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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



8044
Mishnah, Tamid, 1.2-1.4


מִי שֶׁהוּא רוֹצֶה לִתְרֹם אֶת הַמִּזְבֵּחַ, מַשְׁכִּים וְטוֹבֵל עַד שֶׁלֹּא יָבֹא הַמְמֻנֶּה. וְכִי בְאֵיזוֹ שָׁעָה הַמְמֻנֶּה בָא. לֹא כָל הָעִתִּים שָׁווֹת, פְּעָמִים שֶׁהוּא בָא מִקְרִיאַת הַגֶּבֶר, אוֹ סָמוּךְ לוֹ מִלְּפָנָיו אוֹ מִלְּאַחֲרָיו. הַמְמֻנֶּה בָא וְדוֹפֵק עֲלֵיהֶם, וְהֵם פָּתְחוּ לוֹ. אָמַר לָהֶן, מִי שֶׁטָּבַל יָבֹא וְיָפִיס. הֵפִיסוּ, זָכָה מִי שֶׁזָּכָה:Anyone who desired to remove the ashes from the altar used to rise early and bathe before the superintendent came. At what time did the superintendent come? He did not always come at the same time; sometimes he came just at cock-crow, sometimes a little before or a little after. The superintendent would come and knock and they would open for him, and he would say to them, let all who have bathed come and draw lots. So they drew lots, and whoever was successful.


נָטַל אֶת הַמַּפְתֵּחַ וּפָתַח אֶת הַפִּשְׁפָּשׁ, וְנִכְנַס מִבֵּית הַמּוֹקֵד לָעֲזָרָה, וְנִכְנְסוּ אַחֲרָיו וּשְׁתֵּי אֲבוּקוֹת שֶׁל אוּר בְּיָדָם. וְנֶחְלְקוּ לִשְׁתֵּי כִתּוֹת, אֵלּוּ הוֹלְכִים בָּאַכְסַדְרָא דֶּרֶךְ הַמִּזְרָח, וְאֵלּוּ הוֹלְכִים בָּאַכְסַדְרָא דֶּרֶךְ הַמַּעֲרָב. הָיוּ בוֹדְקִין וְהוֹלְכִין עַד שֶׁמַּגִּיעִין לִמְקוֹם בֵּית עוֹשֵׂי חֲבִתִּים. הִגִּיעוּ אֵלּוּ וָאֵלּוּ, אָמְרוּ שָׁלוֹם, הַכֹּל שָׁלוֹם. הֶעֱמִידוּ עוֹשֵׂי חֲבִתִּים לַעֲשׂוֹת חֲבִתִּים:He took the key and opened the small door, and went from the fire chamber into the Temple courtyard, and the priests went in after him carrying two lighted torches. They divided into two groups, one of which went along the portico to the east, while the other went along it to the west. They went along inspecting until they came to the place where the griddle-cakes were made. There the two groups met and said, Is all well (shalom)? All is well (shalom)! They then appointed they that made the griddle-cakes to make griddle-cakes.


מִי שֶׁזָּכָה לִתְרֹם אֶת הַמִּזְבֵּחַ, הוּא יִתְרֹם אֶת הַמִּזְבֵּחַ, וְהֵם אוֹמְרִים לוֹ, הִזָּהֵר שֶׁמָּא תִגַּע בַּכְּלִי, עַד שֶׁתְּקַדֵּשׁ יָדֶיךָ וְרַגְלֶיךָ מִן הַכִּיּוֹר, וַהֲרֵי הַמַּחְתָּה נְתוּנָה בַמִּקְצוֹעַ בֵּין הַכֶּבֶשׁ לַמִּזְבֵּחַ, בְּמַעֲרָבוֹ שֶׁל כָּבֶשׁ. אֵין אָדָם נִכְנָס עִמּוֹ, וְלֹא נֵר בְּיָדוֹ, אֶלָּא מְהַלֵּךְ לְאוֹר הַמַּעֲרָכָה. לֹא הָיוּ רוֹאִין אוֹתוֹ וְלֹא שׁוֹמְעִין אֶת קוֹלוֹ, עַד שֶׁשּׁוֹמְעִין קוֹל הָעֵץ שֶׁעָשָׂה בֶן קָטִין מוּכְנִי לַכִּיּוֹר, וְהֵן אוֹמְרִים הִגִּיעַ עֵת. קִדֵּשׁ יָדָיו וְרַגְלָיו מִן הַכִּיּוֹר, נָטַל מַחְתַּת הַכֶּסֶף וְעָלָה לְרֹאשׁ הַמִּזְבֵּחַ, וּפִנָּה אֶת הַגֶּחָלִים הֵילָךְ וְהֵילָךְ, חָתָה מִן הַמְאֻכָּלוֹת הַפְּנִימִיּוֹת, וְיָרַד. הִגִּיעַ לָרִצְפָה, הָפַךְ פָּנָיו לַצָּפוֹן, הָלַךְ לְמִזְרָחוֹ שֶׁל כֶּבֶשׁ כְּעֶשֶׂר אַמּוֹת. צָבַר אֶת הַגֶּחָלִים עַל גַּבֵּי הָרִצְפָה רָחוֹק מִן הַכֶּבֶשׁ שְׁלשָׁה טְפָחִים, מְקוֹם שֶׁנּוֹתְנִין מֻרְאוֹת הָעוֹף וְדִּשּׁוּן מִזְבֵּחַ הַפְּנִימִי וְהַמְּנוֹרָה:The one who had merited to clear the ashes, would get ready to clear the ashes. They said to him: “Be careful not to touch any vessel until you have washed your hands and feet from the laver. See, the fire-pan is in the corner between the ascent and the altar on the west of the ascent.” No one entered with him, nor did he carry any light. Rather, he walked by the light of the altar fire. No-one saw him or heard a sound from him until they heard the noise of the wooden wheel which Ben Katin made for hauling up the laver, when they said, “The time has come.” He washed his hands and feet from the laver, then took the silver fire-pan and went up to the top of the altar and cleared away the cinders on either side and scooped up the ashes in the centre. He then descended and when he reached the floor he turned his face to the north and went along the east side of the ascent for about ten cubits, and he then made a heap of the cinders on the pavement three handbreadths away from the ascent, in the place where they used to put the crop of the birds and the ashes from the inner altar and the ash from the menorah.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

27 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 27.20-27.21, 30.7-30.8 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

27.21. בְּאֹהֶל מוֹעֵד מִחוּץ לַפָּרֹכֶת אֲשֶׁר עַל־הָעֵדֻת יַעֲרֹךְ אֹתוֹ אַהֲרֹן וּבָנָיו מֵעֶרֶב עַד־בֹּקֶר לִפְנֵי יְהוָה חֻקַּת עוֹלָם לְדֹרֹתָם מֵאֵת בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 30.7. וְהִקְטִיר עָלָיו אַהֲרֹן קְטֹרֶת סַמִּים בַּבֹּקֶר בַּבֹּקֶר בְּהֵיטִיבוֹ אֶת־הַנֵּרֹת יַקְטִירֶנָּה׃ 30.8. וּבְהַעֲלֹת אַהֲרֹן אֶת־הַנֵּרֹת בֵּין הָעֲרְבַּיִם יַקְטִירֶנָּה קְטֹרֶת תָּמִיד לִפְנֵי יְהוָה לְדֹרֹתֵיכֶם׃ 27.20. And thou shalt command the children of Israel, that they bring unto thee pure olive oil beaten for the light, to cause a lamp to burn continually." 27.21. In the tent of meeting, without the veil which is before the testimony, Aaron and his sons shall set it in order, to burn from evening to morning before the LORD; it shall be a statute for ever throughout their generations on the behalf of the children of Israel." 30.7. And Aaron shall burn thereon incense of sweet spices; every morning, when he dresseth the lamps, he shall burn it." 30.8. And when Aaron lighteth the lamps at dusk, he shall burn it, a perpetual incense before the LORD throughout your generations."
2. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 1.1-1.18 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.1. וַיִּקְרָא אֱלֹהִים לַיַּבָּשָׁה אֶרֶץ וּלְמִקְוֵה הַמַּיִם קָרָא יַמִּים וַיַּרְא אֱלֹהִים כִּי־טוֹב׃ 1.1. בְּרֵאשִׁית בָּרָא אֱלֹהִים אֵת הַשָּׁמַיִם וְאֵת הָאָרֶץ׃ 1.2. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים יִשְׁרְצוּ הַמַּיִם שֶׁרֶץ נֶפֶשׁ חַיָּה וְעוֹף יְעוֹפֵף עַל־הָאָרֶץ עַל־פְּנֵי רְקִיעַ הַשָּׁמָיִם׃ 1.2. וְהָאָרֶץ הָיְתָה תֹהוּ וָבֹהוּ וְחֹשֶׁךְ עַל־פְּנֵי תְהוֹם וְרוּחַ אֱלֹהִים מְרַחֶפֶת עַל־פְּנֵי הַמָּיִם׃ 1.3. וּלְכָל־חַיַּת הָאָרֶץ וּלְכָל־עוֹף הַשָּׁמַיִם וּלְכֹל רוֹמֵשׂ עַל־הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר־בּוֹ נֶפֶשׁ חַיָּה אֶת־כָּל־יֶרֶק עֵשֶׂב לְאָכְלָה וַיְהִי־כֵן׃ 1.3. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים יְהִי אוֹר וַיְהִי־אוֹר׃ 1.4. וַיַּרְא אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הָאוֹר כִּי־טוֹב וַיַּבְדֵּל אֱלֹהִים בֵּין הָאוֹר וּבֵין הַחֹשֶׁךְ׃ 1.5. וַיִּקְרָא אֱלֹהִים לָאוֹר יוֹם וְלַחֹשֶׁךְ קָרָא לָיְלָה וַיְהִי־עֶרֶב וַיְהִי־בֹקֶר יוֹם אֶחָד׃ 1.6. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים יְהִי רָקִיעַ בְּתוֹךְ הַמָּיִם וִיהִי מַבְדִּיל בֵּין מַיִם לָמָיִם׃ 1.7. וַיַּעַשׂ אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הָרָקִיעַ וַיַּבְדֵּל בֵּין הַמַּיִם אֲשֶׁר מִתַּחַת לָרָקִיעַ וּבֵין הַמַּיִם אֲשֶׁר מֵעַל לָרָקִיעַ וַיְהִי־כֵן׃ 1.8. וַיִּקְרָא אֱלֹהִים לָרָקִיעַ שָׁמָיִם וַיְהִי־עֶרֶב וַיְהִי־בֹקֶר יוֹם שֵׁנִי׃ 1.9. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים יִקָּווּ הַמַּיִם מִתַּחַת הַשָּׁמַיִם אֶל־מָקוֹם אֶחָד וְתֵרָאֶה הַיַּבָּשָׁה וַיְהִי־כֵן׃ 1.11. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים תַּדְשֵׁא הָאָרֶץ דֶּשֶׁא עֵשֶׂב מַזְרִיעַ זֶרַע עֵץ פְּרִי עֹשֶׂה פְּרִי לְמִינוֹ אֲשֶׁר זַרְעוֹ־בוֹ עַל־הָאָרֶץ וַיְהִי־כֵן׃ 1.12. וַתּוֹצֵא הָאָרֶץ דֶּשֶׁא עֵשֶׂב מַזְרִיעַ זֶרַע לְמִינֵהוּ וְעֵץ עֹשֶׂה־פְּרִי אֲשֶׁר זַרְעוֹ־בוֹ לְמִינֵהוּ וַיַּרְא אֱלֹהִים כִּי־טוֹב׃ 1.13. וַיְהִי־עֶרֶב וַיְהִי־בֹקֶר יוֹם שְׁלִישִׁי׃ 1.14. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים יְהִי מְאֹרֹת בִּרְקִיעַ הַשָּׁמַיִם לְהַבְדִּיל בֵּין הַיּוֹם וּבֵין הַלָּיְלָה וְהָיוּ לְאֹתֹת וּלְמוֹעֲדִים וּלְיָמִים וְשָׁנִים׃ 1.15. וְהָיוּ לִמְאוֹרֹת בִּרְקִיעַ הַשָּׁמַיִם לְהָאִיר עַל־הָאָרֶץ וַיְהִי־כֵן׃ 1.16. וַיַּעַשׂ אֱלֹהִים אֶת־שְׁנֵי הַמְּאֹרֹת הַגְּדֹלִים אֶת־הַמָּאוֹר הַגָּדֹל לְמֶמְשֶׁלֶת הַיּוֹם וְאֶת־הַמָּאוֹר הַקָּטֹן לְמֶמְשֶׁלֶת הַלַּיְלָה וְאֵת הַכּוֹכָבִים׃ 1.17. וַיִּתֵּן אֹתָם אֱלֹהִים בִּרְקִיעַ הַשָּׁמָיִם לְהָאִיר עַל־הָאָרֶץ׃ 1.18. וְלִמְשֹׁל בַּיּוֹם וּבַלַּיְלָה וּלֲהַבְדִּיל בֵּין הָאוֹר וּבֵין הַחֹשֶׁךְ וַיַּרְא אֱלֹהִים כִּי־טוֹב׃ 1.1. In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth." 1.2. Now the earth was unformed and void, and darkness was upon the face of the deep; and the spirit of God hovered over the face of the waters." 1.3. And God said: ‘Let there be light.’ And there was light." 1.4. And God saw the light, that it was good; and God divided the light from the darkness." 1.5. And God called the light Day, and the darkness He called Night. And there was evening and there was morning, one day." 1.6. And God said: ‘Let there be a firmament in the midst of the waters, and let it divide the waters from the waters.’" 1.7. And God made the firmament, and divided the waters which were under the firmament from the waters which were above the firmament; and it was so." 1.8. And God called the firmament Heaven. And there was evening and there was morning, a second day." 1.9. And God said: ‘Let the waters under the heaven be gathered together unto one place, and let the dry land appear.’ And it was so." 1.10. And God called the dry land Earth, and the gathering together of the waters called He Seas; and God saw that it was good." 1.11. And God said: ‘Let the earth put forth grass, herb yielding seed, and fruit-tree bearing fruit after its kind, wherein is the seed thereof, upon the earth.’ And it was so." 1.12. And the earth brought forth grass, herb yielding seed after its kind, and tree bearing fruit, wherein is the seed thereof, after its kind; and God saw that it was good." 1.13. And there was evening and there was morning, a third day." 1.14. And God said: ‘Let there be lights in the firmament of the heaven to divide the day from the night; and let them be for signs, and for seasons, and for days and years;" 1.15. and let them be for lights in the firmament of the heaven to give light upon the earth.’ And it was so." 1.16. And God made the two great lights: the greater light to rule the day, and the lesser light to rule the night; and the stars." 1.17. And God set them in the firmament of the heaven to give light upon the earth," 1.18. and to rule over the day and over the night, and to divide the light from the darkness; and God saw that it was good."
3. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 6.2-6.6 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

6.2. צַו אֶת־אַהֲרֹן וְאֶת־בָּנָיו לֵאמֹר זֹאת תּוֹרַת הָעֹלָה הִוא הָעֹלָה עַל מוֹקְדָה עַל־הַמִּזְבֵּחַ כָּל־הַלַּיְלָה עַד־הַבֹּקֶר וְאֵשׁ הַמִּזְבֵּחַ תּוּקַד בּוֹ׃ 6.2. כֹּל אֲשֶׁר־יִגַּע בִּבְשָׂרָהּ יִקְדָּשׁ וַאֲשֶׁר יִזֶּה מִדָּמָהּ עַל־הַבֶּגֶד אֲשֶׁר יִזֶּה עָלֶיהָ תְּכַבֵּס בְּמָקוֹם קָדֹשׁ׃ 6.3. וְלָבַשׁ הַכֹּהֵן מִדּוֹ בַד וּמִכְנְסֵי־בַד יִלְבַּשׁ עַל־בְּשָׂרוֹ וְהֵרִים אֶת־הַדֶּשֶׁן אֲשֶׁר תֹּאכַל הָאֵשׁ אֶת־הָעֹלָה עַל־הַמִּזְבֵּחַ וְשָׂמוֹ אֵצֶל הַמִּזְבֵּחַ׃ 6.4. וּפָשַׁט אֶת־בְּגָדָיו וְלָבַשׁ בְּגָדִים אֲחֵרִים וְהוֹצִיא אֶת־הַדֶּשֶׁן אֶל־מִחוּץ לַמַּחֲנֶה אֶל־מָקוֹם טָהוֹר׃ 6.5. וְהָאֵשׁ עַל־הַמִּזְבֵּחַ תּוּקַד־בּוֹ לֹא תִכְבֶּה וּבִעֵר עָלֶיהָ הַכֹּהֵן עֵצִים בַּבֹּקֶר בַּבֹּקֶר וְעָרַךְ עָלֶיהָ הָעֹלָה וְהִקְטִיר עָלֶיהָ חֶלְבֵי הַשְּׁלָמִים׃ 6.6. אֵשׁ תָּמִיד תּוּקַד עַל־הַמִּזְבֵּחַ לֹא תִכְבֶה׃ 6.2. Command Aaron and his sons, saying: This is the law of the burnt-offering: it is that which goeth up on its firewood upon the altar all night unto the morning; and the fire of the altar shall be kept burning thereby." 6.3. And the priest shall put on his linen garment, and his linen breeches shall he put upon his flesh; and he shall take up the ashes whereto the fire hath consumed the burnt-offering on the altar, and he shall put them beside the altar." 6.4. And he shall put off his garments, and put on other garments, and carry forth the ashes without the camp unto a clean place." 6.5. And the fire upon the altar shall be kept burning thereby, it shall not go out; and the priest shall kindle wood on it every morning; and he shall lay the burnt-offering in order upon it, and shall make smoke thereon the fat of the peace-offerings." 6.6. Fire shall be kept burning upon the altar continually; it shall not go out."
4. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 28.2 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

28.2. וּמִנְחָתָם סֹלֶת בְּלוּלָה בַשָּׁמֶן שְׁלֹשָׁה עֶשְׂרֹנִים לַפָּר וּשְׁנֵי עֶשְׂרֹנִים לָאַיִל תַּעֲשׂוּ׃ 28.2. צַו אֶת־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאָמַרְתָּ אֲלֵהֶם אֶת־קָרְבָּנִי לַחְמִי לְאִשַּׁי רֵיחַ נִיחֹחִי תִּשְׁמְרוּ לְהַקְרִיב לִי בְּמוֹעֲדוֹ׃ 28.2. Command the children of Israel, and say unto them: My food which is presented unto Me for offerings made by fire, of a sweet savour unto Me, shall ye observe to offer unto Me in its due season."
5. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 8.16 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

8.16. וַיָּבֵא אֹתִי אֶל־חֲצַר בֵּית־יְהוָה הַפְּנִימִית וְהִנֵּה־פֶתַח הֵיכַל יְהוָה בֵּין הָאוּלָם וּבֵין הַמִּזְבֵּחַ כְּעֶשְׂרִים וַחֲמִשָּׁה אִישׁ אֲחֹרֵיהֶם אֶל־הֵיכַל יְהוָה וּפְנֵיהֶם קֵדְמָה וְהֵמָּה מִשְׁתַּחֲוִיתֶם קֵדְמָה לַשָּׁמֶשׁ׃ 8.16. And He brought me into the inner court of the LORD’S house, and, behold, at the door of the temple of the LORD, between the porch and the altar, were about five and twenty men, with their backs toward the temple of the LORD, and their faces toward the east; and they worshipped the sun toward the east."
6. Mishnah, Bikkurim, 3.3-3.4, 3.6 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

3.3. Those who lived near [Jerusalem] would bring fresh figs and grapes, while those who lived far away would bring dried figs and raisins. An ox would go in front of them, his horns bedecked with gold and with an olive-crown on its head. The flute would play before them until they would draw close to Jerusalem. When they drew close to Jerusalem they would send messengers in advance, and they would adorn their bikkurim. The governors and chiefs and treasurers [of the Temple] would go out to greet them, and according to the rank of the entrants they would go forth. All the skilled artisans of Jerusalem would stand up before them and greet them saying, “Our brothers, men of such and such a place, we welcome you in peace.”" 3.4. The flute would play before them, until they reached the Temple Mount. When they reached the Temple Mount even King Agrippas would take the basket and place it on his shoulder and walk as far as the Temple Court. When he got to the Temple Court, the Levites would sing the song: “I will extol You, O Lord, for You have raised me up, and You have not let my enemies rejoice over me” (Psalms 30:2)." 3.6. While the basket was still on his shoulder he recites from: \"I acknowledge this day before the LORD your God that I have entered the land that the LORD swore to our fathers to assign us” (Deuteronomy 26:3) until he completes the passage. Rabbi Judah said: until [he reaches] “My father was a fugitive Aramean” (v.. When he reaches, “My father was a fugitive Aramean”, he takes the basket off his shoulder and holds it by its edges, and the priest places his hand beneath it and waves it. He then recites from “My father was a fugitive Aramean” until he completes the entire passage. He then deposits the basket by the side of the altar, bow and depart."
7. Mishnah, Berachot, 9.4 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

9.4. One who enters into a large city should say two prayers, one on entering and one on leaving. Ben Azzai says: four two on entering and two on leaving, he gives thanks for the past and cries out for the future."
8. Mishnah, Megillah, 4.5, 4.8 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

4.5. The one who concludes with the haftarah also leads the responsive reading of the Shema and he passes before the ark and he lifts up his hands. If he is a child, his father or his teacher passes before the ark in his place." 4.8. If one says, “I will not pass before the ark in colored clothes,” even in white clothes he may not pass before it. [If one says], “I will not pass before it in shoes,” even barefoot he may not pass before it. One who makes his tefillin [for the head] round, it is dangerous and has no religious value. If he put them on his forehead or on the palm of his hand, behold this is the way of heresy. If he overlaid them with gold or put [the one for the hand] on his sleeve, behold this is the manner of the outsiders."
9. Mishnah, Middot, 1.2, 4.2, 5.4 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

1.2. The officer of the Temple Mount used to go round to every watch, with lighted torches before him, and if any watcher did not rise [at his approach] and say to him, “Shalom to you, officer of the Temple Mount, it was obvious that he was asleep. Then he used to beat him with his rod. And he had permission to burn his clothes. And the others would say: What is the noise in the courtyard? It is the cry of a Levite who is being beaten and whose clothes are being burned, because he was asleep at his watch. Rabbi Eliezer ben Jacob said: once they found my mother's brother asleep, and they burnt his clothes." 4.2. The great gate had two small doors, one to the north and one to the south. By the one to the south no one ever went in, and concerning it was stated explicitly be Ezekiel, as it says, “And the Lord said to me: this gate shall be shut, it shall not be opened, neither shall any man enter in by it, for the Lord God of Israel has entered in by it; therefore it shall be shut” (Ezekiel 44:2). He [the priest] took the key and opened the [northern] door and went in to the cell, and from the cell he went into the Hekhal. Rabbi Judah says: he used to walk along in the thickness of the wall until he came to the space between the two gates. He would open the outer doors from within and the inner doors from without." 5.4. On the south were the wood chamber, the chamber of the exile and the chamber of hewn stones. The wood chamber: Rabbi Eliezer ben Jacob says: I forget what it was used for. Abba Shaul says: It was the chamber of the high priest, and it was behind the two of them, and one roof covered all three. In the chamber of the exile there was a fixed cistern, with a wheel over it, and from there water was provided for all of the courtyard. In the chamber of hewn stone the great Sanhedrin of Israel used to sit and judge the priesthood. A priest in whom was found a disqualification used to put on black garments and wrap himself in black and go away. One in whom no disqualification was found used to put on white garments and wrap himself in white and go in and serve along with his brother priests. They used to make a feast because no blemish had been found in the seed of Aaron the priest, and they used to say: Blessed is the Omnipresent, blessed is He, for no blemish has been found in the seed of Aaron. Blessed is He who chose Aaron and his sons to stand to minister before the Lord in the Holy of Holies."
10. Mishnah, Negaim, 14.2, 14.8, 14.10 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

14.2. He now comes to set free the living bird. He does not turn his face towards the sea or towards the city or towards the wilderness, for it is said, \"But he shall let the living bird go out of the city into the open field\" (Leviticus 14:53). He now comes to shave off the hair of the metzora. He passes a razor over the whole of his skin, and he [the metzora] washes his clothes and immerses himself. He is then clean so far as to not convey uncleanness by entrance, but he still conveys uncleanness as does a sheretz. He may enter within the walls [of Jerusalem], but must keep away from his house for seven days, and he is forbidden to have intercourse." 14.8. He comes to the guilt-offering and he puts his two hands on it. He then slaughters it. Two priests receive its blood, one in a vessel and the other in his hand. He who received it in the vessel proceeded to sprinkle it on the wall of the altar. The one who received it in his hand would approach the metzora. The metzora had in the meantime immersed himself in the chamber of the metzoraim. He would come and stand at the Nikanor gate. Rabbi Judah says: he did not require immersion." 14.10. [The priest] then took some [of the contents] of the log of oil and poured it into his colleague's hand; And if he poured it into his own hand, the obligation is fulfilled. He then dipped [his right forefinger] in the oil and sprinkled it seven times towards the Holy of Holies, dipping it for every sprinkling. He then approached the metzora, to the same places that he applied the blood he now applied the oil, as it is said, \"Over the same places as the blood of the guilt offering; 29 and what is left of the oil in his palm the priest shall put on the head of the one being cleansed, to make expiation for him before the Lord.\" (Leviticus 14:28-29). If he \"put upon,\" he has made atonement, but if he did not \"put upon,\" he did not make atonement, the words of Rabbi Akiba. Rabbi Yoha ben Nuri says: these are but the remainders of the mitzvah. Whether he \"put upon\" or did not \"put upon,\" atonement is made, only it is accounted to him as if he did not make atonement. If any oil was missing from the log before it was poured out it may be filled up again; if after it was poured out, other oil must be brought anew, the words of Rabbi Akiva. Rabbi Shimon says: if any oil was missing from the log before it was applied, it may be filled up; but if after it had been applied, other oil must be brought anew."
11. Mishnah, Parah, 3.3 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

3.3. They arrived at the Temple Mount and got down. Beneath the Temple Mount and the courts was a hollow which served as a protection against a grave in the depths. And at the entrance of the courtyard there was the jar of the ashes of the sin-offerings. They would bring a male from among the sheep and tie a rope between its horns, and a stick or a bushy twig was tied at the other end of the rope, and this was thrown into the jar. They then struck the male [sheep] was so that it started backwards. And [a child] took the ashes and put it [enough] so that it could be seen upon the water. Rabbi Yose said: do not give the Sadducees an opportunity to rule! Rather, [a child] himself took it and mixed it."
12. Mishnah, Pesahim, 5.5-5.10 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

5.5. The pesah is slaughtered in three divisions, as it is said, “And the whole assembly of the congregation of Israel shall slaughter it” (Exodus 12:6): “assembly,” “congregation,” and “Israel.” The first division entered, the Temple court was filled, and they closed the doors of the Temple court. They sounded a teki'ah, a teru'ah, and a teki'ah. The priests stood in rows, and in their hands were basins of silver and basins of gold, a row which was entirely of silver was of silver, and a row which was entirely of gold was of gold, they were not mixed. And the basins did not have flat bottoms, lest they put them down and the blood becomes congealed." 5.6. The Israelite killed [the lamb]; And the priest caught [the blood]. He would hand it to his colleague and his colleague [would hand it] to his colleague. And he would receive the full [basin] and give back the empty one. The priest nearest the altar would sprinkle it once over against the base [or the altar]." 5.7. The first division [then] went out and the second entered; the second went out and the third entered. As did the first, so did the second and the third. They recited the Hallel. If they finished it, they repeated, and if they repeated [and were not finished yet], they recited it a third time, though they never did recite it a third time. Rabbi Judah says: the third division never reached, “I love Lord for he hears” (Psalms, because the people for it were few." 5.8. As it was done on weekdays so it was done on Shabbat, except that the priests would mop up the Temple court, against the will of the sages. Rabbi Judah says: he [a priest] would fill a goblet with the mixed blood [and] he sprinkled it once on the altar, but the sages did not agree with him." 5.9. How did they hang up [the sacrifices] and flay [them]?There were iron hooks fixed in the walls and in the pillars, on which they hung up [the sacrifices] and flayed [them]. If any one had no place to suspend and flay [their sacrifice], there were there thin smooth staves which he placed on his shoulder and on his fellow’s shoulder, and so hung up [the animal] and flayed [it]. Rabbi Eliezer says: when the fourteenth fell on Shabbat, he placed his hand on his fellow’s shoulder and his fellow’s hand on his shoulder, and he hung up [the sacrifice] and flayed [it]." 5.10. Then he tore it and took out its inner fats, placed them in a tray and burnt them on the altar. The first division went out and sat down on the Temple mount, the second [sat] in the hel, while the third remained in its place. When it grew dark they went out and roasted their pesah lambs."
13. Mishnah, Sanhedrin, 3.6-3.7, 4.5, 11.2 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

3.6. How do they check the witnesses? They bring them in and warn them, and then they take them out and leave behind the most important of [the witnesses]. And they would say to him: “State [for us], how do you know that this one is in debt to this one?” If he said, “He said to me, ‘I am in debt to him’, or ‘So-and-so said to me that he was in debt to him’”, he has said nothing. He must be able to say, “In our presence he acknowledged to the other one that he owed him 200 zuz.” Afterward they bring in the second witness and check him. If their words were found to agree, the judges discuss the matter. If two say, “He is not guilty” and one says, “He is guilty”, he is not guilty. If two say, “He is guilty” and one says, “He is not guilty”, he is guilty. If one says, “He is not guilty”, and one says, “He is guilty”, and even if two declared him not guilty or declared him guilty while one said, “I do not know”, they must add more judges." 3.7. When the judges reached their decision they would bring in the litigants. The chief among the judges says: “You, so-and-so are not obligated”, or “You, so-and-so are obligated”. And from where do we know that after one of the judges has gone out that he may not say, “I declared him not obligated and my colleagues declared him obligated, so what can I do since they outvoted me?” of such a one it says, “Do not go about as a talebearer amongst your people” (Lev. 19:16) and it also says, “He that goes about as a talebearer reveals secrets” (Proverbs 11:13)." 4.5. How did they admonish witnesses in capital cases? They brought them in and admonished them, [saying], “Perhaps you will say something that is only a supposition or hearsay or secondhand, or even from a trustworthy man. Or perhaps you do not know that we shall check you with examination and inquiry? Know, moreover, that capital cases are not like non-capital cases: in non-capital cases a man may pay money and so make atonement, but in capital cases the witness is answerable for the blood of him [that is wrongfully condemned] and the blood of his descendants [that should have been born to him] to the end of the world.” For so have we found it with Cain that murdered his brother, for it says, “The bloods of your brother cry out” (Gen. 4:10). It doesn’t say, “The blood of your brother”, but rather “The bloods of your brother” meaning his blood and the blood of his descendants. Another saying is, “The bloods of your brother” that his blood was cast over trees and stones. Therefore but a single person was created in the world, to teach that if any man has caused a single life to perish from Israel, he is deemed by Scripture as if he had caused a whole world to perish; and anyone who saves a single soul from Israel, he is deemed by Scripture as if he had saved a whole world. Again [but a single person was created] for the sake of peace among humankind, that one should not say to another, “My father was greater than your father”. Again, [but a single person was created] against the heretics so they should not say, “There are many ruling powers in heaven”. Again [but a single person was created] to proclaim the greatness of the Holy Blessed One; for humans stamp many coins with one seal and they are all like one another; but the King of kings, the Holy Blessed One, has stamped every human with the seal of the first man, yet not one of them are like another. Therefore everyone must say, “For my sake was the world created.” And if perhaps you [witnesses] would say, “Why should we be involved with this trouble”, was it not said, “He, being a witness, whether he has seen or known, [if he does not speak it, then he shall bear his iniquity] (Lev. 5:1). And if perhaps you [witnesses] would say, “Why should we be guilty of the blood of this man?, was it not said, “When the wicked perish there is rejoicing” (Proverbs 11:10).]" 11.2. An elder rebelling against the ruling of the court [is strangled], for it says, “If there arise a matter too hard for you for judgement […you shall promptly repair to the place that the Lord your God will have chosen, and appear before the levitical priests, or the magistrate in charge at the time, and present your problem. When they have announced to you the verdict in the case, you shall carry out the verdict that is announced to you from that place that the Lord chose, observing scrupulously all their instructions to you. You shall act in accordance with the instructions given you and the ruling handed down to you; you must not deviate from the verdict that they announce to you either to the right or to the left. Should a man act presumptuously and disregard the priest charged with serving there the Lord your God, or the magistrate, that man shall die” (Deut. 17:8-13, JPS translation). Three courts of law were there, one situated at the entrance to the Temple mount, another at the door of the [Temple] court, and the third in the Chamber of Hewn Stone. They [first] went to the court which is at the entrance to the Temple mount, and he [the rebellious elder] stated, “Thus have I expounded and thus have my colleagues expounded; thus have I taught, and thus have my colleagues taught.” If [this first court] had heard [a ruling on the matter], they state it. If not, they go to the [second court] which is at the entrance of the Temple court, and he declares, “Thus have I expounded and thus have my colleagues expounded; thus have I taught, and thus have my colleagues taught.” If [this second court] had heard [a ruling on the matter] they state it; if not, they all proceed to the great court of the Chamber of Hewn Stone from whence instruction issued to all Israel, for it says, [you shall carry out the verdict that is announced to you] from that place that the Lord chose (Deut. 17:10). If he returned to his town and taught again as he did before, he is not liable. But if he gave a practical decision, he is guilty, for it says, “Should a man act presumptuously” (Deut. 17:12) he is liable only for a practical ruling. But if a disciple gave a practical decision [opposed to the court], he is exempt: thus his stringency is his leniency."
14. Mishnah, Sotah, 2.2, 3.4 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

2.2. [The priest] takes an earthenware bowl and pours half a log of water into it from the laver. Rabbi Judah says: a quarter [of a log]. Just as [Rabbi Judah] reduces the amount of writing, so he reduces the quantity of water. [Then the priest] enters the temple and turns to his right and there was a place there [on the floor] that was a cubit by a cubit, and a marble tablet, to which a ring was attached. When he would lift this up, he would take some dust from beneath it which he puts [into the bowl] so that it would be seen on top of the water; as it is said, “And of the dust that is on the floor of the Tabernacle the priest shall take, and put it into the water” (Numbers 5:17)." 3.4. She had barely finished drinking when her face turns yellow, her eyes protrude and her veins swell. And [those who see her] exclaim, “Remove her! Remove her, so that the temple-court should not be defiled”. If she had merit, it [causes the water] to suspend its effect upon her. Some merit suspends the effect for one year, some merit suspends the effects for two years, and some merit suspends the effect for three years. Hence Ben Azzai said: a person must teach his daughter Torah, so that if she has to drink [the water of bitterness], she should know that the merit suspends its effect. Rabbi Eliezer says: whoever teaches his daughter Torah teaches her lasciviousness. Rabbi Joshua says: a woman prefers one kav (of food) and sexual indulgence to nine kav and sexual separation. He used to say, a foolish pietist, a cunning wicked person, a female separatist, and the blows of separatists bring destruction upon the world."
15. Mishnah, Sukkah, 4.4, 4.9, 5.4-5.5, 5.7 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

4.4. The mitzvah of the lulav how was it carried out? If the first day of the festival fell on Shabbat, they brought their lulavim to the Temple Mount, and the attendants would receive them and arrange them on top of the portico, and the elders laid theirs in the chamber. And they would teach the people to say, “Whoever gets my lulav in his hand, let it be his as a gift.” The next day they got up early, and came [to the Temple Mount] and the attendants threw down [their lulavim] before them, and they snatched at them, and so they used to come to blows with one another. When the court saw that they reached a state of danger, they instituted that each man should take [his lulav] in his own home." 4.9. How was the water libation [performed]? A golden flask holding three logs was filled from the Shiloah. When they arrived at the water gate, they sounded a teki'ah [long blast], a teru'ah [a staccato note] and again a teki'ah. [The priest then] went up the ascent [of the altar] and turned to his left where there were two silver bowls. Rabbi Judah says: they were of plaster [but they looked silver] because their surfaces were darkened from the wine. They had each a hole like a slender snout, one being wide and the other narrow so that both emptied at the same time. The one on the west was for water and the one on the east for wine. If he poured the flask of water into the bowl for wine, or that of wine into that for water, he has fulfilled his obligation. Rabbi Judah says: with one log he performed the ceremony of the water-libation all eight days. To [the priest] who performed the libation they used to say, “Raise your hand”, for one time, a certain man poured out the water over his feet, and all the people pelted him with their etrogs." 5.4. Men of piety and good deeds used to dance before them with lighted torches in their hands, and they would sing songs and praises. And Levites with innumerable harps, lyres, cymbals and trumpets and other musical instruments stood upon the fifteen steps leading down from the Court of the Israelites to the Court of the Women, corresponding to the fifteen songs of ascents in the Psalms, and it was on these [steps] that the Levites stood with their musical instruments and sang their songs. Two priests stood by the upper gate which leads down from the Court of the Israelites to the Court of the Women, with two trumpets in their hands. When the cock crowed they sounded a teki'ah [drawn-out blast], a teru'ah [staccato note] and again a teki'ah. When they reached the tenth step they sounded a teki'ah, a teru'ah and again a teki'ah. When they reached the Court [of the Women] they sounded a teki'ah, a teru'ah and again a teki'ah. They would sound their trumpets and proceed until they reached the gate which leads out to the east. When they reached the gate which leads out to the east, they turned their faces from east to west and said, “Our fathers who were in this place ‘their backs were toward the Temple of the Lord, and their faces toward the east, and they worshipped the sun toward the east’, but as for us, our eyes are turned to the Lord.” Rabbi Judah said: they used to repeat [the last words] and say “We are the Lord’s and our eyes are turned to the Lord.”" 5.5. They never have less than twenty-one blasts in the Temple, and never more than forty-eight. Every day there were twenty-one blasts in the Temple, three at the opening of the gates, nine at the morning tamid sacrifice, and nine at the evening tamid sacrifice. At the musafim (additional sacrifices) they would add another nine. And on the eve of Shabbat they would add another six, three as a sign to the people to stop working and three to mark a distinction between the holy and the profane. On the eve of Shabbat in the intermediate days of the [Sukkoth] festival, there were [therefore] forty-eight blasts: three at the opening of the gates, three at the upper gate, three at the lower gate, three at the water-drawing, three at the altar, nine at the daily morning sacrifice, nine at the daily evening sacrifice, nine at the additional sacrifices, three as a sign to the people to cease from work, and three to mark a distinction between the holy and the profane." 5.7. At three periods in the year all the priestly watches shared equally in the festival sacrifices and in the division of the showbread. On Shavuot they used to say to the priest, “Here is matzah for you, here is chametz for you.” A watch whose period of service was fixed [for that festival week] offered the tamid, vow-offerings and freewill-offerings and all other public offerings; and it offered them all. A festival which fell next to Shabbat, either before or after it, all the watches shared equally in the distribution of the showbread."
16. Mishnah, Taanit, 2.1, 4.1-4.5 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

2.1. What is the order [of service] for fast days?They take the ark out to the open space of the city. And they put ashes on the ark and on the head of the Nasi and on the head of the head of the court (av bet. And everyone [else] puts ashes on his own head. The elder among them says in front of them words of admonition, “Brothers, it does not say of the people of Nineveh, ‘And God saw their sackcloth and their fasting,’ but, ‘And God saw their deeds, for they turned from their evil way. (Jonah 3:10)’ And in the prophets it says, ‘And rend your heart and not your garments” (Joel 2:13)." 4.1. On three occasions during the year, on fast days, on ma’amadot, and on Yom Kippur the priests lift up their hands to bless [the people] four times during the day--at Shaharit, at Mussaf, at Minhah and at Neilah." 4.2. What are the ma’amadot? Since it is said, “Command the children of Israel and say to them: My offering, My food” (Numbers 28:2). Now how can a man’s offering be offered and he is not present? [Therefore] the former prophets instituted twenty-four mishmarot (guards). For each mishmar there was a ma’amad [at the Temple] in Jerusalem consisting of priests, Levites and Israelites. When the time came for the mishmar to go up [to Jerusalem] the priests and Levites went up to Jerusalem and the Israelites of that mishmar assembled in their cities and read the story of creation." 4.3. The men of the maamad fasted on four days of that week, from Monday to Thursday; they did not fast on Friday out of respect for Shabbat or on Sunday in order not to switch from the rest and delight [of Shabbat] to weariness and fasting and [thereby] die. On Sunday [they read], “In the beginning,” and, “Let there be a firmament;” On Monday, “Let there be a firmament,” and, “Let the waters be gathered together;” On Tuesday, “Let the waters be gathered together,” and, “Let there be lights;” On Wednesday, “Let there be lights,” and, “Let the waters swarm;” On Thursday, “Let the waters swarm,” and, “Let the earth bring forth;” On Friday, “Let the earth bring forth,” and, “And the heavens [and the earth] were completed.” For a long section two people read and for a short section one person. [This is how they would read] at Shacharit and Mussaf. And at minhah they assemble and read the section by heart, as they recite the Shema. On Friday at minhah they did not assemble out of respect for Shabbat." 4.4. On any day when there is Hallel there was no maamad at Shaharit; [On the day when] there is a Musaf-offering, there was no [maamad] at Ne'ilah. [On the day of] the wood-offering, there was no [maamad] at Minhah, the words of Rabbi Akiva. Ben Azzai said to him: Thus did Rabbi Joshua learn: [On the day when] there is a Musaf-offering, there was no [maamad] at Minhah; [On the day of] the wood-offering, there was no [maamad] at Ne’ilah. Rabbi Akiva retracted and learned like Ben Azzai." 4.5. The times of the wood of the priests and the people was nine:On the first of Nisan the family Arah of Yehudah. On the twentieth of Tammuz the family of David of Yehudah. On the fifth of Av the family of Parosh of Yehudah. On the seventh of the same month, the family of Yonadav of Rechav. On the tenth of the same month, the family of Snaah of Benjamin. On the fifteenth of the same month, the family of Zattu of Yehudah, and with them were the priests and Levites and all those who were not certain of their tribe and the family of Gonve Eli and the family of Kotze Ketizot. On the twentieth of the same month the family of Pahat Moav of Yehudah. On the twentieth of Elul the family of Adin of Yehudah. On the first of Tevet the family of Parosh of Yehudah [offered] a second time. On the first of Tevet there was no maamad for there was Hallel, Musaf and the wood-festival."
17. Mishnah, Tamid, 1.3-1.4, 2.1-2.2, 2.5, 3.1-3.2, 3.4, 3.7-3.9, 4.1, 4.3, 5.1-5.2, 5.6, 6.1, 7.1-7.3 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

1.3. He took the key and opened the small door, and went from the fire chamber into the Temple courtyard, and the priests went in after him carrying two lighted torches. They divided into two groups, one of which went along the portico to the east, while the other went along it to the west. They went along inspecting until they came to the place where the griddle-cakes were made. There the two groups met and said, Is all well (shalom)? All is well (shalom)! They then appointed they that made the griddle-cakes to make griddle-cakes." 1.4. The one who had merited to clear the ashes, would get ready to clear the ashes. They said to him: “Be careful not to touch any vessel until you have washed your hands and feet from the laver. See, the fire-pan is in the corner between the ascent and the altar on the west of the ascent.” No one entered with him, nor did he carry any light. Rather, he walked by the light of the altar fire. No-one saw him or heard a sound from him until they heard the noise of the wooden wheel which Ben Katin made for hauling up the laver, when they said, “The time has come.” He washed his hands and feet from the laver, then took the silver fire-pan and went up to the top of the altar and cleared away the cinders on either side and scooped up the ashes in the centre. He then descended and when he reached the floor he turned his face to the north and went along the east side of the ascent for about ten cubits, and he then made a heap of the cinders on the pavement three handbreadths away from the ascent, in the place where they used to put the crop of the birds and the ashes from the inner altar and the ash from the menorah." 2.1. When his fellow priests saw that he had descended, they came running and hastened to wash their hands and feet in the laver. They then took the shovels and the forks and went up to the top of the altar. The limbs and pieces of fat that had not been consumed since the evening they pushed to the sides of the altar. If there was not room on the sides they arranged them on the surround or on the ascent." 2.2. They then began to throw the ashes on to the heap (tapuah). This heap was in the middle of the altar, and sometimes there was as much as three hundred kor on it. On festivals they did not use to clear away the ash because it was reckoned an ornament to the altar. It never happened that the priest was neglectful in taking out the ashes." 2.5. They picked out from there some good fig-tree branches to make a second fire for the incense near the south-western corner some four cubits to the north of it, using as much wood as he judged sufficient to form five seahs of coals, and on the Shabbat as much as he thought would make eight seahs of coals, because from there they used to take fire for the two dishes of frankincense for the showbread. The limbs and the pieces of fat which had not been consumed over night were put back on the wood. They then kindled the two fires and descended and went to the chamber of hewn stone." 3.1. The superintendent then said to them: come and cast lots, to see who is to slaughter, and who is to sprinkle the blood, and who is to clear the ashes from the inner altar, and who is to clear the ash from the candlestick, and who is to lift the limbs on to the ascent: the head, the right leg, the two forelegs, the tailbone, the left leg, the breast and the neck and the two flanks, the entrails, the fine flour, the griddle cakes and the wine. They cast lots and whoever won, won." 3.2. He then said to them: Go out and see if it is yet time for the slaughter. If the time had come, the one who saw would say, “There are flashes.” Matya ben Samuel says: [He used to say] Has the whole of the east [of the sky] lit up. as far as Hebron? And he [the observer] would answer yes." 3.4. They went into the chamber of the vessels and they took out ninety-three vessels of silver and gold. They gave the animal for the daily sacrifice a drink from a cup of gold. Although it had been examined on the previous evening it was now examined again by torchlight." 3.7. He then came to the small opening on the north. The great gate had two small openings, one on the north and one on the south. No one ever went in by the openings on the south, about which it is stated explicitly in Ezekiel, “And the Lord said to me, ‘This gate shall be closed, it shall not be opened, and no man shall enter by it, for the Lord God of Israel has entered by it” (Ezekiel 44:2). He took the key and opened the small opening and went in to the cell and from the cell to the Sanctuary, until he reached the great gate. When he reached the great gate he drew back the bolt and the latches and opened it. The slaughterer did not slaughter till he heard the sound of the great gate being opened." 3.8. From Jericho they could hear the sound of the great gate being opened. From Jericho they could hear the sound of the magrephah. From Jericho they could hear the noise of the wooden pulley which Ben Katin made for the laver. From Jericho they could hear the voice of Gevini the herald. From Jericho they could hear the sound of the pipes. From Jericho they could hear the sound of the cymbals. From Jericho they could hear the sound of the singing [of the Levites]. From Jericho they could hear the sound of the shofar. Some say also of the high priest when he pronounced the divine name on Yom Kippur. From Jericho they could smell the odor of the compounding of incense. Rabbi Elazar ben Diglai said: my father had some goats in Har Michvar, and they would sneeze from the smell of the incense." 3.9. The one who had been chosen for clearing the ashes from the inner altar went in carrying the teni which he set down in front of it, and he scooped up the ash in his fists and put it into it, and in the end he swept up what was left into it, and then he left it there and went out. The one who had been chosen to clear the ashes from the menorah went in. If he found the two eastern lights burning, he cleared the ash from the rest and left these two burning. If he found that these two had gone out, he cleared away their ash and kindled them from those which were still lit and then he cleared the ash from the rest. There was a stone in front of the candlestick with three steps on which the priest stood in order to trim the lights. He left the kuz on the second step and went out." 4.1. They would not tie up the lamb but rather they would string its legs together. Those who merited [to bring up] the limbs took hold of it. Thus it was strung up: its head was to the south while its face was turned to the west. The slaughterer stood to the east of it, facing the west. The morning tamid was killed by the north-western corner of the altar at the second ring. The evening tamid was killed by the north-eastern corner at the second ring. While one slaughtered another received the blood. He then proceeded to the north-eastern corner and cast the blood on the eastern and northern sides; he then proceeded to the southwestern corner and cast the blood on the western and southern sides. The remt of the blood he poured out at the southern base of the altar." 4.3. He then took a knife and separated the lung from the liver and the finger of the liver from the liver, but he did not remove it from its place. He cut out the breast and gave it to the one to the one who had merited [bringing it onto the ramp]. He came to the right flank and cut into it as far as the spine, without touching the spine, until he came to the place between two small ribs. He cut it off and gave it to the one who had merited [bringing it onto the ramp], with the liver attached to it. He then came to the neck, and he left two ribs on each side of it, cut it off and gave it to the one to the one who had merited [bringing it onto the ramp], with the windpipe and the heart and the lung attached to it. He then came to the left flank in which he left the two thin ribs above and two thin ribs below; and he had done similarly with the other flank. Thus he left two on each side above and two on each side below. He cut it off and gave it to the one to the one who had merited [bringing it onto the ramp], and the spine with it and the spleen attached to it. This was really the largest piece, but the right flank was called the largest, because the liver was attached to it. He then came to the tail bone, which he cut off and gave it to the one who had merited [bringing it onto the ramp], along with the tail, the finger of the liver and the two kidneys. He then took the left leg and cut it off and gave it to the one who had merited [bringing it onto the ramp]. Thus they were all standing in a row with the limbs in their hands The first had the head and the [right] hind leg. The head was in his right hand with its nose towards his arm, its horns between his fingers, and the place where it was severed turned upwards with the fat covering it. The right leg was in his left hand with the place where the flaying began turned away from him. The second had the two fore legs, the right leg in his right hand and the left leg in his left hand, the place where the flaying began turned away from him. The third had the tail bone and the other hind leg, the tail bone in his right hand with the tail hanging between his fingers and the finger of the liver and the two kidneys with it, and the left hind leg in his left hand with the place where the flaying began turned away from him. The fourth had the breast and the neck, the breast in his right hand and the neck in his left hand, its ribs being between two of his fingers. The fifth had the two flanks, the right one in his right hand, and the left one in his left hand, with the place where the flaying began turned away from him. The sixth had the innards on a platter with the knees on top of them. The seventh had the fine flour. The eighth had the griddle cakes. The ninth had the wine. They went and placed them on the lower half of the ramp on its western side, and salted them (see Leviticus 2:13). They then came down and went to the Chamber of Hewn Stone to recite the Shema." 5.1. The superintendent said to them: Bless one blessing! And they blessed. They then read the Ten Commandments, the Shema, the “And it will be if you hearken” (the second paragraph of Shema) and Vayomer (the third paragraph of Shema), and they blessed the people with three blessings: Emet veYatziv, and Avodah, and the priestly benediction. On Shabbat they added a blessing to be said by the watch which was leaving." 5.2. He said to them: those who are new to the incense come and draw lots, and who ever won, won. He then said: new and old, come and draw lots to see who shall take up the limbs from the ascent to the altar. Rabbi Eliezer ben Jacob says: the one who brought the limbs on to the ascent also takes them up to the altar." 5.6. When they came between the Sanctuary and the altar, one took the magrefah and threw it between the Sanctuary and the altar. People could not hear one another speak in Jerusalem from the noise of the magrefah. It served three purposes: When a priest heard the sound of it he knew that his fellow priests were going in to bow down, and he would run to join them. When a Levite heard the noise he knew that his fellow Levites were going in to sing, and he would run to join them. And the head of the Ma’amad used to make the unclean stand in the east gate." 6.1. They began to ascend the steps of the Sanctuary. Those who had won the right to clear the ashes from the inner altar and from the candlestick went in front. The one who won the right to clear the inner altar went in and took the teni and bowed down and went out again. The one who had been chosen to clear the candlestick went in, and if he found the two eastern lights still burning he cleared out the eastern one and left the western one burning, since from it he lit the candlestick for the evening. If he found that this one had gone out, he cleared the ash away and lit it from the altar of burnt-offering. He then took the kuz from the second step and bowed down and went out." 7.1. When the high priest went in to bow down, three priests supported him, one by his right and one by his left and one by the precious stones. When the superintendent heard the sound of the footsteps of the high priest as he was about to go out [from the Sanctuary], he raised the curtain for him. He went in, bowed down and went out, and then his fellow priests went in and bowed down and went out." 7.2. They went and stood on the steps of the Sanctuary. The first ones stood at the south side of their fellow priests with five vessels in their hands: one held the teni, the second the kuz, the third the firepan, the fourth the dish, and the fifth the spoon and its covering. They blessed the people with a single blessing, except in the country they recited it as three blessings, in the Temple as one. In the Temple they pronounced the divine name as it is written, but in the country by its substitute. In the country the priests raised their hands as high as their shoulders, but in the Temple above their heads, except the high priest, who did not raise his hands above the diadem. Rabbi Judah says: the high priest also raised his hands above the diadem, since it says, “And Aaron lifted up his hands toward the people and blessed them” (Leviticus 9:22)." 7.3. If the high priest wished to burn the offerings [himself], he would go up the ascent with the deputy high priest at his right. When he reached the middle of the ascent the deputy took hold of his right hand and helped him up. The first [of the other priests] then handed to him the head and the foot and he laid his hands on them and threw them [onto the altar]. The second then handed to the first the two fore legs. And he handed them to the high priest who laid his hands on them and threw them [onto the altar]. The second then went away. In the same way all the other limbs were handed to him and he laid his hands on them and threw them [on to the altar fire]. If he wanted, he could lay his hands and let others throw [them] on the fire. He then went around the altar. From where did he begin? From the southeastern corner; from there he went to the northeastern, then to the northwestern and then to the southwestern. They there handed him the wine for libation. The deputy high priest stood on the corner/horn of the altar with the flags in his hand, and two priests on the table of the fats with two trumpets in their hands. They blew a teki’ah, a teru’ah and a teki’ah. They then went and stood by Ben Arza, one on his right hand and one on his left. When he bent down to make the libation the deputy high priest waved the flags and Ben Arza struck the cymbals and the Levites sang the psalm. When they came to a pause they blew a teki’ah, and the public bowed down. At every pause there was a teki’ah and at every teki’ah a bowing down. This was the order of the regular daily sacrifice for the service of our Lord. May it be His will that it be rebuilt speedily in our days, Amen."
18. Mishnah, Yoma, 1.8, 2.1-2.4, 3.3-3.4, 5.1, 7.1, 7.4 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

1.8. Every day they would remove [the ashes from] the altar at the cock’s crow or close to that time, either before or after. But on Yom HaKippurim from midnight, and on the festivals at the [end of the] first watch; And the cock’s crow would not arrive before the Temple court was full of Israelites." 2.1. Originally anyone who wished to remove [the ashes from] the altar did so. When they were many, they would run up the ramp [of the altar] and he that came first within four cubits won the privilege. If two were even, the officer would say to them [all:] raise the finger! And how many did they put out? One or two but one does not put out a thumb in the Temple." 2.2. Section one: It once happened that two were even as they ran up the ramp, and one of them pushed his fellow who fell and broke his leg. When the court saw that they incurred danger, they decreed that they would remove the ashes from only by a count. Section two: There were four counts. This is the first count." 2.3. The second count:who slaughters [the daily regular offering], who sprinkles [the blood], who removes the ashes from the inner altar, who removes the ashes from the candlestick, 5-10) Who takes the limbs [of the offering up to the ramp], the head and the [right] hind-leg, the two forelegs, the tail and the [left] hind-leg, the breast and the throat, the two flanks, the innards, the fine flour, the cakes and the wine. Altogether thirteen priests merited a task. Ben Azzai said before Rabbi Akiba in the name of Rabbi Joshua: [the daily offering] was offered up in the way it walks. 2.4. The third count: “New [priests] come up and submit to the count for the incense.” The fourth count: “New and old priests, who will take up the limbs from the ramp to the altar.”" 3.3. A man may not enter the Temple courtyard or to worship even if he was clean until he immerses himself. Five immersions and ten sanctifications did the high priest perform on that day. And all in sanctity in the Bet Haparvah with the exception of this one alone." 3.4. They spread out a linen sheet between him and the people. He stripped off [his clothes], went down and immersed himself, came up and dried himself. They brought him the golden garments, he put them on and sanctified his hands and feet. They brought him the tamid. He made the required cut and some one else finished it for him. He received the blood and sprinkled it. He went inside to smoke the morning incense and to trim the lamps; And to offer up the head and the limbs and the griddle cakes and the wine." 5.1. They brought out to him the ladle and the pan and he took two hands full [of incense] and put it into the ladle, a large [high priest] according to his size, a small one according to his size and thus was its measure. He took the pan in his right hand and the ladle in his left hand. He walked through the Hechal until he came to the place between the two curtains which separated the Holy from the Holy of Holies; between them was [a space of] one cubit. Rabbi Yose says: there was but one curtain, as it is said: “And the curtain shall serve you as a partition between the Holy and the Holy of Holies” (Exodus 26:33). The outer curtain was looped on the south side and the inner curtain on the north side. He walked along between them until he reached the north side. When he reached the north side he turned round to the south and went on along the curtain, to his left, until he reached the Ark. When he reached the Ark he put the pan of burning coals between the two poles. He heaped up the incense upon the coals and the whole house became full with smoke. He came out by the way he entered and in the outer house he uttered a short prayer. He did not make the prayer long so as not to frighten Israel." 7.1. The high priest [then] came to read. If he wished to read in linen garments, he reads, and if not he reads in his own white cloak. The synagogue attendant would take a Torah scroll and give it to the head of the synagogue, and the head of the synagogue gives it to deputy high priest, and the deputy high priest gives it to the high priest, and the high priest stands and receives it, and reads, [section] beginning] “After the death …” (Leviticus 16:1-34) and “But on the tenth…” (Leviticus 23:26-32). Then he would roll up the Torah scroll and put it in his bosom and say, “More than what I have read out before you is written here.” And “On the tenth …” (Numbers 29:7-11) which is in the Book of Numbers he recites by heart. And he recites on it eight benedictions: “For the law”, “For the Temple service,” “For thanksgiving,” “For the forgiveness of sins” and “For the Temple” on its own, and “For Israel” on its own and “For Jerusalem” on its own, “For the priests” on their own and “For the rest of the prayer.”" 7.4. He then sanctified his hands and feet, stripped off his clothes, went down and immersed himself, came up and dried himself. They brought him the white clothes, he put them on and sanctified his hands and his feet. Then he went in to bring out the ladle and the fire-pan. He then sanctified his hands and feet, stripped off his clothes, went down and immersed himself, came up and dry himself. They brought him the golden clothes, he put them on, sanctified his hands and feet, and went in to burn up the dusk incense, and takes care of the lamp. He sanctified his hands and feet and stripped, went down, immersed himself, came up and dried himself. They brought him his own clothes and he put them on. And they would accompany him to his house. And he would make a day of festivity for his friends whenever he came out of the Holy [of Holies] in peace."
19. Mishnah, Zevahim, 5.3, 6.5 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

5.3. [Concerning] public and private hatats: (These are the public hatats: the goats of new moons and festivals) They are slaughtered in the north, and their blood is received in ministering vessels in the north, and their blood requires four applications on the four corners [of the altar]. How was it done? He went up the ascent, turned to the surrounding walkway, and came to the south-east corner, then the north-east, then the north-west, and then the south-west. He would pour the residue of the blood out at the southern base. They were eaten within the hangings [of the Tabernacle], by male priests, prepared in any fashion, the same day and night, until midnight." 6.5. How was the olah of a bird sacrificed? He [the priest] ascended the ramp, and turned to the surrounding walkway, and made his way to the southeast horn. There he pinched its head at the back of the neck, and severed it, and drained out its blood on the wall of the altar. He took the head, turned the part where it was nipped to the altar, saturated it with salt, and threw it on to the fires [of the altar]. Then he came to the body, and removed the crop, the feathers, and the entrails that came out of it, and threw them on to the burning place. He tore [the body], but did not sever it in half, but if he did sever it, it is still valid. Then he saturated it [the body] with salt, and threw it on to the fires of the altar."
20. Mishnah, Shekalim, 3.2-3.3, 5.1 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

3.2. In three baskets each of [the capacity of] three seahs they make the appropriation [of shekels] from the chamber. And on them was inscribed: Aleph, Beth, Gimmel. Rabbi Ishmael says: Greek was inscribed on them, alpha, beta, gamla. The one who made the appropriation did not enter the chamber wearing either a bordered cloak or shoes or sandals or tefillin or an amulet, lest if he became poor people might say that he became poor because of a sin committed in the chamber, or if he became rich people might say that he became rich from the appropriation in the chamber. For it is one’s duty to seem be free of blame before others as before God, as it is said: “And you shall be guiltless before the Lord and before Israel” (Numbers 32:22), and it says: “And you will find favor and good understanding in the eyes of God and man” (Proverbs 3:4)." 3.3. [The members] of Rabban Gamaliel’s household used to enter [the chamber] with their shekel between their fingers, and throw it in front of him who made the appropriation, while he who made the appropriation purposely pressed it into the basket. He who made the appropriation did not make it until he first said to them: “Should I make the appropriation?” And they say to him three times: “Make the appropriation! Make the appropriation! Make the appropriation!”" 5.1. These were the officers in the Temple:Yoha the son of Pinchas was over the seals. Ahiyah over the libations. Mattityah the son of Shmuel over the lots. Petahiah over the bird-offering. (Petahiah was Mordecai. Why was his name called Petahiah? Because he ‘opened’ matters and expounded them, and he understood the seventy tongues). The son of Ahijah over the sickness of the bowels. Nehuniah, the digger of ditches. Gevini, the crier. The son of Gever over the locking of the gates. The son of Bevai over the strips [for lighting the menorah]. The son of Arza over the cymbal. Hugras the son of Levi over the song. The house of Garmu over the making of the showbread. The house of Avtinas over the preparing of the frankincense. Elazar over the curtains. And Pinchas over the priestly vestments."
21. Tosefta, Shekalim, 2.14 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

22. Anon., Sifre Numbers, 39 (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

23. Babylonian Talmud, Gittin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

59b. בור שהוא קרוב לאמה מתמלא ראשון מפני דרכי שלום,מצודות חיה ועופות ודגים יש בהן משום גזל מפני דרכי שלום ר' יוסי אומר גזל גמור,מציאת חרש שוטה וקטן יש בהן משום גזל מפני דרכי שלום ר' יוסי אומר גזל גמור,עני המנקף בראש הזית מה שתחתיו גזל מפני דרכי שלום ר' יוסי אומר גזל גמור,אין ממחין ביד עניי עובדי כוכבים בלקט שכחה ופאה מפני דרכי שלום:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big מנה"מ אמר רב מתנה דאמר קרא (דברים לא, ט) ויכתוב משה את התורה הזאת ויתנה אל הכהנים בני לוי אטו אנא לא ידענא דכהנים בני לוי נינהו אלא כהן ברישא והדר לוי,רבי יצחק נפחא אמר מהכא (דברים כא, ה) ונגשו הכהנים בני לוי אטו אנן לא ידעינן דכהנים בני לוי נינהו אלא כהן ברישא והדר לוי,רב אשי אמר מהכא (דברי הימים א כג, יג) בני עמרם אהרן ומשה ויבדל אהרן להקדישו קדש קדשים,ר' חייא בר אבא אמר מהכא (ויקרא כא, ח) וקדשתו לכל דבר שבקדושה תנא דבי רבי ישמעאל וקדשתו לכל דבר שבקדושה לפתוח ראשון ולברך ראשון וליטול מנה יפה ראשון,א"ל אביי לרב יוסף מפני דרכי שלום דאורייתא היא א"ל דאורייתא ומפני דרכי שלום,כל התורה כולה נמי מפני דרכי שלום היא דכתיב (משלי ג, יז) דרכיה דרכי נועם וכל נתיבותיה שלום,אלא אמר אביי לכדמר דתניא שנים ממתינין זה לזה בקערה שלשה אין ממתינין הבוצע הוא פושט ידו תחלה ואם בא לחלוק כבוד לרבו או למי שגדול ממנו הרשות בידו,ואמר מר עלה לא שנו אלא בסעודה אבל בבהכ"נ לא דאתו לאינצויי,אמר רב מתנה הא דאמרת בבהכ"נ לא לא אמרן אלא בשבתות וימים טובים דשכיחי רבים אבל בשני ובחמישי לא,איני והא רב הונא קרי בכהני בשבתות ויו"ט שאני רב הונא דאפילו רבי אמי ורבי אסי כהני חשיבי דא"י מיכף הוו כייפי ליה,אמר אביי נקטינן אין שם כהן נתפרדה חבילה ואמר אביי נקטינן אין שם לוי קורא כהן,איני והאמר רבי יוחנן כהן אחר כהן לא יקרא משום פגמו של ראשון לוי אחר לוי לא יקרא משום פגם שניהם כי קאמרינן באותו כהן,מ"ש לוי אחר לוי דאיכא פגם שניהם דאמרי חד מינייהו לאו לוי הוא כהן אחר כהן נמי אמרי חד מינייהו לאו כהן הוא כגון דמוחזק לן באבוה דהאי שני דכהן הוא,ה"נ דמוחזק לן באבוה דהאי שני דלוי הוא אלא אמרי ממזרת או נתינה נסיב ופסליה לזרעיה הכא נמי אמרי גרושה או חלוצה נסיב ואחליה לזרעיה,סוף סוף לוי מי קא הוי,ולמאן אי ליושבין הא קא חזו ליה אלא ליוצאין,שלחו ליה בני גלילא לרבי חלבו אחריהן 59b. The Sages enacted that bthe pit that is nearest to the irrigation channelthat supplies water to several pits or fields bis filled first on account of the ways of peace.They established a fixed order for the irrigation of fields, so that people would not quarrel over who is given precedence., bAnimals, birds, or fishthat were caught in btrapsare not acquired by the one who set the traps until he actually takes possession of them. Nevertheless, if another person comes and takes them, it bis considered robbery on account of the ways of peace. Rabbi Yosei says:This is bfull-fledged robbery. /b,Similarly, ba lost itemfound by ba deaf-mute, an imbecile, or a minoris not acquired by him, since he lacks the legal competence to effect acquisition. Nevertheless, taking such an item from him bis considered robbery on account of the ways of peace. Rabbi Yosei says:This is bfull-fledged robbery. /b,If ba poor person gleansolives bat the top of an olive treeand olives fall to the ground under the tree, then taking those olives bthat are beneath it isconsidered brobbery on account of the ways of peace. Rabbi Yosei says:This is bfull-fledged robbery. /b, bOne does not protest against poor gentileswho come to take bgleanings, forgottensheaves, band the produce in the corner of the field, which is given to the poor [ ipe’a /i],although they are meant exclusively for the Jewish poor, bon account of the ways of peace. /b, strongGEMARA: /strong The mishna teaches that at public readings of the Torah, a priest reads first, and after him a Levite. The Gemara asks: bFrom where are these mattersderived? What is the source of this ihalakhain the Torah? bRav Mattana said: As the verse states: “And Moses wrote this Torah, and delivered it to the priests, the sons of Levi”(Deuteronomy 31:9). The Gemara explains the inference: bIs that to say I do not know that the priests are the sons of Levi?Why is it necessary for the verse to say this? bRather,the Torah was first delivered to the priests and afterward to the other Levites, and this serves as the source for the enactment that first ba priestreads from the Torah, band afterhim ba Levite. /b, bRabbi Yitzḥak Nappaḥa saidthat this ihalakhais derived bfrom here,as it is written: b“And the priests, the sons of Levi, shall come near”(Deuteronomy 21:5). The Gemara asks: bIs that to say I do not know that the priests are the sons of Levi? Rather,the Torah was first given to the priests and afterward to the other Levites, and from this we learn that bfirst a priestreads from the Torah, band afterhim ba Levite. /b, bRav Ashi saidthat this ihalakhais derived bfrom here: “The sons of Amram, Aaron and Moses; and Aaron was separated, that he should be sanctified as most holy”(I Chronicles 23:13). This indicates that Aaron and his descendants, the priests, are considered to be holier than the rest of the tribe of Levi. Consequently, they are given precedence in public Torah readings., bRabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba saidthat this ihalakhais derived bfrom here,as it is stated with regard to a priest: b“And you shall sanctify him”(Leviticus 21:8), giving a priest priority bfor every matter of sanctity.And with regard to this verse, a Sage from bthe school of Rabbi Yishmael taught: “And you shall sanctify him,”giving a priest priority bfor every matter of sanctity: To openthe discussion in the study hall bfirst, to recite the blessingof Grace after Meals bfirst, and to take a fine portionat a meal bfirst,meaning that he can choose any portion at a meal for himself., bAbaye said to Rav Yosef:According to this, why does the mishna teach that the priest reads first from the Torah bon account of the ways of peace,indicating that this is a rabbinic enactment? Is it not bby Torah lawthat he reads first? Rav Yosef bsaid toAbaye: Indeed, it is bby Torah law, butthe reason that the priest reads first is bon account of the ways of peace. /b,Abaye objected: Aren’t the ihalakhotof bthe entire Torah alsogiven bon account of the ways of peace, as it is written: “Her ways are ways of pleasantness, and all her paths are peace”(Proverbs 3:17)? Consequently, this ihalakhais no different from the other ihalakhotin the Torah, all of which were given to increase pleasantness and tranquility in the world., bRather, Abaye said:The mishna’s statement that a priest reads first from the Torah on account of the ways of peace bis in accordance withwhat was said by bmy master,Rabba. bAs it is taughtin a ibaraita( iTosefta /i, iBerakhot5:3): When btwo peopleare eating together bfrom a single dish,they must bwait for each other,but if there are bthree,each eats when he wishes and they do bnotneed to bwaitfor each other. Generally, bthe one who breaks bread extends his handto take food bfirst, but if he wishes to show respect to his teacher or to one who is greaterthan he and allow him to take first, bhe has permissionto do so., bAnd the Master,Rabba, bsaid with regard tothis ibaraita /i: bThey taughtthis bwith regard to a meal,that one may show honor to a person of greater stature and allow him to take food first. bBut in the synagogue,one may bnotshow another honor, because the congregants are liable to bcome to quarrelabout who is the most distinguished among them. Accordingly, the ruling of the mishna is that to prevent strife and controversy, it is not permitted for a priest to honor an Israelite and allow him to read first from the Torah in his place., bRav Mattana said:With regard to bthismatter bthat you stated,that bin the synagoguea priest is bnotpermitted to honor an Israelite and allow him to read first, bwe saidthis bonly concerning iShabbatotand Festivals, when many people are presentfor the services, bbut not on Mondays and Thursdays,when only a small number of people are there. On those days it is permitted for one to honor his superior, and there is no concern that this will lead to a quarrel.,The Gemara asks: bIs that so?Is it actually prohibited for a priest to honor his teacher and allow him to read first in his place? bBut didn’t Rav Huna,who was not a priest, breadthe Torah section ordinarily reserved bfor priests,even bon iShabbatotand Festivals?The Gemara answers: bRav Huna is different, as even Rabbi Ami and Rabbi Asi, the most important priests in Eretz Yisrael, were subject to hisjurisdiction. Therefore, there was no concern about a quarrel, because everyone agreed that he was the leading authority of the generation and it was fitting that he should read from the Torah first.,§ bAbaye saidthat bwe have a traditionthat if bthere is no priest therein the synagogue at the time of the Torah reading, bthe bundle is separated,i.e., a Levite is not shown precedence over Israelites. bAnd Abaye saidthat bwe have a traditionthat if bthere is no Levite therein the synagogue, ba priest readsin his place.,The Gemara asks: bIs that so? But didn’t Rabbi Yoḥa say:One bpriest should not read afteranother bpriest, becausepeople might mistakenly think that the second priest was called to read due to ba flawthat was found binthe status of bthe firstone, i.e., that he was found not to be a priest. And one bLevite should not read afteranother bLevite, becausepeople might mistakenly think that there is ba flaw in both of them.If two Levites read one after the other, people might say that the second is not a Levite but an Israelite, or else that the first was not a Levite, and therefore a real Levite was called to read in his place. The Gemara answers: bWhen we saidthat when there is no Levite present a priest reads in his place, we were speaking bof the same priestwho had already read from the Torah, for in that case there is no concern that people will think that a flaw had been found in his status.,The Gemara raises a question with regard to Rabbi Yoḥa’s statement: bWhat is differentthat in the case where one bLevitereads from the Torah bafteranother bLevite,Rabbi Yoḥa says bthat there isconcern that people might mistakenly think that there is ba flaw in both of them?It must be that he is concerned that people might bsaythat bone of them,either the first or the second, biscertainly bnot a Levite.If so, in the case where one bpriestreads from the Torah bafteranother bpriest,he should balsobe concerned that people might bsaythat bone of them,either the first or the second, biscertainly bnot a priest.Why, then, was Rabbi Yoḥa concerned only about suspicions that might be raised about the first priest? The Gemara answers: He speaks about a case bwhere we have a presumption concerning the father of the secondone, bthat he is a priest. /b,The Gemara asks: If so, bhere too,in the case of the Levites let us say that bwe have a presumption concerning the father of the secondone, bthat he is a Levite. Rather,the concern here is that even if it is known that he is the son of a Levite, people might bsaythat perhaps the father bmarried a imamzeret /i,a daughter born from an incestuous or adulterous relationship, bor a Gibeonite woman, andthereby bdisqualified his children,so that they are considered Israelites rather than Levites. If so, then bhere too,in the case of the priests, there is concern that people might bsaythat perhaps the priest’s father bmarried a divorced woman or a iyevamawho underwent iḥalitza[ iḥalutza /i] andthereby bdisqualified his childrenfrom the priesthood (see Leviticus 21:7).,The Gemara answers: bUltimately, is he a Levite?If the priest is disqualified from the priesthood owing to his blemished lineage, he has the status of an Israelite, not a Levite. Therefore, if he reads from the Torah after another priest, and it is known that his father is a priest, then it must be that he too is a qualified priest. Therefore, the only reason for concern is that people might say that there is a flaw in the status of the first priest.,With regard to the concern itself, the Gemara asks: bAnd about whomis there a concern? Who might mistakenly think that the first priest’s status is blemished? bIfyou say that the concern is bfor those sittingin the synagogue until the end of the Torah reading, that is not a valid concern, as bthey seethat he is counted as one of the seven who must read from the Torah, and therefore he must certainly be a qualified priest. bRather,the concern is bfor those who leavebefore the conclusion of the reading, and do not know that he was counted among the seven readers., bThe people of the Galilee senta question bto Rabbi Ḥelbo: After them,the priest and the Levite
24. Babylonian Talmud, Ketuvot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

25b. לאו כולהו סלוק,ת"ש חזקה לכהונה נשיאות כפים וחילוק גרנות ועדות עדות חזקה היא אלא לאו הכי קאמר נשיאות כפים כי עדות מה עדות ליוחסין אף נשיאות כפים ליוחסין לא עדות הבאה מכח חזקה כחזקה,כי ההוא דאתא לקמיה דרבי אמי א"ל מוחזקני בזה שהוא כהן א"ל מה ראית אמר ליה שקרא ראשון בבית הכנסת בחזקת שהוא כהן או בחזקת שהוא גדול שקרא אחריו לוי והעלהו ר' אמי לכהונה על פיו,ההוא דאתא לקמיה דרבי יהושע בן לוי אמר ליה מוחזקני בזה שהוא לוי אמר ליה מה ראית אמר ליה שקרא שני בבית הכנסת בחזקת שהוא לוי או בחזקת שהוא גדול שקרא לפניו כהן והעלהו רבי יהושע בן לוי ללויה על פיו,ההוא דאתא לקמיה דריש לקיש אמר ליה מוחזקני בזה שהוא כהן א"ל מה ראית [א"ל] שקרא ראשון בבית הכנסת א"ל ראיתיו שחילק על הגרנות אמר לו ר' אלעזר ואם אין שם גורן בטלה כהונה,זימנין הוו יתבי קמיה דר' יוחנן אתא כי הא מעשה לקמיה א"ל ריש לקיש ראיתיו שחילק על הגורן א"ל ר' יוחנן ואם אין שם גורן בטלה כהונה הדר חזייה לר"א בישות אמר שמעת מילי דבר נפחא ולא אמרת לן משמיה,רבי ור' חייא חד העלה בן ע"פ אביו לכהונה וחד העלה אח ע"פ אחיו ללויה,תסתיים דר' העלה בן ע"פ אביו לכהונה דתניא הרי שבא ואמר בני זה וכהן הוא נאמן להאכילו בתרומה ואינו נאמן להשיאו אשה דברי רבי אמר לו ר' חייא אם אתה מאמינו להאכילו בתרומה תאמינו להשיאו אשה ואם אי אתה מאמינו להשיאו אשה לא תאמינו לאכול בתרומה,א"ל אני מאמינו להאכילו בתרומה שבידו להאכילו בתרומה ואיני מאמינו להשיאו אשה שאין בידו להשיאו אשה תסתיים ומדרבי העלה בן ע"פ אביו לכהונה ר' חייא העלה אח ע"פ אחיו ללויה,ורבי חייא מאי שנא בן דלא דקרוב הוא אצל אביו אח נמי קרוב הוא אצל אחיו 25b. bnot all of them ascended.Since the majority of the people did not come to the land, separating iḥallawas not restored to the status of an obligation by Torah law.,The Gemara cites proof from another ibaraitato resolve the dilemma. bComeand bhear:The bpresumptive status for priesthoodis established by bLifting of the Handsfor the Priestly Benediction, bandby bdistributionof iterumaat the bthreshing floors, andby btestimony.The Gemara asks: bDoes testimonymerely establish bpresumptive status?Testimony provides absolute proof of his status, not merely a presumption. bRather is it notthat bthis is whatthe itanna bis saying: Lifting of the Handsis blike testimony, just as testimonythat one is a priest elevates him to the priesthood bfor lineage, so too Lifting of the Handsestablishes presumptive status bfor lineage.The Gemara answers: bNo,when the itannais referring to testimony, he is stating that the legal status of btestimony that is based on presumptive status is likethat of bpresumptive statusitself., bAsin the incident involving ba certainman bwho came before Rabbi Amiand bsaid to him: Thatman established bpresumptive statusbefore bme that he is a priest.Rabbi Ami bsaid to him: What did you seethat led you to that conclusion? bHe said toRabbi Ami: I saw bthat hewas called to the Torah and bread first in the synagogue.Rabbi Ami asked him: Did he read first based bon the presumptive status that he is a priest, orwas it based bon the presumptive status that he is a greatman? The custom was that a priest would be called to the Torah first, unless there was a prominent Torah scholar among the worshippers. He said to Rabbi Ami: He read the Torah as a priest, bas after him a Levite readthe Torah. A Levite is called to the Torah second only when a priest is called first. bAnd Rabbi Ami elevated him to the priesthood, on the basis of hisstatement.,The Gemara relates an incident involving ba certainman bwho came before Rabbi Yehoshua ben Leviand bsaid toRabbi Yehoshua ben Levi: bThatman established the bpresumptive statusbefore bme that he is a Levite.Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi bsaid to him: What did you seethat led you to that conclusion? bHe said toRabbi Yehoshua ben Levi: I saw bthat hewas called to the Torah and that he bread second in the synagogue.Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi asked him: Did he read second based bon the presumptive status that he is a Levite, orwas it based bon the presumptive status that he is a greatman? When there is no priest in the synagogue, people in the synagogue are called to the Torah in order of their prominence. Perhaps he was the second most prominent man in the synagogue. He said to Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi: I am certain that he is a Levite, bas a priest readthe Torah bbefore him. And Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi elevated him to Levite status, based on hisstatement.,The Gemara relates another incident involving ba certain man who came before Reish Lakishand bsaid toReish Lakish: bThatman established the bpresumptive statusbefore bme that he is a priest.Reish Lakish bsaid to him: What did you seethat led you to that conclusion? bHe said toReish Lakish: I saw bthat hewas called to the Torah and bread first in the synagogue.Reish Lakish, based on his opinion that one’s presumptive status as a priest can be established only on the basis of his receiving iteruma /i, bsaid to him: Did you see that he received a shareof iteruma bat the threshing floor? Rabbi Elazar said toReish Lakish: bAnd if there is no threshing floor there,does bthe priesthood ceaseto exist? The testimony that he read from the Torah first is sufficient.,On another boccasionRabbi Elazar and Reish Lakish bsat before Rabbi Yoḥa.A matter bsimilarto bthat incident,where one testified that another is a priest based on his reading the Torah first, bcame beforeRabbi Yoḥa. bReish Lakish said tothe person who testified: bDid you see that he received a shareof iteruma bat the threshing floor? Rabbi Yoḥa said toReish Lakish: bAnd if there is no threshing floor there,does bthe priesthood ceaseto exist? The Gemara relates that Reish Lakish bturned and looked at Rabbi Elazar harshly,as he understood that on the previous occasion, Rabbi Elazar was citing verbatim a ruling that he heard from Rabbi Yoḥa. Reish Lakish bsaidto Rabbi Elazar: bYou heard a statement of bar Nappaḥa,the son of a blacksmith, an epithet for Rabbi Yoḥa, band you did not sayit bto us in his name?Had you done so, I would have accepted it from you then.,The Gemara relates with regard to bRabbiYehuda HaNasi band Rabbi Ḥiyyathat bone elevated a son to priesthood on the basis ofthe statement of bhis father, and one elevated a brother tothe bLevite status on the basis ofthe statement of bhis brother.It is unclear which of the Sages ruled in which case.,The Gemara notes: bIt may be concluded that RabbiYehuda HaNasi is the one who belevated a son to priesthood on the basis ofthe statement of bhis father, as it is taughtin a ibaraitathat if one bcame and said: This is my son and he is a priest,his statement is bdeemed credible to enablehis son bto partake of iteruma /i, butit bis not deemed credible to marry a womanof superior lineage bto him,as his testimony is not deemed credible for the purposes of lineage; this is bthe statement of RabbiYehuda HaNasi. bRabbi Ḥiyya said to him: If you deemthe father bcredible to enablehis son bto partake of iteruma /i, deem him credible to marry a woman tohis son. bAnd if you do not deem him credible to marry a woman to him, do not deem him credibleto enable his son bto partake of iteruma /i. /b,Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi bsaid to him: I deem him credible to enablehis son bto partake of iteruma /i, as it is within his purview to feedhis son iteruma /i,and one is deemed credible with regard to matters that are within his purview. bBut I do not deem him credible to marry a woman tohis son, bas it is not within his purview to marry a woman tohis son, and therefore his testimony is not accepted. The Gemara determines: Indeed, it may be bconcludethat it is Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi who elevated a son to priesthood on the basis of the statement of his father. bAnd fromthe fact bthatit is bRabbiYehuda HaNasi who belevated a son to priesthood on the basis ofthe statement of bhis father,clearly it is bRabbi Ḥiyyawho belevated a brother to Levite status on the basis ofthe statement of bhis brother. /b,The Gemara asks: bAndaccording to bRabbi Ḥiyya, what is differentin the case of ba son, wherea father is bnotdeemed credible bbecausethe son bis a relative of his father,and therefore the father is disqualified from testifying about his son? bA brother is also a relative of his brother,and therefore the brother should have been disqualified from testifying about his brother. Rabbi Ḥiyya should accept the testimony in both cases or reject the testimony in both cases.
25. Babylonian Talmud, Rosh Hashanah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

31b. ומיבנה לאושא ומאושא ליבנה ומיבנה לאושא ומאושא לשפרעם ומשפרעם לבית שערים ומבית שערים לצפורי ומצפורי לטבריא וטבריא עמוקה מכולן שנאמר (ישעיהו כט, ד) ושפלת מארץ תדברי,רבי אלעזר אומר שש גלות שנאמר (ישעיהו כו, ה) כי השח יושבי מרום קריה נשגבה ישפילנה ישפילה עד ארץ יגיענה עד עפר א"ר יוחנן ומשם עתידין ליגאל שנאמר (ישעיהו נב, ב) התנערי מעפר קומי שבי:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big אמר ר' יהושע בן קרחה ועוד זאת התקין רבן יוחנן בן זכאי שאפילו ראש בית דין בכל מקום שלא יהו העדים הולכין אלא למקום הוועד:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big ההיא איתתא דאזמנוה לדינא קמיה דאמימר בנהרדעי אזל אמימר למחוזא ולא אזלה בתריה כתב פתיחא עילווה אמר ליה רב אשי לאמימר והא אנן תנן אפילו ראש בית דין בכל מקום שלא יהו העדים הולכין אלא למקום הוועד,א"ל הנ"מ לענין עדות החדש דא"כ נמצאת מכשילן לעתיד לבא אבל הכא (משלי כב, ז) עבד לוה לאיש מלוה,ת"ר אין כהנים רשאין לעלות בסנדליהן לדוכן וזו אחד מתשע תקנות שהתקין ריב"ז שית דהאי פירקא וחדא דפירקא קמא,ואידך דתני' גר שנתגייר בזמן הזה צריך שיפריש רובע לקינו אמר רשב"א כבר נמנה עליה רבן יוחנן וביטלה מפני התקלה,ואידך פלוגתא דרב פפא ורב נחמן בר יצחק רב פפא אמר כרם רבעי רב נחמן בר יצחק אמר לשון של זהורית,רב פפא אמר כרם רבעי (דתניא) כרם רבעי היה עולה לירושלים מהלך יום לכל צד וזו היא תחומה אילת מן (הצפון) ועקרבת מן (הדרום) לוד מן המערב וירדן מן המזרח,ואמר עולא ואיתימא רבה בר עולא א"ר יוחנן מה טעם כדי לעטר שוקי ירושלים בפירות,ותניא כרם רבעי היה לו לרבי אליעזר במזרח לוד בצד כפר טבי וביקש ר' אליעזר להפקירו לעניים,אמרו לו תלמידיו רבי כבר נמנו חבריך עליו והתירוהו מאן חבריך רבן יוחנן בן זכאי,רב נחמן בר יצחק אמר לשון של זהורית דתניא בראשונה היו קושרין לשון של זהורית על פתח אולם מבחוץ הלבין היו שמחין לא הלבין היו עצבין התקינו שיהו קושרין אותו על פתח אולם מבפנים,ועדיין היו מציצין ורואין הלבין היו שמחין לא הלבין היו עצבין התקינו שיהו קושרין אותו חציו בסלע וחציו בין קרניו של שעיר המשתלח,רב נחמן בר יצחק מאי טעמא לא אמר כרב פפא אמר לך אי סלקא דעתך רבן יוחנן בן זכאי חבריו דרבי אליעזר מי הוה רבו הוה ואידך כיון דתלמידים הוו לאו אורח ארעא למימרא ליה לרביה רבך,ורב פפא מאי טעמא לא אמר כרב נחמן בר יצחק אמר לך אי ס"ד רבן יוחנן בן זכאי בימי רבן יוחנן בן זכאי מי הוה לשון של זהורית והתניא כל שנותיו של רבן יוחנן בן זכאי מאה ועשרים שנה מ' שנה עסק בפרקמטיא מ' שנה למד מ' שנה לימד,ותניא מ' שנה קודם שנחרב הבית לא היה לשון של זהורית מלבין אלא מאדים ותנן משחרב הבית התקין רבן יוחנן בן זכאי ואידך אותם ארבעים שנה דלמד תלמיד יושב לפני רבו הוה ואמר מילתא ואסתבר טעמיה 31b. band from Yavne to Usha; and from Ushait returned bto Yavne; and from Yavneit went back bto Usha; and from Usha to Shefaram; and from Shefaram to Beit She’arim; and from Beit She’arim to Tzippori; and from Tzippori to Tiberias. And Tiberias is lower than all of them,as it is in the Jordan Valley. A verse alludes to these movements, bas it is stated: “And brought down, you shall speak out of the ground”(Isaiah 29:4)., bRabbi Elazar says:There are bsix exiles,if you count only the places, not the number of journeys, and a different verse alludes to this, bas it is stated: “For He has brought down those who dwell high, the lofty city laying it low, laying it low, to the ground, bringing it to the dust”(Isaiah 26:5). This verse mentions six expressions of lowering: Brought down, laying it low, laying it low, to the ground, bringing it, and to the dust. bRabbi Yoḥa said: And from there,i.e., from their lowest place of descent, bthey are destined to be redeemedin the future, bas it is stated: “Shake yourself from the dust, arise, sit,Jerusalem” (Isaiah 52:2)., strongMISHNA: /strong bRabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa said: And this, too, Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai instituted, that evenif bthe head of the courtof seventy-one bis in anyother bplace,not where the Great Sanhedrin is in session, bthe witnesses shouldnevertheless bgo only to the placewhere the Great Sanhedrin bgathersto deliver testimony to determine the start of the month. Although the date of the month is dependent on the head of the Great Sanhedrin, as it is he who declares that the month is sanctified (see 24a), nevertheless, Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai instituted that the members of the Great Sanhedrin may sanctify the month in the absence of the head of the court., strongGEMARA: /strong The Gemara relates: There was ba certain woman who was called to judgment before Ameimar in Neharde’a. Ameimartemporarily bwent to Meḥoza, and she did not follow himto be judged there. bHe wrote a document of excommunication [ ipetiḥa /i] concerning her,for disobeying the court. bRav Ashi said to Ameimar: Didn’t we learnin the mishna: bEvenif bthe head of the courtof seventy-one bis in anyother bplace, the witnesses should go only to the placewhere the Great Sanhedrin bgathers?This shows that one must appear in the court itself, rather than follow the head of the court.,Ameimar bsaid to him: This applies only to testimonyto determine the start bof the month,for which it is necessary to have a fixed place. The reason is bthat if so,if the witnesses come to court when the head of the court is absent and they will have to go to another place, bconsequently you will be obstructing them for futureoccasions, as they will consider it too much trouble and perhaps they will not come the next time. Therefore, the Sages said that these witnesses should go to the regular place where the Great Sanhedrin meets. bHowever, here,with regard to monetary claims, the verse states: b“The borrower is servant to the lender”(Proverbs 22:7), i.e., the defendant must act as is convenient to the claimant and the court.,§ bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: bPriests are not allowed to ascend with their sandals to the platformto recite the Priestly Blessing in the synagogue. bAnd this is one of the nine ordices that Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai instituted. Sixare mentioned bin this chapter:Sounding the ishofaron Shabbat in Yavne, taking the ilulavall seven days, the prohibition against eating new grain the entire day of waving, accepting testimony to determine the start of the month all day, having the witnesses to the New Moon go to the place of meeting, and reciting the Priestly Blessing without sandals. bAnd oneis stated bin the first chapter,that the witnesses to the New Moon may desecrate Shabbat only for the months of Tishrei and Nisan., bAnd the other, as it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bA convert who converts nowadays is required to set aside a quarter /b-shekel bfor his nest,i.e., his pair of doves. By Torah law a convert must bring two burnt-offerings of birds, in addition to his immersion and circumcision. After the destruction, it was instituted that he must set aside the value of two young pigeons in anticipation of the rebuilding of the Temple. bRabbi Shimon ben Elazar said: Rabban Yoḥaben Zakkai balreadyassembled a majority who bvoted and rescindedthe ordice bdue toa potential bmishap.If a convert is obligated to set aside money, someone might unwittingly use this money, thereby violating the prohibition against misuse of consecrated property., bAnd the otherordice, the ninth, bisthe subject of ba dispute between Rav Pappa and Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak. Rav Pappa said:The ordice concerned the fruit of a bfourth-year grapevine. Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said:It was with regard to bthe strip of crimsonwool.,The Gemara elaborates: bRav Pappa saidthat the ordice is referring to the fruit of ba fourth-year grapevine, as it is taughtin a mishna ( iBeitza5a): The fruit of ba fourth-year grapevinehas the status of second-tithe fruits, and therefore their owner bwould ascend to Jerusalemand eat the grapes there. If he is unable to do so, due to the distance involved or the weight of the load, he may redeem the fruits with money where he is, and later redeem that money for other fruits in Jerusalem. However, the Sages decreed that fruit from the environs of Jerusalem should not be redeemed; rather, the owners should bring the fruit itself to Jerusalem. The environs of Jerusalem for this purpose were defined as ba day’s walk in each direction. And this is its boundary: Eilat to the north, Akrabat to the south, Lod to the west, and the Jordanriver bto the east. /b, bAnd Ulla said, and some say Rabba bar Ullasaid that bRabbi Yoḥa said:For bwhat reasondid the Sages institute this ordice, that one who lives near Jerusalem must bring his fruit there? bIn order to adorn the markets of Jerusalem with fruit,as this decree ensures that there is always an abundance of fruit in Jerusalem., bAnd it wasfurther btaughtin a ibaraita /i: bRabbi Eliezerben Hyrcanus, a student of Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai, bhad a fourth-year grapevinelocated between Lod and Jerusalem, bto the eastof bLod alongside the village of Tavi.The vine was within the boundaries of Jerusalem for the purpose of this ihalakha /i. Rabbi Eliezer could not bring the fruit to the Temple, as the Temple had been destroyed, band Rabbi Eliezer sought to renderthe fruit bownerlessin favor bof the poor,for whom it would be worth the effort to bring the fruit to Jerusalem., bHis students said to him:Our bteacher,there is no need to do so, as byour colleagues have already voted onthe matter band permitted it,as after the destruction of the Temple there is no need to adorn the markets of Jerusalem. The Gemara explains: bWho are: Your colleagues?This is referring to bRabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai. /b, bRav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said:The ordice was with regard to bthe strip of crimsonwool used on Yom Kippur. bAs it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bAt first they would tie a strip of crimsonwool bto the opening of the Entrance Hallof the Temple bon the outside.If, after the sacrificing of the offerings and the sending of the scapegoat, the strip bturned white,the people bwould rejoice,as this indicated that their sins had been atoned for. If bit did not turn white they would be sad.When the Sages saw that people were overly distressed on Yom Kippur, bthey instituted that they should tiethe strip of crimson wool bto the opening of the Entrance Hall on the inside,where only a few could enter to see it., bButpeople bwould still peek and seeit, and once again, if bit turned white they would rejoice,and if bit did not turn white they would be sad.Therefore, the Sages binstituted that they should tie half ofthe strip bto a rocknear the place where the one who sent the scapegoat stood band half of it between the horns of the scapegoat,so that the people would not know what happened to the strip until after the conclusion of Yom Kippur. This ordice was instituted by Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai.,The Gemara explains this dispute: bWhat is the reasonthat bRav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak did not statehis opinion with regard to the ordice bin accordance withthe opinion of bRav Pappa? Hecould have bsaid to you: If it enters your mindto say that bRabban Yoḥa ben Zakkairescinded the ordice of the fruit of fourth-year grapevines, bwas heone of bRabbi Eliezer’s colleagues,that the students would have referred to him in this manner? bHe was his teacher.Therefore, Rabbi Yoḥa cannot be the one who instituted this ordice. bAnd the other,Rav Pappa, what would he respond to this? He would say that bsince they wereRabbi Eliezer’s bstudentsit is bnot proper conductfor one bto say to his teacher: Your teacher.Therefore, they referred to Rabbi Yoḥa as Rabbi Eliezer’s colleague.,The Gemara asks: bAnd what is the reasonthat bRav Pappa did not statehis opinion bin accordance withthe opinion of bRav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak?Rav Pappa could have bsaid to you: If it enters your mindto say that this ordice for Yom Kippur was instituted by bRabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai, in the days of Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai was therein fact ba strip of crimsonwool? bIsn’t it taughtin a ibaraita /i: bAll the years of Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai’slife were b120 years: Forty years he was involved in businessso that he could achieve ficial independence and study Torah, bforty years he studiedTorah, and bforty years he taughtTorah., bAnd it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: During bthe forty years before theSecond bTemple was destroyed the strip of crimsonwool bwould not turn white; rather,it would bturna deeper shade of bred. And we learnedin the mishna: bWhen the Temple was destroyed Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai institutedhis ordices. This shows that Rabban Yoḥa lived and taught Torah after the destruction. Therefore the ordice of the crimson wool must have been made while Rabban Yoḥa was still studying Torah, before he instituted any ordices. The Gemara asks: bAnd the otherSage, Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak, what would he answer? According to him, that ordice was instituted during bthose forty years that he studiedTorah. He bwasthen ba student sitting before his teacher, and he said a matter,i.e., he suggested this ordice, band his reasoning made senseto the Sages
26. Babylonian Talmud, Sotah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

40a. בנעילה דיומא דכיפורי מאי אמר אמר מר זוטרא ואמרי לה במתניתא (תהלים קכח, ד) הנה כי כן יברך גבר ירא ה' יברכך ה' מציון וראה בטוב ירושלים כל ימי חייך וראה בנים לבניך שלום על ישראל,היכן אומרן רב יוסף אמר בין כל ברכה וברכה ורב ששת אמר בהזכרת השם,פליגי בה רב מרי ורב זביד חד אמר פסוקא לקבל פסוקא וחד אמר אכל פסוקא אמר להו לכולהו,א"ר חייא בר אבא כל האומרן בגבולין אינו אלא טועה אמר רבי חנינא בר פפא תדע דבמקדש נמי לא מיבעי למימרינהו כלום יש לך עבד שמברכין אותו ואינו מאזין,א"ר אחא בר חנינא תדע דבגבולין נמי מיבעי למימרינהו כלום יש עבד שמברכין אותו ואין מסביר פנים א"ר אבהו מריש הוה אמינא להו כיון דחזינא ליה לרבי אבא דמן עכו דלא אמר להו אנא נמי לא אמינא להו,ואמר רבי אבהו מריש הוה אמינא עינותנא אנא כיון דחזינא ליה לרבי אבא דמן עכו דאמר איהו חד טעמא ואמר אמוריה חד טעמא ולא קפיד אמינא לאו עינותנא אנא,ומאי עינוותנותיה דרבי אבהו דאמרה לה דביתהו דאמוריה דרבי אבהו לדביתיה דרבי אבהו הא דידן לא צריך ליה לדידך והאי דגחין וזקיף עליה יקרא בעלמא הוא דעביד ליה אזלא דביתהו ואמרה ליה לרבי אבהו אמר לה ומאי נפקא ליך מינה מיני ומיניה יתקלס עילאה,ותו רבי אבהו אימנו רבנן עליה לממנייה ברישא כיון דחזיה לר' אבא דמן עכו דנפישי ליה בעלי חובות אמר להו איכא רבה,ר' אבהו ור' חייא בר אבא איקלעו לההוא אתרא רבי אבהו דרש באגדתא רבי חייא בר אבא דרש בשמעתא שבקוה כולי עלמא לרבי חייא בר אבא ואזול לגביה דר' אבהו חלש דעתיה אמר ליה אמשל לך משל למה הדבר דומה לשני בני אדם אחד מוכר אבנים טובות ואחד מוכר מיני סידקית על מי קופצין לא על זה שמוכר מיני סידקית,כל יומא הוה מלוה רבי חייא בר אבא לרבי אבהו עד אושפיזיה משום יקרא דבי קיסר ההוא יומא אלויה רבי אבהו לרבי חייא בר אבא עד אושפיזיה ואפילו הכי לא איתותב דעתיה מיניה,בזמן ששליח צבור אומר מודים העם מה הם אומרים אמר רב מודים אנחנו לך ה' אלהינו על שאנו מודים לך ושמואל אמר אלהי כל בשר על שאנו מודים לך רבי סימאי אומר יוצרנו יוצר בראשית על שאנו מודים לך נהרדעי אמרי משמיה דרבי סימאי ברכות והודאות לשמך הגדול על שהחייתנו וקיימתנו על שאנו מודים לך רב אחא בר יעקב מסיים בה הכי כן תחיינו ותחננו ותקבצנו ותאסוף גליותינו לחצרות קדשך לשמור חוקיך ולעשות רצונך בלבב שלם על שאנו מודים לך,אמר רב פפא הילכך נימרינהו לכולהו,אמר ר' יצחק לעולם תהא אימת צבור עליך שהרי כהנים פניהם כלפי העם ואחוריהם כלפי שכינה,רב נחמן אמר מהכא (דברי הימים א כח, ב) ויקם המלך דוד על רגליו ויאמר שמעוני אחי ועמי אם אחי למה עמי ואם עמי למה אחי אמר רבי אלעזר אמר להם דוד לישראל אם אתם שומעין לי אחי אתם ואם לאו עמי אתם ואני רודה אתכם במקל,רבנן אמרי מהכא דאין הכהנים רשאין לעלות בסנדליהן לדוכן וזהו אחת מתשע תקנות שהתקין רבן יוחנן בן זכאי מאי טעמא לאו משום כבוד צבור אמר רב אשי לא התם שמא נפסקה לו רצועה בסנדלו והדר אזיל למיקטריה ואמרי בן גרושה או בן חלוצה הוא,ובמקדש ברכה אחת כו' 40a. bDuring the closing prayer [ ine’ila /i] of Yom Kippur,which also includes the Priestly Benediction, bwhat dothe people bsay? Mar Zutra says, and some saythat this was taught bin a ibaraita /i: “Behold, surely thus shall the man who fears the Lord be blessed”(Psalms 128:4), b“The Lord shall bless you out of Zion, and you shall see the good of Jerusalem all the days of your life”(Psalms 128:5), and b“And see your children’s children. Peace be upon Israel”(Psalms 128:6).,The Gemara asks: bWhere doesthe congregation bsaythese verses during the Priestly Benediction? bRav Yosef says:They are said bbetween each and every blessing. And Rav Sheshet says:They are said bduring the mention of the nameof God in each of the three blessings., bRav Mari and Rav Zevid disagree aboutthis matter. bOne says:The congregation recites one bverseat a time, bcorresponding tothe bversethat the priests recite. bAnd one says: For everysingle bversethat the priests recite, the congregation bsays allthree verses., bRabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba says: Anyone who recitesthese verses bin the outlying areas,i.e., outside the Temple, bis nothing other than mistakenin his practice. bRabbi Ḥanina bar Pappa said:You should bknow that in the Temple alsopeople bshould not recitethese verses. bDo you have a servant who is being blessed and does not listento the blessing, but rather speaks at the same time?,Conversely, bRabbi Aḥa bar Ḥanina says:You should bknow that in the outlying areas one is also required to saythese verses. bIs there a servant who is being blessed and his face does not brighten?Therefore, one must recite these verses to give thanks for receiving the Priestly Benediction. bRabbi Abbahu says: At first, I would recitethese verses, but bsince I saw that Rabbi Abba of Akko does not say them, I also do not recite themanymore., bAnd Rabbi Abbahu says: At first, I would sayto myself that bI was humble. Since I saw that Rabbi Abba of Akko himself stated one reasonfor a matter, band his interpreter stated oneother breasonof his own rather than delivering the reason that Rabbi Abba stated, bandyet Rabbi Abba bdid not mind, I sayto myself that bI am not humble. /b,The Gemara asks: bAnd what was the humility of Rabbi Abbahu?The Gemara relates bthat Rabbi Abbahu’s interpreter’s wife said to Rabbi Abbahu’s wife: This one of ours,i.e., my husband, bhas no need for yourhusband Rabbi Abbahu, as he could teach everything on his own. bAndthe fact bthat he bends overto listen to Rabbi Abbahu, bandthen bstands up above him,and repeats his words to the congregants bis merely to show respect for him.Rabbi Abbahu’s bwife went and toldthis bto Rabbi Abbahu. He said to her: And what difference does it make to you? Through me and through him the One above will be exalted,and it does not matter which one of us is teaching., bAnd furthermore,in another example of his humility, bthe Sages were countedand reached a decision bto appoint Rabbi Abbahu to be the headof the yeshiva. bSince he saw that Rabbi Abba of Akko had many creditorsand was impoverished, he attempted to get him out of debt. bHe said to them: There isa man who is bgreaterthan me, Rabbi Abba.,The Gemara relates another example of his humility: bRabbi Abbahu and Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba happenedto come bto a certain place. Rabbi Abbahu taughtmatters of iaggada /i,and at the same time bRabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba taught ihalakha /i. Everyone left Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba and went to Rabbi Abbahu,and Rabbi Ḥiyya bwas offended.Rabbi Abbahu bsaid to him,to appease him: bI will tell you a parable: To what is this matter comparable?It is comparable bto two people, onewho bsells precious stones and onewho bsells small items [ isidkit /i]. Upon whom dothe customers bspring? Don’tthey spring bupon the one who sells small items?Similarly, you teach lofty and important matters that do not attract many people. Everyone comes to me because I teach minor matters.,The Gemara relates that bevery day Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba would escort Rabbi Abbahu to his lodging place [ iushpizei /i] out of respect for the house of the emperor,with which Rabbi Abbahu was associated. On bthat day, Rabbi Abbahu escorted Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba to his lodging place, and even so,Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba’s bmind was not at ease withRabbi Abbahu and he felt insulted.,§ The Gemara returns to discuss the response of the congregants to certain parts of the prayer service. bWhile the prayer leader is recitingthe blessing of: bWe give thanks, what do the people say? Rav saysthat they say: bWe give thanks to You, Lord our God, forthe merit of bgiving thanks to You. And Shmuel saysthat one should say: bGod of allliving bflesh, forthe merit of bgiving thanks to You. Rabbi Simai saysthat one should say: bOur Creator, Who createdeverything bin the beginning, forthe merit of bgiving thanks to You.The Sages bof Neharde’a say in the name of Rabbi Simaithat one should say: We offer bblessings and praises to Your great name, for You have given us life and sustained us, for giving thanks to You. Rav Aḥa bar Ya’akovwould bfinishthe blessing bas follows: So may You give us life, and show us favor, and collect us, and gather our exiles into Your sacred courtyards, in order to observe Your laws and to fulfill Your will wholeheartedly, for giving thanks to You. /b, bRav Pappa said:These Sages each added a different element to the prayer. bTherefore, we shouldcombine them together and brecite all of them. /b,§ bRabbi Yitzḥak says: The awe of the public should always be upon you,i.e., one must always treat the public courteously. bAswhen the bpriestsbless the people they bface the people and their backs are toward the Divine Presence,out of respect for the congregation., bRav Naḥman saidthat this principle is derived bfrom here: “Then King David stood up upon his feet, and said: Hear me, my brethren, and my people”(I Chronicles 28:2). Evidently, King David stood up to address the people rather than remain seated. bIfhe said b“my brethren,” whydid he say b“my people”? And ifhe said b“my people” whydid he say b“my brethren”? Rabbi Elazar says: David said to the Jewish people: If you listen to me, you are my brethren. And ifyou do bnotlisten to me willingly, byou are my peopleand I am your king, band I will rule over youby force bwith a staff.This shows that if the nation acted properly, David would relate to them respectfully., bThe Sages saythat the importance of showing respect for the congregation is derived bfrom here:The ihalakhais bthat the priests are not permitted to ascend the platformto recite the benediction bin their sandals,as is taught in a ibaraita /i. bAnd this ihalakha bis one of nine ordices that Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai instituted. What is the reasonfor this ordice? bIs it not out of respect for the congregation,as it would be disrespectful for the priests to display their dirty sandals in front of the congregants? bRav Ashi said: No,this is not the reason. bThere,in the ibaraita /i, the reason is a concern blest a strap of his sandal break, and hewill therefore breturnto his place bto go tie itand not ascend the platform in time for the benediction, bandpeople will bsaythat he was removed from the platform because he is disqualified from the priesthood, as he bis the son ofa priest and ba divorced woman or the son ofa priest and ba iḥalutza /i. /b,§ It is taught in the mishna: bAnd in the Temple,the priests recite the three verses as bone blessing. /b
27. Babylonian Talmud, Sukkah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

53b. אחספא ונשדיה בתהומא ומנח ליכא דקאמר ליה מידי אמר דוד כל דידע למימר ואינו אומר יחנק בגרונו נשא אחיתופל ק"ו בעצמו ומה לעשות שלום בין איש לאשתו אמרה תורה שמי שנכתב בקדושה ימחה על המים לעשות שלום לכל העולם כולו על אחת כמה וכמה אמר ליה שרי,כתב שם אחספא ושדי לתהומא ונחית תהומא שיתסר אלפי גרמידי כי חזי דנחית טובא אמר כמה דמידלי טפי מירטב עלמא אמר חמש עשרה מעלות ואסקיה חמיסר אלפי גרמידי ואוקמיה באלפי גרמידי אמר עולא ש"מ סומכא דארעא אלפי גרמידי והא חזינן דכרינן פורתא ונפקי מיא אמר רב משרשיא ההוא מסולמא דפרת:,ועמדו כהנים בשער העליון שיורד כו': בעי ר' ירמיה למעלה עשירית דנחית חמשה וקאי אעשרה או דלמא דנחית עשרה וקאי אחמשה תיקו,תנו רבנן ממשמע שנאמר (יחזקאל ח, טז) ופניהם קדמה איני יודע שאחוריהם אל היכל ה',אלא מה תלמוד לומר אחוריהם אל היכל ה' מלמד שהיו פורעין עצמן ומתריזין כלפי מטה:,אנו ליה וליה עינינו כו': איני והאמר רבי זירא כל האומר שמע שמע כאילו אמר מודים מודים אלא הכי אמרי המה משתחוים קדמה ואנו ליה (אנחנו מודים) ועינינו ליה מיחלות:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big אין פוחתין מעשרים ואחת תקיעות במקדש ואין מוסיפין על ארבעים ושמנה בכל יום היו שם עשרים ואחת תקיעות במקדש שלש לפתיחת שערים ותשע לתמיד של שחר ותשע לתמיד של בין הערבים ובמוספין היו מוסיפין עוד תשע,ובערב שבת היו מוסיפין שש שלש להבטיל את העם ממלאכה ושלש להבדיל בין קדש לחול,ערב שבת שבתוך החג היו שם ארבעים ושמנה שלש לפתיחת שערים שלש לשער העליון ושלש לשער התחתון ושלש למילוי המים ושלש על גבי מזבח תשע לתמיד של שחר ותשע לתמיד של בין הערבים ותשע למוספין שלש להבטיל את העם מן המלאכה ושלש להבדיל בין קודש לחול:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big מתניתין דלא כרבי יהודה דתניא ר"י אומר הפוחת לא יפחות משבע והמוסיף לא יוסיף על שש עשרה במאי קא מיפלגי ר"י סבר תקיעה תרועה תקיעה אחת היא ורבנן סברי תקיעה לחוד ותרועה לחוד,מ"ט דרבי יהודה אמר קרא (במדבר י, ה) ותקעתם תרועה וכתיב תרועה יתקעו הא כיצד תקיעה ותרועה אחת היא ורבנן ההוא לפשוטה לפניה ולאחריה הוא דאתא ור' יהודה לפניה ולאחריה מנליה נפקא ליה משנית,ורבנן מאי טעמייהו דכתיב (במדבר י, ז) ובהקהיל את הקהל תתקעו ולא תריעו ואי ס"ד תקיעה תרועה אחת היא אמר רחמנא פלגא דמצוה עביד ופלגא לא עביד ור' יהודה ההוא לסימנא בעלמא הוא דאתא,ורבנן סימנא הוא ורחמנא שויה מצוה כמאן אזלא הא דאמר רב כהנא אין בין תקיעה לתרועה ולא כלום כמאן כרבי יהודה אי רבי יהודה פשיטא 53b. bon an earthenware shard?If it is permitted, bwe willwrite it and bthrow it into the depths, andthey bwill subside. There was no one who said anything to him. David said: Anyone who knowswhat bto say and does not sayanything bmay he be strangled in his throat.Then bAhithophel raised an ia fortioriargument on his ownand said: bAnd just asin order bto make peace between a man and his wifein the case of isota /i, when the husband suspects his wife of having committed adultery, bthe Torah said: My Name that was written in sanctity will be erased on the water to establish peace for the whole world in its entirety, all the more soit is permitted. bHe said toDavid: bIt is permitted. /b, bHe wrote thesacred bname on an earthenware shard and cast it into the depths, and thewaters in bthe depths subsided sixteen thousand cubits. When he saw that they subsided excessively, he said: The higherthe waters in the aquifers, bthe moisterand more fertile the soil of bthe world. He recited the fifteenSongs of the bAscents and elevated them fifteen thousand cubits, and established them ata depth of bone thousand cubits. Ulla said: Learn from here that the thickness of the earthabove the waters of the depths bis one thousand cubits.The Gemara asks: bBut don’t we see thatwhen bwe dig a little,significantly less than one thousand cubits, bwater emerges? Rav Mesharshiyya said: That is from the ascent of the EuphratesRiver, which flows at a higher altitude than do other rivers. The water flows up through underground passages to reach the river. That is why water emerges when one digs in the hills of Babylonia.,§ The mishna continues: bAnd two priests stoodwith two trumpets bat the Upper Gate that descendsfrom the Israelites’ courtyard to the Women’s Courtyard, and when those drawing the water reached the tenth stair they sounded the trumpets. bRabbi Yirmeya raised a dilemma:Does the phrase reached the btenth stairmean bthat he would descend fivestairs band stand on the tenthfrom the bottom? bOr perhapsit means bthat he would descend tenstairs band stand on the fifthfrom the bottom? The Gemara notes: The dilemma bshall standunresolved.,The mishna describes: When they reached the gate through which one exits to the east, they turned from facing east to facing west toward the Holy of Holies, and said: Our ancestors who were in this place during the First Temple period did not conduct themselves appropriately and stood “with their backs toward the Sanctuary of the Lord, and their faces toward the east; and they worshipped the sun toward the east” (Ezekiel 8:16), and we, our eyes are to God. bThe Sages taught: By inference, fromthe fact bthat it is stated: “And their faces toward the east,” don’t I know that “their backswere btoward the Sanctuary of the Lord”?The Sanctuary was to the west., bRather,to bwhatpurpose bdoes the verse state: “Their backs toward the Sanctuary of the Lord”?It is an allusion to the fact that in addition to turning their backs on the Sanctuary of the Lord, they performed an additional evil. bIt teaches that they would expose themselves and defecate downward,a euphemism for the direction of the Divine Presence.,The mishna continues: In the Second Temple period they would say: bWe are to God, and to God are our eyes.The Gemara asks: bIs that so?May one pray in that manner? bDidn’t Rabbi Zeira say: One whorepeats himself while reciting iShemaand bsays: Listen, listen, islike one bwho says: We give thanks, we give thanks,and he is silenced, as it appears that he is worshipping two authorities. How then did they recite God’s name twice, consecutively? bRather, this is what they said: They bow toward the east,while bwe give thanks to God, and our eyes turn in hope to God,so that they would not recite God’s name consecutively., strongMISHNA: /strong bOnesounds bno fewer than twenty-onetrumpet bblasts in the Temple, and onesounds bno more than forty-eight.The mishna elaborates: bEach day there were twenty-onetrumpet bblasts in the Temple: Threeblasts were sounded bfor the opening of the gatesin the morning, bnine for the daily morning offering, and nine for the daily afternoon offering,totaling twenty-one. bAndon a day when the additional offerings were sacrificed, e.g., the New Moon, bwith the additional offerings they would add nine additional blasts. /b, bAnd on Shabbat eve they would add sixblasts sounded adjacent to the onset of Shabbat: bThree to stop the people fromtheir blabor,as the blasts inform the people that Shabbat is approaching and they stop working, band threeat the onset of Shabbat bto demarcate between sacred and profane. /b,On bShabbat eve during the festivalof iSukkot /i, bthere were forty-eightblasts. How so? bThreein the morning bfor the opening of the gates; three for the upper gate; and three for the lower gate; and three for the filling of thevessel with bwater,as described in the sequence of the ritual of drawing the water for the water libation (48b); band threewhen pouring the water libation bupon the altar; nine for the daily morning offering; and nine for the daily afternoon offering; and nine for the additional offerings; three to stop the people from work; and threemore bto demarcate between sacred and profane,totaling forty-eight blasts., strongGEMARA: /strong The Gemara notes: bThe mishna is not in accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Yehuda, as it is taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Yehuda says: The one whoseeks to bminimizethe number of blasts bshall not minimizetheir number to bfewer than sevenblasts. bAnd one whoseeks to baddto the number of blasts bshall not addbeyond bsixteen.The Gemara asks: With regard to bwhat do they disagree?The Gemara explains that bRabbi Yehuda holds:A series of blasts consisting of itekia /i, iterua /i, itekiaiscounted as bone blast. And the Rabbis hold: A itekia /iis counted bseparately and a iterua /iis counted bseparately.They agree with regard to the sequence and the number of the blasts, and disagree only with regard to how the blasts are tallied.,The Gemara asks: bWhat is the rationalefor the opinion bof Rabbi Yehuda?It is as bthe verse states: “And you shall sound [ iutkatem /i] a iterua /i”(Numbers 10:5), band it is written: “A iteruathey will sound [ iyitke’u /i]”(Numbers 10:6). bHow is itthat the Torah uses a verb from the root of itekiato describe the sounding of a iterua /i? Apparently, ba itekiaand a iterua /itogether compose boneblast. bAndhow do bthe Rabbisinterpret these verses? bThis comesto teach that each iteruablast is accompanied by ba plainunembellished blast, a itekia /i, bpreceding it and following it.The Gemara asks: bAnd from where does Rabbi Yehuda derivethat each iteruamust be accompanied by a itekia bpreceding it and following it?The Gemara explains: bHe derives it fromthe verse when it says: “And you shall sound [ iutkatem /i] a iterua ba second time”(Numbers 10:6), indicating an additional itekia /i.,The Gemara asks: bAnd what is the rationalefor the opinion of bthe Rabbis?It is bas it is written: “And when congregating the people you shall sound a itekiaand shall not sound a iterua /i”(Numbers 10:7). bAnd if it enters your mindthat a itekia /iand a iteruaareconsidered boneblast, bwould the Merciful One say to perform half a mitzva and not to performthe other bhalfof the mitzva? Apparently, each is a separate mitzva. The Gemara asks: bAndhow does bRabbi Yehudainterpret the verse? The Gemara answers: bThatsingle itekiamentioned in the context of congregating the people bcame merely as a signalto the camps and was not for the purpose of fulfilling the mitzva, which, in Rabbi Yehuda’s opinion, always comes in groups of three., bAndhow do bthe Rabbiscounter that assertion? They say: Indeed, bit is a signalto assemble the people; however, bthe Merciful One rendered it a mitzva.Therefore, one can derive that a single itekiablast is a distinct mitzva. The Gemara asks: bIn accordance with whoseopinion bis this statement of Rav Kahana: There is nopause bbetween a itekiaand a iteruaat alland they are sounded in one continuous blast? bIn accordance with whoseopinion is it? It is bin accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Yehuda.The Gemara asks: bIfRav Kahana’s statement is in accordance with the opinion of bRabbi Yehuda;that is bobvious.Why was it necessary for the Gemara to raise the matter at all?


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
albeck, h. Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 133
aliyah (to torah) Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 526
altar Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 133
altar (mizbeah)̣, and burning/ashes Balberg, Blood for Thought: The Reinvention of Sacrifice in Early Rabbinic Literature (2017) 191
asham. see reparation offering ashes' Balberg, Blood for Thought: The Reinvention of Sacrifice in Early Rabbinic Literature (2017) 191
eliav, yaron, on the temple mount in the mishnah Cohn, The Memory of the Temple and the Making of the Rabbis (2013) 174
emissions, seminal Balberg, Blood for Thought: The Reinvention of Sacrifice in Early Rabbinic Literature (2017) 191
fox, h. Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 133
generations of rabbis and production of mishna Hayes, The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning (2022) 175
high priest Trudinger, The Psalms of the Tamid Service: A Liturgical Text from the Second Temple (2004) 15, 19
levites, torah reading ceremony Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 526
lieberman, s. Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 133
lordship of yahweh Trudinger, The Psalms of the Tamid Service: A Liturgical Text from the Second Temple (2004) 19
mishna, early mishna Hayes, The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning (2022) 175
night, activities of Balberg, Blood for Thought: The Reinvention of Sacrifice in Early Rabbinic Literature (2017) 191
priest, priests, synagogue ritual Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 526
priests, alacrity of Balberg, Blood for Thought: The Reinvention of Sacrifice in Early Rabbinic Literature (2017) 191
prophets (books of) Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 526
r. yohanan b. zakkai Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 526
sacrifices, jerusalem temple Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 526
sheliah tzibbur, prayer leader Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 526
shema, and amidah Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 526
study, communal, tamid (daily) sacrifice Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 526
tamid service, components Trudinger, The Psalms of the Tamid Service: A Liturgical Text from the Second Temple (2004) 14, 15, 19
tamid service, description Trudinger, The Psalms of the Tamid Service: A Liturgical Text from the Second Temple (2004) 14, 15
tamid service, laity at Trudinger, The Psalms of the Tamid Service: A Liturgical Text from the Second Temple (2004) 19
tamid service, levites, role of Trudinger, The Psalms of the Tamid Service: A Liturgical Text from the Second Temple (2004) 19
tamid service, priests, role of Trudinger, The Psalms of the Tamid Service: A Liturgical Text from the Second Temple (2004) 14, 15, 19
tamid service, rituals outside jerusalem Trudinger, The Psalms of the Tamid Service: A Liturgical Text from the Second Temple (2004) 19
tamid tractate, in mishnah Trudinger, The Psalms of the Tamid Service: A Liturgical Text from the Second Temple (2004) 14, 15
temple, daily routine in Balberg, Blood for Thought: The Reinvention of Sacrifice in Early Rabbinic Literature (2017) 191
temple, personnel Balberg, Blood for Thought: The Reinvention of Sacrifice in Early Rabbinic Literature (2017) 191
temple Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 133
tosefta, as commentary or supplement to mishna Hayes, The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning (2022) 175
trumpet Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 133
walfish, avraham Balberg, Blood for Thought: The Reinvention of Sacrifice in Early Rabbinic Literature (2017) 191