita’aseh /i] in the morning, and the other lamb shall you offer in the afternoon”(Numbers 28:4). Since the verse is in the singular form, the Sadducees maintained that even an individual may donate the daily offering.,The Gemara asks: bWhatdid the Sages breplyto refute the argument of the Sadducees? They cited the verse: “Command the children of Israel, and say to them: bMy food that is presented to Me for offerings made by fire,of a pleasing aroma unto Me, byou shall observe [ itishmeru /i]to offer to Me in its due season” (Numbers 28:2). The term: “You shall observe” is in the plural form, which indicates that ball of thedaily offerings bshould come from collection of theTemple treasury bchamber.Since during that period, between the New Moon of Nisan and the eighth of Nisan, the Sages overruled the Sadducees, it was established as a period of rejoicing, and it was prohibited to eulogize on those dates.,The Gemara discusses the next period listed in the ibaraita /i: bFrom the eighth ofNisan buntil the end of the festivalof Passover, the correct date for the bfestival of iShavuotwas restored,and it was similarly decreed bnot to eulogizeduring this period. bAs the Boethusians would saythat the festival of iShavuot /ialways occurs bafter Shabbat,on a Sunday. Their reasoning was that the verse states, with regard to the iomeroffering and the festival of iShavuotthat follows seven weeks later: “And you shall count for you from the morrow after the day of rest [ ihashabbat /i], from the day that you brought the sheaf [ iomer /i] of the waving; seven weeks shall there be complete” (Leviticus 23:15). Disregarding the oral tradition, the Boethusians interpreted the phrase “from the morrow after the day of rest [ ihashabbat /i]” literally, as referring to Shabbat, not the Festival day.,At the time, bRabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai joinedthe discussion with the Boethusians band said to them: Fools! From wherehave byouderived this? bAnd there was no man who answered him, except for one elderly man who was prattling [ imefatpet /i] at him, and he said: Moses, our teacher, was a lover of the Jewish people and he knew that iShavuotisonly bone day.Therefore, bhe arose and established it after Shabbat, in order that the Jewish people would enjoy themselves for two days.Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai brecited this versein response btothat old man: b“It is eleven days’ journey from Horeb to Kadesh Barnea by the way of Mount Seir”(Deuteronomy 1:2).
30. Babylonian Talmud, Shabbat, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

115a. מותר בקניבת ירק (ואמר רבי חייא בר אבא אמר רבי יוחנן יום כיפורים שחל להיות בחול) מפצעין באגוזים ומפרכסין ברימונים מן המנחה ולמעלה מפני עגמת נפש דבי רב יהודה מקנבי כרבא דבי רבה גרדי קארי כיון דחזא דהוו קא מחרפי אמר להו אתא איגרתא ממערבא משמיה דר' יוחנן דאסיר:, br br big strongהדרן עלך ואלו קשרים /strong /big br br,מתני׳ big strongכל /strong /big כתבי הקדש מצילין אותן מפני הדליקה בין שקורין בהן ובין שאין קורין בהן אע"פ שכתובים בכל לשון טעונים גניזה ומפני מה אין קורין בהם מפני ביטול בית המדרש:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big איתמר היו כתובים תרגום או בכל לשון רב הונא אמר אין מצילין אותן מפני הדליקה ורב חסדא אמר מצילין אותן מפני הדליקה אליבא דמאן דאמר ניתנו לקרות בהן דכולי עלמא לא פליגי דמצילין כי פליגי אליבא דמאן דאמר לא ניתנו לקרות בהן רב הונא אמר אין מצילין דהא לא ניתנו לקרות בהן רב חסדא אמר מצילין משום בזיון כתבי הקדש תנן כל כתבי הקדש מצילין אותן מפני הדליקה בין שקורין בהן בין שאין קורין בהן אע"פ שכתובין בכל לשון מאי לאו שקורין בהן נביאים ושאין קורין בהן כתובים אע"פ שכתובין בכל לשון דלא ניתנו לקרות בהן וקתני מצילין ותיובתא דרב הונא,אמר לך רב הונא ותסברא אימא סיפא טעונין גניזה השתא אצולי מצילינן גניזה מיבעי אלא רב הונא מתרץ לטעמיה ורב חסדא מתרץ לטעמיה רב הונא מתרץ לטעמיה בין שקורין בהם נביאים ובין שאין קורין בהם כתובים במה דברים אמורים שכתובין בלשון הקדש אבל בכל לשון אין מצילין ואפילו הכי גניזה בעו רב חסדא מתרץ לטעמיה בין שקורין בהן נביאים ובין שאין קורין בהן כתובים אע"פ שכתובין בכל לשון נמי מצילין והכי קאמר ומקק שלהן טעונין גניזה,מיתיבי היו כתובים תרגום וכל לשון מצילין אותן מפני הדליקה תיובתא דרב הונא אמר לך רב הונא האי תנא סבר ניתנו לקרות בהן ת"ש היו כתובין גיפטית מדית עיברית עילמית יוונית אע"פ שלא ניתנו לקרות בהן מצילין אותן מפני הדליקה תיובתא דרב הונא אמר לך רב הונא תנאי היא דתניא היו כתובין תרגום ובכל לשון מצילין אותן מפני הדליקה ר' יוסי אומר אין מצילין אותן מפני הדליקה,אמר ר' יוסי מעשה באבא חלפתא שהלך אצל רבן גמליאל בריבי לטבריא ומצאו שהי' יושב על שלחנו של (יוחנן הנזוף) ובידו ספר איוב תרגום והוא קורא בו אמר לו זכור אני ברבן גמליאל אבי אביך שהיה עומד ע"ג מעלה בהר הבית והביאו לפניו ספר איוב תרגום ואמר לבנאי שקעהו תחת הנדבך אף הוא צוה עליו וגנזו ר' יוסי ברבי יהודה אומר עריבה של טיט כפו עליו אמר רבי שתי תשובות בדבר חדא וכי טיט בהר הבית מנין ועוד וכי מותר לאבדן ביד אלא מניחן במקום התורפה והן מרקיבין מאליהן מאן תנאי 115a. btrimming vegetables is permitted. And Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba saidthat bRabbi Yoḥa said:If bYom Kippur occurs ona bweekday, one may crack nuts and remove pomegranate seeds fromthe late bafternoon and onward,because doing so involves no actual labor and bdue to anxiety,i.e., if a person does not know that there is food prepared for when the fast ends, he suffers more during the final hours of the day (Rabbi Zeraḥia HaLevi). The Gemara relates: The members of bRav Yehuda’s house would trim cabbage.The members of bRabba’s house would scrub gourds. OnceRabba bsawthat bthey were doingthis bearly,before the late afternoon, bhe said to them: A letter came from the West,i.e., from Eretz Yisrael, bin the nameof bRabbi Yoḥa,saying that doing so is bprohibited. /b,, strongMISHNA: /strong With regard to ball sacred writings, one may rescue them from the fireon Shabbat, bwhether they are readin public, e.g., Torah or Prophets scrolls, bor whether they are not readin public, e.g., Writings scrolls. This ruling applies beven though they were written in anyforeign blanguage.According to the Rabbis, those scrolls are not read in public, but they are still sacred and require burial. bAnd whydoes bone not readthe Writings on Shabbat? bDue to suspensionof Torah study bin the study hall.People came to the study hall at specific times on Shabbat to hear words of ihalakha,and other texts were not allowed at those times., strongGEMARA: /strong bIt was statedthat iamora’imdebated the status of sacred writings bwritten inAramaic btranslation or in anyother blanguage. Rav Huna said: One may not rescue them from the fireon Shabbat. bAnd Rav Ḥisda said: One may rescue them from the fireon Shabbat. The Gemara adds: bAccording to the one who saidthat sacred writings written in other languages bmay be read, everybody agreesthat bone may rescuethem. bWhere they argueis baccording to the one who said that they may not be read. Rav Huna said: One may not rescuethem, bas they may not be read.Whereas bRav Ḥisda said: One may rescuethem bdue to disgrace to sacred writingsthat will result. bWe learnedin the mishna: With regard to ball sacred writings, one may rescue them from the fireon Shabbat bwhether they are readin public bor whether they are not readin public, beven if they are written in anyforeign blanguage. What, is it notthat the phrase: b“That they are read”is referring to the books of the bProphets, andthe phrase: b“That they are not read”is referring to the bWritings? Even though these arebooks bwritten in anyforeign blanguage, which may not be read, it is taught that one may save them.This then is ba conclusive refutation ofthe opinion of bRav Huna. /b, bRav Hunacould have bsaid to you: Anddo byou understandthe mishna that way? bSay the latter clauseof the mishna, which states: They brequire burial.This is unnecessary, as bnow,that it was mentioned that bwe rescue themfrom the fire, bis it necessaryto say that they require bburial? Rather,the mishna must be emended. bRav Huna reconcilesthe mishna bin accordance with his reasoning, and Rav Ḥisda reconcilesthe mishna bin accordance with his reasoning. Rav Huna reconcilesthis bin accordance with his reasoning: Whether they are readis referring to the bProphets, and whether they are not readis referring to the bWritings. In whatcase bisthis bstatement said? It isin a case bwhere they are written in the holy tongue, butif they are not written in Hebrew but bin anyother blanguage,they are bnot rescuedfrom the fire on Shabbat, band even so, they require burial. Rav Ḥisda reconcilesthe mishna bin accordance with his reasoning: Whether they are readis referring to the bProphets, and whether they are not readis referring to the bWritings, even if they are written in any languageother than Hebrew, they are balso rescued. And this is whatthe mishna bis saying: And even the decayedsections of parchment brequire burial. /b,The Gemara braises an objectionfrom that which was taught in a ibaraita /i: If bthey were written inAramaic btranslationor in bany languageother than Hebrew, bthey are rescued from the fireon Shabbat. And this is a bconclusive refutationof the opinion of bRav Huna,who states that these are not rescued. bRav Hunacould have bsaid to you: This itannaholdsthat sacred writings not written in Hebrew bmay be read,whereas Rav Huna stated his ruling in accordance with the opinion of the itannawho holds that they may not be read, and therefore may not be rescued. bComeand bhearanother proof from that which was taught in a different ibaraita /i: Sacred writings that bwere writtenin bCoptic,Egyptian; bMedian; iIvrit /i,i.e., ancient Hebrew script; bEilamitic;or bGreek are rescued from the fireon Shabbat, beven though they may not be read.This is a bconclusive refutationof the opinion of bRav Huna,who holds that they are not rescued. bRav Hunacould have bsaid to you: This isa dispute between itanna’im,as it was taughtin a ibaraita /i: If bthey were written inAramaic btranslation or in any languageother than Hebrew, bone may rescue them from the fireon Shabbat. bRabbi Yosei says: One may not rescue them from the fire. /b, bRabbi Yosei said:There was ban incident involvingmy bfather, Ḥalafta, who went to the esteemed Rabban Gamlielof Yavne in bTiberias, where he found him sitting at the table of Yoḥa HaNazuf and in his handthere was ba translation of the book of Job, and he was readingfrom bit.Yoḥa bsaid toRabban Gamliel of Yavne: bI remember Rabban Gamliel, your father’s father, who was standing on top of a step on the Temple Mount. And they brought before him a translation of the book of Job, and he said to the builder: Bury thisbook bunder the course of bricks.When he heard of that incident, Rabban Gamliel of Yavne bordered that itbe buried band he buried it. Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Yehuda, saysthat on the Temple Mount bthey overturned a large bowl of mortar on it. RabbiYehuda HaNasi bsaid:There are btwo responses to thisthat prove that it did not happen: bOne, from where would they get mortar on the Temple Mount?Construction on the Temple Mount was performed with other materials, not with mortar. bAnd furthermore, is it permitted toactively bdestroyeven sacred writings that are not read, bwith one’s hands? Rather,at the very least bthey leave them in a neglected place,where they are likely to decompose quickly, band they decay on their own.The Gemara seeks to clarify: bWho arethe itanna’im /iwho dispute this ihalakhaaccording to Rav Huna?


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
akiva, rabbi Poorthuis Schwartz and Turner, Interaction Between Judaism and Christianity in History, Religion, Art, and Literature (2009) 50
alphabet Veltri, Libraries, Translations, and 'Canonic' Texts: The Septuagint, Aquila and Ben Sira in the Jewish and Christian Traditions (2006) 7
ashshurit Veltri, Libraries, Translations, and 'Canonic' Texts: The Septuagint, Aquila and Ben Sira in the Jewish and Christian Traditions (2006) 198
ben zakkai, yoḥanan Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 171
bible, books Veltri, Libraries, Translations, and 'Canonic' Texts: The Septuagint, Aquila and Ben Sira in the Jewish and Christian Traditions (2006) 17, 198
boethusians (baytosim) Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 171
cairo genizah Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 148
canon, torah Veltri, Libraries, Translations, and 'Canonic' Texts: The Septuagint, Aquila and Ben Sira in the Jewish and Christian Traditions (2006) 17
canon Veltri, Libraries, Translations, and 'Canonic' Texts: The Septuagint, Aquila and Ben Sira in the Jewish and Christian Traditions (2006) 7, 17
dead sea scrolls, bitumen, used in Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 294
dead sea scrolls, linen use of Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 294
dead sea scrolls, marl caves as temporary store Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 294
dead sea scrolls, separation of scrolls as genizah Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 294
dead sea scrolls Goodman, Judaism in the Roman World: Collected Essays (2006) 76
decanonization Veltri, Libraries, Translations, and 'Canonic' Texts: The Septuagint, Aquila and Ben Sira in the Jewish and Christian Traditions (2006) 7
defi ling of the hands Goodman, Judaism in the Roman World: Collected Essays (2006) 76
document burial and preservation, and impurity of hands Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 294
document burial and preservation, and shemot (gods name) Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 294
document burial and preservation, sadducees approach to Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 294
essenes, name sources and variants Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 171
formal assyrian characters Goodman, Judaism in the Roman World: Collected Essays (2006) 76
friedman, s. Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 294
gaonim Poorthuis Schwartz and Turner, Interaction Between Judaism and Christianity in History, Religion, Art, and Literature (2009) 50
genizah, ancient synagogues genizot Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 294
genizah, as a temporary manuscript store Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 294
genizah, documents with gods name Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 294
genizah Fraade, Multilingualism and Translation in Ancient Judaism: Before and After Babel (2023) 105
goodman, m. Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 171
greek, magical papyri Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 148
hebraisti Veltri, Libraries, Translations, and 'Canonic' Texts: The Septuagint, Aquila and Ben Sira in the Jewish and Christian Traditions (2006) 198
hebrew, qumran Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 148
hellenisti Veltri, Libraries, Translations, and 'Canonic' Texts: The Septuagint, Aquila and Ben Sira in the Jewish and Christian Traditions (2006) 198
herodians, use of term, identification with the essenes Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 171
herodians, use of term Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 171
idolatry Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 474
ishmael, rabbi Poorthuis Schwartz and Turner, Interaction Between Judaism and Christianity in History, Religion, Art, and Literature (2009) 50
ivrit Veltri, Libraries, Translations, and 'Canonic' Texts: The Septuagint, Aquila and Ben Sira in the Jewish and Christian Traditions (2006) 7, 198
jewish law/legal schools, and the hakhamim (sages) Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 171
jewish law/legal schools, mishnah, schools of interpretation Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 171
jewish law/legal schools Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 171
josephus essenes, name of Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 171
judaea, region of, rabbinic Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 171
kitve ha-qodesh Veltri, Libraries, Translations, and 'Canonic' Texts: The Septuagint, Aquila and Ben Sira in the Jewish and Christian Traditions (2006) 17
magness, j. Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 294
mareotis, lake, use of the word herodian Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 171
meturgeman Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 474
minim Goodman, Judaism in the Roman World: Collected Essays (2006) 76
oath Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 148
penal code of the manual of discipline Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 148
pentateuch Goodman, Judaism in the Roman World: Collected Essays (2006) 76; Veltri, Libraries, Translations, and 'Canonic' Texts: The Septuagint, Aquila and Ben Sira in the Jewish and Christian Traditions (2006) 17
perushim, pharisees as Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 171
pharisees Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 171
philos essenes, name origin, analysis of Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 171
prologue (to ben sira) Veltri, Libraries, Translations, and 'Canonic' Texts: The Septuagint, Aquila and Ben Sira in the Jewish and Christian Traditions (2006) 198
pseudepigrapha Goodman, Judaism in the Roman World: Collected Essays (2006) 76
quakers Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 171
qumran, targumim Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 474
qumran Goodman, Judaism in the Roman World: Collected Essays (2006) 76
r. hanina bar hama Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 474
r. meir Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 474
r. samuel b. r. isaac Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 474
r. simeon b. gamaliel ii Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 474
r. simeon of tarbanat Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 474
sadducees (tsedukim/tseduqim) Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 171
scribal error Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 148
scripture, approach to Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 294
sefarim hisonim Veltri, Libraries, Translations, and 'Canonic' Texts: The Septuagint, Aquila and Ben Sira in the Jewish and Christian Traditions (2006) 17
susiya synagogue, orientation Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 474
tannaim, tannaitic law, judaism, period Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 148
tarbanat Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 474
teacher Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 474
tetragrammaton Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 148
torah' Goodman, Judaism in the Roman World: Collected Essays (2006) 76
yoha, rabbi, zadokites Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 171
zadokite fragments Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 148
zodiac, synagogue mosaic floors Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 474