Home About Network of subjects Linked subjects heatmap Book indices included Search by subject Search by reference Browse subjects Browse texts

Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



8043
Mishnah, Taanit, 4.1


בִּשְׁלשָׁה פְרָקִים בַּשָּׁנָה כֹּהֲנִים נוֹשְׂאִין אֶת כַּפֵּיהֶן אַרְבַּע פְּעָמִים בַּיּוֹם, בַּשַּׁחֲרִית, בַּמּוּסָף וּבַמִּנְחָה וּבִנְעִילַת שְׁעָרִים, בַּתַּעֲנִיּוֹת וּבַמַּעֲמָדוֹת וּבְיוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים:On three occasions during the year, on fast days, on ma’amadot, and on Yom Kippur the priests lift up their hands to bless [the people] four times during the day--at Shaharit, at Mussaf, at Minhah and at Neilah.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

27 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 31.10 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

31.10. And Moses commanded them, saying: ‘At the end of every seven years, in the set time of the year of release, in the feast of tabernacles,"
2. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 1.1-1.18 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.1. וַיִּקְרָא אֱלֹהִים לַיַּבָּשָׁה אֶרֶץ וּלְמִקְוֵה הַמַּיִם קָרָא יַמִּים וַיַּרְא אֱלֹהִים כִּי־טוֹב׃ 1.1. בְּרֵאשִׁית בָּרָא אֱלֹהִים אֵת הַשָּׁמַיִם וְאֵת הָאָרֶץ׃ 1.2. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים יִשְׁרְצוּ הַמַּיִם שֶׁרֶץ נֶפֶשׁ חַיָּה וְעוֹף יְעוֹפֵף עַל־הָאָרֶץ עַל־פְּנֵי רְקִיעַ הַשָּׁמָיִם׃ 1.2. וְהָאָרֶץ הָיְתָה תֹהוּ וָבֹהוּ וְחֹשֶׁךְ עַל־פְּנֵי תְהוֹם וְרוּחַ אֱלֹהִים מְרַחֶפֶת עַל־פְּנֵי הַמָּיִם׃ 1.3. וּלְכָל־חַיַּת הָאָרֶץ וּלְכָל־עוֹף הַשָּׁמַיִם וּלְכֹל רוֹמֵשׂ עַל־הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר־בּוֹ נֶפֶשׁ חַיָּה אֶת־כָּל־יֶרֶק עֵשֶׂב לְאָכְלָה וַיְהִי־כֵן׃ 1.3. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים יְהִי אוֹר וַיְהִי־אוֹר׃ 1.4. וַיַּרְא אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הָאוֹר כִּי־טוֹב וַיַּבְדֵּל אֱלֹהִים בֵּין הָאוֹר וּבֵין הַחֹשֶׁךְ׃ 1.5. וַיִּקְרָא אֱלֹהִים לָאוֹר יוֹם וְלַחֹשֶׁךְ קָרָא לָיְלָה וַיְהִי־עֶרֶב וַיְהִי־בֹקֶר יוֹם אֶחָד׃ 1.6. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים יְהִי רָקִיעַ בְּתוֹךְ הַמָּיִם וִיהִי מַבְדִּיל בֵּין מַיִם לָמָיִם׃ 1.7. וַיַּעַשׂ אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הָרָקִיעַ וַיַּבְדֵּל בֵּין הַמַּיִם אֲשֶׁר מִתַּחַת לָרָקִיעַ וּבֵין הַמַּיִם אֲשֶׁר מֵעַל לָרָקִיעַ וַיְהִי־כֵן׃ 1.8. וַיִּקְרָא אֱלֹהִים לָרָקִיעַ שָׁמָיִם וַיְהִי־עֶרֶב וַיְהִי־בֹקֶר יוֹם שֵׁנִי׃ 1.9. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים יִקָּווּ הַמַּיִם מִתַּחַת הַשָּׁמַיִם אֶל־מָקוֹם אֶחָד וְתֵרָאֶה הַיַּבָּשָׁה וַיְהִי־כֵן׃ 1.11. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים תַּדְשֵׁא הָאָרֶץ דֶּשֶׁא עֵשֶׂב מַזְרִיעַ זֶרַע עֵץ פְּרִי עֹשֶׂה פְּרִי לְמִינוֹ אֲשֶׁר זַרְעוֹ־בוֹ עַל־הָאָרֶץ וַיְהִי־כֵן׃ 1.12. וַתּוֹצֵא הָאָרֶץ דֶּשֶׁא עֵשֶׂב מַזְרִיעַ זֶרַע לְמִינֵהוּ וְעֵץ עֹשֶׂה־פְּרִי אֲשֶׁר זַרְעוֹ־בוֹ לְמִינֵהוּ וַיַּרְא אֱלֹהִים כִּי־טוֹב׃ 1.13. וַיְהִי־עֶרֶב וַיְהִי־בֹקֶר יוֹם שְׁלִישִׁי׃ 1.14. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים יְהִי מְאֹרֹת בִּרְקִיעַ הַשָּׁמַיִם לְהַבְדִּיל בֵּין הַיּוֹם וּבֵין הַלָּיְלָה וְהָיוּ לְאֹתֹת וּלְמוֹעֲדִים וּלְיָמִים וְשָׁנִים׃ 1.15. וְהָיוּ לִמְאוֹרֹת בִּרְקִיעַ הַשָּׁמַיִם לְהָאִיר עַל־הָאָרֶץ וַיְהִי־כֵן׃ 1.16. וַיַּעַשׂ אֱלֹהִים אֶת־שְׁנֵי הַמְּאֹרֹת הַגְּדֹלִים אֶת־הַמָּאוֹר הַגָּדֹל לְמֶמְשֶׁלֶת הַיּוֹם וְאֶת־הַמָּאוֹר הַקָּטֹן לְמֶמְשֶׁלֶת הַלַּיְלָה וְאֵת הַכּוֹכָבִים׃ 1.17. וַיִּתֵּן אֹתָם אֱלֹהִים בִּרְקִיעַ הַשָּׁמָיִם לְהָאִיר עַל־הָאָרֶץ׃ 1.18. וְלִמְשֹׁל בַּיּוֹם וּבַלַּיְלָה וּלֲהַבְדִּיל בֵּין הָאוֹר וּבֵין הַחֹשֶׁךְ וַיַּרְא אֱלֹהִים כִּי־טוֹב׃ 1.1. In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth." 1.2. Now the earth was unformed and void, and darkness was upon the face of the deep; and the spirit of God hovered over the face of the waters." 1.3. And God said: ‘Let there be light.’ And there was light." 1.4. And God saw the light, that it was good; and God divided the light from the darkness." 1.5. And God called the light Day, and the darkness He called Night. And there was evening and there was morning, one day." 1.6. And God said: ‘Let there be a firmament in the midst of the waters, and let it divide the waters from the waters.’" 1.7. And God made the firmament, and divided the waters which were under the firmament from the waters which were above the firmament; and it was so." 1.8. And God called the firmament Heaven. And there was evening and there was morning, a second day." 1.9. And God said: ‘Let the waters under the heaven be gathered together unto one place, and let the dry land appear.’ And it was so." 1.10. And God called the dry land Earth, and the gathering together of the waters called He Seas; and God saw that it was good." 1.11. And God said: ‘Let the earth put forth grass, herb yielding seed, and fruit-tree bearing fruit after its kind, wherein is the seed thereof, upon the earth.’ And it was so." 1.12. And the earth brought forth grass, herb yielding seed after its kind, and tree bearing fruit, wherein is the seed thereof, after its kind; and God saw that it was good." 1.13. And there was evening and there was morning, a third day." 1.14. And God said: ‘Let there be lights in the firmament of the heaven to divide the day from the night; and let them be for signs, and for seasons, and for days and years;" 1.15. and let them be for lights in the firmament of the heaven to give light upon the earth.’ And it was so." 1.16. And God made the two great lights: the greater light to rule the day, and the lesser light to rule the night; and the stars." 1.17. And God set them in the firmament of the heaven to give light upon the earth," 1.18. and to rule over the day and over the night, and to divide the light from the darkness; and God saw that it was good."
3. Hebrew Bible, Malachi, 2.7 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

2.7. כִּי־שִׂפְתֵי כֹהֵן יִשְׁמְרוּ־דַעַת וְתוֹרָה יְבַקְשׁוּ מִפִּיהוּ כִּי מַלְאַךְ יְהוָה־צְבָאוֹת הוּא׃ 2.7. For the priest’s lips should keep knowledge, And they should seek the law at his mouth; For he is the messenger of the LORD of hosts."
4. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 6.24-6.26, 28.2 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

6.24. יְבָרֶכְךָ יְהוָה וְיִשְׁמְרֶךָ׃ 6.25. יָאֵר יְהוָה פָּנָיו אֵלֶיךָ וִיחֻנֶּךָּ׃ 6.26. יִשָּׂא יְהוָה פָּנָיו אֵלֶיךָ וְיָשֵׂם לְךָ שָׁלוֹם׃ 28.2. וּמִנְחָתָם סֹלֶת בְּלוּלָה בַשָּׁמֶן שְׁלֹשָׁה עֶשְׂרֹנִים לַפָּר וּשְׁנֵי עֶשְׂרֹנִים לָאַיִל תַּעֲשׂוּ׃ 28.2. צַו אֶת־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאָמַרְתָּ אֲלֵהֶם אֶת־קָרְבָּנִי לַחְמִי לְאִשַּׁי רֵיחַ נִיחֹחִי תִּשְׁמְרוּ לְהַקְרִיב לִי בְּמוֹעֲדוֹ׃ 6.24. The LORD bless thee, and keep thee;" 6.25. The LORD make His face to shine upon thee, and be gracious unto thee;" 6.26. The LORD lift up His countece upon thee, and give thee peace." 28.2. Command the children of Israel, and say unto them: My food which is presented unto Me for offerings made by fire, of a sweet savour unto Me, shall ye observe to offer unto Me in its due season."
5. Hebrew Bible, 2 Kings, 23.2 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

23.2. וַיִּזְבַּח אֶת־כָּל־כֹּהֲנֵי הַבָּמוֹת אֲשֶׁר־שָׁם עַל־הַמִּזְבְּחוֹת וַיִּשְׂרֹף אֶת־עַצְמוֹת אָדָם עֲלֵיהֶם וַיָּשָׁב יְרוּשָׁלִָם׃ 23.2. וַיַּעַל הַמֶּלֶךְ בֵּית־יְהוָה וְכָל־אִישׁ יְהוּדָה וְכָל־יֹשְׁבֵי יְרוּשָׁלִַם אִתּוֹ וְהַכֹּהֲנִים וְהַנְּבִיאִים וְכָל־הָעָם לְמִקָּטֹן וְעַד־גָּדוֹל וַיִּקְרָא בְאָזְנֵיהֶם אֶת־כָּל־דִּבְרֵי סֵפֶר הַבְּרִית הַנִּמְצָא בְּבֵית יְהוָה׃ 23.2. And the king went up to the house of the LORD, and all the men of Judah and all the inhabitants of Jerusalem with him, and the priests, and the prophets, and all the people, both small and great; and he read in their ears all the words of the book of the covet which was found in the house of the LORD."
6. Hebrew Bible, Haggai, 2.11 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

2.11. כֹּה אָמַר יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת שְׁאַל־נָא אֶת־הַכֹּהֲנִים תּוֹרָה לֵאמֹר׃ 2.11. ’Thus saith the LORD of hosts: Ask now the priests for instruction, saying:"
7. Hebrew Bible, Nehemiah, 8.1-8.8, 8.12, 8.17 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

8.1. וַיֹּאמֶר לָהֶם לְכוּ אִכְלוּ מַשְׁמַנִּים וּשְׁתוּ מַמְתַקִּים וְשִׁלְחוּ מָנוֹת לְאֵין נָכוֹן לוֹ כִּי־קָדוֹשׁ הַיּוֹם לַאֲדֹנֵינוּ וְאַל־תֵּעָצֵבוּ כִּי־חֶדְוַת יְהוָה הִיא מָעֻזְּכֶם׃ 8.1. וַיֵּאָסְפוּ כָל־הָעָם כְּאִישׁ אֶחָד אֶל־הָרְחוֹב אֲשֶׁר לִפְנֵי שַׁעַר־הַמָּיִם וַיֹּאמְרוּ לְעֶזְרָא הַסֹּפֵר לְהָבִיא אֶת־סֵפֶר תּוֹרַת מֹשֶׁה אֲשֶׁר־צִוָּה יְהוָה אֶת־יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 8.2. וַיָּבִיא עֶזְרָא הַכֹּהֵן אֶת־הַתּוֹרָה לִפְנֵי הַקָּהָל מֵאִישׁ וְעַד־אִשָּׁה וְכֹל מֵבִין לִשְׁמֹעַ בְּיוֹם אֶחָד לַחֹדֶשׁ הַשְּׁבִיעִי׃ 8.3. וַיִּקְרָא־בוֹ לִפְנֵי הָרְחוֹב אֲשֶׁר לִפְנֵי שַׁעַר־הַמַּיִם מִן־הָאוֹר עַד־מַחֲצִית הַיּוֹם נֶגֶד הָאֲנָשִׁים וְהַנָּשִׁים וְהַמְּבִינִים וְאָזְנֵי כָל־הָעָם אֶל־סֵפֶר הַתּוֹרָה׃ 8.4. וַיַּעֲמֹד עֶזְרָא הַסֹּפֵר עַל־מִגְדַּל־עֵץ אֲשֶׁר עָשׂוּ לַדָּבָר וַיַּעֲמֹד אֶצְלוֹ מַתִּתְיָה וְשֶׁמַע וַעֲנָיָה וְאוּרִיָּה וְחִלְקִיָּה וּמַעֲשֵׂיָה עַל־יְמִינוֹ וּמִשְּׂמֹאלוֹ פְּדָיָה וּמִישָׁאֵל וּמַלְכִּיָּה וְחָשֻׁם וְחַשְׁבַּדָּנָה זְכַרְיָה מְשֻׁלָּם׃ 8.5. וַיִּפְתַּח עֶזְרָא הַסֵּפֶר לְעֵינֵי כָל־הָעָם כִּי־מֵעַל כָּל־הָעָם הָיָה וּכְפִתְחוֹ עָמְדוּ כָל־הָעָם׃ 8.6. וַיְבָרֶךְ עֶזְרָא אֶת־יְהוָה הָאֱלֹהִים הַגָּדוֹל וַיַּעֲנוּ כָל־הָעָם אָמֵן אָמֵן בְּמֹעַל יְדֵיהֶם וַיִּקְּדוּ וַיִּשְׁתַּחֲוֻּ לַיהוָה אַפַּיִם אָרְצָה׃ 8.7. וְיֵשׁוּעַ וּבָנִי וְשֵׁרֵבְיָה יָמִין עַקּוּב שַׁבְּתַי הוֹדִיָּה מַעֲשֵׂיָה קְלִיטָא עֲזַרְיָה יוֹזָבָד חָנָן פְּלָאיָה וְהַלְוִיִּם מְבִינִים אֶת־הָעָם לַתּוֹרָה וְהָעָם עַל־עָמְדָם׃ 8.8. וַיִּקְרְאוּ בַסֵּפֶר בְּתוֹרַת הָאֱלֹהִים מְפֹרָשׁ וְשׂוֹם שֶׂכֶל וַיָּבִינוּ בַּמִּקְרָא׃ 8.12. וַיֵּלְכוּ כָל־הָעָם לֶאֱכֹל וְלִשְׁתּוֹת וּלְשַׁלַּח מָנוֹת וְלַעֲשׂוֹת שִׂמְחָה גְדוֹלָה כִּי הֵבִינוּ בַּדְּבָרִים אֲשֶׁר הוֹדִיעוּ לָהֶם׃ 8.17. וַיַּעֲשׂוּ כָל־הַקָּהָל הַשָּׁבִים מִן־הַשְּׁבִי סֻכּוֹת וַיֵּשְׁבוּ בַסֻּכּוֹת כִּי לֹא־עָשׂוּ מִימֵי יֵשׁוּעַ בִּן־נוּן כֵּן בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל עַד הַיּוֹם הַהוּא וַתְּהִי שִׂמְחָה גְּדוֹלָה מְאֹד׃ 8.1. all the people gathered themselves together as one man into the broad place that was before the water gate; and they spoke unto Ezra the scribe to bring the book of the Law of Moses, which the LORD had commanded to Israel." 8.2. And Ezra the priest brought the Law before the congregation, both men and women, and all that could hear with understanding, upon the first day of the seventh month." 8.3. And he read therein before the broad place that was before the water gate from early morning until midday, in the presence of the men and the women, and of those that could understand; and the ears of all the people were attentive unto the book of the Law." 8.4. And Ezra the scribe stood upon a pulpit of wood, which they had made for the purpose; and beside him stood Mattithiah, and Shema, and Anaiah, and Uriah, and Hilkiah, and Maaseiah, on his right hand; and on his left hand, Pedaiah, and Mishael, and Malchijah, and Hashum, and Hashbaddanah, Zechariah, and Meshullam." 8.5. And Ezra opened the book in the sight of all the people—for he was above all the people—and when he opened it, all the people stood up." 8.6. And Ezra blessed the LORD, the great God. And all the people answered: ‘Amen, Amen’, with the lifting up of their hands; and they bowed their heads, and fell down before the LORD with their faces to the ground." 8.7. Also Jeshua, and Bani, and Sherebiah, Jamin, Akkub, Shabbethai, Hodiah, Maaseiah, Kelita, Azariah, Jozabad, Ha, Pelaiah, even the Levites, caused the people to understand the Law; and the people stood in their place." 8.8. And they read in the book, in the Law of God, distinctly; and they gave the sense, and caused them to understand the reading." 8.12. And all the people went their way to eat, and to drink, and to send portions, and to make great mirth, because they had understood the words that were declared unto them." 8.17. And all the congregation of them that were come back out of the captivity made booths, and dwelt in the booths; for since the days of Joshua the son of Nun unto that day had not the children of Israel done so. And there was very great gladness."
8. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 50.5-50.21 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

50.5. How glorious he was when the people gathered round him as he came out of the inner sanctuary! 50.7. like the sun shining upon the temple of the Most High,and like the rainbow gleaming in glorious clouds; 50.8. like roses in the days of the first fruits,like lilies by a spring of water,like a green shoot on Lebanon on a summer day; 50.9. like fire and incense in the censer,like a vessel of hammered gold adorned with all kinds of precious stones; 50.11. When he put on his glorious robe and clothed himself with superb perfection and went up to the holy altar,he made the court of the sanctuary glorious. 50.12. And when he received the portions from the hands of the priests,as he stood by the hearth of the altar with a garland of brethren around him,he was like a young cedar on Lebanon;and they surrounded him like the trunks of palm trees 50.13. all the sons of Aaron in their splendor with the Lords offering in their hands,before the whole congregation of Israel. 50.14. Finishing the service at the altars,and arranging the offering to the Most High, the Almighty 50.15. he reached out his hand to the cup and poured a libation of the blood of the grape;he poured it out at the foot of the altar,a pleasing odor to the Most High, the King of all. 50.16. Then the sons of Aaron shouted,they sounded the trumpets of hammered work,they made a great noise to be heard for remembrance before the Most High. 50.17. Then all the people together made haste and fell to the ground upon their faces to worship their Lord,the Almighty, God Most High. 50.18. And the singers praised him with their voices in sweet and full-toned melody. 50.19. And the people besought the Lord Most High in prayer before him who is merciful,till the order of worship of the Lord was ended;so they completed his service. 50.21. and they bowed down in worship a second time,to receive the blessing from the Most High.
9. Mishnah, Bikkurim, 3.2 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

3.2. How were the bikkurim taken up [to Jerusalem]? All [the inhabitants of] the cities of the maamad would assemble in the city of the maamad, and they would spend the night in the open street and they would not entering any of the houses. Early in the morning the officer would say: “Let us arise and go up to Zion, into the house of the Lord our God” (Jeremiah 31:5)."
10. Mishnah, Megillah, 1.3, 3.5-3.6, 4.5, 4.8 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

1.3. What is considered a large town? One which has in it ten idle men. One that has fewer is considered a village. In respect of these they said that they should be moved up but not postponed. But with regard to the bringing the wood for the priests, the [fast of] Tisha B’Av, the hagigah, and assembling the people they postpone [until after Shabbat] and they do not move them up. Although they said that they should be moved up but not postponed, it is permissible to mourn, to fast, and to distribute gifts to the poor [on these earlier days]. Rabbi Judah said: When is this so? In a place where people gather on Mondays and Thursdays, but in places where people do not gather on Mondays and Thursdays, the Megillah is read only on its proper day." 3.5. On Pesah we read from the portion of the festivals in Leviticus (Torat Kohanim) (Leviticus 23:4). On Shavuot, “Seven weeks” (Deuteronomy 16:9). On Rosh Hashanah “On the seventh day on the first of the month” (Leviticus 23:2. On Yom Hakippurim, “After the death” (Leviticus. On the first day of the Festival [of Sukkot] they read from the portion of the festivals in Leviticus, and on the other days of the Festival [of Sukkot] the [sections] on the offerings of the Festival." 3.6. On Hanukkah they read the section of the princes (Numbers. On Purim, “And Amalek came” (Exodus 17:8). On Rosh Hodesh, “And on the first of your months” (Numbers 28:11). On Maamadot, the account of the creation (Genesis 1:1-2:3). On fast days, the blessings and curses (Leviticus 26:3 ff and Deuteronomy. They do not interrupt while reading the curses, but rather one reads them all. On Monday and Thursday and on Shabbat at minhah they read according to the regular order and this does not count as part of the reading [for the succeeding Shabbat]. As it says, “And Moshe declared to the children of Israel the appointed seasons of the Lord” (Leviticus 23:44) it is their mitzvah that each should be read in its appropriate time." 4.5. The one who concludes with the haftarah also leads the responsive reading of the Shema and he passes before the ark and he lifts up his hands. If he is a child, his father or his teacher passes before the ark in his place." 4.8. If one says, “I will not pass before the ark in colored clothes,” even in white clothes he may not pass before it. [If one says], “I will not pass before it in shoes,” even barefoot he may not pass before it. One who makes his tefillin [for the head] round, it is dangerous and has no religious value. If he put them on his forehead or on the palm of his hand, behold this is the way of heresy. If he overlaid them with gold or put [the one for the hand] on his sleeve, behold this is the manner of the outsiders."
11. Mishnah, Pesahim, 5.1 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

5.1. The [afternoon] tamid is slaughtered at eight and a half hours and is offered at nine and a half hours. On the eve of Pesah it is slaughtered at seven and a half hours and offered at eight and a half hours, whether it is a weekday or Shabbat. If the eve of Pesah fell on the eve of Shabbat it is slaughtered at six and a half hours and offered at seven and a half hours, and the pesah offering after it."
12. Mishnah, Sotah, 7.6 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

7.6. How was the priestly blessing [pronounced]?In the province (outside of the Temple) it was said as three blessings, but in the Temple as one blessing. In the Temple the name was uttered as it is written, but in the province in its substituted name. In the province the priests raise their hands at the height of their shoulders, but in the Temple above their heads, except the high priest who does not raise his hands higher than the frontlet (on his forehead). Rabbi Judah says: even the high priest raises his hands higher than the frontlet, as it says, “And Aaron lifted up his hands toward the people and blessed them” (Leviticus 9:22)."
13. Mishnah, Sukkah, 5.5, 5.7 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

5.5. They never have less than twenty-one blasts in the Temple, and never more than forty-eight. Every day there were twenty-one blasts in the Temple, three at the opening of the gates, nine at the morning tamid sacrifice, and nine at the evening tamid sacrifice. At the musafim (additional sacrifices) they would add another nine. And on the eve of Shabbat they would add another six, three as a sign to the people to stop working and three to mark a distinction between the holy and the profane. On the eve of Shabbat in the intermediate days of the [Sukkoth] festival, there were [therefore] forty-eight blasts: three at the opening of the gates, three at the upper gate, three at the lower gate, three at the water-drawing, three at the altar, nine at the daily morning sacrifice, nine at the daily evening sacrifice, nine at the additional sacrifices, three as a sign to the people to cease from work, and three to mark a distinction between the holy and the profane." 5.7. At three periods in the year all the priestly watches shared equally in the festival sacrifices and in the division of the showbread. On Shavuot they used to say to the priest, “Here is matzah for you, here is chametz for you.” A watch whose period of service was fixed [for that festival week] offered the tamid, vow-offerings and freewill-offerings and all other public offerings; and it offered them all. A festival which fell next to Shabbat, either before or after it, all the watches shared equally in the distribution of the showbread."
14. Mishnah, Taanit, 4.2-4.5 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

4.2. What are the ma’amadot? Since it is said, “Command the children of Israel and say to them: My offering, My food” (Numbers 28:2). Now how can a man’s offering be offered and he is not present? [Therefore] the former prophets instituted twenty-four mishmarot (guards). For each mishmar there was a ma’amad [at the Temple] in Jerusalem consisting of priests, Levites and Israelites. When the time came for the mishmar to go up [to Jerusalem] the priests and Levites went up to Jerusalem and the Israelites of that mishmar assembled in their cities and read the story of creation." 4.3. The men of the maamad fasted on four days of that week, from Monday to Thursday; they did not fast on Friday out of respect for Shabbat or on Sunday in order not to switch from the rest and delight [of Shabbat] to weariness and fasting and [thereby] die. On Sunday [they read], “In the beginning,” and, “Let there be a firmament;” On Monday, “Let there be a firmament,” and, “Let the waters be gathered together;” On Tuesday, “Let the waters be gathered together,” and, “Let there be lights;” On Wednesday, “Let there be lights,” and, “Let the waters swarm;” On Thursday, “Let the waters swarm,” and, “Let the earth bring forth;” On Friday, “Let the earth bring forth,” and, “And the heavens [and the earth] were completed.” For a long section two people read and for a short section one person. [This is how they would read] at Shacharit and Mussaf. And at minhah they assemble and read the section by heart, as they recite the Shema. On Friday at minhah they did not assemble out of respect for Shabbat." 4.4. On any day when there is Hallel there was no maamad at Shaharit; [On the day when] there is a Musaf-offering, there was no [maamad] at Ne'ilah. [On the day of] the wood-offering, there was no [maamad] at Minhah, the words of Rabbi Akiva. Ben Azzai said to him: Thus did Rabbi Joshua learn: [On the day when] there is a Musaf-offering, there was no [maamad] at Minhah; [On the day of] the wood-offering, there was no [maamad] at Ne’ilah. Rabbi Akiva retracted and learned like Ben Azzai." 4.5. The times of the wood of the priests and the people was nine:On the first of Nisan the family Arah of Yehudah. On the twentieth of Tammuz the family of David of Yehudah. On the fifth of Av the family of Parosh of Yehudah. On the seventh of the same month, the family of Yonadav of Rechav. On the tenth of the same month, the family of Snaah of Benjamin. On the fifteenth of the same month, the family of Zattu of Yehudah, and with them were the priests and Levites and all those who were not certain of their tribe and the family of Gonve Eli and the family of Kotze Ketizot. On the twentieth of the same month the family of Pahat Moav of Yehudah. On the twentieth of Elul the family of Adin of Yehudah. On the first of Tevet the family of Parosh of Yehudah [offered] a second time. On the first of Tevet there was no maamad for there was Hallel, Musaf and the wood-festival."
15. Mishnah, Tamid, 1.2, 2.1, 3.4, 4.1, 5.1, 6.1, 7.2 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

1.2. Anyone who desired to remove the ashes from the altar used to rise early and bathe before the superintendent came. At what time did the superintendent come? He did not always come at the same time; sometimes he came just at cock-crow, sometimes a little before or a little after. The superintendent would come and knock and they would open for him, and he would say to them, let all who have bathed come and draw lots. So they drew lots, and whoever was successful." 2.1. When his fellow priests saw that he had descended, they came running and hastened to wash their hands and feet in the laver. They then took the shovels and the forks and went up to the top of the altar. The limbs and pieces of fat that had not been consumed since the evening they pushed to the sides of the altar. If there was not room on the sides they arranged them on the surround or on the ascent." 3.4. They went into the chamber of the vessels and they took out ninety-three vessels of silver and gold. They gave the animal for the daily sacrifice a drink from a cup of gold. Although it had been examined on the previous evening it was now examined again by torchlight." 4.1. They would not tie up the lamb but rather they would string its legs together. Those who merited [to bring up] the limbs took hold of it. Thus it was strung up: its head was to the south while its face was turned to the west. The slaughterer stood to the east of it, facing the west. The morning tamid was killed by the north-western corner of the altar at the second ring. The evening tamid was killed by the north-eastern corner at the second ring. While one slaughtered another received the blood. He then proceeded to the north-eastern corner and cast the blood on the eastern and northern sides; he then proceeded to the southwestern corner and cast the blood on the western and southern sides. The remt of the blood he poured out at the southern base of the altar." 5.1. The superintendent said to them: Bless one blessing! And they blessed. They then read the Ten Commandments, the Shema, the “And it will be if you hearken” (the second paragraph of Shema) and Vayomer (the third paragraph of Shema), and they blessed the people with three blessings: Emet veYatziv, and Avodah, and the priestly benediction. On Shabbat they added a blessing to be said by the watch which was leaving." 6.1. They began to ascend the steps of the Sanctuary. Those who had won the right to clear the ashes from the inner altar and from the candlestick went in front. The one who won the right to clear the inner altar went in and took the teni and bowed down and went out again. The one who had been chosen to clear the candlestick went in, and if he found the two eastern lights still burning he cleared out the eastern one and left the western one burning, since from it he lit the candlestick for the evening. If he found that this one had gone out, he cleared the ash away and lit it from the altar of burnt-offering. He then took the kuz from the second step and bowed down and went out." 7.2. They went and stood on the steps of the Sanctuary. The first ones stood at the south side of their fellow priests with five vessels in their hands: one held the teni, the second the kuz, the third the firepan, the fourth the dish, and the fifth the spoon and its covering. They blessed the people with a single blessing, except in the country they recited it as three blessings, in the Temple as one. In the Temple they pronounced the divine name as it is written, but in the country by its substitute. In the country the priests raised their hands as high as their shoulders, but in the Temple above their heads, except the high priest, who did not raise his hands above the diadem. Rabbi Judah says: the high priest also raised his hands above the diadem, since it says, “And Aaron lifted up his hands toward the people and blessed them” (Leviticus 9:22)."
16. Mishnah, Yoma, 1.2, 1.8, 2.1-2.5, 6.2 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

1.2. All seven days he sprinkles the blood and burns the incense and cleans lamps and offers the head and the leg; And on all other days if he wants he offers, for the high priest is first in offering a portion and has first place in taking a portion." 1.8. Every day they would remove [the ashes from] the altar at the cock’s crow or close to that time, either before or after. But on Yom HaKippurim from midnight, and on the festivals at the [end of the] first watch; And the cock’s crow would not arrive before the Temple court was full of Israelites." 2.1. Originally anyone who wished to remove [the ashes from] the altar did so. When they were many, they would run up the ramp [of the altar] and he that came first within four cubits won the privilege. If two were even, the officer would say to them [all:] raise the finger! And how many did they put out? One or two but one does not put out a thumb in the Temple." 2.2. Section one: It once happened that two were even as they ran up the ramp, and one of them pushed his fellow who fell and broke his leg. When the court saw that they incurred danger, they decreed that they would remove the ashes from only by a count. Section two: There were four counts. This is the first count." 2.3. The second count:who slaughters [the daily regular offering], who sprinkles [the blood], who removes the ashes from the inner altar, who removes the ashes from the candlestick, 5-10) Who takes the limbs [of the offering up to the ramp], the head and the [right] hind-leg, the two forelegs, the tail and the [left] hind-leg, the breast and the throat, the two flanks, the innards, the fine flour, the cakes and the wine. Altogether thirteen priests merited a task. Ben Azzai said before Rabbi Akiba in the name of Rabbi Joshua: [the daily offering] was offered up in the way it walks. 2.4. The third count: “New [priests] come up and submit to the count for the incense.” The fourth count: “New and old priests, who will take up the limbs from the ramp to the altar.”" 2.5. The tamid was offered up by nine, ten, eleven or twelve [priests], neither by more, nor by less. How so? [The offering] itself by nine; At the festival [of Sukkot] in the hand of one a flask of water, behold there were ten. In the evening by eleven: [The offering] itself by nine and in the hands of two men were two logs of wood. On Shabbat by eleven: [The offering] itself by nine, in the hands of two men two handfuls of incense for the showbread. And on Shabbat which fell during the festival of Sukkot one man carried in his hand a flask of water." 6.2. He then came to the scapegoat and laid his two hands upon it and he made confession. And thus he would say: “Please, ‘Hashem’! They have done wrong, they have transgressed, they have sinned before You, Your people the House of Israel. Please, in the name of Hashem (Bashem)! Forgive the wrongdoings, the transgressions, the sins which your people, the House of Israel, have committed and transgressed and sinned before You, as it is written in the torah of Moses Your servant: “For on this day shall atonement be made for you [to cleanse you of all your sins; you shall be clean before the Lord”] (Leviticus 16:30). And the priests and the people standing in the courtyard, when they would hear God’s name explicated coming out of the high priest’s mouth, would bend their knees, bow down and fall on their faces and say “Blessed be the name of His glorious kingdom for ever and ever!”"
17. Mishnah, Shekalim, 3.2, 3.4, 4.1 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

3.2. In three baskets each of [the capacity of] three seahs they make the appropriation [of shekels] from the chamber. And on them was inscribed: Aleph, Beth, Gimmel. Rabbi Ishmael says: Greek was inscribed on them, alpha, beta, gamla. The one who made the appropriation did not enter the chamber wearing either a bordered cloak or shoes or sandals or tefillin or an amulet, lest if he became poor people might say that he became poor because of a sin committed in the chamber, or if he became rich people might say that he became rich from the appropriation in the chamber. For it is one’s duty to seem be free of blame before others as before God, as it is said: “And you shall be guiltless before the Lord and before Israel” (Numbers 32:22), and it says: “And you will find favor and good understanding in the eyes of God and man” (Proverbs 3:4)." 3.4. [After] he made the first appropriation, he covers [what is left] with leather covers. [After he made the] second appropriation, he covers [what is left] with leather covers. [But after] the third appropriation he would not cover [what was left]. [And why would he cover?] Lest he should forget and make a [fresh] appropriation from shekels from which had already been appropriated. He would make the first appropriation on behalf of the Land of Israel, and the second on behalf of the surrounding cities, and the third on behalf of Babylon and on behalf of Medea and on behalf of [other] distant countries." 4.1. What did they do with the appropriation? They bring with it the daily burnt-offerings (tamidim) and the additional burnt-offerings (musafim) and their libations, the omer and the two loaves and the showbread and all the other public offerings. Those who guard the aftergrowths of the seventh year take their wages out of the appropriation from the chamber. Rabbi Yose says: [if a man wished] he could volunteer to watch without payment. But they said to him: you too admit that they can only be offered out of public funds."
18. New Testament, Acts, 6.9, 24.12 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

6.9. But some of those who were of the synagogue called "The Libertines," and of the Cyrenians, of the Alexandrians, and of those of Cilicia and Asia arose, disputing with Stephen. 24.12. In the temple they didn't find me disputing with anyone or stirring up a crowd, either in the synagogues, or in the city.
19. Anon., Leviticus Rabba, 23.4 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

23.4. רַב חָנָן דְּצִפּוֹרִי פָּתַר קְרָיָא בִּגְמִילוּת חֲסָדִים, בְּנֹהַג שֶׁבָּעוֹלָם עֲשָׂרָה בְּנֵי אָדָם נִכְנָסִין לְבֵית הֶאָבֵל וְאֵין אֶחָד מֵהֶם יָכוֹל לִפְתֹּחַ אֶת פִּיו וּלְבָרֵךְ בִּרְכַּת אֲבֵלִים, וְאֶחָד מֵהֶם פּוֹתֵחַ פִּיו וּמְבָרֵךְ, דּוֹמֶה כְּשׁוֹשַׁנָּה בֵּין הַחוֹחִים. בְּנֹהַג שֶׁבָּעוֹלָם עֲשָׂרָה בְּנֵי אָדָם נִכְנָסִין לְבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת וְאֵין אֶחָד מֵהֶם יָכוֹל לִפְרֹס עַל שְׁמַע וְלַעֲבֹר לִפְנֵי הַתֵּבָה, וְאֶחָד מֵהֶם יוֹדֵעַ, דּוֹמֶה כְּשׁוֹשַׁנָּה בֵּין הַחוֹחִים. רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר אָזַל לְחַד אֲתַר אָמְרוּ לֵיהּ פְּרֹס עַל שְׁמַע, אָמַר לָהֶן לֵינָא חָכֵם עֲבֹר לִפְנֵי הַתֵּבָה. אָמַר לָהֶן לֵינָא חָכֵם, אָמְרִין דֵּין הוּא רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר, דֵּין הוּא דְּאַתּוּן מִתְגַּלְגְּלִין בֵּיהּ, עַל מַגָּן צָוְוחִין לֵיהּ רַבִּי. נִתְכַּרְכְּמוּ פָנָיו וְהָלַךְ לוֹ אֵצֶל רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא רַבּוֹ, אָמַר לֵיהּ לָמָּה פָנֶיךָ חוֹלָנִיּוֹת, תָּנֵי לֵיהּ עוֹבָדָא. אֲמַר לֵיהּ צָבֵי מָרִי דְּיֵלִיף, אֲמַר לֵיהּ אִין, אִלְפֵיהּ. לְבָתַר יוֹמִין אָזַל לְהַהוּא אַתְרָא, אָמְרוּ לֵיהּ פְּרֹס עַל שְׁמַע, פָּרַס. עֲבֹר לִפְנֵי הַתֵּבָה, עָבַר. אָמְרִין אִתְחַסַּם רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר, וְקוֹרִין לֵיהּ רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר חִסְמָא. רַבִּי יוֹנָה הֲוָה מַלֵּיף לְתַלְמִידוֹי בִּרְכַּת אֲבֵלִים, אֲמַר יֶהֱווֹן גַּבְרִין בְּכָל מִלָּה.
20. Anon., Sifre Numbers, 39 (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

21. Babylonian Talmud, Gittin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

59b. בור שהוא קרוב לאמה מתמלא ראשון מפני דרכי שלום,מצודות חיה ועופות ודגים יש בהן משום גזל מפני דרכי שלום ר' יוסי אומר גזל גמור,מציאת חרש שוטה וקטן יש בהן משום גזל מפני דרכי שלום ר' יוסי אומר גזל גמור,עני המנקף בראש הזית מה שתחתיו גזל מפני דרכי שלום ר' יוסי אומר גזל גמור,אין ממחין ביד עניי עובדי כוכבים בלקט שכחה ופאה מפני דרכי שלום:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big מנה"מ אמר רב מתנה דאמר קרא (דברים לא, ט) ויכתוב משה את התורה הזאת ויתנה אל הכהנים בני לוי אטו אנא לא ידענא דכהנים בני לוי נינהו אלא כהן ברישא והדר לוי,רבי יצחק נפחא אמר מהכא (דברים כא, ה) ונגשו הכהנים בני לוי אטו אנן לא ידעינן דכהנים בני לוי נינהו אלא כהן ברישא והדר לוי,רב אשי אמר מהכא (דברי הימים א כג, יג) בני עמרם אהרן ומשה ויבדל אהרן להקדישו קדש קדשים,ר' חייא בר אבא אמר מהכא (ויקרא כא, ח) וקדשתו לכל דבר שבקדושה תנא דבי רבי ישמעאל וקדשתו לכל דבר שבקדושה לפתוח ראשון ולברך ראשון וליטול מנה יפה ראשון,א"ל אביי לרב יוסף מפני דרכי שלום דאורייתא היא א"ל דאורייתא ומפני דרכי שלום,כל התורה כולה נמי מפני דרכי שלום היא דכתיב (משלי ג, יז) דרכיה דרכי נועם וכל נתיבותיה שלום,אלא אמר אביי לכדמר דתניא שנים ממתינין זה לזה בקערה שלשה אין ממתינין הבוצע הוא פושט ידו תחלה ואם בא לחלוק כבוד לרבו או למי שגדול ממנו הרשות בידו,ואמר מר עלה לא שנו אלא בסעודה אבל בבהכ"נ לא דאתו לאינצויי,אמר רב מתנה הא דאמרת בבהכ"נ לא לא אמרן אלא בשבתות וימים טובים דשכיחי רבים אבל בשני ובחמישי לא,איני והא רב הונא קרי בכהני בשבתות ויו"ט שאני רב הונא דאפילו רבי אמי ורבי אסי כהני חשיבי דא"י מיכף הוו כייפי ליה,אמר אביי נקטינן אין שם כהן נתפרדה חבילה ואמר אביי נקטינן אין שם לוי קורא כהן,איני והאמר רבי יוחנן כהן אחר כהן לא יקרא משום פגמו של ראשון לוי אחר לוי לא יקרא משום פגם שניהם כי קאמרינן באותו כהן,מ"ש לוי אחר לוי דאיכא פגם שניהם דאמרי חד מינייהו לאו לוי הוא כהן אחר כהן נמי אמרי חד מינייהו לאו כהן הוא כגון דמוחזק לן באבוה דהאי שני דכהן הוא,ה"נ דמוחזק לן באבוה דהאי שני דלוי הוא אלא אמרי ממזרת או נתינה נסיב ופסליה לזרעיה הכא נמי אמרי גרושה או חלוצה נסיב ואחליה לזרעיה,סוף סוף לוי מי קא הוי,ולמאן אי ליושבין הא קא חזו ליה אלא ליוצאין,שלחו ליה בני גלילא לרבי חלבו אחריהן 59b. The Sages enacted that bthe pit that is nearest to the irrigation channelthat supplies water to several pits or fields bis filled first on account of the ways of peace.They established a fixed order for the irrigation of fields, so that people would not quarrel over who is given precedence., bAnimals, birds, or fishthat were caught in btrapsare not acquired by the one who set the traps until he actually takes possession of them. Nevertheless, if another person comes and takes them, it bis considered robbery on account of the ways of peace. Rabbi Yosei says:This is bfull-fledged robbery. /b,Similarly, ba lost itemfound by ba deaf-mute, an imbecile, or a minoris not acquired by him, since he lacks the legal competence to effect acquisition. Nevertheless, taking such an item from him bis considered robbery on account of the ways of peace. Rabbi Yosei says:This is bfull-fledged robbery. /b,If ba poor person gleansolives bat the top of an olive treeand olives fall to the ground under the tree, then taking those olives bthat are beneath it isconsidered brobbery on account of the ways of peace. Rabbi Yosei says:This is bfull-fledged robbery. /b, bOne does not protest against poor gentileswho come to take bgleanings, forgottensheaves, band the produce in the corner of the field, which is given to the poor [ ipe’a /i],although they are meant exclusively for the Jewish poor, bon account of the ways of peace. /b, strongGEMARA: /strong The mishna teaches that at public readings of the Torah, a priest reads first, and after him a Levite. The Gemara asks: bFrom where are these mattersderived? What is the source of this ihalakhain the Torah? bRav Mattana said: As the verse states: “And Moses wrote this Torah, and delivered it to the priests, the sons of Levi”(Deuteronomy 31:9). The Gemara explains the inference: bIs that to say I do not know that the priests are the sons of Levi?Why is it necessary for the verse to say this? bRather,the Torah was first delivered to the priests and afterward to the other Levites, and this serves as the source for the enactment that first ba priestreads from the Torah, band afterhim ba Levite. /b, bRabbi Yitzḥak Nappaḥa saidthat this ihalakhais derived bfrom here,as it is written: b“And the priests, the sons of Levi, shall come near”(Deuteronomy 21:5). The Gemara asks: bIs that to say I do not know that the priests are the sons of Levi? Rather,the Torah was first given to the priests and afterward to the other Levites, and from this we learn that bfirst a priestreads from the Torah, band afterhim ba Levite. /b, bRav Ashi saidthat this ihalakhais derived bfrom here: “The sons of Amram, Aaron and Moses; and Aaron was separated, that he should be sanctified as most holy”(I Chronicles 23:13). This indicates that Aaron and his descendants, the priests, are considered to be holier than the rest of the tribe of Levi. Consequently, they are given precedence in public Torah readings., bRabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba saidthat this ihalakhais derived bfrom here,as it is stated with regard to a priest: b“And you shall sanctify him”(Leviticus 21:8), giving a priest priority bfor every matter of sanctity.And with regard to this verse, a Sage from bthe school of Rabbi Yishmael taught: “And you shall sanctify him,”giving a priest priority bfor every matter of sanctity: To openthe discussion in the study hall bfirst, to recite the blessingof Grace after Meals bfirst, and to take a fine portionat a meal bfirst,meaning that he can choose any portion at a meal for himself., bAbaye said to Rav Yosef:According to this, why does the mishna teach that the priest reads first from the Torah bon account of the ways of peace,indicating that this is a rabbinic enactment? Is it not bby Torah lawthat he reads first? Rav Yosef bsaid toAbaye: Indeed, it is bby Torah law, butthe reason that the priest reads first is bon account of the ways of peace. /b,Abaye objected: Aren’t the ihalakhotof bthe entire Torah alsogiven bon account of the ways of peace, as it is written: “Her ways are ways of pleasantness, and all her paths are peace”(Proverbs 3:17)? Consequently, this ihalakhais no different from the other ihalakhotin the Torah, all of which were given to increase pleasantness and tranquility in the world., bRather, Abaye said:The mishna’s statement that a priest reads first from the Torah on account of the ways of peace bis in accordance withwhat was said by bmy master,Rabba. bAs it is taughtin a ibaraita( iTosefta /i, iBerakhot5:3): When btwo peopleare eating together bfrom a single dish,they must bwait for each other,but if there are bthree,each eats when he wishes and they do bnotneed to bwaitfor each other. Generally, bthe one who breaks bread extends his handto take food bfirst, but if he wishes to show respect to his teacher or to one who is greaterthan he and allow him to take first, bhe has permissionto do so., bAnd the Master,Rabba, bsaid with regard tothis ibaraita /i: bThey taughtthis bwith regard to a meal,that one may show honor to a person of greater stature and allow him to take food first. bBut in the synagogue,one may bnotshow another honor, because the congregants are liable to bcome to quarrelabout who is the most distinguished among them. Accordingly, the ruling of the mishna is that to prevent strife and controversy, it is not permitted for a priest to honor an Israelite and allow him to read first from the Torah in his place., bRav Mattana said:With regard to bthismatter bthat you stated,that bin the synagoguea priest is bnotpermitted to honor an Israelite and allow him to read first, bwe saidthis bonly concerning iShabbatotand Festivals, when many people are presentfor the services, bbut not on Mondays and Thursdays,when only a small number of people are there. On those days it is permitted for one to honor his superior, and there is no concern that this will lead to a quarrel.,The Gemara asks: bIs that so?Is it actually prohibited for a priest to honor his teacher and allow him to read first in his place? bBut didn’t Rav Huna,who was not a priest, breadthe Torah section ordinarily reserved bfor priests,even bon iShabbatotand Festivals?The Gemara answers: bRav Huna is different, as even Rabbi Ami and Rabbi Asi, the most important priests in Eretz Yisrael, were subject to hisjurisdiction. Therefore, there was no concern about a quarrel, because everyone agreed that he was the leading authority of the generation and it was fitting that he should read from the Torah first.,§ bAbaye saidthat bwe have a traditionthat if bthere is no priest therein the synagogue at the time of the Torah reading, bthe bundle is separated,i.e., a Levite is not shown precedence over Israelites. bAnd Abaye saidthat bwe have a traditionthat if bthere is no Levite therein the synagogue, ba priest readsin his place.,The Gemara asks: bIs that so? But didn’t Rabbi Yoḥa say:One bpriest should not read afteranother bpriest, becausepeople might mistakenly think that the second priest was called to read due to ba flawthat was found binthe status of bthe firstone, i.e., that he was found not to be a priest. And one bLevite should not read afteranother bLevite, becausepeople might mistakenly think that there is ba flaw in both of them.If two Levites read one after the other, people might say that the second is not a Levite but an Israelite, or else that the first was not a Levite, and therefore a real Levite was called to read in his place. The Gemara answers: bWhen we saidthat when there is no Levite present a priest reads in his place, we were speaking bof the same priestwho had already read from the Torah, for in that case there is no concern that people will think that a flaw had been found in his status.,The Gemara raises a question with regard to Rabbi Yoḥa’s statement: bWhat is differentthat in the case where one bLevitereads from the Torah bafteranother bLevite,Rabbi Yoḥa says bthat there isconcern that people might mistakenly think that there is ba flaw in both of them?It must be that he is concerned that people might bsaythat bone of them,either the first or the second, biscertainly bnot a Levite.If so, in the case where one bpriestreads from the Torah bafteranother bpriest,he should balsobe concerned that people might bsaythat bone of them,either the first or the second, biscertainly bnot a priest.Why, then, was Rabbi Yoḥa concerned only about suspicions that might be raised about the first priest? The Gemara answers: He speaks about a case bwhere we have a presumption concerning the father of the secondone, bthat he is a priest. /b,The Gemara asks: If so, bhere too,in the case of the Levites let us say that bwe have a presumption concerning the father of the secondone, bthat he is a Levite. Rather,the concern here is that even if it is known that he is the son of a Levite, people might bsaythat perhaps the father bmarried a imamzeret /i,a daughter born from an incestuous or adulterous relationship, bor a Gibeonite woman, andthereby bdisqualified his children,so that they are considered Israelites rather than Levites. If so, then bhere too,in the case of the priests, there is concern that people might bsaythat perhaps the priest’s father bmarried a divorced woman or a iyevamawho underwent iḥalitza[ iḥalutza /i] andthereby bdisqualified his childrenfrom the priesthood (see Leviticus 21:7).,The Gemara answers: bUltimately, is he a Levite?If the priest is disqualified from the priesthood owing to his blemished lineage, he has the status of an Israelite, not a Levite. Therefore, if he reads from the Torah after another priest, and it is known that his father is a priest, then it must be that he too is a qualified priest. Therefore, the only reason for concern is that people might say that there is a flaw in the status of the first priest.,With regard to the concern itself, the Gemara asks: bAnd about whomis there a concern? Who might mistakenly think that the first priest’s status is blemished? bIfyou say that the concern is bfor those sittingin the synagogue until the end of the Torah reading, that is not a valid concern, as bthey seethat he is counted as one of the seven who must read from the Torah, and therefore he must certainly be a qualified priest. bRather,the concern is bfor those who leavebefore the conclusion of the reading, and do not know that he was counted among the seven readers., bThe people of the Galilee senta question bto Rabbi Ḥelbo: After them,the priest and the Levite
22. Babylonian Talmud, Hulin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

24b. (דברי הימים ב ה, יג) ויהי כאחד למחצצרים ולמשוררים להשמיע קול אחד:,עד שיזקין עד כמה אמר רבי אלעא אמר ר' חנינא עד שירתת,תנן התם בעל קרי שטבל ולא הטיל מים לכשיטיל טמא ר' יוסי אומר בחולה ובזקן טמא בילד ובבריא טהור,ילד עד כמה אמר רבי אלעא אמר רבי חנינא כל שעומד על רגלו אחת וחולץ מנעלו ונועל מנעלו אמרו עליו על רבי חנינא שהיה בן שמונים שנה והיה עומד על רגלו אחת וחולץ מנעלו ונועל מנעלו אמר רבי חנינא חמין ושמן שסכתני אמי בילדותי הן עמדו לי בעת זקנותי,ת"ר נתמלא זקנו ראוי ליעשות שליח ציבור ולירד לפני התיבה ולישא את כפיו מאימתי כשר לעבודה משיביא שתי שערות רבי אומר אומר אני עד שיהא בן עשרים,א"ר חסדא מ"ט דרבי דכתיב (עזרא ג, ח) ויעמידו [את] הלוים מבן עשרים שנה ומעלה לנצח על מלאכת בית ה' ואידך לנצח שאני,והא האי קרא בלוים כתיב כדר' יהושע בן לוי דאמר רבי יהושע בן לוי בעשרים וארבעה מקומות נקראו כהנים לוים וזה אחד מהן (יחזקאל מד, טו) והכהנים הלוים בני צדוק,ת"ר (ויקרא כא, יז) איש מזרעך לדורותם מכאן אמר רבי אלעזר קטן פסול לעבודה ואפי' תם מאימתי כשר לעבודה משיביא שתי שערות אבל אחיו הכהנים אין מניחין אותו לעבוד עד שיהא בן כ',איכא דאמרי הא רבי היא ואפי' פסול דרבנן לית ליה ואיכא דאמרי רבי אית ליה פסול מדרבנן והא רבנן היא ולכתחלה הוא דלא אבל דיעבד עבודתו כשרה:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big טהור בכלי חרש טמא בכל הכלים טהור בכל הכלים טמא בכלי חרש:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big ת"ר אויר כלי חרש טמא וגבו טהור אויר כל הכלים טהור וגבן טמא נמצא טהור בכלי חרש טמא בכל הכלים טהור בכל הכלים טמא בכלי חרש,מנהני מילי דת"ר תוכו ואע"פ שלא נגע,אתה אומר אע"פ שלא נגע או אינו אלא אם כן נגע רבי יונתן בן אבטולמוס אומר נאמר (ויקרא יא, לג) תוכו לטמא ונאמר תוכו ליטמא מה תוכו האמור לטמא אע"פ שלא נגע אף תוכו האמור ליטמא אע"פ שלא נגע,והתם מנלן אמר רבי יונתן התורה העידה על כלי חרס 24b. b“It came to pass, when the trumpeters and singers were as one, to make one sound to be heard”(II Chronicles 5:13). This indicates that the Levites must be capable of singing in one voice, and one who is unable to do so is unfit for service.,The ibaraitateaches that the priest is eligible for service buntil he ages.The Gemara asks: bUntil when,i.e., what is the definition of aging in this context? bRabbi Ela saysthat bRabbi Ḥanina says: Untilhis hands and feet begin to btremble. /b, bWe learnedin a mishna bthere( iMikvaot8:4): With regard to bone who experienced a seminal emission whothen bimmersedin a ritual bath band did not urinatebefore immersing, bwhen he urinates he is ritually impure,because residue of the semen remain in his body and was discharged with the urine, rendering him impure. bRabbi Yosei says: Inthe case of ban illperson band an elderlyperson, he is britually impure; inthe case of ba youngperson band a healthyperson, he is britually pure,as the semen was presumably discharged in its entirety at the outset., bUntil whenis one considered ba youngperson? bRabbi Ela saysthat bRabbi Ḥanina says: Anyone whois able to bstand on one of his legs and remove his shoe or put on his shoeis considered young. bThey said about Rabbi Ḥanina that he was eighty years old and would stand on one of his legs and remove his shoe or put on his shoe. Rabbi Ḥanina says:The bhot water and oil that my mother smeared on me in my youth benefited me in my old age. /b, bThe Sages taught:If bone’s beardis bfullygrown, bhe is fit to be appointed an emissary of the communityfor various matters, band to descend before the arkas a prayer leader, band to lift his handsfor the Priestly Benediction. bFrom whenis a priest bfit forTemple bservice?It is bfromthe time he reaches puberty and bgrows twopubic bhairs. RabbiYehuda HaNasi bsays: I saythat he is not fit for Temple service buntil he is twentyyears of bage. /b, bRav Ḥisda said: What is the reasonfor the opinion bof RabbiYehuda HaNasi? The reason is bas it is written: “And appointed the Levites, from twenty years old and upward, to oversee of the work of the House of the Lord”(Ezra 3:8). bAndwhat does bthe other itannahold? He holds that bto oversee is differentand requires an older priest.,The Gemara asks: bButwhat proof can be cited from this verse with regard to priests; bisn’t that verse written with regard to Levites?The Gemara answers: It is understood bin accordance withthe statement bof Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi, as Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi says: In twenty-four placesin the Bible the bpriests are called Levites. And this is one of thoseverses: b“And the priests the Levites, the sons of Zadok”(Ezekiel 44:15). The verse in Ezra is another one of the verses., bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraitawith regard to the verse: b“Any man of your descendants throughout their generationsthat has a blemish shall not approach to offer the bread of his God” (Leviticus 21:17); bfrom here Rabbi Elazar says: A minorpriest is bunfit forTemple bservice, evenif he is bunblemished,as he is not a man. bFrom whenis bhe fit for service? Fromthe time he reaches puberty and bgrows twopubic bhairs. But his brethren the priests do not allow him to perform the service until he is twentyyears of bage. /b, bThere arethose bwho say: This isthe opinion of bRabbiYehuda HaNasi, band he isof the opinion that there is bno disqualificationfor one between puberty and twenty years of age beven by rabbinic law.The other priests simply do not allow priests of that age to perform the Temple service iab initio /i. bAnd there arethose bwho say: RabbiYehuda HaNasi bis ofthe opinion that there is bdisqualification by rabbinic lawin that case, band thisstatement in the ibaraita bisthe opinion of bthe Rabbis, andthey hold that bit is iab initiothatone may bnotperform the service, bbut after the fact, his service is valid. /b, strongMISHNA: /strong That which is britually pure in an earthenware vesselis britually impure in all theother types of bvessels;that which is britually pure in all theother types of bvesselsis britually impure in an earthenware vessel. /b, strongGEMARA: /strong bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraitaexplaining the mishna: If a primary source of ritual impurity fell into the bairspace of an earthenware vesselthe vessel is britually impure, andif it fell on bits outer side,the vessel is britually pure.If a primary source of ritual impurity fell into the bairspace of all theother types of bvessels,the vessels are britually pure, andif it fell on btheir outer side,they are britually impure. It is foundthat that which is britually pure in an earthenware vesselis britually impure in all theother bvessels,and that which is britually pure in all theother bvesselsis britually impure in an earthenware vessel. /b,The Gemara asks: bFrom where are these mattersderived? It is bas the Sages taughtin a ibaraitabased on the verse: “And every earthenware vessel into which [ itokho /i] any of them falls, whatever is in it [ itokho /i] shall be impure, and it you shall break” (Leviticus 11:33); if an impure item fell b“in it [ itokho /i],” and evenin a case bwherethe impure item bdid not come into contactwith the vessel, the vessel becomes impure.,The ibaraitacontinues: bDo you saythat it is impure beven ifthe impure item bdid not come into contactwith the vessel, borperhaps bit isimpure bonly if it did come into contactwith the vessel? bRabbi Yonatan ben Avtolemos says: iTokhois statedwith regard bto transmitting impurityto food in its airspace, as it is stated: “Whatever is in it [ itokho /i] shall be impure,” band itokhois statedwith regard bto becoming impure,as it is stated: “Into which [ itokho /i] any of them falls”; bjust asin the case of itokhothat is statedwith regard bto transmitting impurityto food in its airspace, the food is impure beven ifthe impure item bdid not come into contactwith the vessel, bso too,in the case of itokhothat is statedwith regard btothe vessel bbecoming impure,the vessel is impure beven ifthe impure item bdid not come into contactwith it.,The Gemara asks: bAnd there,with regard to rendering food impure in its airspace, bfrom where do wederive that the food becomes impure even if it did not come into contact with the impure vessel? bRabbi Yonatan said: The Torah testified about an earthenware vessel /b
23. Babylonian Talmud, Ketuvot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

25b. לאו כולהו סלוק,ת"ש חזקה לכהונה נשיאות כפים וחילוק גרנות ועדות עדות חזקה היא אלא לאו הכי קאמר נשיאות כפים כי עדות מה עדות ליוחסין אף נשיאות כפים ליוחסין לא עדות הבאה מכח חזקה כחזקה,כי ההוא דאתא לקמיה דרבי אמי א"ל מוחזקני בזה שהוא כהן א"ל מה ראית אמר ליה שקרא ראשון בבית הכנסת בחזקת שהוא כהן או בחזקת שהוא גדול שקרא אחריו לוי והעלהו ר' אמי לכהונה על פיו,ההוא דאתא לקמיה דרבי יהושע בן לוי אמר ליה מוחזקני בזה שהוא לוי אמר ליה מה ראית אמר ליה שקרא שני בבית הכנסת בחזקת שהוא לוי או בחזקת שהוא גדול שקרא לפניו כהן והעלהו רבי יהושע בן לוי ללויה על פיו,ההוא דאתא לקמיה דריש לקיש אמר ליה מוחזקני בזה שהוא כהן א"ל מה ראית [א"ל] שקרא ראשון בבית הכנסת א"ל ראיתיו שחילק על הגרנות אמר לו ר' אלעזר ואם אין שם גורן בטלה כהונה,זימנין הוו יתבי קמיה דר' יוחנן אתא כי הא מעשה לקמיה א"ל ריש לקיש ראיתיו שחילק על הגורן א"ל ר' יוחנן ואם אין שם גורן בטלה כהונה הדר חזייה לר"א בישות אמר שמעת מילי דבר נפחא ולא אמרת לן משמיה,רבי ור' חייא חד העלה בן ע"פ אביו לכהונה וחד העלה אח ע"פ אחיו ללויה,תסתיים דר' העלה בן ע"פ אביו לכהונה דתניא הרי שבא ואמר בני זה וכהן הוא נאמן להאכילו בתרומה ואינו נאמן להשיאו אשה דברי רבי אמר לו ר' חייא אם אתה מאמינו להאכילו בתרומה תאמינו להשיאו אשה ואם אי אתה מאמינו להשיאו אשה לא תאמינו לאכול בתרומה,א"ל אני מאמינו להאכילו בתרומה שבידו להאכילו בתרומה ואיני מאמינו להשיאו אשה שאין בידו להשיאו אשה תסתיים ומדרבי העלה בן ע"פ אביו לכהונה ר' חייא העלה אח ע"פ אחיו ללויה,ורבי חייא מאי שנא בן דלא דקרוב הוא אצל אביו אח נמי קרוב הוא אצל אחיו 25b. bnot all of them ascended.Since the majority of the people did not come to the land, separating iḥallawas not restored to the status of an obligation by Torah law.,The Gemara cites proof from another ibaraitato resolve the dilemma. bComeand bhear:The bpresumptive status for priesthoodis established by bLifting of the Handsfor the Priestly Benediction, bandby bdistributionof iterumaat the bthreshing floors, andby btestimony.The Gemara asks: bDoes testimonymerely establish bpresumptive status?Testimony provides absolute proof of his status, not merely a presumption. bRather is it notthat bthis is whatthe itanna bis saying: Lifting of the Handsis blike testimony, just as testimonythat one is a priest elevates him to the priesthood bfor lineage, so too Lifting of the Handsestablishes presumptive status bfor lineage.The Gemara answers: bNo,when the itannais referring to testimony, he is stating that the legal status of btestimony that is based on presumptive status is likethat of bpresumptive statusitself., bAsin the incident involving ba certainman bwho came before Rabbi Amiand bsaid to him: Thatman established bpresumptive statusbefore bme that he is a priest.Rabbi Ami bsaid to him: What did you seethat led you to that conclusion? bHe said toRabbi Ami: I saw bthat hewas called to the Torah and bread first in the synagogue.Rabbi Ami asked him: Did he read first based bon the presumptive status that he is a priest, orwas it based bon the presumptive status that he is a greatman? The custom was that a priest would be called to the Torah first, unless there was a prominent Torah scholar among the worshippers. He said to Rabbi Ami: He read the Torah as a priest, bas after him a Levite readthe Torah. A Levite is called to the Torah second only when a priest is called first. bAnd Rabbi Ami elevated him to the priesthood, on the basis of hisstatement.,The Gemara relates an incident involving ba certainman bwho came before Rabbi Yehoshua ben Leviand bsaid toRabbi Yehoshua ben Levi: bThatman established the bpresumptive statusbefore bme that he is a Levite.Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi bsaid to him: What did you seethat led you to that conclusion? bHe said toRabbi Yehoshua ben Levi: I saw bthat hewas called to the Torah and that he bread second in the synagogue.Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi asked him: Did he read second based bon the presumptive status that he is a Levite, orwas it based bon the presumptive status that he is a greatman? When there is no priest in the synagogue, people in the synagogue are called to the Torah in order of their prominence. Perhaps he was the second most prominent man in the synagogue. He said to Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi: I am certain that he is a Levite, bas a priest readthe Torah bbefore him. And Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi elevated him to Levite status, based on hisstatement.,The Gemara relates another incident involving ba certain man who came before Reish Lakishand bsaid toReish Lakish: bThatman established the bpresumptive statusbefore bme that he is a priest.Reish Lakish bsaid to him: What did you seethat led you to that conclusion? bHe said toReish Lakish: I saw bthat hewas called to the Torah and bread first in the synagogue.Reish Lakish, based on his opinion that one’s presumptive status as a priest can be established only on the basis of his receiving iteruma /i, bsaid to him: Did you see that he received a shareof iteruma bat the threshing floor? Rabbi Elazar said toReish Lakish: bAnd if there is no threshing floor there,does bthe priesthood ceaseto exist? The testimony that he read from the Torah first is sufficient.,On another boccasionRabbi Elazar and Reish Lakish bsat before Rabbi Yoḥa.A matter bsimilarto bthat incident,where one testified that another is a priest based on his reading the Torah first, bcame beforeRabbi Yoḥa. bReish Lakish said tothe person who testified: bDid you see that he received a shareof iteruma bat the threshing floor? Rabbi Yoḥa said toReish Lakish: bAnd if there is no threshing floor there,does bthe priesthood ceaseto exist? The Gemara relates that Reish Lakish bturned and looked at Rabbi Elazar harshly,as he understood that on the previous occasion, Rabbi Elazar was citing verbatim a ruling that he heard from Rabbi Yoḥa. Reish Lakish bsaidto Rabbi Elazar: bYou heard a statement of bar Nappaḥa,the son of a blacksmith, an epithet for Rabbi Yoḥa, band you did not sayit bto us in his name?Had you done so, I would have accepted it from you then.,The Gemara relates with regard to bRabbiYehuda HaNasi band Rabbi Ḥiyyathat bone elevated a son to priesthood on the basis ofthe statement of bhis father, and one elevated a brother tothe bLevite status on the basis ofthe statement of bhis brother.It is unclear which of the Sages ruled in which case.,The Gemara notes: bIt may be concluded that RabbiYehuda HaNasi is the one who belevated a son to priesthood on the basis ofthe statement of bhis father, as it is taughtin a ibaraitathat if one bcame and said: This is my son and he is a priest,his statement is bdeemed credible to enablehis son bto partake of iteruma /i, butit bis not deemed credible to marry a womanof superior lineage bto him,as his testimony is not deemed credible for the purposes of lineage; this is bthe statement of RabbiYehuda HaNasi. bRabbi Ḥiyya said to him: If you deemthe father bcredible to enablehis son bto partake of iteruma /i, deem him credible to marry a woman tohis son. bAnd if you do not deem him credible to marry a woman to him, do not deem him credibleto enable his son bto partake of iteruma /i. /b,Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi bsaid to him: I deem him credible to enablehis son bto partake of iteruma /i, as it is within his purview to feedhis son iteruma /i,and one is deemed credible with regard to matters that are within his purview. bBut I do not deem him credible to marry a woman tohis son, bas it is not within his purview to marry a woman tohis son, and therefore his testimony is not accepted. The Gemara determines: Indeed, it may be bconcludethat it is Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi who elevated a son to priesthood on the basis of the statement of his father. bAnd fromthe fact bthatit is bRabbiYehuda HaNasi who belevated a son to priesthood on the basis ofthe statement of bhis father,clearly it is bRabbi Ḥiyyawho belevated a brother to Levite status on the basis ofthe statement of bhis brother. /b,The Gemara asks: bAndaccording to bRabbi Ḥiyya, what is differentin the case of ba son, wherea father is bnotdeemed credible bbecausethe son bis a relative of his father,and therefore the father is disqualified from testifying about his son? bA brother is also a relative of his brother,and therefore the brother should have been disqualified from testifying about his brother. Rabbi Ḥiyya should accept the testimony in both cases or reject the testimony in both cases.
24. Babylonian Talmud, Rosh Hashanah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

31b. ומיבנה לאושא ומאושא ליבנה ומיבנה לאושא ומאושא לשפרעם ומשפרעם לבית שערים ומבית שערים לצפורי ומצפורי לטבריא וטבריא עמוקה מכולן שנאמר (ישעיהו כט, ד) ושפלת מארץ תדברי,רבי אלעזר אומר שש גלות שנאמר (ישעיהו כו, ה) כי השח יושבי מרום קריה נשגבה ישפילנה ישפילה עד ארץ יגיענה עד עפר א"ר יוחנן ומשם עתידין ליגאל שנאמר (ישעיהו נב, ב) התנערי מעפר קומי שבי:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big אמר ר' יהושע בן קרחה ועוד זאת התקין רבן יוחנן בן זכאי שאפילו ראש בית דין בכל מקום שלא יהו העדים הולכין אלא למקום הוועד:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big ההיא איתתא דאזמנוה לדינא קמיה דאמימר בנהרדעי אזל אמימר למחוזא ולא אזלה בתריה כתב פתיחא עילווה אמר ליה רב אשי לאמימר והא אנן תנן אפילו ראש בית דין בכל מקום שלא יהו העדים הולכין אלא למקום הוועד,א"ל הנ"מ לענין עדות החדש דא"כ נמצאת מכשילן לעתיד לבא אבל הכא (משלי כב, ז) עבד לוה לאיש מלוה,ת"ר אין כהנים רשאין לעלות בסנדליהן לדוכן וזו אחד מתשע תקנות שהתקין ריב"ז שית דהאי פירקא וחדא דפירקא קמא,ואידך דתני' גר שנתגייר בזמן הזה צריך שיפריש רובע לקינו אמר רשב"א כבר נמנה עליה רבן יוחנן וביטלה מפני התקלה,ואידך פלוגתא דרב פפא ורב נחמן בר יצחק רב פפא אמר כרם רבעי רב נחמן בר יצחק אמר לשון של זהורית,רב פפא אמר כרם רבעי (דתניא) כרם רבעי היה עולה לירושלים מהלך יום לכל צד וזו היא תחומה אילת מן (הצפון) ועקרבת מן (הדרום) לוד מן המערב וירדן מן המזרח,ואמר עולא ואיתימא רבה בר עולא א"ר יוחנן מה טעם כדי לעטר שוקי ירושלים בפירות,ותניא כרם רבעי היה לו לרבי אליעזר במזרח לוד בצד כפר טבי וביקש ר' אליעזר להפקירו לעניים,אמרו לו תלמידיו רבי כבר נמנו חבריך עליו והתירוהו מאן חבריך רבן יוחנן בן זכאי,רב נחמן בר יצחק אמר לשון של זהורית דתניא בראשונה היו קושרין לשון של זהורית על פתח אולם מבחוץ הלבין היו שמחין לא הלבין היו עצבין התקינו שיהו קושרין אותו על פתח אולם מבפנים,ועדיין היו מציצין ורואין הלבין היו שמחין לא הלבין היו עצבין התקינו שיהו קושרין אותו חציו בסלע וחציו בין קרניו של שעיר המשתלח,רב נחמן בר יצחק מאי טעמא לא אמר כרב פפא אמר לך אי סלקא דעתך רבן יוחנן בן זכאי חבריו דרבי אליעזר מי הוה רבו הוה ואידך כיון דתלמידים הוו לאו אורח ארעא למימרא ליה לרביה רבך,ורב פפא מאי טעמא לא אמר כרב נחמן בר יצחק אמר לך אי ס"ד רבן יוחנן בן זכאי בימי רבן יוחנן בן זכאי מי הוה לשון של זהורית והתניא כל שנותיו של רבן יוחנן בן זכאי מאה ועשרים שנה מ' שנה עסק בפרקמטיא מ' שנה למד מ' שנה לימד,ותניא מ' שנה קודם שנחרב הבית לא היה לשון של זהורית מלבין אלא מאדים ותנן משחרב הבית התקין רבן יוחנן בן זכאי ואידך אותם ארבעים שנה דלמד תלמיד יושב לפני רבו הוה ואמר מילתא ואסתבר טעמיה 31b. band from Yavne to Usha; and from Ushait returned bto Yavne; and from Yavneit went back bto Usha; and from Usha to Shefaram; and from Shefaram to Beit She’arim; and from Beit She’arim to Tzippori; and from Tzippori to Tiberias. And Tiberias is lower than all of them,as it is in the Jordan Valley. A verse alludes to these movements, bas it is stated: “And brought down, you shall speak out of the ground”(Isaiah 29:4)., bRabbi Elazar says:There are bsix exiles,if you count only the places, not the number of journeys, and a different verse alludes to this, bas it is stated: “For He has brought down those who dwell high, the lofty city laying it low, laying it low, to the ground, bringing it to the dust”(Isaiah 26:5). This verse mentions six expressions of lowering: Brought down, laying it low, laying it low, to the ground, bringing it, and to the dust. bRabbi Yoḥa said: And from there,i.e., from their lowest place of descent, bthey are destined to be redeemedin the future, bas it is stated: “Shake yourself from the dust, arise, sit,Jerusalem” (Isaiah 52:2)., strongMISHNA: /strong bRabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa said: And this, too, Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai instituted, that evenif bthe head of the courtof seventy-one bis in anyother bplace,not where the Great Sanhedrin is in session, bthe witnesses shouldnevertheless bgo only to the placewhere the Great Sanhedrin bgathersto deliver testimony to determine the start of the month. Although the date of the month is dependent on the head of the Great Sanhedrin, as it is he who declares that the month is sanctified (see 24a), nevertheless, Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai instituted that the members of the Great Sanhedrin may sanctify the month in the absence of the head of the court., strongGEMARA: /strong The Gemara relates: There was ba certain woman who was called to judgment before Ameimar in Neharde’a. Ameimartemporarily bwent to Meḥoza, and she did not follow himto be judged there. bHe wrote a document of excommunication [ ipetiḥa /i] concerning her,for disobeying the court. bRav Ashi said to Ameimar: Didn’t we learnin the mishna: bEvenif bthe head of the courtof seventy-one bis in anyother bplace, the witnesses should go only to the placewhere the Great Sanhedrin bgathers?This shows that one must appear in the court itself, rather than follow the head of the court.,Ameimar bsaid to him: This applies only to testimonyto determine the start bof the month,for which it is necessary to have a fixed place. The reason is bthat if so,if the witnesses come to court when the head of the court is absent and they will have to go to another place, bconsequently you will be obstructing them for futureoccasions, as they will consider it too much trouble and perhaps they will not come the next time. Therefore, the Sages said that these witnesses should go to the regular place where the Great Sanhedrin meets. bHowever, here,with regard to monetary claims, the verse states: b“The borrower is servant to the lender”(Proverbs 22:7), i.e., the defendant must act as is convenient to the claimant and the court.,§ bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: bPriests are not allowed to ascend with their sandals to the platformto recite the Priestly Blessing in the synagogue. bAnd this is one of the nine ordices that Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai instituted. Sixare mentioned bin this chapter:Sounding the ishofaron Shabbat in Yavne, taking the ilulavall seven days, the prohibition against eating new grain the entire day of waving, accepting testimony to determine the start of the month all day, having the witnesses to the New Moon go to the place of meeting, and reciting the Priestly Blessing without sandals. bAnd oneis stated bin the first chapter,that the witnesses to the New Moon may desecrate Shabbat only for the months of Tishrei and Nisan., bAnd the other, as it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bA convert who converts nowadays is required to set aside a quarter /b-shekel bfor his nest,i.e., his pair of doves. By Torah law a convert must bring two burnt-offerings of birds, in addition to his immersion and circumcision. After the destruction, it was instituted that he must set aside the value of two young pigeons in anticipation of the rebuilding of the Temple. bRabbi Shimon ben Elazar said: Rabban Yoḥaben Zakkai balreadyassembled a majority who bvoted and rescindedthe ordice bdue toa potential bmishap.If a convert is obligated to set aside money, someone might unwittingly use this money, thereby violating the prohibition against misuse of consecrated property., bAnd the otherordice, the ninth, bisthe subject of ba dispute between Rav Pappa and Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak. Rav Pappa said:The ordice concerned the fruit of a bfourth-year grapevine. Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said:It was with regard to bthe strip of crimsonwool.,The Gemara elaborates: bRav Pappa saidthat the ordice is referring to the fruit of ba fourth-year grapevine, as it is taughtin a mishna ( iBeitza5a): The fruit of ba fourth-year grapevinehas the status of second-tithe fruits, and therefore their owner bwould ascend to Jerusalemand eat the grapes there. If he is unable to do so, due to the distance involved or the weight of the load, he may redeem the fruits with money where he is, and later redeem that money for other fruits in Jerusalem. However, the Sages decreed that fruit from the environs of Jerusalem should not be redeemed; rather, the owners should bring the fruit itself to Jerusalem. The environs of Jerusalem for this purpose were defined as ba day’s walk in each direction. And this is its boundary: Eilat to the north, Akrabat to the south, Lod to the west, and the Jordanriver bto the east. /b, bAnd Ulla said, and some say Rabba bar Ullasaid that bRabbi Yoḥa said:For bwhat reasondid the Sages institute this ordice, that one who lives near Jerusalem must bring his fruit there? bIn order to adorn the markets of Jerusalem with fruit,as this decree ensures that there is always an abundance of fruit in Jerusalem., bAnd it wasfurther btaughtin a ibaraita /i: bRabbi Eliezerben Hyrcanus, a student of Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai, bhad a fourth-year grapevinelocated between Lod and Jerusalem, bto the eastof bLod alongside the village of Tavi.The vine was within the boundaries of Jerusalem for the purpose of this ihalakha /i. Rabbi Eliezer could not bring the fruit to the Temple, as the Temple had been destroyed, band Rabbi Eliezer sought to renderthe fruit bownerlessin favor bof the poor,for whom it would be worth the effort to bring the fruit to Jerusalem., bHis students said to him:Our bteacher,there is no need to do so, as byour colleagues have already voted onthe matter band permitted it,as after the destruction of the Temple there is no need to adorn the markets of Jerusalem. The Gemara explains: bWho are: Your colleagues?This is referring to bRabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai. /b, bRav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said:The ordice was with regard to bthe strip of crimsonwool used on Yom Kippur. bAs it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bAt first they would tie a strip of crimsonwool bto the opening of the Entrance Hallof the Temple bon the outside.If, after the sacrificing of the offerings and the sending of the scapegoat, the strip bturned white,the people bwould rejoice,as this indicated that their sins had been atoned for. If bit did not turn white they would be sad.When the Sages saw that people were overly distressed on Yom Kippur, bthey instituted that they should tiethe strip of crimson wool bto the opening of the Entrance Hall on the inside,where only a few could enter to see it., bButpeople bwould still peek and seeit, and once again, if bit turned white they would rejoice,and if bit did not turn white they would be sad.Therefore, the Sages binstituted that they should tie half ofthe strip bto a rocknear the place where the one who sent the scapegoat stood band half of it between the horns of the scapegoat,so that the people would not know what happened to the strip until after the conclusion of Yom Kippur. This ordice was instituted by Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai.,The Gemara explains this dispute: bWhat is the reasonthat bRav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak did not statehis opinion with regard to the ordice bin accordance withthe opinion of bRav Pappa? Hecould have bsaid to you: If it enters your mindto say that bRabban Yoḥa ben Zakkairescinded the ordice of the fruit of fourth-year grapevines, bwas heone of bRabbi Eliezer’s colleagues,that the students would have referred to him in this manner? bHe was his teacher.Therefore, Rabbi Yoḥa cannot be the one who instituted this ordice. bAnd the other,Rav Pappa, what would he respond to this? He would say that bsince they wereRabbi Eliezer’s bstudentsit is bnot proper conductfor one bto say to his teacher: Your teacher.Therefore, they referred to Rabbi Yoḥa as Rabbi Eliezer’s colleague.,The Gemara asks: bAnd what is the reasonthat bRav Pappa did not statehis opinion bin accordance withthe opinion of bRav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak?Rav Pappa could have bsaid to you: If it enters your mindto say that this ordice for Yom Kippur was instituted by bRabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai, in the days of Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai was therein fact ba strip of crimsonwool? bIsn’t it taughtin a ibaraita /i: bAll the years of Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai’slife were b120 years: Forty years he was involved in businessso that he could achieve ficial independence and study Torah, bforty years he studiedTorah, and bforty years he taughtTorah., bAnd it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: During bthe forty years before theSecond bTemple was destroyed the strip of crimsonwool bwould not turn white; rather,it would bturna deeper shade of bred. And we learnedin the mishna: bWhen the Temple was destroyed Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai institutedhis ordices. This shows that Rabban Yoḥa lived and taught Torah after the destruction. Therefore the ordice of the crimson wool must have been made while Rabban Yoḥa was still studying Torah, before he instituted any ordices. The Gemara asks: bAnd the otherSage, Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak, what would he answer? According to him, that ordice was instituted during bthose forty years that he studiedTorah. He bwasthen ba student sitting before his teacher, and he said a matter,i.e., he suggested this ordice, band his reasoning made senseto the Sages
25. Babylonian Talmud, Sotah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

40a. בנעילה דיומא דכיפורי מאי אמר אמר מר זוטרא ואמרי לה במתניתא (תהלים קכח, ד) הנה כי כן יברך גבר ירא ה' יברכך ה' מציון וראה בטוב ירושלים כל ימי חייך וראה בנים לבניך שלום על ישראל,היכן אומרן רב יוסף אמר בין כל ברכה וברכה ורב ששת אמר בהזכרת השם,פליגי בה רב מרי ורב זביד חד אמר פסוקא לקבל פסוקא וחד אמר אכל פסוקא אמר להו לכולהו,א"ר חייא בר אבא כל האומרן בגבולין אינו אלא טועה אמר רבי חנינא בר פפא תדע דבמקדש נמי לא מיבעי למימרינהו כלום יש לך עבד שמברכין אותו ואינו מאזין,א"ר אחא בר חנינא תדע דבגבולין נמי מיבעי למימרינהו כלום יש עבד שמברכין אותו ואין מסביר פנים א"ר אבהו מריש הוה אמינא להו כיון דחזינא ליה לרבי אבא דמן עכו דלא אמר להו אנא נמי לא אמינא להו,ואמר רבי אבהו מריש הוה אמינא עינותנא אנא כיון דחזינא ליה לרבי אבא דמן עכו דאמר איהו חד טעמא ואמר אמוריה חד טעמא ולא קפיד אמינא לאו עינותנא אנא,ומאי עינוותנותיה דרבי אבהו דאמרה לה דביתהו דאמוריה דרבי אבהו לדביתיה דרבי אבהו הא דידן לא צריך ליה לדידך והאי דגחין וזקיף עליה יקרא בעלמא הוא דעביד ליה אזלא דביתהו ואמרה ליה לרבי אבהו אמר לה ומאי נפקא ליך מינה מיני ומיניה יתקלס עילאה,ותו רבי אבהו אימנו רבנן עליה לממנייה ברישא כיון דחזיה לר' אבא דמן עכו דנפישי ליה בעלי חובות אמר להו איכא רבה,ר' אבהו ור' חייא בר אבא איקלעו לההוא אתרא רבי אבהו דרש באגדתא רבי חייא בר אבא דרש בשמעתא שבקוה כולי עלמא לרבי חייא בר אבא ואזול לגביה דר' אבהו חלש דעתיה אמר ליה אמשל לך משל למה הדבר דומה לשני בני אדם אחד מוכר אבנים טובות ואחד מוכר מיני סידקית על מי קופצין לא על זה שמוכר מיני סידקית,כל יומא הוה מלוה רבי חייא בר אבא לרבי אבהו עד אושפיזיה משום יקרא דבי קיסר ההוא יומא אלויה רבי אבהו לרבי חייא בר אבא עד אושפיזיה ואפילו הכי לא איתותב דעתיה מיניה,בזמן ששליח צבור אומר מודים העם מה הם אומרים אמר רב מודים אנחנו לך ה' אלהינו על שאנו מודים לך ושמואל אמר אלהי כל בשר על שאנו מודים לך רבי סימאי אומר יוצרנו יוצר בראשית על שאנו מודים לך נהרדעי אמרי משמיה דרבי סימאי ברכות והודאות לשמך הגדול על שהחייתנו וקיימתנו על שאנו מודים לך רב אחא בר יעקב מסיים בה הכי כן תחיינו ותחננו ותקבצנו ותאסוף גליותינו לחצרות קדשך לשמור חוקיך ולעשות רצונך בלבב שלם על שאנו מודים לך,אמר רב פפא הילכך נימרינהו לכולהו,אמר ר' יצחק לעולם תהא אימת צבור עליך שהרי כהנים פניהם כלפי העם ואחוריהם כלפי שכינה,רב נחמן אמר מהכא (דברי הימים א כח, ב) ויקם המלך דוד על רגליו ויאמר שמעוני אחי ועמי אם אחי למה עמי ואם עמי למה אחי אמר רבי אלעזר אמר להם דוד לישראל אם אתם שומעין לי אחי אתם ואם לאו עמי אתם ואני רודה אתכם במקל,רבנן אמרי מהכא דאין הכהנים רשאין לעלות בסנדליהן לדוכן וזהו אחת מתשע תקנות שהתקין רבן יוחנן בן זכאי מאי טעמא לאו משום כבוד צבור אמר רב אשי לא התם שמא נפסקה לו רצועה בסנדלו והדר אזיל למיקטריה ואמרי בן גרושה או בן חלוצה הוא,ובמקדש ברכה אחת כו' 40a. bDuring the closing prayer [ ine’ila /i] of Yom Kippur,which also includes the Priestly Benediction, bwhat dothe people bsay? Mar Zutra says, and some saythat this was taught bin a ibaraita /i: “Behold, surely thus shall the man who fears the Lord be blessed”(Psalms 128:4), b“The Lord shall bless you out of Zion, and you shall see the good of Jerusalem all the days of your life”(Psalms 128:5), and b“And see your children’s children. Peace be upon Israel”(Psalms 128:6).,The Gemara asks: bWhere doesthe congregation bsaythese verses during the Priestly Benediction? bRav Yosef says:They are said bbetween each and every blessing. And Rav Sheshet says:They are said bduring the mention of the nameof God in each of the three blessings., bRav Mari and Rav Zevid disagree aboutthis matter. bOne says:The congregation recites one bverseat a time, bcorresponding tothe bversethat the priests recite. bAnd one says: For everysingle bversethat the priests recite, the congregation bsays allthree verses., bRabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba says: Anyone who recitesthese verses bin the outlying areas,i.e., outside the Temple, bis nothing other than mistakenin his practice. bRabbi Ḥanina bar Pappa said:You should bknow that in the Temple alsopeople bshould not recitethese verses. bDo you have a servant who is being blessed and does not listento the blessing, but rather speaks at the same time?,Conversely, bRabbi Aḥa bar Ḥanina says:You should bknow that in the outlying areas one is also required to saythese verses. bIs there a servant who is being blessed and his face does not brighten?Therefore, one must recite these verses to give thanks for receiving the Priestly Benediction. bRabbi Abbahu says: At first, I would recitethese verses, but bsince I saw that Rabbi Abba of Akko does not say them, I also do not recite themanymore., bAnd Rabbi Abbahu says: At first, I would sayto myself that bI was humble. Since I saw that Rabbi Abba of Akko himself stated one reasonfor a matter, band his interpreter stated oneother breasonof his own rather than delivering the reason that Rabbi Abba stated, bandyet Rabbi Abba bdid not mind, I sayto myself that bI am not humble. /b,The Gemara asks: bAnd what was the humility of Rabbi Abbahu?The Gemara relates bthat Rabbi Abbahu’s interpreter’s wife said to Rabbi Abbahu’s wife: This one of ours,i.e., my husband, bhas no need for yourhusband Rabbi Abbahu, as he could teach everything on his own. bAndthe fact bthat he bends overto listen to Rabbi Abbahu, bandthen bstands up above him,and repeats his words to the congregants bis merely to show respect for him.Rabbi Abbahu’s bwife went and toldthis bto Rabbi Abbahu. He said to her: And what difference does it make to you? Through me and through him the One above will be exalted,and it does not matter which one of us is teaching., bAnd furthermore,in another example of his humility, bthe Sages were countedand reached a decision bto appoint Rabbi Abbahu to be the headof the yeshiva. bSince he saw that Rabbi Abba of Akko had many creditorsand was impoverished, he attempted to get him out of debt. bHe said to them: There isa man who is bgreaterthan me, Rabbi Abba.,The Gemara relates another example of his humility: bRabbi Abbahu and Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba happenedto come bto a certain place. Rabbi Abbahu taughtmatters of iaggada /i,and at the same time bRabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba taught ihalakha /i. Everyone left Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba and went to Rabbi Abbahu,and Rabbi Ḥiyya bwas offended.Rabbi Abbahu bsaid to him,to appease him: bI will tell you a parable: To what is this matter comparable?It is comparable bto two people, onewho bsells precious stones and onewho bsells small items [ isidkit /i]. Upon whom dothe customers bspring? Don’tthey spring bupon the one who sells small items?Similarly, you teach lofty and important matters that do not attract many people. Everyone comes to me because I teach minor matters.,The Gemara relates that bevery day Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba would escort Rabbi Abbahu to his lodging place [ iushpizei /i] out of respect for the house of the emperor,with which Rabbi Abbahu was associated. On bthat day, Rabbi Abbahu escorted Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba to his lodging place, and even so,Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba’s bmind was not at ease withRabbi Abbahu and he felt insulted.,§ The Gemara returns to discuss the response of the congregants to certain parts of the prayer service. bWhile the prayer leader is recitingthe blessing of: bWe give thanks, what do the people say? Rav saysthat they say: bWe give thanks to You, Lord our God, forthe merit of bgiving thanks to You. And Shmuel saysthat one should say: bGod of allliving bflesh, forthe merit of bgiving thanks to You. Rabbi Simai saysthat one should say: bOur Creator, Who createdeverything bin the beginning, forthe merit of bgiving thanks to You.The Sages bof Neharde’a say in the name of Rabbi Simaithat one should say: We offer bblessings and praises to Your great name, for You have given us life and sustained us, for giving thanks to You. Rav Aḥa bar Ya’akovwould bfinishthe blessing bas follows: So may You give us life, and show us favor, and collect us, and gather our exiles into Your sacred courtyards, in order to observe Your laws and to fulfill Your will wholeheartedly, for giving thanks to You. /b, bRav Pappa said:These Sages each added a different element to the prayer. bTherefore, we shouldcombine them together and brecite all of them. /b,§ bRabbi Yitzḥak says: The awe of the public should always be upon you,i.e., one must always treat the public courteously. bAswhen the bpriestsbless the people they bface the people and their backs are toward the Divine Presence,out of respect for the congregation., bRav Naḥman saidthat this principle is derived bfrom here: “Then King David stood up upon his feet, and said: Hear me, my brethren, and my people”(I Chronicles 28:2). Evidently, King David stood up to address the people rather than remain seated. bIfhe said b“my brethren,” whydid he say b“my people”? And ifhe said b“my people” whydid he say b“my brethren”? Rabbi Elazar says: David said to the Jewish people: If you listen to me, you are my brethren. And ifyou do bnotlisten to me willingly, byou are my peopleand I am your king, band I will rule over youby force bwith a staff.This shows that if the nation acted properly, David would relate to them respectfully., bThe Sages saythat the importance of showing respect for the congregation is derived bfrom here:The ihalakhais bthat the priests are not permitted to ascend the platformto recite the benediction bin their sandals,as is taught in a ibaraita /i. bAnd this ihalakha bis one of nine ordices that Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai instituted. What is the reasonfor this ordice? bIs it not out of respect for the congregation,as it would be disrespectful for the priests to display their dirty sandals in front of the congregants? bRav Ashi said: No,this is not the reason. bThere,in the ibaraita /i, the reason is a concern blest a strap of his sandal break, and hewill therefore breturnto his place bto go tie itand not ascend the platform in time for the benediction, bandpeople will bsaythat he was removed from the platform because he is disqualified from the priesthood, as he bis the son ofa priest and ba divorced woman or the son ofa priest and ba iḥalutza /i. /b,§ It is taught in the mishna: bAnd in the Temple,the priests recite the three verses as bone blessing. /b
26. Babylonian Talmud, Taanit, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

2a. מתני׳ big strongמאימתי /strong /big מזכירין גבורות גשמים רבי אליעזר אומר מיום טוב הראשון של חג ר' יהושע אומר מיום טוב האחרון של חג,אמר לו ר' יהושע הואיל ואין הגשמים אלא סימן קללה בחג למה הוא מזכיר אמר לו ר' אליעזר אף אני לא אמרתי לשאול אלא להזכיר משיב הרוח ומוריד הגשם בעונתו אמר לו א"כ לעולם יהא מזכיר,אין שואלין את הגשמים אלא סמוך לגשמים ר' יהודה אומר העובר לפני התיבה ביו"ט האחרון של חג האחרון מזכיר הראשון אינו מזכיר ביו"ט הראשון של פסח הראשון מזכיר האחרון אינו מזכיר, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big תנא היכא קאי דקתני מאימתי תנא התם קאי,דקתני מזכירין גבורות גשמים בתחיית המתים ושואלין בברכת השנים והבדלה בחונן הדעת וקתני מאימתי מזכירין גבורות גשמים,וליתני התם מ"ש דשבקיה עד הכא,אלא תנא מראש השנה סליק דתנן ובחג נידונין על המים ואיידי דתנא ובחג נידונין על המים תנא מאימתי מזכירין גבורות גשמים,וליתני מאימתי מזכירין על הגשמים מאי גבורות גשמים א"ר יוחנן מפני שיורדין בגבורה שנאמר (איוב ה, ט) עושה גדולות עד אין חקר ונפלאות עד אין מספר וכתיב (איוב ה, י) הנותן מטר על פני ארץ ושולח מים על פני חוצות,מאי משמע אמר רבה בר שילא אתיא חקר חקר מברייתו של עולם,כתיב הכא עושה גדולות עד אין חקר וכתיב התם (ישעיהו מ, כח) הלא ידעת אם לא שמעת אלהי עולם ה' בורא קצות הארץ לא ייעף ולא ייגע אין חקר לתבונתו וכתיב (תהלים סה, ז) מכין הרים בכחו נאזר בגבורה,ומנא לן דבתפלה דתניא (דברים יא, יג) לאהבה את ה' אלהיכם ולעבדו בכל לבבכם איזו היא עבודה שהיא בלב הוי אומר זו תפלה וכתיב בתריה (דברים יא, יד) ונתתי מטר ארצכם בעתו יורה ומלקוש,אמר ר' יוחנן ג' מפתחות בידו של הקב"ה שלא נמסרו ביד שליח ואלו הן מפתח של גשמים מפתח של חיה מפתח של תחיית המתים,מפתח של גשמים דכתיב (דברים כח, יב) יפתח ה' לך את אוצרו הטוב את השמים לתת מטר ארצך בעתו מפתח של חיה מנין דכתיב ויזכור אלהים את רחל וישמע 2a. strongMISHNA: /strong bFrom when,i.e., from which date, bdoes onebegin to bmention the might of the rainsby inserting the phrase: He makes the wind blow and rain fall, in the second blessing of the iAmidaprayer? bRabbi Eliezer says:The phrase is inserted bfrom the first Festival day of the festivalof iSukkot /i. bRabbi Yehoshua says: From the last Festival day of the festivalof iSukkot /i., bRabbi Yehoshua said toRabbi Eliezer: bSince rain is nothing otherthan ba sign of a curse during the festivalof iSukkot /i, as rainfall forces Jews to leave their isukkot /i, bwhyshould bone mentionthe might of rain during this period? bRabbi Eliezer said to him: I too did not saythat it is proper bto requestrain at this time, bbutit is proper only bto mentionthe phrase: bHe makes the wind blow and rain fall, in its due time.Rabbi Yehoshua bsaid to him: If so,i.e., if reciting the phrase does not constitute a request for rain, bone should always mentionrain, even in the summer.,The mishna states a general principle: bOne requests rain onlyimmediately bpreceding the rainy season. Rabbi Yehuda says:With regard to bthe one who passes before the arkas prayer leader bon the concluding Festival day of the festivalof iSukkot /i, the Eighth Day of Assembly: bThe lastprayer leader, who leads the additional prayer, bmentionsrain, whereas bthe firstprayer leader, for the morning prayer, bdoes not mentionrain. The opposite is the case at the conclusion of the period for mentioning rain bon the first Festival day of Passover:Here, bthe firstprayer leader, who leads the morning prayer, bmentionsrain, while bthe lastprayer leader, who leads the additional prayer, bdoes not mentionrain., strongGEMARA: /strong The Gemara asks: bWhere doesthe itanna /iof the mishna bstand, thathe bteaches: From when?The mishna’s opening question indicates that it has already been established that there is an obligation to mention rain at this time of the year. Where is this obligation stated? The Gemara answers: The itannais standing there,i.e., he bases himself on a mishna in iBerakhot /i., bAs it teaches( iBerakhot33a): bOne mentions the might of the rainsand recites: He makes the wind blow and the rain fall binthe second blessing of the iAmidaprayer, the blessing of bthe resurrection of the dead. And the requestfor rain: And grant dew and rain as a blessing, is recited binthe ninth blessing of the iAmidaprayer, bthe blessing of the years. Andthe prayer of bdistinction [ ihavdala /i]between the sacred and the profane, recited in the evening prayer following Shabbat and Festivals, is recited binthe fourth blessing of the iAmidaprayer: bWho graciously grants knowledge. Andit is based on that mishna, which establishes the obligation to request for rain, bthatthis mishna bteaches: From when does onebegin to bmention the might of the rains. /b,The Gemara asks: bButif so, bletthe itanna bteachthis ihalakha bthere,in tractate iBerakhot /i, at the beginning of the order of iZera’im /i. bWhat is differentabout this case bthat he left it until here,toward the end of the order of iMoed /i? In other words, if this issue is indeed a continuation of the mishna in iBerakhot /i, why did the itannaneglect it until tractate iTa’anit /i?,The Gemara answers: bRather, the itannainterrupteda discussion bfromtractate iRosh HaShana /i. As we learnedin a mishna there: bAnd on the festivalof iSukkotall creatures bare judged for water. Sincethe itanna btaught: And on the festivalof iSukkotall creatures bare judged for water,from which it can be inferred that one should request rain near the time of this judgment, he btaughthere: bFrom when does one mention the might of the rains. /b,§ The Gemara asks a question with regard to the language of the mishna: bAnd letthe itannasimply bteach: From when does one mention the rains. What isthe meaning of the phrase: bThe might of the rains? Rabbi Yoḥa said: Becausethe rains bfall with might.The might of the rain displays God’s power in the world, bas it is stated: “Who does great things beyond comprehension, marvels without number”(Job 5:9). bAnd it isalso bwritten: “Who gives rain upon the earth, and sends water upon the fields”(Job 5:10).,The Gemara asks: bFrom wheremay it bbe inferredthat these verses indicate that rainfall is considered a mighty act of God? bRabba bar Sheila said:This is bderivedby means of a verbal analogy between the term b“comprehension”here and the term b“comprehension” froma passage that deals with bthe creation of the world. /b,Rabba bar Sheila elaborates on this verbal analogy. bIt is written here: “Who does great things that are beyond comprehension,” and it is written there,with regard to the creation of the world: b“Have you not known? Have you not heard that the everlasting God, the Lord, the Creator of the ends of the earth, does not grow faint or weary? His discernment is beyond comprehension”(Isaiah 40:28). This shows that both creation and rainfall are beyond comprehension. bAndconcerning the creation of the world, bit is writtenelsewhere: b“Who sets firm the mountains with Your strength; Who is girded with might”(Psalms 65:7). From this verse it can be inferred that rainfall, like the creation of the world, reflects God’s might.,The Gemara asks: bAnd from where do wederive that rain must be mentioned specifically binthe iAmida bprayer?The Gemara answers: bAs it was taughtin a ibaraitawith regard to the verse: b“To love the Lord your God and to serve Him with all your heart”(Deuteronomy 11:13). bWhich is the serviceof God bthat isperformed bin the heart? You must saythat bthisis referring to bprayer. And, afterward, it is written: “And I shall give the rain of your land in its due time, the first rain and the last rain”(Deuteronomy 11:14). This juxtaposition teaches that it is appropriate to request rain while engaged in the service of the heart, i.e., prayer.,§ The Gemara cites related statements concerning the idea that rainfall provides evidence of God’s might. bRabbi Yoḥa said:There are bthree keysmaintained bin the hand of the Holy One, Blessed be He, which were not transmitted to an intermediary,i.e., God tends to these matters Himself. bAnd they are: The key of rain, the key of birthing, and the key of the resurrection of the dead. /b,Rabbi Yoḥa cites verses in support of his claim. bThe key of rain, as it is stated: “The Lord will open for you His good treasure, the heavens, to give the rain of your land in its due time”(Deuteronomy 28:12), indicates that rainfall is controlled by God Himself. bFrom whereis it derived that bthe key of birthingis maintained by God? bAs it is written: “And God remembered Rachel and listened /b
27. Anon., Midrash Psalms, 17.5, 19.2 (4th cent. CE - 9th cent. CE)



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
aliyah (to torah) Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 526
amidah Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 158
daily services Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 207
destruction Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 158
face Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 158
gamaliel ii, rabban Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 207
hekhalot Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 158
high priest Trudinger, The Psalms of the Tamid Service: A Liturgical Text from the Second Temple (2004) 18, 19
idelsohn a.z. Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 207
levine l.e. Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 178
levites, torah reading ceremony Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 526
lordship of yahweh Trudinger, The Psalms of the Tamid Service: A Liturgical Text from the Second Temple (2004) 19
maamads Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 178
prayer Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 158
priest, priests, synagogue ritual Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 526
priestly blessing Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 158
prophets (books of) Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 526
r. yohanan b. zakkai Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 526
rowley h.h. Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 178
sacrifices, jerusalem temple Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 526
shekhinah Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 158
sheliah tzibbur, prayer leader Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 526
shema, and amidah Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 526
study, communal, tamid (daily) sacrifice Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 526
synagogues Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 178
tamid service, components Trudinger, The Psalms of the Tamid Service: A Liturgical Text from the Second Temple (2004) 18, 19
tamid service, description Trudinger, The Psalms of the Tamid Service: A Liturgical Text from the Second Temple (2004) 18
tamid service, laity at Trudinger, The Psalms of the Tamid Service: A Liturgical Text from the Second Temple (2004) 19
tamid service, levites, role of Trudinger, The Psalms of the Tamid Service: A Liturgical Text from the Second Temple (2004) 19
tamid service, priests, role of Trudinger, The Psalms of the Tamid Service: A Liturgical Text from the Second Temple (2004) 19
tamid service, rituals outside jerusalem Trudinger, The Psalms of the Tamid Service: A Liturgical Text from the Second Temple (2004) 19
tamid tractate, gaps in Trudinger, The Psalms of the Tamid Service: A Liturgical Text from the Second Temple (2004) 18
tamid tractate, in mishnah' Trudinger, The Psalms of the Tamid Service: A Liturgical Text from the Second Temple (2004) 18
temple Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 158
throne Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 158
torah Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 158
worship, daily and weekly Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 178, 207