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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



8041
Mishnah, Sotah, 7.6


בִּרְכַּת כֹּהֲנִים כֵּיצַד, בַּמְּדִינָה אוֹמְרִים אוֹתָהּ שָׁלשׁ בְּרָכוֹת, וּבַמִּקְדָּשׁ בְּרָכָה אֶחָת. בַּמִּקְדָּשׁ אוֹמֵר אֶת הַשֵּׁם כִּכְתָבוֹ, וּבַמְּדִינָה בְכִנּוּיוֹ. בַּמְּדִינָה כֹּהֲנִים נוֹשְׂאִים אֶת יְדֵיהֶן כְּנֶגֶד כִּתְפֵיהֶן, וּבַמִּקְדָּשׁ עַל גַּבֵּי רָאשֵׁיהֶן, חוּץ מִכֹּהֵן גָּדוֹל שֶׁאֵינוֹ מַגְבִּיהַּ אֶת יָדָיו לְמַעְלָה מִן הַצִּיץ. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, אַף כֹּהֵן גָּדוֹל מַגְבִּיהַּ יָדָיו לְמַעְלָה מִן הַצִּיץ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא ט) וַיִּשָּׂא אַהֲרֹן אֶת יָדָיו אֶל הָעָם וַיְבָרְכֵם:How was the priestly blessing [pronounced]?In the province (outside of the Temple) it was said as three blessings, but in the Temple as one blessing. In the Temple the name was uttered as it is written, but in the province in its substituted name. In the province the priests raise their hands at the height of their shoulders, but in the Temple above their heads, except the high priest who does not raise his hands higher than the frontlet (on his forehead). Rabbi Judah says: even the high priest raises his hands higher than the frontlet, as it says, “And Aaron lifted up his hands toward the people and blessed them” (Leviticus 9:22).


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

31 results
1. Septuagint, Tobit, 13.2 (10th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

13.2. For he afflicts, and he shows mercy;he leads down to Hades, and brings up again,and there is no one who can escape his hand.
2. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 6.4-6.9, 11.13-11.21 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

6.4. שְׁמַע יִשְׂרָאֵל יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵינוּ יְהוָה אֶחָד׃ 6.5. וְאָהַבְתָּ אֵת יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ בְּכָל־לְבָבְךָ וּבְכָל־נַפְשְׁךָ וּבְכָל־מְאֹדֶךָ׃ 6.6. וְהָיוּ הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה אֲשֶׁר אָנֹכִי מְצַוְּךָ הַיּוֹם עַל־לְבָבֶךָ׃ 6.7. וְשִׁנַּנְתָּם לְבָנֶיךָ וְדִבַּרְתָּ בָּם בְּשִׁבְתְּךָ בְּבֵיתֶךָ וּבְלֶכְתְּךָ בַדֶּרֶךְ וּבְשָׁכְבְּךָ וּבְקוּמֶךָ׃ 6.8. וּקְשַׁרְתָּם לְאוֹת עַל־יָדֶךָ וְהָיוּ לְטֹטָפֹת בֵּין עֵינֶיךָ׃ 6.9. וּכְתַבְתָּם עַל־מְזוּזֹת בֵּיתֶךָ וּבִשְׁעָרֶיךָ׃ 11.13. וְהָיָה אִם־שָׁמֹעַ תִּשְׁמְעוּ אֶל־מִצְוֺתַי אֲשֶׁר אָנֹכִי מְצַוֶּה אֶתְכֶם הַיּוֹם לְאַהֲבָה אֶת־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם וּלְעָבְדוֹ בְּכָל־לְבַבְכֶם וּבְכָל־נַפְשְׁכֶם׃ 11.14. וְנָתַתִּי מְטַר־אַרְצְכֶם בְּעִתּוֹ יוֹרֶה וּמַלְקוֹשׁ וְאָסַפְתָּ דְגָנֶךָ וְתִירֹשְׁךָ וְיִצְהָרֶךָ׃ 11.15. וְנָתַתִּי עֵשֶׂב בְּשָׂדְךָ לִבְהֶמְתֶּךָ וְאָכַלְתָּ וְשָׂבָעְתָּ׃ 11.16. הִשָּׁמְרוּ לָכֶם פֶּן יִפְתֶּה לְבַבְכֶם וְסַרְתֶּם וַעֲבַדְתֶּם אֱלֹהִים אֲחֵרִים וְהִשְׁתַּחֲוִיתֶם לָהֶם׃ 11.17. וְחָרָה אַף־יְהוָה בָּכֶם וְעָצַר אֶת־הַשָּׁמַיִם וְלֹא־יִהְיֶה מָטָר וְהָאֲדָמָה לֹא תִתֵּן אֶת־יְבוּלָהּ וַאֲבַדְתֶּם מְהֵרָה מֵעַל הָאָרֶץ הַטֹּבָה אֲשֶׁר יְהוָה נֹתֵן לָכֶם׃ 11.18. וְשַׂמְתֶּם אֶת־דְּבָרַי אֵלֶּה עַל־לְבַבְכֶם וְעַל־נַפְשְׁכֶם וּקְשַׁרְתֶּם אֹתָם לְאוֹת עַל־יֶדְכֶם וְהָיוּ לְטוֹטָפֹת בֵּין עֵינֵיכֶם׃ 11.19. וְלִמַּדְתֶּם אֹתָם אֶת־בְּנֵיכֶם לְדַבֵּר בָּם בְּשִׁבְתְּךָ בְּבֵיתֶךָ וּבְלֶכְתְּךָ בַדֶּרֶךְ וּבְשָׁכְבְּךָ וּבְקוּמֶךָ׃ 11.21. לְמַעַן יִרְבּוּ יְמֵיכֶם וִימֵי בְנֵיכֶם עַל הָאֲדָמָה אֲשֶׁר נִשְׁבַּע יְהוָה לַאֲבֹתֵיכֶם לָתֵת לָהֶם כִּימֵי הַשָּׁמַיִם עַל־הָאָרֶץ׃ 6.4. HEAR, O ISRAEL: THE LORD OUR GOD, THE LORD IS ONE." 6.5. And thou shalt love the LORD thy God with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy might." 6.6. And these words, which I command thee this day, shall be upon thy heart;" 6.7. and thou shalt teach them diligently unto thy children, and shalt talk of them when thou sittest in thy house, and when thou walkest by the way, and when thou liest down, and when thou risest up." 6.8. And thou shalt bind them for a sign upon thy hand, and they shall be for frontlets between thine eyes." 6.9. And thou shalt write them upon the door-posts of thy house, and upon thy gates." 11.13. And it shall come to pass, if ye shall hearken diligently unto My commandments which I command you this day, to love the LORD your God, and to serve Him with all your heart and with all your soul," 11.14. that I will give the rain of your land in its season, the former rain and the latter rain, that thou mayest gather in thy corn, and thy wine, and thine oil." 11.15. And I will give grass in thy fields for thy cattle, and thou shalt eat and be satisfied." 11.16. Take heed to yourselves, lest your heart be deceived, and ye turn aside, and serve other gods, and worship them;" 11.17. and the anger of the LORD be kindled against you, and He shut up the heaven, so that there shall be no rain, and the ground shall not yield her fruit; and ye perish quickly from off the good land which the LORD giveth you." 11.18. Therefore shall ye lay up these My words in your heart and in your soul; and ye shall bind them for a sign upon your hand, and they shall be for frontlets between your eyes." 11.19. And ye shall teach them your children, talking of them, when thou sittest in thy house, and when thou walkest by the way, and when thou liest down, and when thou risest up." 11.20. And thou shalt write them upon the door-posts of thy house, and upon thy gates;" 11.21. that your days may be multiplied, and the days of your children, upon the land which the LORD swore unto your fathers to give them, as the days of the heavens above the earth."
3. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 7.8, 9.22, 21.1 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

7.8. וְהַכֹּהֵן הַמַּקְרִיב אֶת־עֹלַת אִישׁ עוֹר הָעֹלָה אֲשֶׁר הִקְרִיב לַכֹּהֵן לוֹ יִהְיֶה׃ 9.22. וַיִּשָּׂא אַהֲרֹן אֶת־ידו [יָדָיו] אֶל־הָעָם וַיְבָרְכֵם וַיֵּרֶד מֵעֲשֹׂת הַחַטָּאת וְהָעֹלָה וְהַשְּׁלָמִים׃ 21.1. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה אֱמֹר אֶל־הַכֹּהֲנִים בְּנֵי אַהֲרֹן וְאָמַרְתָּ אֲלֵהֶם לְנֶפֶשׁ לֹא־יִטַּמָּא בְּעַמָּיו׃ 21.1. וְהַכֹּהֵן הַגָּדוֹל מֵאֶחָיו אֲ‍שֶׁר־יוּצַק עַל־רֹאשׁוֹ שֶׁמֶן הַמִּשְׁחָה וּמִלֵּא אֶת־יָדוֹ לִלְבֹּשׁ אֶת־הַבְּגָדִים אֶת־רֹאשׁוֹ לֹא יִפְרָע וּבְגָדָיו לֹא יִפְרֹם׃ 7.8. And the priest that offereth any man’s burnt-offering, even the priest shall have to himself the skin of the burnt-offering which he hath offered." 9.22. And Aaron lifted up his hands toward the people, and blessed them; and he came down from offering the sin-offering, and the burnt-offering, and the peace-offerings." 21.1. And the LORD said unto Moses: Speak unto the priests the sons of Aaron, and say unto them: There shall none defile himself for the dead among his people;"
4. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 6.23-6.27, 15.37-15.41 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

6.23. דַּבֵּר אֶל־אַהֲרֹן וְאֶל־בָּנָיו לֵאמֹר כֹּה תְבָרֲכוּ אֶת־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אָמוֹר לָהֶם׃ 6.24. יְבָרֶכְךָ יְהוָה וְיִשְׁמְרֶךָ׃ 6.25. יָאֵר יְהוָה פָּנָיו אֵלֶיךָ וִיחֻנֶּךָּ׃ 6.26. יִשָּׂא יְהוָה פָּנָיו אֵלֶיךָ וְיָשֵׂם לְךָ שָׁלוֹם׃ 6.27. וְשָׂמוּ אֶת־שְׁמִי עַל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וַאֲנִי אֲבָרֲכֵם׃ 15.37. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה לֵּאמֹר׃ 15.38. דַּבֵּר אֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאָמַרְתָּ אֲלֵהֶם וְעָשׂוּ לָהֶם צִיצִת עַל־כַּנְפֵי בִגְדֵיהֶם לְדֹרֹתָם וְנָתְנוּ עַל־צִיצִת הַכָּנָף פְּתִיל תְּכֵלֶת׃ 15.39. וְהָיָה לָכֶם לְצִיצִת וּרְאִיתֶם אֹתוֹ וּזְכַרְתֶּם אֶת־כָּל־מִצְוֺת יְהוָה וַעֲשִׂיתֶם אֹתָם וְלֹא־תָתֻרוּ אַחֲרֵי לְבַבְכֶם וְאַחֲרֵי עֵינֵיכֶם אֲשֶׁר־אַתֶּם זֹנִים אַחֲרֵיהֶם׃ 15.41. אֲנִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם אֲשֶׁר הוֹצֵאתִי אֶתְכֶם מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם לִהְיוֹת לָכֶם לֵאלֹהִים אֲנִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם׃ 6.23. ’Speak unto Aaron and unto his sons, saying: On this wise ye shall bless the children of Israel; ye shall say unto them:" 6.24. The LORD bless thee, and keep thee;" 6.25. The LORD make His face to shine upon thee, and be gracious unto thee;" 6.26. The LORD lift up His countece upon thee, and give thee peace." 6.27. So shall they put My name upon the children of Israel, and I will bless them.’" 15.37. And the LORD spoke unto Moses, saying:" 15.38. ’Speak unto the children of Israel, and bid them that they make them throughout their generations fringes in the corners of their garments, and that they put with the fringe of each corner a thread of blue." 15.39. And it shall be unto you for a fringe, that ye may look upon it, and remember all the commandments of the LORD, and do them; and that ye go not about after your own heart and your own eyes, after which ye use to go astray;" 15.40. that ye may remember and do all My commandments, and be holy unto your God." 15.41. I am the LORD your God, who brought you out of the land of Egypt, to be your God: I am the LORD your God.’"
5. Septuagint, Tobit, 13.2 (4th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

13.2. For he afflicts, and he shows mercy;he leads down to Hades, and brings up again,and there is no one who can escape his hand.
6. Septuagint, 2 Maccabees, 3.20, 4.37, 6.23, 8.5, 14.34, 15.21 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

3.20. And holding up their hands to heaven, they all made entreaty.' 4.37. Therefore Antiochus was grieved at heart and filled with pity, and wept because of the moderation and good conduct of the deceased;' 6.23. But making a high resolve, worthy of his years and the dignity of his old age and the gray hairs which he had reached with distinction and his excellent life even from childhood, and moreover according to the holy God-given law, he declared himself quickly, telling them to send him to Hades.' 8.5. As soon as Maccabeus got his army organized, the Gentiles could not withstand him, for the wrath of the Lord had turned to mercy.' 14.34. Having said this, he went away. Then the priests stretched forth their hands toward heaven and called upon the constant Defender of our nation, in these words:' 15.21. Maccabeus, perceiving the hosts that were before him and the varied supply of arms and the savagery of the elephants, stretched out his hands toward heaven and called upon the Lord who works wonders; for he knew that it is not by arms, but as the Lord decides, that he gains the victory for those who deserve it.'
7. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 50.1-50.21 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

50.1. The leader of his brethren and the pride of his people was Simon the high priest, son of Onias,who in his life repaired the house,and in his time fortified the temple. 50.1. like an olive tree putting forth its fruit,and like a cypress towering in the clouds. 50.2. He laid the foundations for the high double walls,the high retaining walls for the temple enclosure. 50.2. Then Simon came down, and lifted up his hands over the whole congregation of the sons of Israel,to pronounce the blessing of the Lord with his lips,and to glory in his name; 50.3. In his days a cistern for water was quarried out,a reservoir like the sea in circumference. 50.4. He considered how to save his people from ruin,and fortified the city to withstand a seige. 50.5. How glorious he was when the people gathered round him as he came out of the inner sanctuary! 50.7. like the sun shining upon the temple of the Most High,and like the rainbow gleaming in glorious clouds; 50.8. like roses in the days of the first fruits,like lilies by a spring of water,like a green shoot on Lebanon on a summer day; 50.9. like fire and incense in the censer,like a vessel of hammered gold adorned with all kinds of precious stones; 50.11. When he put on his glorious robe and clothed himself with superb perfection and went up to the holy altar,he made the court of the sanctuary glorious. 50.12. And when he received the portions from the hands of the priests,as he stood by the hearth of the altar with a garland of brethren around him,he was like a young cedar on Lebanon;and they surrounded him like the trunks of palm trees 50.13. all the sons of Aaron in their splendor with the Lords offering in their hands,before the whole congregation of Israel. 50.14. Finishing the service at the altars,and arranging the offering to the Most High, the Almighty 50.15. he reached out his hand to the cup and poured a libation of the blood of the grape;he poured it out at the foot of the altar,a pleasing odor to the Most High, the King of all. 50.16. Then the sons of Aaron shouted,they sounded the trumpets of hammered work,they made a great noise to be heard for remembrance before the Most High. 50.17. Then all the people together made haste and fell to the ground upon their faces to worship their Lord,the Almighty, God Most High. 50.18. And the singers praised him with their voices in sweet and full-toned melody. 50.19. And the people besought the Lord Most High in prayer before him who is merciful,till the order of worship of the Lord was ended;so they completed his service. 50.21. and they bowed down in worship a second time,to receive the blessing from the Most High.
8. Septuagint, 3 Maccabees, 3.9, 7.3 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

3.9. for such a great community ought not be left to its fate when it had committed no offense. 7.3. Certain of our friends, frequently urging us with malicious intent, persuaded us to gather together the Jews of the kingdom in a body and to punish them with barbarous penalties as traitors;
9. Josephus Flavius, Against Apion, 1.32 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.32. and this is our practice not only in Judea, but wheresoever any body of men of our nation do live; and even there, an exact catalogue of our priests’ marriages is kept; 1.32. But why should a man say any more to a person who tells such impudent lies! However, since this book is arisen to a competent length, I will make another beginning, and endeavor to add what still remains to perfect my design in the following book.
10. Mishnah, Berachot, 9.5 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

9.5. One must bless [God] for the evil in the same way as one blesses for the good, as it says, “And you shall love the Lord your God with all your heart, with all your soul and with all your might” (Deuteronomy 6:5). “With all your heart,” with your two impulses, the evil impulse as well as the good impulse. “With all your soul” even though he takes your soul [life] away from you. “With all your might” with all your money. Another explanation, “With all your might” whatever treatment he metes out to you. One should not show disrespect to the Eastern Gate, because it is in a direct line with the Holy of Holies. One should not enter the Temple Mount with a staff, or with shoes on, or with a wallet, or with dusty feet; nor should one make it a short cut, all the more spitting [is forbidden]. All the conclusions of blessings that were in the Temple they would say, “forever [lit. as long as the world is].” When the sectarians perverted their ways and said that there was only one world, they decreed that they should say, “for ever and ever [lit. from the end of the world to the end of the world]. They also decreed that a person should greet his fellow in God’s name, as it says, “And behold Boaz came from Bethlehem and said to the reapers, ‘May the Lord be with you.’ And they answered him, “May the Lord bless you’” (Ruth 2:. And it also says, “The Lord is with your, you valiant warrior” (Judges 6:12). And it also says, “And do not despise your mother when she grows old” (Proverbs 23:22). And it also says, “It is time to act on behalf of the Lord, for they have violated Your teaching” (Psalms 119:126). Rabbi Natan says: [this means] “They have violated your teaching It is time to act on behalf of the Lord.”"
11. Mishnah, Megillah, 4.2 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

4.2. On Rosh Hodesh and on the intermediate days of festivals four read. They do not add [to this number] nor decrease [from it], nor do they conclude with [a haftarah] from the Prophets. The one who begins the Torah reading and the one who concludes the Torah reading blesses before it and after it. This is the general rule: on any day which has a musaf and is not a festival four read. On a festival five. On Yom Hakippurim six. On Shabbat seven; they may not decrease [from this number] but they may add [to it], and they conclude with [a haftarah] from the Prophets. The one who begins the Torah reading and the one who concludes the Torah reading blesses before it and after it."
12. Mishnah, Pesahim, 5.1 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

5.1. The [afternoon] tamid is slaughtered at eight and a half hours and is offered at nine and a half hours. On the eve of Pesah it is slaughtered at seven and a half hours and offered at eight and a half hours, whether it is a weekday or Shabbat. If the eve of Pesah fell on the eve of Shabbat it is slaughtered at six and a half hours and offered at seven and a half hours, and the pesah offering after it."
13. Mishnah, Sukkah, 5.5, 5.7 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

5.5. They never have less than twenty-one blasts in the Temple, and never more than forty-eight. Every day there were twenty-one blasts in the Temple, three at the opening of the gates, nine at the morning tamid sacrifice, and nine at the evening tamid sacrifice. At the musafim (additional sacrifices) they would add another nine. And on the eve of Shabbat they would add another six, three as a sign to the people to stop working and three to mark a distinction between the holy and the profane. On the eve of Shabbat in the intermediate days of the [Sukkoth] festival, there were [therefore] forty-eight blasts: three at the opening of the gates, three at the upper gate, three at the lower gate, three at the water-drawing, three at the altar, nine at the daily morning sacrifice, nine at the daily evening sacrifice, nine at the additional sacrifices, three as a sign to the people to cease from work, and three to mark a distinction between the holy and the profane." 5.7. At three periods in the year all the priestly watches shared equally in the festival sacrifices and in the division of the showbread. On Shavuot they used to say to the priest, “Here is matzah for you, here is chametz for you.” A watch whose period of service was fixed [for that festival week] offered the tamid, vow-offerings and freewill-offerings and all other public offerings; and it offered them all. A festival which fell next to Shabbat, either before or after it, all the watches shared equally in the distribution of the showbread."
14. Mishnah, Taanit, 4.1-4.4 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

4.1. On three occasions during the year, on fast days, on ma’amadot, and on Yom Kippur the priests lift up their hands to bless [the people] four times during the day--at Shaharit, at Mussaf, at Minhah and at Neilah." 4.2. What are the ma’amadot? Since it is said, “Command the children of Israel and say to them: My offering, My food” (Numbers 28:2). Now how can a man’s offering be offered and he is not present? [Therefore] the former prophets instituted twenty-four mishmarot (guards). For each mishmar there was a ma’amad [at the Temple] in Jerusalem consisting of priests, Levites and Israelites. When the time came for the mishmar to go up [to Jerusalem] the priests and Levites went up to Jerusalem and the Israelites of that mishmar assembled in their cities and read the story of creation." 4.3. The men of the maamad fasted on four days of that week, from Monday to Thursday; they did not fast on Friday out of respect for Shabbat or on Sunday in order not to switch from the rest and delight [of Shabbat] to weariness and fasting and [thereby] die. On Sunday [they read], “In the beginning,” and, “Let there be a firmament;” On Monday, “Let there be a firmament,” and, “Let the waters be gathered together;” On Tuesday, “Let the waters be gathered together,” and, “Let there be lights;” On Wednesday, “Let there be lights,” and, “Let the waters swarm;” On Thursday, “Let the waters swarm,” and, “Let the earth bring forth;” On Friday, “Let the earth bring forth,” and, “And the heavens [and the earth] were completed.” For a long section two people read and for a short section one person. [This is how they would read] at Shacharit and Mussaf. And at minhah they assemble and read the section by heart, as they recite the Shema. On Friday at minhah they did not assemble out of respect for Shabbat." 4.4. On any day when there is Hallel there was no maamad at Shaharit; [On the day when] there is a Musaf-offering, there was no [maamad] at Ne'ilah. [On the day of] the wood-offering, there was no [maamad] at Minhah, the words of Rabbi Akiva. Ben Azzai said to him: Thus did Rabbi Joshua learn: [On the day when] there is a Musaf-offering, there was no [maamad] at Minhah; [On the day of] the wood-offering, there was no [maamad] at Ne’ilah. Rabbi Akiva retracted and learned like Ben Azzai."
15. Mishnah, Tamid, 3.8, 4.1-4.3, 5.1-5.6, 6.1, 6.3, 7.1-7.3 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

3.8. From Jericho they could hear the sound of the great gate being opened. From Jericho they could hear the sound of the magrephah. From Jericho they could hear the noise of the wooden pulley which Ben Katin made for the laver. From Jericho they could hear the voice of Gevini the herald. From Jericho they could hear the sound of the pipes. From Jericho they could hear the sound of the cymbals. From Jericho they could hear the sound of the singing [of the Levites]. From Jericho they could hear the sound of the shofar. Some say also of the high priest when he pronounced the divine name on Yom Kippur. From Jericho they could smell the odor of the compounding of incense. Rabbi Elazar ben Diglai said: my father had some goats in Har Michvar, and they would sneeze from the smell of the incense." 4.1. They would not tie up the lamb but rather they would string its legs together. Those who merited [to bring up] the limbs took hold of it. Thus it was strung up: its head was to the south while its face was turned to the west. The slaughterer stood to the east of it, facing the west. The morning tamid was killed by the north-western corner of the altar at the second ring. The evening tamid was killed by the north-eastern corner at the second ring. While one slaughtered another received the blood. He then proceeded to the north-eastern corner and cast the blood on the eastern and northern sides; he then proceeded to the southwestern corner and cast the blood on the western and southern sides. The remt of the blood he poured out at the southern base of the altar." 4.2. He did not use to break the leg, but he made a hole in it at the [knee-] joint and suspended it from there. He then began to flay it until he came to the breast. When he came to the breast he cut off the head and gave it to the one who merited [bringing it onto the ramp]. He then cut off the legs [up to the knees] and gave them to the one who merited [bringing them onto the ramp]. He then finished the flaying. He tore out the heart and squeezed out the blood in it. He then cut off the forelegs and gave them to the one who merited [bringing them onto the ramp]. He then went back to the right leg and cut it off and gave it to the one who merited [to bring it onto the ramp], and the two testicles with it. He then tore it [the remaining carcass] open so that it was all exposed before him. He took the fat and put it on top of the place where the head had been severed. He took the innards and gave them to the one to who had merited washing them. The stomach was washed very thoroughly in the washing chamber, while the entrails were washed at least three times on marble tables which stood between the pillars." 4.3. He then took a knife and separated the lung from the liver and the finger of the liver from the liver, but he did not remove it from its place. He cut out the breast and gave it to the one to the one who had merited [bringing it onto the ramp]. He came to the right flank and cut into it as far as the spine, without touching the spine, until he came to the place between two small ribs. He cut it off and gave it to the one who had merited [bringing it onto the ramp], with the liver attached to it. He then came to the neck, and he left two ribs on each side of it, cut it off and gave it to the one to the one who had merited [bringing it onto the ramp], with the windpipe and the heart and the lung attached to it. He then came to the left flank in which he left the two thin ribs above and two thin ribs below; and he had done similarly with the other flank. Thus he left two on each side above and two on each side below. He cut it off and gave it to the one to the one who had merited [bringing it onto the ramp], and the spine with it and the spleen attached to it. This was really the largest piece, but the right flank was called the largest, because the liver was attached to it. He then came to the tail bone, which he cut off and gave it to the one who had merited [bringing it onto the ramp], along with the tail, the finger of the liver and the two kidneys. He then took the left leg and cut it off and gave it to the one who had merited [bringing it onto the ramp]. Thus they were all standing in a row with the limbs in their hands The first had the head and the [right] hind leg. The head was in his right hand with its nose towards his arm, its horns between his fingers, and the place where it was severed turned upwards with the fat covering it. The right leg was in his left hand with the place where the flaying began turned away from him. The second had the two fore legs, the right leg in his right hand and the left leg in his left hand, the place where the flaying began turned away from him. The third had the tail bone and the other hind leg, the tail bone in his right hand with the tail hanging between his fingers and the finger of the liver and the two kidneys with it, and the left hind leg in his left hand with the place where the flaying began turned away from him. The fourth had the breast and the neck, the breast in his right hand and the neck in his left hand, its ribs being between two of his fingers. The fifth had the two flanks, the right one in his right hand, and the left one in his left hand, with the place where the flaying began turned away from him. The sixth had the innards on a platter with the knees on top of them. The seventh had the fine flour. The eighth had the griddle cakes. The ninth had the wine. They went and placed them on the lower half of the ramp on its western side, and salted them (see Leviticus 2:13). They then came down and went to the Chamber of Hewn Stone to recite the Shema." 5.1. The superintendent said to them: Bless one blessing! And they blessed. They then read the Ten Commandments, the Shema, the “And it will be if you hearken” (the second paragraph of Shema) and Vayomer (the third paragraph of Shema), and they blessed the people with three blessings: Emet veYatziv, and Avodah, and the priestly benediction. On Shabbat they added a blessing to be said by the watch which was leaving." 5.2. He said to them: those who are new to the incense come and draw lots, and who ever won, won. He then said: new and old, come and draw lots to see who shall take up the limbs from the ascent to the altar. Rabbi Eliezer ben Jacob says: the one who brought the limbs on to the ascent also takes them up to the altar." 5.3. He then handed them over to the attendants, who stripped them of their garments, and they would leave on them only the pants. There were windows there on which was inscribed the name of the garment to which each was assigned." 5.4. The one who had been selected to offer the incense took up the ladle, which was in shape like a big tarkav of gold, and it held three kavs, And the [small] dish was in the middle of it, heaped up with incense. This had a covering, over which was spread a piece of cloth." 5.5. The priest who had won the firepan, would take the silver pan and ascend to the top of the altar and clear away the live coals to this side and that, and he would rake [the coals]. He then went down and poured them into a gold [firepan]. About a kav of the coals was spilt, and these he swept into the channel. On Shabbat he used to put an overturned pot on them. This pot was a large vessel which could hold a letekh. It had two chains; with one he used to draw it down, and with the other he used to hold it above so that it should not roll over. It was used for three purposes for placing over live coals, and over a [dead] creeping thing on Shabbat, and for drawing down the ashes from the top of the altar." 5.6. When they came between the Sanctuary and the altar, one took the magrefah and threw it between the Sanctuary and the altar. People could not hear one another speak in Jerusalem from the noise of the magrefah. It served three purposes: When a priest heard the sound of it he knew that his fellow priests were going in to bow down, and he would run to join them. When a Levite heard the noise he knew that his fellow Levites were going in to sing, and he would run to join them. And the head of the Ma’amad used to make the unclean stand in the east gate." 6.1. They began to ascend the steps of the Sanctuary. Those who had won the right to clear the ashes from the inner altar and from the candlestick went in front. The one who won the right to clear the inner altar went in and took the teni and bowed down and went out again. The one who had been chosen to clear the candlestick went in, and if he found the two eastern lights still burning he cleared out the eastern one and left the western one burning, since from it he lit the candlestick for the evening. If he found that this one had gone out, he cleared the ash away and lit it from the altar of burnt-offering. He then took the kuz from the second step and bowed down and went out." 6.3. The one who had won the right to the incense took the dish from the middle of the spoon and gave it to his friend or his relative. If some of it spilled into the spoon, he would put it into his hands. They used to instruct him: Be careful not to begin immediately in front of you or else you may burn yourself. He then began to scatter the incense and [after finishing] went out. The one who burned the incense did not do so until the superintendent said to him: burn the incense. If it was the high priest who burned: he would say to him: Sir, high priest, burn the incense. Everyone left and he burned the incense and bowed down and went out." 7.1. When the high priest went in to bow down, three priests supported him, one by his right and one by his left and one by the precious stones. When the superintendent heard the sound of the footsteps of the high priest as he was about to go out [from the Sanctuary], he raised the curtain for him. He went in, bowed down and went out, and then his fellow priests went in and bowed down and went out." 7.2. They went and stood on the steps of the Sanctuary. The first ones stood at the south side of their fellow priests with five vessels in their hands: one held the teni, the second the kuz, the third the firepan, the fourth the dish, and the fifth the spoon and its covering. They blessed the people with a single blessing, except in the country they recited it as three blessings, in the Temple as one. In the Temple they pronounced the divine name as it is written, but in the country by its substitute. In the country the priests raised their hands as high as their shoulders, but in the Temple above their heads, except the high priest, who did not raise his hands above the diadem. Rabbi Judah says: the high priest also raised his hands above the diadem, since it says, “And Aaron lifted up his hands toward the people and blessed them” (Leviticus 9:22)." 7.3. If the high priest wished to burn the offerings [himself], he would go up the ascent with the deputy high priest at his right. When he reached the middle of the ascent the deputy took hold of his right hand and helped him up. The first [of the other priests] then handed to him the head and the foot and he laid his hands on them and threw them [onto the altar]. The second then handed to the first the two fore legs. And he handed them to the high priest who laid his hands on them and threw them [onto the altar]. The second then went away. In the same way all the other limbs were handed to him and he laid his hands on them and threw them [on to the altar fire]. If he wanted, he could lay his hands and let others throw [them] on the fire. He then went around the altar. From where did he begin? From the southeastern corner; from there he went to the northeastern, then to the northwestern and then to the southwestern. They there handed him the wine for libation. The deputy high priest stood on the corner/horn of the altar with the flags in his hand, and two priests on the table of the fats with two trumpets in their hands. They blew a teki’ah, a teru’ah and a teki’ah. They then went and stood by Ben Arza, one on his right hand and one on his left. When he bent down to make the libation the deputy high priest waved the flags and Ben Arza struck the cymbals and the Levites sang the psalm. When they came to a pause they blew a teki’ah, and the public bowed down. At every pause there was a teki’ah and at every teki’ah a bowing down. This was the order of the regular daily sacrifice for the service of our Lord. May it be His will that it be rebuilt speedily in our days, Amen."
16. Mishnah, Yoma, 1.2, 1.8, 2.1-2.5 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

1.2. All seven days he sprinkles the blood and burns the incense and cleans lamps and offers the head and the leg; And on all other days if he wants he offers, for the high priest is first in offering a portion and has first place in taking a portion." 1.8. Every day they would remove [the ashes from] the altar at the cock’s crow or close to that time, either before or after. But on Yom HaKippurim from midnight, and on the festivals at the [end of the] first watch; And the cock’s crow would not arrive before the Temple court was full of Israelites." 2.1. Originally anyone who wished to remove [the ashes from] the altar did so. When they were many, they would run up the ramp [of the altar] and he that came first within four cubits won the privilege. If two were even, the officer would say to them [all:] raise the finger! And how many did they put out? One or two but one does not put out a thumb in the Temple." 2.2. Section one: It once happened that two were even as they ran up the ramp, and one of them pushed his fellow who fell and broke his leg. When the court saw that they incurred danger, they decreed that they would remove the ashes from only by a count. Section two: There were four counts. This is the first count." 2.3. The second count:who slaughters [the daily regular offering], who sprinkles [the blood], who removes the ashes from the inner altar, who removes the ashes from the candlestick, 5-10) Who takes the limbs [of the offering up to the ramp], the head and the [right] hind-leg, the two forelegs, the tail and the [left] hind-leg, the breast and the throat, the two flanks, the innards, the fine flour, the cakes and the wine. Altogether thirteen priests merited a task. Ben Azzai said before Rabbi Akiba in the name of Rabbi Joshua: [the daily offering] was offered up in the way it walks. 2.4. The third count: “New [priests] come up and submit to the count for the incense.” The fourth count: “New and old priests, who will take up the limbs from the ramp to the altar.”" 2.5. The tamid was offered up by nine, ten, eleven or twelve [priests], neither by more, nor by less. How so? [The offering] itself by nine; At the festival [of Sukkot] in the hand of one a flask of water, behold there were ten. In the evening by eleven: [The offering] itself by nine and in the hands of two men were two logs of wood. On Shabbat by eleven: [The offering] itself by nine, in the hands of two men two handfuls of incense for the showbread. And on Shabbat which fell during the festival of Sukkot one man carried in his hand a flask of water."
17. Mishnah, Shekalim, 3.2, 3.4, 4.1-4.2, 6.2 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

3.2. In three baskets each of [the capacity of] three seahs they make the appropriation [of shekels] from the chamber. And on them was inscribed: Aleph, Beth, Gimmel. Rabbi Ishmael says: Greek was inscribed on them, alpha, beta, gamla. The one who made the appropriation did not enter the chamber wearing either a bordered cloak or shoes or sandals or tefillin or an amulet, lest if he became poor people might say that he became poor because of a sin committed in the chamber, or if he became rich people might say that he became rich from the appropriation in the chamber. For it is one’s duty to seem be free of blame before others as before God, as it is said: “And you shall be guiltless before the Lord and before Israel” (Numbers 32:22), and it says: “And you will find favor and good understanding in the eyes of God and man” (Proverbs 3:4)." 3.4. [After] he made the first appropriation, he covers [what is left] with leather covers. [After he made the] second appropriation, he covers [what is left] with leather covers. [But after] the third appropriation he would not cover [what was left]. [And why would he cover?] Lest he should forget and make a [fresh] appropriation from shekels from which had already been appropriated. He would make the first appropriation on behalf of the Land of Israel, and the second on behalf of the surrounding cities, and the third on behalf of Babylon and on behalf of Medea and on behalf of [other] distant countries." 4.1. What did they do with the appropriation? They bring with it the daily burnt-offerings (tamidim) and the additional burnt-offerings (musafim) and their libations, the omer and the two loaves and the showbread and all the other public offerings. Those who guard the aftergrowths of the seventh year take their wages out of the appropriation from the chamber. Rabbi Yose says: [if a man wished] he could volunteer to watch without payment. But they said to him: you too admit that they can only be offered out of public funds." 4.2. The [red] heifer and the scapegoat and the strip of scarlet came out of the appropriation of the chamber. The ramp for the [red] heifer and the ramp for the scapegoat and the strip of scarlet which was between its horns, and [the maintece of] the pool of water and the wall of the city and its towers and all the needs of the city came out of the remainder in the chamber. Abba Shaul says: the ramp for the [red] cow the high priests made out of their own [means]." 6.2. It once happened that a priest who was busy [there] noticed that the floor [of the wood storage area] was different from the others. He went and told it to his friend but before he had time to finish his words his soul departed. Then they knew for certain that there the Ark was hidden."
18. Mishnah, Yadayim, 4.8 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

4.8. A Galilean min said: I complain against you Pharisees, that you write the name of the ruler and the name of Moses together on a divorce document. The Pharisees said: we complain against you, Galilean min, that you write the name of the ruler together with the divine name on a single page [of Torah]? And furthermore that you write the name of the ruler above and the divine name below? As it is said, \"And Pharoah said, Who is the Lord that I should hearken to his voice to let Israel go?\" (Exodus 5:2) But when he was smitten what did he say? \"The Lord is righteous\" (Exodus 9:27)."
19. New Testament, Acts, 3.1, 13.15, 18.8 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

3.1. Peter and John were going up into the temple at the hour of prayer, the ninth hour. 13.15. After the reading of the law and the prophets, the rulers of the synagogue sent to them, saying, "Brothers, if you have any word of exhortation for the people, speak. 18.8. Crispus, the ruler of the synagogue, believed in the Lord with all his house. Many of the Corinthians, hearing, believed and were baptized.
20. New Testament, Luke, 8.49, 13.14 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

8.49. While he still spoke, one from the ruler of the synagogue's house came, saying to him, "Your daughter is dead. Don't trouble the Teacher. 13.14. The ruler of the synagogue, being indigt because Jesus had healed on the Sabbath, said to the multitude, "There are six days in which men ought to work. Therefore come on those days and be healed, and not on the Sabbath day!
21. New Testament, Mark, 5.22, 5.35-5.36, 5.38 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

5.22. Behold, one of the rulers of the synagogue, Jairus by name, came; and seeing him, he fell at his feet 5.35. While he was still speaking, they came from the synagogue ruler's house saying, "Your daughter is dead. Why bother the Teacher any more? 5.36. But Jesus, when he heard the message spoken, immediately said to the ruler of the synagogue, "Don't be afraid, only believe. 5.38. He came to the synagogue ruler's house, and he saw an uproar, weeping, and great wailing.
22. New Testament, Matthew, 6.5 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

6.5. When you pray, you shall not be as the hypocrites, for they love to stand and pray in the synagogues and in the corners of the streets, that they may be seen by men. Most assuredly, I tell you, they have received their reward.
23. Tacitus, Histories, 5.5 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

5.5.  Whatever their origin, these rites are maintained by their antiquity: the other customs of the Jews are base and abominable, and owe their persistence to their depravity. For the worst rascals among other peoples, renouncing their ancestral religions, always kept sending tribute and contributions to Jerusalem, thereby increasing the wealth of the Jews; again, the Jews are extremely loyal toward one another, and always ready to show compassion, but toward every other people they feel only hate and enmity. They sit apart at meals, and they sleep apart, and although as a race, they are prone to lust, they abstain from intercourse with foreign women; yet among themselves nothing is unlawful. They adopted circumcision to distinguish themselves from other peoples by this difference. Those who are converted to their ways follow the same practice, and the earliest lesson they receive is to despise the gods, to disown their country, and to regard their parents, children, and brothers as of little account. However, they take thought to increase their numbers; for they regard it as a crime to kill any late-born child, and they believe that the souls of those who are killed in battle or by the executioner are immortal: hence comes their passion for begetting children, and their scorn of death. They bury the body rather than burn it, thus following the Egyptians' custom; they likewise bestow the same care on the dead, and hold the same belief about the world below; but their ideas of heavenly things are quite the opposite. The Egyptians worship many animals and monstrous images; the Jews conceive of one god only, and that with the mind alone: they regard as impious those who make from perishable materials representations of gods in man's image; that supreme and eternal being is to them incapable of representation and without end. Therefore they set up no statues in their cities, still less in their temples; this flattery is not paid their kings, nor this honour given to the Caesars. But since their priests used to chant to the accompaniment of pipes and cymbals and to wear garlands of ivy, and because a golden vine was found in their temple, some have thought that they were devotees of Father Liber, the conqueror of the East, in spite of the incongruity of their customs. For Liber established festive rites of a joyous nature, while the ways of the Jews are preposterous and mean.
24. Tosefta, Sukkah, 4.5-4.6 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

4.5. And the Levites with their harps and lyres and cymbals and all manner of musical instruments without number were there, saying, “Behold, bless ye the Lord, all ye servants of the Lord.” Some were saying, Lift up your hands to the sanctuary, and bless ye the Lord. When they parted they said to one another, The Lord bless thee out of Zion, and see thou the good of Jerusalem all the days of thy life. You should see your children's children. The herald cried out: they sounded a plain note, a tremolo, and a plain note. Rabbi Yehudah said: They did not sound less than seven nor more than thirteen times at the opening of the Temple gates. He who blew at their opening did not do so at their closing. Three times they sounded before the altar. He who blew before the altar did not do so on the tenth step, and he who blew on the tenth step did not do so before the altar." 4.6. Why did they blow three blasts? To make the people cease from work. The sexton took the trumpets, and went to the top of the highest roof in the city to summon those near the city to cease from work. Those near the limits of the city assembled themselves together and came to the schoolhouse. They did not come immediately the trumpets blew, but waited till all were gathered together, and then all came at once. When did they assemble? After one could fill a bottle of water, or fry a fish, or light his lamp. "
25. Tosefta, Yadayim, 2.9 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

26. Anon., Sifre Numbers, 43, 39 (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

27. Babylonian Talmud, Berachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

12a. אלא אי אמרת אהבה רבה הוו אמרי מאי ברכות אין מעכבות זו את זו דלמא האי דלא אמרי יוצר אור משום דלא מטא זמן יוצר אור וכי מטא זמן יוצר אור הוו אמרי,ואי מכללא מאי,דאי מכללא לעולם אהבה רבה הוו אמרי וכי מטא זמן יוצר אור הוו אמרי ליה ומאי ברכות אין מעכבות זו את זו סדר ברכות:,וקורין עשרת הדברות שמע והיה אם שמוע ויאמר אמת ויציב ועבודה וברכת כהנים.,א"ר יהודה אמר שמואל אף בגבולין בקשו לקרות כן אלא שכבר בטלום מפני תרעומת המינין,תניא נמי הכי ר' נתן אומר בגבולין בקשו לקרות כן אלא שכבר בטלום מפני תרעומת המינין,רבה בב"ח סבר למקבעינהו בסורא א"ל רב חסדא כבר בטלום מפני תרעומת המינין,אמימר סבר למקבעינהו בנהרדעא א"ל רב אשי כבר בטלום מפני תרעומת המינין:,ובשבת מוסיפין ברכה אחת למשמר היוצא. מאי ברכה אחת א"ר חלבו משמר היוצא אומר למשמר הנכנס מי ששכן את שמו בבית הזה הוא ישכין ביניכם אהבה ואחוה ושלום וריעות:,מקום שאמרו להאריך: פשיטא היכא דקא נקיט כסא דחמרא בידיה וקסבר דשכרא הוא ופתח ומברך אדעתא דשכרא וסיים בדחמרא יצא דאי נמי אם אמר שהכל נהיה בדברו יצא דהא תנן על כולם אם אמר שהכל נהיה בדברו יצא,אלא היכא דקא נקיט כסא דשכרא בידיה וקסבר דחמרא הוא פתח ובריך אדעתא דחמרא וסיים בדשכרא מאי,בתר עיקר ברכה אזלינן או בתר חתימה אזלינן,ת"ש שחרית פתח ביוצר אור וסיים במעריב ערבים לא יצא פתח במעריב ערבים וסיים ביוצר אור יצא,ערבית פתח במעריב ערבים וסיים ביוצר אור לא יצא פתח ביוצר אור וסיים במעריב ערבים יצא,כללו של דבר הכל הולך אחר החתום,שאני התם דקאמר ברוך יוצר המאורות,הניחא לרב דאמר כל ברכה שאין בה הזכרת השם אינה ברכה שפיר אלא לר' יוחנן דאמר כל ברכה שאין בה מלכות אינה ברכה מאי איכא למימר,אלא כיון דאמר רבה בר עולא כדי להזכיר מדת יום בלילה ומדת לילה ביום כי קאמר ברכה ומלכות מעיקרא אתרוייהו קאמר,ת"ש מסיפא כללו של דבר הכל הולך אחר החתום כללו של דבר לאתויי מאי לאו לאתויי הא דאמרן,לא לאתויי נהמא ותמרי ה"ד אילימא דאכל נהמא וקסבר דתמרי אכל ופתח אדעתא דתמרי וסיים בדנהמא היינו בעיין,לא צריכא כגון דאכל תמרי וקסבר נהמא אכל ופתח בדנהמא וסיים בדתמרי [יצא] דאפילו סיים בדנהמא נמי יצא,מאי טעמא דתמרי נמי מיזן זייני:,אמר רבה בר חיננא סבא משמיה דרב כל שלא אמר אמת ויציב שחרית ואמת ואמונה ערבית לא יצא ידי חובתו שנאמר (תהלים צב, ג) להגיד בבקר חסדך ואמונתך בלילות:,ואמר רבה בר חיננא [סבא] משמיה דרב המתפלל כשהוא כורע כורע בברוך וכשהוא זוקף זוקף בשם,אמר שמואל מאי טעמא דרב דכתיב (תהלים קמו, ח) ה' זוקף כפופים,מיתיבי (מלאכי ב, ה) מפני שמי נחת הוא,מי כתיב בשמי מפני שמי כתיב,אמר ליה שמואל לחייא בר רב בר אוריאן תא ואימא לך מלתא מעלייתא דאמר אבוך הכי אמר אבוך כשהוא כורע כורע בברוך כשהוא זוקף זוקף בשם. 12a. bHowever, if you say that theywould omit: Who creates light, and bwould recite: An abounding love,on bwhatbasis would you conclude that failure to recite one of the bblessingsrecited before iShema bdoes not preventone from reciting the bother?In that case, one could offer another reason why only a single blessing is recited. bPerhapsthe fact bthat they did not recite: Who creates light was because the time for the recitation of: Who creates light, had not yet arrived,as the sun had yet to rise. The blessings of the priestly watch are recited in the early morning hours, long before sunrise. bHowever,afterward, bwhen the timeto recite: bWho creates light arrived, they would recite it.From the conclusion drawn by Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish, that failure to recite one of the blessings recited before iShema /idoes not prevent one from reciting the other, it is clear that the blessing recited by the members of the priestly watch was: Who creates light.,As this deductive reasoning seems coherent and convincing, the Gemara asks: bAnd ifthis ihalakhais bbased on inference,and not on an explicit statement, bwhatof it? There seems to be no other way to interpret Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish’s statement.,The Gemara answers: bIfthis conclusion bwere based on an inference,one could say that bactually they recited: An abounding love, and when the timeto recite: bWho creates light arrived, they would recite it.In that case, bwhatis the meaning of: Failure to recite one of the bblessingsrecited before iShema bdoes not preventone from reciting the bother?Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish meant that failure to recite bthecorrect border of the blessingsdoes not prevent one from fulfilling his obligation. Even if one recites: An abounding love before: Who creates light, he fulfills his obligation. Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish did not refer to a case where only one of the blessings was recited. Consequently, one cannot infer from his statement his opinion regarding the identity of the single blessing.,The Gemara related above that the priests in the Temple bread the Ten Commandments,along with the sections of iShema /i, iVeHaya im Shamoa /i, iVaYomer /i, True and Firm, iAvoda,and the priestly benediction. /b, bRav Yehuda saidthat bShmuel said: Even in the outlying areas,outside the Temple, bthey sought to recitethe Ten Commandments bin this mannerevery day, as they are the basis of the Torah (Rambam), bbut they had already abolishedrecitation of the Ten Commandments bdue to the grievance of the heretics,who argued that the entire Torah, with the exception of the Ten Commandments, did not emanate from God (Jerusalem Talmud). If the Ten Commandments were recited daily, that would lend credence to their claim, so their recitation was expunged from the daily prayers., bThat was also taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Natan says: In the outlying areas, they sought to recitethe Ten Commandments bin this manner, but they had already abolishedtheir recitation bdue to the grievance of the heretics. /b,The Gemara relates that several Sages sought to reinstitute recitation of the Ten Commandments, as bRabba bar bar Ḥana thought to institute this inthe city of bSura,but bRav Ḥisda said to him: They already abolished them due to the grievance of the heretics. /b,So too, bAmeimar thought to institute this inthe city of bNeharde’a. Rav Ashi,the most prominent of the Sages in that generation, bsaid to him: They already abolished them due to the grievance of the heretics. /b,We learned in a mishna in tractate iTamidthat bon Shabbat a single blessing is added tobless bthe outgoing priestly watch.The Gemara asks: bWhat isthat bsingle blessing? Rabbi Ḥelbo said:As they finished their service, bthe outgoing priestly watch would say to the incoming priestly watch: May He who caused His Name to dwell in this house cause love and brotherhood, peace and camaraderie to dwell among you. /b,We learned in the mishna: bWherethe Sages bsaidto recite ba longblessing, one may not shorten it, and vice-versa. The Gemara proceeds to address a particular problem arising from conclusions drawn from this mishna. Before addressing the primary problem, however, a simpler, secondary issue is raised: bObviously, in a case where one took a cup of wine in his hand and thought it was beer, and began reciting the blessing thinking it was beer,i.e., he intended to recite the appropriate blessing on beer: By Whose word all things came to be, bandupon realizing that it was wine, bhe concludedthe blessing bwith thatwhich is recited over bwine:Who creates the fruit of the vine, bhe fulfilledhis obligation. In that case, beven had he recited: By Whose word all things came to be,as he originally intended, bhewould have bfulfilledhis obligation, bas we learnedin a mishna: bIf onerecited the general blessing: bBy Whose word all things came to be, over allfood items, bhe fulfilledhis obligation after the fact, even if iab initioanother blessing was instituted to recite before eating that food. Therefore, if he reconsidered and concluded the blessing with the ending of the blessing over wine, he fulfilled his obligation., bHowever in a case where one took a cup of beer in his hand and thought it was wine, and began reciting the blessing thinking it was wine,meaning he intended to recite: Who creates the fruit of the vine, bandupon realizing that it was beer bhe concludedthe blessing bwith thatwhich is recited over bbeer:By Whose word all things came to be, bwhatis the ihalakha /i?,Ostensibly, this blessing is comprised of two sections. The first section, during which he intended to recite: Who creates the fruit of the vine, cannot fulfill his obligation as it is an inappropriate blessing to recite over beer. However, in the second section he recited: By Whose word all things came to be, the appropriate blessing. The dilemma, then, is: bDo we follow the essenceof the blessing, the first section, bor do we follow the conclusionof the blessing?, bCome and heara proof from what was taught in a ibaraitawith regard to a similar case: If, in bthe morning prayer /b, one bbeganthe blessings prior to the recitation of iShemaappropriately bwith: Who creates light, and concluded withthe formula of the evening prayer: bWho brings on evenings, he did not fulfillhis obligation. However, if one did the opposite, and bcommenced with: Who brings on evenings, and concluded with: Who creates light, he fulfilledhis obligation.,Similarly, if, in bthe evening prayer /b, bone commencedthe recitation of iShema bwith: Who brings on evenings and concluded with: Who creates light, he did not fulfillhis obligation. If bone commenced with: Who creates light and concluded with: Who brings on evenings, he fulfilledhis obligation.,The ibaraitasummarizes that bthe general principle is: Everything follows the conclusionof the blessing. Based on this principle, the question with regard to a blessing recited over food and drink posed above can be resolved.,This proof is rejected: bThere,in the case of the blessing recited over the radiant lights, bit is different, as one recites: Blessed /b…Who bforms the radiant lights,and similarly, in the evening one recites: Blessed…Who brings on evenings. Since these are long blessings that conclude with a second blessing summarizing their content, one could assert that everything follows the conclusion. However, in the case of short blessings, such as: By Whose word all things came to be, or: Who creates the fruit of the vine, ostensibly, if there is a problem with the first part of the blessing, the entire blessing is nullified.,The distinction between the blessing recited over the radiant lights and the blessings recited over food and drink stems from the assumption that the conclusion: Blessed…Who fashions the radiant lights, is a complete, independent blessing. However, this is not necessarily so. bThis works out well according to Rav, who said: Any blessing that does not include mention of God’s name is notconsidered ba blessing,and since: Who creates light, includes God’s name, it constitutes a complete, independent blessing. bHowever, according to Rabbi Yoḥa, who said: Any blessing that does not include mention ofGod’s bsovereignty,i.e., our God, King of the universe, bis notconsidered ba blessing, what can be saidto distinguish between the conclusion of the blessings over food and drink and the blessing over the radiant lights? Since the conclusion: Who creates light, does not mention God’s sovereignty, it does not constitute a complete, independent blessing.,The Gemara responds: bRather,Rabbi Yoḥa also holds that the blessing over the radiant lights is a complete blessing. bSince Rabba bar Ulla said:Who creates darkness, is mentioned during the day and: Rolling away the light before the darkness, is mentioned at night bin order to mention the attribute of day at night and the attribute of night in the day,the beginning of the blessing in which God’s sovereignty is mentioned day and night is appropriate to both day and night, and bwhen one recites the blessingwith God’s name bandmentions God’s bsovereignty at the beginning of the blessing,it refers bto bothday and night. Therefore, no proof can be cited from the blessing over the radiant lights to the blessings recited over food and drink.,The Gemara attempts to cite an additional proof: bCome and hearanother solution based on what we learned bin the latter clauseof the ibaraitacited above: bThe general principle is: Everything follows the conclusionof the blessing. bWhat doesthe phrase: The general principle is, come bto includebeyond the detailed example cited in the ibaraita /i? bDoes it not come to includethe case bthat we stated,that both in the case of a long blessing and the case of a short blessing, the conclusion of the blessing is the determining factor?,The Gemara rejects this: bNo,the principle is cited bto includea case of bbread and dates.The Gemara clarifies: bWhat are the circumstancesof the dilemma with regard to the blessings on these food items? bIf you say thatit is a case bwhere one ate bread and thought that he ate dates, and commencedreciting the blessing bthinking it was dates;then, upon realizing that it was bread, bhe concludedthe blessing bwith thatwhich is recited bover bread, isn’t that our dilemma,as this case is identical to the one involving wine and beer?,The Gemara answers: bNo; thisgeneral principle bisonly bnecessaryto teach a special bcase /b, bwhere one ate dates and thought that he ate bread, and commencedreciting the blessing bthinking they were bread.Upon realizing that they were dates, bhe concludedthe blessing bwith thatwhich is recited bover dates.In that case bhe fulfilledhis obligation, as beven had he concludedthe blessing bwith thatwhich is recited bover bread, hewould have bfulfilled his obligation. /b, bWhat is the reasonthat had he concluded with the blessing recited over bread he would have fulfilled his obligation to recite a blessing over dates? This is bbecause dates also providea person bsustece.While iab initioone should not recite the blessing for bread over dates, after the fact, if one did so, he fulfilled his obligation. It is with regard to this particular situation that the ibaraitaestablished the principle: Everything follows the conclusion of the blessing. Ultimately, the dilemma regarding a blessing with an inappropriate opening and an appropriate conclusion remains unresolved. brThe Gemara proceeds to discuss the formula for the blessings recited along with iShema /i., bRabba bar Ḥina Sava said in the name of Rav: One who did not recite: True and Firm [ iemet veyatziv /i]at the beginning of the blessing of redemption that follows iShema bin the morning prayer, and: True and Trustworthy [ iemet ve’emuna /i] in the evening prayer, he did not fulfill his obligation.An allusion to the difference in formulation between morning and evening is, bas it is stated: “To declare Your kindness in the morning and Your faith in the nights”(Psalms 92:3). In the morning, one must mention God’s loving-kindness, while in the evening one is required to emphasize the aspect of faith., bAnd Rabba bar Ḥina Sava said in the name of Rav: One who is praying, when he bowsin the appropriate places, bhe bows whenhe says: bBlessed, and when hesubsequently bstands upright, he stands upright when he saysGod’s bname. /b, bShmuel,who was Rav’s colleague and significantly outlived him, bsaid: What is Rav’s reasonfor saying that one should stand upright at the mention of God’s name? bAs it is written: “The Lord, who raises the bowed”(Psalms 146:8); one stands upright at the mention of God’s name to recall that it is God who raises the bowed.,The Gemara braises an objectionbased on what we learned in praise of a priest: b“And he was afraid before My name”(Malachi 2:5), indicating that one must be humbled and not upright before God’s name.,The Gemara responds: bIs it written: At My name? Before My name, is written,meaning that one is humbled and bows prior to the mention of God’s name, when he says: Blessed.,The Gemara relates: bShmuel said to Ḥiyya bar Rav: Son of Torah, come and I will tell you a great saying that your father said. Your father said the following: When one bows, he bows whenhe says: bBlessed, and when he stands upright, he stands upright when he saysGod’s bname. /b
28. Babylonian Talmud, Pesahim, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

50a. כאיסורו מה איסורו בכזית אף חזרתו בכזית,תניא ר' נתן אומר זה וזה כשתי ביצים ולא הודו לו חכמים,(זכריה יד, ו) והיה ביום ההוא לא יהיה אור יקרות וקפאון מאי יקרות וקפאון,א"ר אלעזר זה אור שיקר בעולם הזה וקפוי לעולם הבא,ר' יוחנן אמר אלו נגעים ואהלות שיקרין הן בעוה"ז וקפויין הן לעולם הבא,ור' יהושע בן לוי אמר אלו בני אדם שיקרין הן בעולם הזה וקפויין הן לעוה"ב כי הא דרב יוסף בריה דר' יהושע בן לוי חלש ואיתנגיד כי הדר אמר ליה אבוה מאי חזית אמר ליה עולם הפוך ראיתי עליונים למטה ותחתונים למעלה אמר לו בני עולם ברור ראית ואנן היכי התם כי היכי דאיתו אנן הכא הכי איתינן התם,ושמעתי שהיו אומרים אשרי מי שבא לכאן ותלמודו בידו ושמעתי שהיו אומרים הרוגי מלכות אין אדם יכול לעמוד במחיצתן,(ומאן) נינהו אילימא ר"ע וחביריו משום הרוגי מלכות ותו לא אלא הרוגי לוד,(זכריה יד, כ) ביום ההוא יהיה על מצלות הסוס קדש לה' מאי מצלות הסוס,א"ר יהושע בן לוי עתיד הקב"ה להוסיף על ירושלים עד שהסוס רץ ומציל,ר' אלעזר אמר כל מצילות שתולין לסוס בין עיניו יהיה קדש לה',ור' יוחנן אמר כל ביזה שבוזזין ישראל עד שעה שהסוס רץ ומציל יהיה קדש לה',בשלמא למאן דאמר כל ביזה שבזזו ישראל היינו דכתיב (זכריה יד, כ) והיה הסירות בבית ה' כמזרקים לפני המזבח אלא למ"ד בהנך תרתי מאי והיה הסירות בבית ה' מילתא אחריתי קאמר דמתעתרי ישראל ומתנדבי ומייתי,בשלמא למ"ד ביזה היינו דכתיב (זכריה יד, כא) ולא יהיה כנעני עוד בבית ה' צבאות אלא למ"ד הנך תרתי מאי ולא יהיה כנעני א"ר ירמיה אין כאן עני,וכנעני מנלן דאיקרי תגר דכתיב (בראשית לח, ב) וירא שם יהודה בת איש כנעני מאי כנעני אילימא כנעני ממש אפשר בא אברהם והזהיר את יצחק בא יצחק והזהיר את יעקב ויהודה אזיל ונסיב אלא אמר רבי שמעון בן לקיש בת גברא תגרא דכתיב (הושע יב, ח) כנען בידו מאזני מרמה ואיבעית אימא מהכא (ישעיהו כג, ח) אשר סוחריה שרים כנעניה נכבדי ארץ:,(זכריה יד, ט) והיה ה' למלך על כל הארץ ביום ההוא יהיה ה' אחד ושמו אחד אטו האידנא לאו אחד הוא,אמר רבי אחא בר חנינא לא כעולם הזה העולם הבא העולם הזה על בשורות טובות אומר ברוך הטוב והמטיב ועל בשורות רעות אומר ברוך דיין האמת לעולם הבא כולו הטוב והמטיב,ושמו אחד מאי אחד אטו האידנא לאו שמו אחד הוא,א"ר נחמן בר יצחק לא כעולם הזה העולם הבא העולם הזה נכתב ביו"ד ה"י ונקרא באל"ף דל"ת אבל לעולם הבא כולו אחד נקרא ביו"ד ה"י ונכתב ביו"ד ה"י,סבר רבא למדרשה בפירקא א"ל ההוא סבא לעלם כתיב,ר' אבינא רמי כתיב (שמות ג, טו) זה שמי לעלם וזה זכרי לדור דור אמר הקב"ה לא כשאני נכתב אני נקרא נכתב אני ביו"ד ה"א ונקרא אני באל"ף דל"ת:, br br big strongהדרן עלך אלו עוברין /strong /big br br,מתני׳ big strongמקום /strong /big שנהגו לעשות מלאכה בערבי פסחים עד חצות עושין מקום שנהגו שלא לעשות אין עושין ההולך ממקום שעושין למקום שאין עושין או ממקום שאין עושין למקום שעושין נותנין עליו חומרי מקום שיצא משם וחומרי מקום שהלך לשם 50a. bis analogous to its prohibition. Just as its prohibition isonly when it is the size of an bolive-bulk, so too,the requirement to breturn it isonly when it is the size of an bolive-bulk. /b,Another opinion on this issue bwas taughtin a ibaraita /i. bRabbi Natan says:The minimum measure for both bthis and that,leaven and sacrificial meat, is btwo egg-bulksof prohibited material, bbut the Rabbis did not agree with him. /b,Incidental to the discussion of leaving Jerusalem and its surrounding area, the Gemara cites expositions of a prophetic passage, including a statement that God will eventually expand the boundaries of Jerusalem. The verse states: b“And it shall come to pass on that day that there shall not be light,but bheavy clouds [ iyekarot /i] and thickness [ ivekippaon /i]”(Zechariah 14:6). The Gemara asks: bWhat isthe meaning of the expression b“ iyekarot vekippaon /i”? /b, bRabbi Elazar said: This isthe blightcurrently provided by the sun, bwhich is significant[iyakar /i] in this world and insignificant[ikafuy /i] in the World-to-Come,when the moon will shine as brightly as the sun does now and the sun will be seven times brighter than it is currently., bRabbi Yoḥa said: Thisexpression refers to the tractates of iNega’imand iOholot /i, which are weighty [ iyekarim /i]owing to their difficulty bin this world,as they are among the most complex subjects, bbutwill be beasy [ ikefuyin /i] in the World-to-Come,when people will be much wiser., bAnd Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: These are people who areconsidered bimportant [ iyekarim /i] in this world and unimportant[ikefuyim /i] in the World-to-Come.This is blikethe incident involving bRav Yosef, son of Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi,who bbecame ill andwas about to bexpire. When he returnedto good health, bhis father said to him: What did you seewhen you were about to die? bHe said to him: I saw an inverted world. Those above,i.e., those who are considered important in this world, were bbelow,insignificant, while bthose below,i.e., those who are insignificant in this world, were babove. He said to him: My son, you have seen a clear world.The world you have seen is the true world, as in that world people’s standings befit them. Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi asked: bAnd where are we,the Torah scholars, bthere?Rav Yosef responded: bJust as we areregarded bhere, so are weregarded bthere. /b,Rav Yosef added: bAnd I heard that they were sayingin that world: bPraiseworthy is the one who arrives here with his studies in hand. And Ialso bheard that they were saying: Those executed by the governmentenjoy such an exalted status that bno one can stand in their enclosure. /b,The Gemara asks: bAnd who are thesemartyrs that Rav Yosef was referring to? bIf you saythat he was referring to bRabbi Akiva and his colleagues,who were martyred, this cannot be: Is their elevated status bdueonly btothe fact that bthey were martyred bythe Roman bgovernment and nothing more?These men were exceptional in their piety and sanctity during their lives as well. bRather,it is referring to bthe martyrs of Lod,Pappos and Luliyanos, who gave themselves up to be martyred for the sake of the Jewish people. They falsely admitted to killing the king’s daughter in order to prevent a harsh decree from being issued against the entire community. Although they were not known for exceptional piety before that event, they are considered to be extremely holy due to their martyrdom.,The Gemara continues to expound the section of the book of Zechariah cited above. The verse states: b“On that day there shall be upon the bells of the horses [ imetzillot hasus /i]: Holy unto the Lord”(Zechariah 14:20). The Gemara asks: bWhat isthe meaning of the expression imetzillot hasus /i? /b, bRabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: In the future the Holy One, Blessed be He, will extend Jerusalemby bas much asthe distance that ba horse can runthe entire time bit casts a shadow [ imetzeil /i].Jerusalem will be so large that a horse running from one side of the city in the morning will not arrive at the other end of the city until midday, when its shadow will have disappeared., bRabbi Elazar said: Alldecorative bbells [ imetzillot /i] that one hangs between the eyes of a horse will be sanctified to God,i.e., they will be consecrated for the Temple treasury., bAnd Rabbi Yoḥa said: All spoils that the Jewish peoplewill btakefrom gentiles who wage war against them, bup to the time a horse runs and casts a shadow [ imetzeil /i],i.e., half a day, bwill be sanctified for God. /b,The Gemara asks: bGranted, according to the one who saidthat this expression refers to ball spoils that the Jewish peoplewill btake, this is as it is writtenin the continuation of the verse, which mentions additional treasure donated to the Temple: b“And the pots in the Lord’s house shall be like the basins before the altar.” However, according to the ones who said theseother btwoexplanations, bwhatis the meaning of: b“And the pots in the Lord’s house”?The Gemara explains that according to these opinions the verse bis saying something else:It is prophesying that in the future bthe Jewish people will become wealthy and bring donationsto the Temple.,The Gemara goes on to ask: bGranted, according to the one who saidthat this expression refers to bspoils, this is as it is writtenin the next verse: b“Andon that day bthere shall no longer be a merchant [ ikena’ani /i] in the house of the Lord of hosts”(Zechariah 14:21), as he will no longer be needed. bHowever, according to the ones who said theseother btwoexplanations, bwhatis the meaning of the expression: b“There shall no longer be a merchant”? Rabbi Yirmeya said:The word ikena’aniis in fact a contraction of the phrase: bThere is no poor person here [ iein kan ani /i].In other words, there will no longer be poor people, and therefore the Jews themselves will be able to donate whatever is needed in the Temple (Maharsha)., bAnd from where do wederive bthat a merchant can be called a ikena’ani /i? As it is written: “And Judah saw there the daughter of a certain ikena’ani /i… /band he took her, and went in unto her” (Genesis 38:2). bWhat isthe meaning of the word ikena’ani /iin this context? bIf you sayit refers to ban actual Canaanite, is it possible that Abraham warned Isaacnot to marry a Canaanite woman, and bIsaac warned Jacobto the same effect, bandnonetheless bJudah went and marrieda Canaanite woman? bRather, Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish said:She was bthe daughter of a merchant, as it is written: “As for the merchant [ ikena’an /i], the balances of deceit are in his hand. He lovesto oppress” (Hosea 12:8). bAnd if you wish, sayinstead that this meaning of the word can be understood from the following verse, which describes Tyre: b“Whose traders are princes, whose merchants [ ikieha /i] are the honorable of the earth”(Isaiah 23:8).,The Gemara cites another verse from the prophecy at the end of the book of Zechariah: b“And the Lord shall be King over all the earth, on that day shall the Lord be one and His name one”(Zechariah 14:9). The Gemara asks: bIs that to say that now He is not one? /b, bRabbi Aḥa bar Ḥanina said: The World-to-Come is not like this world.In bthis world, upon good tidings one recites: Blessed…Who is good and does good, and over bad tidings one recites: Blessed…the true Judge. In the World-to-Comeone will balwaysrecite: bBlessed…Who is good and does good.There will be only one mode of blessing God for tidings.,The verse states: “On that day shall the Lord be one band His name one.”The Gemara asks: bWhatis the meaning of the word bonein this context? bIs that to say that now His name is not one? /b, bRav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said: The World-to-Come is not like this world. In this world,God’s name that bis written withthe letters iyod /iand ihehis readas iAdonai /i, which begins with the letters ialef /iand idalet /i.God’s name is not pronounced in the same way as it is written. bHowever, in the World-to-Come it will all be one,as God’s name will be both bread withthe letters iyod /iand ihehand written withthe letters iyod /iand iheh /i. /b, bRava thought to expoundupon the correct punctuation and enunciation of the name of God during his public blecturebefore one of the Festivals. bA certain old man said to him:The word bforever is writtenin the verse: “This is My name forever [ ile’olam /i]” (Exodus 3:15) without the letter ivav /i, such that it can be read ile’alem /i, to conceal, meaning that the name should be concealed., bRabbi Avina raised a contradiction: It is writtenin the verse: b“This is My name forever,”implying a requirement to conceal the name of God, and in the very next phrase it states: b“And this is My memorial unto all generations”(Exodus 3:15), which indicates that the name of God is to be publicized and remembered by all. Rather, bthe Holy One, Blessed be He, said: I,i.e., My name, is bnot read as I am written. I am written withthe letters iyod /iand iheh /i, and I am read withthe letters ialef /iand idalet /i. /b,, strongMISHNA: /strong In ba place wherethe people were baccustomed to perform labor on Passover eve until midday, onemay bdoso on that day. In ba place wherethe people were baccustomed not to performlabor, bonemay bnot doso. The performance of labor on the eve of Passover is not prohibited by Torah law, but is dependent on local custom. If one btravels from a place wherepeople bperformlabor on Passover eve bto a place wherepeople bdo not performlabor, bor from a place wherepeople bdo not performlabor on Passover eve bto a place wherepeople bperformlabor, the Sages bimpose upon him the stringencies ofboth bthe place from which he left and the stringencies of the place to which he went.In both cases, he may not perform labor.
29. Babylonian Talmud, Qiddushin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

29b. כל היכא דליכא אלא חמש סלעים הוא קודם לבנו מאי טעמא מצוה דגופיה עדיפא כי פליגי היכא דאיכא חמש משועבדים וחמש בני חורין,ר' יהודה סבר מלוה דכתיב בתורה ככתובה בשטר דמיא בהני חמש פריק לבריה ואזיל כהן וטריף ליה לחמש משועבדים לדידיה,ורבנן סברי מלוה דכתיב באורייתא לאו ככתובה בשטר דמיא והילכך מצוה דגופיה עדיף,ת"ר לפדות את בנו ולעלות לרגל פודה את בנו ואחר כך עולה לרגל ר' יהודה אומר עולה לרגל ואח"כ פודה את בנו שזו מצוה עוברת וזו מצוה שאינה עוברת,בשלמא לר' יהודה כדקאמר טעמא אלא רבנן מאי טעמייהו דאמר קרא (שמות לד, כ) כל בכור בניך תפדה והדר לא יראו פני ריקם,ת"ר מנין שאם היו לו חמשה בנים מחמש נשים שחייב לפדות כולן ת"ל כל בכור בניך תפדה פשיטא בפטר רחם תלא רחמנא,מהו דתימא נילף בכור בכור מנחלה מה להלן ראשית אונו אף כאן ראשית אונו קמ"ל:,ללמדו תורה: מנלן דכתיב (דברים יא, יט) ולמדתם אותם את בניכם והיכא דלא אגמריה אבוה מיחייב איהו למיגמר נפשיה דכתיב ולמדתם,איהי מנלן דלא מיחייבא דכתיב ולימדתם ולמדתם כל שמצווה ללמוד מצווה ללמד וכל שאינו מצווה ללמוד אינו מצווה ללמד,ואיהי מנלן דלא מיחייבה למילף נפשה דכתיב ולימדתם ולמדתם כל שאחרים מצווין ללמדו מצווה ללמד את עצמו וכל שאין אחרים מצווין ללמדו אין מצווה ללמד את עצמו ומנין שאין אחרים מצווין ללמדה דאמר קרא ולמדתם אותם את בניכם ולא בנותיכם,ת"ר הוא ללמוד ובנו ללמוד הוא קודם לבנו ר' יהודה אומר אם בנו זריז וממולח ותלמודו מתקיים בידו בנו קודמו כי הא דרב יעקב בריה דרב אחא בר יעקב שדריה אבוה לקמיה דאביי כי אתא חזייה דלא הוה מיחדדין שמעתיה א"ל אנא עדיפא מינך תוב את דאיזיל אנא,שמע אביי דקא הוה אתי הוה ההוא מזיק בי רבנן דאביי דכי הוו עיילי בתרין אפי' ביממא הוו מיתזקי אמר להו לא ליתיב ליה אינש אושפיזא אפשר דמתרחיש ניסא,על בת בההוא בי רבנן אידמי ליה כתנינא דשבעה רישוותיה כל כריעה דכרע נתר חד רישיה אמר להו למחר אי לא איתרחיש ניסא סכינתין,ת"ר ללמוד תורה ולישא אשה ילמוד תורה ואח"כ ישא אשה ואם א"א לו בלא אשה ישא אשה ואח"כ ילמוד תורה אמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל הלכה נושא אשה ואח"כ ילמוד תורה,ר' יוחנן אמר ריחיים בצוארו ויעסוק בתורה ולא פליגי הא לן והא להו:,משתבח ליה רב חסדא לרב הונא בדרב המנונא דאדם גדול הוא א"ל כשיבא לידך הביאהו לידי כי אתא חזייה דלא פריס סודרא א"ל מאי טעמא לא פריסת סודרא א"ל דלא נסיבנא אהדרינהו לאפיה מיניה א"ל חזי דלא חזית להו לאפי עד דנסבת,רב הונא לטעמיה דאמר בן עשרים שנה ולא נשא אשה כל ימיו בעבירה בעבירה סלקא דעתך אלא אימא כל ימיו בהרהור עבירה,אמר רבא וכן תנא דבי ר' ישמעאל עד כ' שנה יושב הקב"ה ומצפה לאדם מתי ישא אשה כיון שהגיע כ' ולא נשא אומר תיפח עצמותיו,אמר רב חסדא האי דעדיפנא מחבראי דנסיבנא בשיתסר ואי הוה נסיבנא בארביסר 29b. that banywhere that there are only five isela /iavailable, i.e., enough to redeem only one man, and one is obligated to redeem both himself and his son, bhe,the father, btakes precedence over his son. What is the reason?It is that bhis own mitzva is preferableto one that he performs on behalf of others. bWhen they disagreeis in a case bwhere there island worth bfive iselathat is blienedproperty that has been sold, i.e., he sold this land to other people but it can be reclaimed by his prior creditor, band five iselawhich is entirely bunsoldproperty.,And the reasoning behind the dispute is as follows: bRabbi Yehuda maintainsthat ba loan that is written in the Torah,i.e., any ficial obligation that applies by Torah law, is bconsidered as though it is written in a document,and therefore it can be collected from liened property, like any loan recorded in a document. This means that the liened property worth five iselais available for one’s own redemption, but not for that of his son, as the sale of the property occurred before the birth of his firstborn. Consequently, bwith these five iselaupon which there is no lien bhe redeems his son, andthe bpriest goes and repossessesthe land worth bfive iselathat is blienedproperty bfor hisown redemption. In this manner one can fulfill both mitzvot., bAnd the Rabbis maintain: A loan that is written in the Torah is not considered as though it is written in a document,since buyers will not be aware of this obligation, so that they should be aware that the land may be repossessed. bAnd thereforethere is no advantage for this man to redeem his son with the five iselaupon which there is no lien, and bhis own mitzva is preferable,which means he redeems himself with the free land. With the liened property that is left he cannot redeem his son, as the land was sold before the birth of his firstborn., bThe Sages taught:If one has money bto redeem his son and to ascend toJerusalem on bthe pilgrimage Festival, he redeems his son and then ascendsto Jerusalem bon the pilgrimage Festival. Rabbi Yehuda says: He ascendsto Jerusalem bon the pilgrimage Festival and then redeems his son.His reasoning is bthat thistrip to Jerusalem for the pilgrimage Festival is ba mitzvawhose time soon bpasses, and this,the redemption of the firstborn son, is ba mitzvawhose time does bnotsoon bpass,as it can be fulfilled later.,The Gemara asks: bGranted, according tothe opinion of bRabbi Yehuda,it is bas he statedin bhis reasoning,i.e., Rabbi Yehuda provided the rationale for his opinion. bBut what is the reasoning of the Rabbis,who say that he should first redeem his son? The Gemara answers that the reason is bthat the verse states: “All the firstborn of your sons you shall redeem”(Exodus 34:20), bandit bthenstates, in the same verse: b“And none shall appear before me empty,”referring to the pilgrimage Festival in Jerusalem. The order of the verse indicates that one should redeem his firstborn son before traveling to Jerusalem on the pilgrimage Festival., bThe Sages taught: From whereis it derived bthat if one had fivefirstborn bsons, from fivedifferent bwomen, he is obligated to redeem them all? The verse states: “All the firstborn of your sons you shall redeem”(Exodus 34:20), and the emphasis of “all” includes any of one’s firstborn sons. The Gemara asks: bIsn’tit bobviousthis is the case? After all, bthe Merciful One madethis mitzva bdependent upon the opening of the womb,as it states: “Sanctify to Me all the firstborn, whoever opens the womb” (Exodus 13:2). Since each of these sons is the firstborn of his mother, it is clear that the father is required to redeem each of them.,The Gemara answers that this ruling is necessary blest you saythat bwe should derivea verbal analogy between b“firstborn”stated here and b“firstborn” fromthe verses dealing with binheritance: Just as there,the verse describes a firstborn who receives a double portion of the inheritance as: b“The first fruit of his strength”(Deuteronomy 21:17), i.e., he is the firstborn son to his father, and not the first child born to his mother; bso too here,with regard to the redemption of the firstborn son, it is referring to the bfirst fruit of his strength,which would mean that the father need redeem only his oldest child. Therefore, this ibaraita bteaches usthat this is not the case. Rather, every firstborn son to his mother must be redeemed.,§ The ibaraitateaches that a father is obligated bto teachhis son bTorah.The Gemara asks: bFrom where do wederive this requirement? bAs it is written: “And you shall teach them [ ivelimadtem /i] to your sons”(Deuteronomy 11:19). bAndin a case bwhere his father did not teach him he is obligated to teach himself, as it is written,i.e., the verse can be read with a different vocalization: bAnd you shall study [ iulmadtem /i]. /b, bFrom where do wederive bthata woman bis not obligatedto teach her son Torah? bAs it is written: “And you shall teach [ ivelimadtem /i],”which can be read as: bAnd you shall study [ iulmadtem /i].This indicates that bwhoever is commanded to studyTorah bis commanded to teach, and whoever is not commanded to study is not commanded to teach.Since a woman is not obligated to learn Torah, she is likewise not obligated to teach it.,The Gemara asks: bAnd from where do wederive bthat she is not obligated to teach herself?The Gemara answers: bAs it is written: “And you shall teach [ ivelimadtem /i],”which can be read as: bAnd you shall study [ iulmadtem /i],which indicates that bwhoever others are commanded to teach is commanded to teach himself, and whoever others are not commanded to teach is not commanded to teach himself. And from whereis it derived bthat others are not commanded to teacha woman? bAs the verse states: “And you shall teach them to your sons”(Deuteronomy 11:19), which emphasizes: bYour sons and not your daughters. /b, bThe Sages taught:If bonewishes bto studyTorah himself band his sonalso wants bto study, he takes precedence over his son. Rabbi Yehuda says: If his son is diligent and sharp, and his study will endure, his son takes precedence over him.This is blike thatanecdote bwhichis told about bRav Ya’akov, son of Rav Aḥa bar Ya’akov, whose father sent him to Abayeto study Torah. bWhenthe son bcamehome, his father bsaw that his studies were not sharp,as he was insufficiently bright. Rav Aḥa bar Ya’akov bsaid tohis son: bI am preferable to you,and it is better that I go and study. Therefore, byou sitand handle the affairs of the house bso that I can goand study., bAbaye heardthat Rav Aḥa bar Ya’akov bwas coming. There was a certain demon in the study hall of Abaye,which was so powerful bthat when twopeople would benter they would be harmed, even during the day.Abaye bsaid tothe people of the town: bDo not giveRav Aḥa bar Ya’akov blodging [ iushpiza /i]so that he will be forced to spend the night in the study hall. Since Rav Aḥa bar Ya’akov is a righteous man, bperhaps a miracle will occuron his behalf and he will kill the demon.,Rav Aḥa found no place to spend the night, and bhe entered and spent the night in that study hallof bthe Sages.The demon bappeared to him like a serpentwith bseven heads.Rav Aḥa bar Ya’akov began to pray, and with bevery bowthat bhe bowed oneof the demon’s bheads fell off,until it eventually died. The bnext dayRav Aḥa bsaid tothe townspeople: bIf a miracle had not occurred, you would have placed me in danger. /b, bThe Sages taught:If one has to decide whether bto study Torah or to marry a woman,which should he do first? bHe should study Torah and afterward marry a woman. And if it is impossible for himto be bwithout a wife, he should marry a woman and then study Torah. Rav Yehuda saysthat bShmuel says:The ihalakha /iis that one should bmarry a woman and afterward study Torah. /b, bRabbi Yoḥa says:How can one do this? With ba millstonehanging bfrom his neck,i.e., with the responsibility of providing for his family weighing upon him, can bhe engage in Torahstudy? The Gemara comments: bAndthe iamora’im bdo not disagree; this is for us and that is for them.In other words, one statement applies to the residents of Babylonia, whereas the other is referring to those living in Eretz Yisrael.,§ With regard to marriage, the Gemara relates: bRav Ḥisda would praise Rav Hamnuna to Rav Hunaby saying bthat he is a great man.Rav Huna bsaid to him: When he comes to you, send him to me. WhenRav Hamnuna bcamebefore him, Rav Huna bsaw that he did not coverhis head with ba cloth,as Torah scholars did. Rav Huna bsaid to him: What is the reasonthat byou do not coveryour head bwith a cloth?Rav Hamnuna bsaid to him:The reason is bthat I am not married,and it was not customary for unmarried men to cover their heads with a cloth. Rav Huna bturned his face away from himin rebuke, and bhe said to him: Seeto it bthat you do not see my face until you marry. /b,The Gemara notes: bRav Hunaconforms bto hisstandard line of breasoning, as he says:If one is btwenty years old and has notyet bmarried a woman, all of his dayswill be bina state of bsinconcerning sexual matters. The Gemara asks: Can it benter your mindthat he will be bina state of bsinall of his days? bRather, saythat this means the following: bAll of his dayswill be bina state of bthoughts of sin,i.e., sexual thoughts. One who does not marry in his youth will become accustomed to thoughts of sexual matters, and the habit will remain with him the rest of his life., bRava said, and similarly, the school of Rabbi Yishmael taught: Untilone reaches the age of btwenty years the Holy One, Blessed be He, sits and waits for a man,saying: bWhen will he marry a woman? Once he reachesthe age of btwenty and has not married, He says: Let his bones swell,i.e., he is cursed and God is no longer concerned about him., bRav Ḥisda said:The fact bthat I am superior to my colleaguesis bbecause I marriedat the age of bsixteen, and if I would have married atthe age of bfourteen, /b
30. Babylonian Talmud, Sotah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

38a. ככתבו ובמדינה בכינויו במדינה כהנים נושאים את ידיהן כנגד כתפיהן ובמקדש על גבי ראשיהן חוץ מכהן גדול שאינו מגביה את ידיו למעלה מן הציץ ר' יהודה אומר אף כהן גדול מגביה ידיו למעלה מן הציץ שנאמר (ויקרא ט, כב) וישא אהרן את ידיו אל העם ויברכם, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big תנו רבנן (במדבר ו, כג) כה תברכו בלשון הקודש אתה אומר בלשון הקודש או אינו אלא בכל לשון נאמר כאן כה תברכו ונאמר להלן (דברים כז, יב) אלה יעמדו לברך את העם מה להלן בלשון הקודש אף כאן בלשון הקודש,רבי יהודה אומר אינו צריך הרי הוא אומר כה עד שיאמרו בלשון הזה,תניא אידך כה תברכו בעמידה אתה אומר בעמידה או אינו אלא אפי' בישיבה נאמר כאן כה תברכו ונאמר להלן אלה יעמדו לברך מה להלן בעמידה אף כאן בעמידה,ר' נתן אומר אינו צריך הרי הוא אומר (דברים י, ח) לשרתו ולברך בשמו מה משרת בעמידה אף מברך בעמידה ומשרת גופיה מנלן דכתיב (דברים יח, ה) לעמוד לשרת,תניא אידך כה תברכו בנשיאות כפים אתה אומר בנשיאות כפים או אינו אלא שלא בנשיאות כפים נאמר כאן כה תברכו ונאמר להלן (ויקרא ט, כב) וישא אהרן את ידיו אל העם ויברכם מה להלן בנשיאות כפים אף כאן בנשיאות כפים,קשיא ליה לר' יונתן אי מה להלן כהן גדול וראש חודש ועבודת צבור אף כאן כהן גדול וראש חודש ועבודת ציבור,ר' נתן אומר אינו צריך הרי הוא אומר (דברים יח, ה) הוא ובניו כל הימים מקיש בניו לו מה הוא בנשיאות כפים אף בניו בנשיאות כפים וכתיב כל הימים ואיתקש ברכה לשירות,ותניא אידך כה תברכו את בני ישראל בשם המפורש אתה אומר בשם המפורש או אינו אלא בכינוי ת"ל (במדבר ו, כז) ושמו את שמי שמי המיוחד לי,יכול אף בגבולין כן נאמר כאן ושמו את שמי ונאמר להלן (דברים יב, ה) לשום את שמו שם מה להלן בית הבחירה אף כאן בבית הבחירה,רבי יאשיה אומר אינו צריך הרי הוא אומר (שמות כ, כא) בכל המקום אשר אזכיר את שמי אבוא אליך בכל מקום ס"ד אלא מקרא זה מסורס הוא בכל מקום אשר אבוא אליך וברכתיך שם אזכיר את שמי והיכן אבוא אליך וברכתיך בבית הבחירה שם אזכיר את שמי בבית הבחירה,תניא אידך כה תברכו את בני ישראל אין לי אלא בני ישראל גרים נשים ועבדים משוחררים מנין ת"ל (במדבר ו, כג) אמור להם לכולהו,תניא אידך כה תברכו פנים כנגד פנים אתה אומר פנים כנגד פנים או אינו אלא פנים כנגד עורף ת"ל אמור להם כאדם האומר לחבירו,תניא אידך כה תברכו בקול רם או אינו אלא בלחש ת"ל אמור להם כאדם שאומר לחבירו,אמר אביי נקטינן לשנים קורא כהנים ולא' אינו קורא כהן שנא' אמור להם לשנים ואמר רב חסדא נקטינן כהן קורא כהנים ואין ישראל קורא כהנים שנאמר אמור להם אמירה 38a. bas it is writtenin the Torah, i.e., the Tetragrammaton, band in the countrythey use bits substitute nameof Lordship. bIn the country, the priests lift their handsso they are baligned with their shouldersduring the benediction. bAnd in the Templethey lift them babove their heads, except for the High Priest, who does not lift his hands above the frontplate.Since the Tetragrammaton is inscribed on it, it is inappropriate for him to lift his hands above it. bRabbi Yehuda says: Even the High Priest lifts his hands above the frontplate, as it is stated: “And Aaron lifted up his hands toward the people and blessed them”(Leviticus 9:22)., strongGEMARA: /strong bThe Sages taught:The mitzva given to the priests: b“So you shall blessthe children of Israel” (Numbers 6:23), is that they bless them bin the sacred tongue,Hebrew. Do byou saythat the benediction must be recited bin the sacred tongue, orperhaps it may be recited bin any language?The ibaraitaanswers: bIt is stated here,with regard to the Priestly Benediction: b“So you shall bless,” and it is stated there,with regard to the blessings and curses: b“These shall standon Mount Gerizim bto bless the people”(Deuteronomy 27:12). There is a verbal analogy between these two usages of the word “bless”: bJust as there,the blessings and curses were recited bin the sacred tongue,as stated above (33a), bso too here,the Priestly Benediction is recited bin the sacred tongue. /b, bRabbi Yehuda says: It is not necessaryto derive this from a verbal analogy, as bit sayswith regard to the Priestly Benediction: b“Thus,”which means that it is not recited correctly bunless they recite it in thisexact blanguage,as it is written in the Torah., bIt is taughtin banother ibaraita /i: b“So you shall bless,”means bwhile standing.Do byou saythat the benediction must be recited bwhile standing, orperhaps it may bevenbe recited bwhile sitting? It is stated here: “So you shall bless,” and it is stated there,with regard to the blessings and curses: b“These shall standon Mount Gerizim bto bless.” Just as there,the blessing was recited bwhile standing, so too here,the priests must recite the Priestly Benediction bwhile standing. /b, bRabbi Natan says: It is not necessaryto derive this from a verbal analogy, as bit saysin the verse: “At that time the Lord separated the tribe of Levi to bear the Ark of the Covet of the Lord, to stand before the Lord bto minister to Him and to bless in His name”(Deuteronomy 10:8). bJust asa priest bperforms theTemple bservice while standing, so too, he blesses while standing.The Gemara asks: bAnd from where do wederive that bhe performs the service itselfwhile standing? bAs it is written: “To stand to ministerin the name of the Lord” (Deuteronomy 18:5)., bIt is taughtin banother ibaraita /i: b“So you shall bless”means bwith lifted hands.Do byou saythat the priests must recite the benediction bwith lifted hands, orperhaps they may recite it bwithout lifted hands? It is stated here: “So you shall bless,” and it is stated there,with regard to the dedication of the Tabernacle: b“And Aaron lifted up his hands toward the people and blessed them”(Leviticus 9:22). bJust as there,Aaron blessed the nation bwith lifted hands, so too here,the Priestly Benediction is recited bwith lifted hands. /b,This ihalakhawas bdifficult for Rabbi Yonatan to understand: Ifthis ihalakhais derived from the dedication of the Tabernacle, then why not also say: bJust as there,the bHigh Priestwas the one who recited the blessing, bandit was the bNew Moon, andthe offerings that were brought were ba communal service, so too here,the Priestly Benediction must be recited only by the bHigh Priest, andon the bNew Moon, andwhen performing ba communal service? /b, bRabbi Natan says: It is not necessaryto derive from a verbal analogy that the Priestly Benediction is recited with lifted hands, as bit sayswith regard to Aaron: “To stand to minister in the name of the Lord, bhim and his sons forever”(Deuteronomy 18:5). In this verse, bhis sons are juxtaposed with him. Just asAaron recited the Priestly Benediction bwith lifted hands, so too, his sonsrecite the benediction bwith lifted hands. Andfurthermore, bit is written “forever,”which indicates that it is referring not only to special occasions. bAndalthough the verse is not referring to the Priestly Benediction, the bbenediction is juxtaposed tothe Temple bservicein another verse: “To minister to Him and to bless in His name” (Deuteronomy 10:8)., bAnd it is taughtin banother ibaraita /i: b“So you shall bless the children of Israel”means the blessing should be recited bwith the ineffable name.Do byou saythat the Priestly Benediction must be recited bwith the ineffable name, orperhaps bit isrecited bwith only the substitute name, iAdonai /i? bThe verse states: “So shall they put My name”(Numbers 6:27), which means bMy name that is unique to Me. /b,One bmighthave thought that beven in the outlying areas,outside the Temple, bthisineffable name is used. bIt is stated here,with regard to the Priestly Benediction: b“So shall they put My name,” and it is stated there,with regard to the place one must sacrifice offerings: “The place that the Lord your God has chosen out of all your tribes bto put His name there”(Deuteronomy 12:5). The verbal analogy teaches that bjust as there,the expression “to put His name there” is referring to bthe Temple, so too here,the mitzva of “so shall they put My name” applies bin the Templeand not anywhere else., bRabbi Yoshiya says: It is not necessaryto derive this ihalakhafrom the verbal analogy, as it can be derived from a verse. bIt saysin the verse: b“In every place where I cause My name to be mentioned I will come to youand bless you” (Exodus 20:20). Does it benter your mindthat this verse literally means that the Divine Presence will be revealed beverywhere? Rather, this versemust be interpreted by btransposition.It must be reordered and read as follows: bIn every place where I will come to you and bless you, there I will cause My name to be mentioned.Rabbi Yoshiya explains that God is stating: bAnd where will I come to you and bless you? In the Temple.Therefore, he derives: bThere, in the Temple, I will cause My name to be mentioned,but the ineffable name is not mentioned elsewhere., bIt is taughtin banother ibaraita /i: b“So you shall bless the sons of Israel”(Numbers 6:23). bI havederived bonlythe ihalakhato bless bthe sons of Israel. From wheredo I derive the ihalakhaof blessing bconverts, women, and emancipated slaves? The verse statesimmediately afterward: b“You shall say to them,”meaning bto all ofthe Jewish people., bIt is taughtin banother ibaraita /i: b“So you shall bless,”means that the priests must recite the Priestly Benediction bface-to-facewith the congregation. Do byou saythat the Benediction must be recited bface-to-face, orperhaps bit is onlyrecited with the bfacesof the priests bfacing the back of the necksof the congregation? bThe verse states: “You shall say to them,”face-to-face, blike a person who is talking to another. /b, bIt is taughtin banother ibaraita /i: b“So you shall bless”means that the benediction must be recited bout loud. Or,perhaps, bis itrecited bonly in a whisper? The verse states: “You shall say to them,” like a person who is talking to another. /b, bAbaye said: We have a traditionwith regard to the prayer leader calling the priests to recite the Priestly Benediction: When there are btwopriests, bhe calls: Priests, butwhen there is bonepriest bhe does not call: Priest, as it is stated: “You shall say to them,”in plural, meaning btoa minimum of btwopriests. bAnd Rav Ḥisda said: We have a traditionthat ba priest calls: Priests, but an Israelite does not call: Priests, as it is stated: “You shall say to them,”which means that the bsaying /b
31. Anon., Numbers Rabba, 11.2 (4th cent. CE - 9th cent. CE)

11.2. דּוֹמֶה דוֹדִי לִצְבִי אוֹ לְעֹפֶר הָאַיָּלִים וגו' (שיר השירים ב, ט), אָמַר רַבִּי יִצְחָק אָמְרוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל לִפְנֵי הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, רִבּוֹן הָעוֹלָמִים אִן אַתְּ אֲתָא לְגַבָּן תְּחִלָּה, דּוֹמֶה דוֹדִי לִצְבִי, מַה הַצְּבִי הַזֶּה מְדַלֵּג כָּךְ הָיָה הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא מְדַלֵּג וּמְקַפֵּץ מִמִּצְרַיִם לַיָּם, וּמִן יָם לְסִינָי. בְּמִצְרַיִם (שמות יב, יב): וְעָבַרְתִּי בְאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם וגו'. בַּיָּם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות טו, ב): זֶה אֵלִי וְאַנְוֵהוּ. לְסִינַי (דברים לג, ב): וַיֹּאמַר ה' מִסִּינַי בָּא. אוֹ לְעֹפֶר הָאַיָּלִים, רַבִּי יוֹסֵי בֶּן רַבִּי חֲנִינָא אָמַר לְאוּרְזִילָא דְאַיַּלְתָּא. (שיר השירים ב, ט): הִנֵּה זֶה עוֹמֵד אַחַר כָּתְלֵנוּ, זֶה מִדְבַּר סִינָי. (שיר השירים ב, ט): מַשְׁגִּיחַ מִן הַחֲלֹּנוֹת (שמות יט, כ): וַיֵּרֶד ה' עַל הַר סִינַי וגו'. (שיר השירים ב, ט): מֵצִיץ מִן הַחֲרַכִּים. (שמות כ, א): וַיְדַבֵּר אֱלֹהִים אֵת כָּל הַדְּבָרִים וגו'. (שיר השירים ב, י): עָנָה דוֹדִי וְאָמַר לִי (שמות כ, ב): אָנֹכִי ה' אֱלֹהֶיךָ. דָּבָר אַחֵר, דּוֹמֶה דוֹדִי לִצְבִי, אָמַר רַבִּי יִצְחָק אָמְרוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל לִפְנֵי הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, רִבּוֹן הָעוֹלָמִים אַתְּ אֲמַרְתְּ לָנוּ אַתְּ אֲתָא לְגַבָּן תְּחִלָּה, דּוֹמֶה דוֹדִי לִצְבִי, מַה הַצְּבִי הַזֶּה נִגְלֶה וְחוֹזֵר וְנִכְסֶה, כָּךְ גּוֹאֵל הָרִאשׁוֹן נִגְלָה וְנִכְסָה. רַבִּי בֶּרֶכְיָה בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי לֵוִי אָמַר כַּגּוֹאֵל הָרִאשׁוֹן כָּךְ גּוֹאֵל הָאַחֲרוֹן, הַגּוֹאֵל הָרִאשׁוֹן זֶה משֶׁה נִגְלָה לָהֶם וְחָזַר וְנִכְסָה מֵהֶם, כַּמָּה נִכְסָה מֵהֶם, רַבִּי תַּנְחוּמָא אָמַר שְׁלשָׁה חֳדָשִׁים, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (שמות ה, כ): וַיִּפְגְּעוּ אֶת משֶׁה וְאֶת אַהֲרֹן וגו', אַף גּוֹאֵל הָאַחֲרוֹן נִגְלֶה לָהֶם וְחוֹזֵר וְנִכְסֶה מֵהֶם. כַּמָּה יְהֵא נִכְסֶה מֵהֶם, אָמַר רַבִּי תַּנְחוּמָא בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי חָמָא בְּרַבִּי הוֹשַׁעְיָא אַרְבָּעִים וַחֲמִשָּׁה יָמִים, הָדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (דניאל יב, יא): וּמֵעֵת הוּסַר הַתָּמִיד וְלָתֵת שִׁקּוּץ שֹׁמֵם יָמִים אֶלֶף מָאתַים וְתִשְׁעִים, וּכְתִיב (דניאל יב, יב): אַשְׁרֵי הַמְחַכֶּה וְיַגִּיעַ לְיָמִים אֶלֶף שְׁלשׁ מֵאוֹת שְׁלשִׁים וַחֲמִשָּׁה, אִלֵּין מוֹתְרַיָּה כַּמָּה אִינּוּן, אַרְבָּעִים וַחֲמִשָּׁה יוֹם שֶׁהוּא נִכְסֶה מֵהֶן, וְחוֹזֵר וְנִגְלֶה לָהֶם. וּלְהֵיכָן מַעֲלֶה אוֹתָן, אִית דְּאָמְרִין לְמִדְבַּר יְהוּדָה וְאִית דְּאָמְרִין לְמִדְבַּר סִיחוֹן וְעוֹג, כָּל מִי שֶׁהוּא מַאֲמִינוֹ וְהוֹלֵךְ אַחֲרָיו, הוּא אוֹכֵל שָׁרְשֵׁי רְתָמִים וַעֲלֵי מְלוּחִים, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (איוב ל, ד): הַקֹּטְפִים מַלּוּחַ עֲלֵי שִׂיחַ וְשֹׁרֶשׁ רְתָמִים לַחְמָם. וְכָל מִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ הוֹלֵךְ אַחֲרָיו הוּא הוֹלֵךְ וּמַשְׁלִים לְאֻמּוֹת הָעוֹלָם, וּבַסּוֹף אֻמּוֹת הָעוֹלָם הוֹרְגִין אוֹתוֹ. אָמַר רַבִּי יִצְחָק בַּר מַרְיוֹן לְסוֹף אַרְבָּעִים וַחֲמִשָּׁה יָמִים הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא מוֹרִיד לָהֶם מָן, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (הושע יב, י): עֹד אוֹשִׁיבְךָ בָאֳהָלִים כִּימֵי מוֹעֵד. וְאוֹמֵר (דברים טז, ו): מוֹעֵד צֵאתְךָ מִמִּצְרָיִם, אוֹ לְעֹפֶר הָאַיָּלִים, אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹסֵי בְּרַבִּי חֲנִינָא לְאוּרְזִילָא דְאַיַּלְתָּא. הִנֵּה זֶה עוֹמֵד אַחַר כָּתְלֵנוּ, זֶה כֹּתֶל מַעֲרָבִי שֶׁל בֵּית הַמִּקְדָּשׁ שֶׁאֵינוֹ חָרֵב לְעוֹלָם, לָמָּה, שֶׁהַשְּׁכִינָה בַּמַּעֲרָב. מַשְׁגִּיחַ מִן הַחֲלֹּנוֹת בִּזְכוּת אָבוֹת. מֵצִיץ מִן הַחֲרַכִּים בִּזְכוּת אִמָּהוֹת. כְּשֵׁם שֶׁיֵּשׁ הֶפְרֵשׁ בֵּין חַלּוֹן לְחָרָךְ כָּךְ יֵשׁ הֶפְרֵשׁ בֵּין זְכוּת אָבוֹת לִזְכוּת אִמָּהוֹת. עָנָה דוֹדִי וְאָמַר לִי, מָה אָמַר (ישעיה מט, יח): חַי אָנִי נְאֻם ה' כִּי כֻלָּם כַּעֲדִי תִלְבָּשִׁי וּתְקַשְּׁרִים כַּכַּלָּה. דָּבָר אַחֵר, דּוֹמֶה דוֹדִי לִצְבִי, מַה הַצְּבִי הַזֶּה מְקַפֵּץ מִמָּקוֹם לְמָקוֹם וּמִגָּדֵר לְגָדֵר וּמֵאִילָן לְאִילָן וּמִסֻּכָּה לְסֻכָּה, כָּךְ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא מְדַלֵּג וּמְקַפֵּץ מִכְּנֶסֶת זוֹ לִכְנֶסֶת זוֹ, כָּל כָּךְ לָמָּה בִּשְׁבִיל לְבָרֵךְ אֶת יִשְׂרָאֵל, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות כ, כד): בְּכָל הַמָּקוֹם אֲשֶׁר אַזְכִּיר אֶת שְׁמִי וגו', בְּאֵי זוֹ זְכוּת בִּזְכוּת שֶׁל אַבְרָהָם אָבִינוּ, דִּכְתִיב: כֹּה תְבָרְכוּ, כְּמָה דְתֵימָא (בראשית טו, ה): כֹּה יִהְיֶה זַרְעֶךָ. אוֹ לְעֹפֶר הָאַיָּלִים, רַבִּי יוֹסֵי אוֹמֵר לְאוּרְזִילָא דְאַיַּלְתָּא, הִנֵּה זֶה עוֹמֵד אַחַר כָּתְלֵנוּ, בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁבָּא הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לְבַקֵּר אַבְרָהָם אָבִינוּ בְּיוֹם שְׁלִישִׁי לַמִּילָה, כְּמָה דְתֵימָא (בראשית יח, א): וַיֵּרָא אֵלָיו ה' בְּאֵלֹנֵי מַמְרֵא וְהוּא ישֵׁב וגו', יָשַׁב כְּתִיב, בָּא לַעֲמֹד אָמַר לוֹ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא שֵׁב אַבְרָהָם, אַתָּה סִימָן לְבָנֶיךָ שֶׁבְּשָׁעָה שֶׁבָּנֶיךָ נִכְנָסִין לְבָתֵּי כְנֵסִיּוֹת וּלְבָתֵּי מִדְרָשׁוֹת וְקוֹרְאִין אֶת שְׁמַע וְיוֹשְׁבִים וּכְבוֹדִי עוֹמֵד, וּמַה טַּעַם (תהלים פב, א): אֱלֹהִים נִצָּב בַּעֲדַת אֵל. אָמַר רַבִּי חַגַּאי בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי יִצְחָק אֱלֹהִים עוֹמֵד אֵין כְּתִיב כָּאן, אֶלָּא אֱלֹהִים נִצָּב, אֶטָיְמוֹס, הָא כְּמָה דְתֵימָא (ישעיה סה, כד): וְהָיָה טֶרֶם יִקְרָאוּ וַאֲנִי אֶעֱנֶה, לְכָךְ נֶאֱמַר: הִנֵּה זֶה עוֹמֵד אַחַר כָּתְלֵנוּ, אֵלּוּ בָּתֵּי כְנֵסִיּוֹת וּבָתֵּי מִדְרָשׁוֹת. מַשְׁגִּיחַ מִן הַחֲלֹּנוֹת, בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁאָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לְאַהֲרֹן וּלְבָנָיו: כֹּה תְבָרְכוּ וגו', אָמְרוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל לִפְנֵי הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, רִבּוֹן הָעוֹלָמִים, לַכֹּהֲנִים אַתְּ אוֹמֵר שֶׁיְבָרְכוּ אוֹתָנוּ, אֵין אָנוּ צְרִיכִים אֶלָּא לְבִרְכוֹתֶיךָ, וְלִהְיוֹתֵינוּ מִתְבָּרְכִים מִפִּיךָ, הֲדָא הוּא דִּכְתִיב (דברים כו, טו): הַשְּׁקִיפָה מִמְּעוֹן קָדְשְׁךָ מִן הַשָּׁמַיִם וּבָרֵךְ אֶת עַמְּךָ אֶת יִשְׂרָאֵל. אָמַר לָהֶם הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאָמַרְתִּי לַכֹּהֲנִים שֶׁיִּהְיוּ מְבָרְכִין אֶתְכֶם, עִמָּהֶם אֲנִי עוֹמֵד וּמְבָרֵךְ אֶתְכֶם. לְפִיכָךְ הַכֹּהֲנִים פּוֹרְשִׂים אֶת כַּפֵּיהֶם, לוֹמַר שֶׁהַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא עוֹמֵד אַחֲרֵינוּ, וּלְכָךְ הוּא אוֹמֵר: מַשְׁגִּיחַ מִן הַחֲלֹּנוֹת, מִבֵּין כִּתְפוֹתֵיהֶם שֶׁל כֹּהֲנִים. מֵצִיץ מִן הַחֲרַכִּים, מִבֵּין אֶצְבְּעוֹתֵיהֶם שֶׁל כֹּהֲנִים. עָנָה דוֹדִי וְאָמַר לִי (במדבר ו, כז): וַאֲנִי אֲבָרֲכֵם. כֹּה תְבָרְכוּ, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (בראשית יב, ב): וְאֶעֶשְׂךָ לְגוֹי גָדוֹל וגו'. אָמַר רַבִּי פִּינְחָס בֶּן יָאִיר שֶׁבַע בְּרָכוֹת בֵּרַךְ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא אֶת אַבְרָהָם, וְאֵלּוּ הֵן: וְאֶעֶשְׂךָ לְגוֹי גָּדוֹל (בראשית יב, ב): וַאֲבָרֶכְךָ (בראשית יב, ב): וַאֲגַדְלָה שְׁמֶךָ (בראשית יב, ב): וֶהְיֵה בְּרָכָה (בראשית יב, ג): וַאֲבָרְכָה מְבָרְכֶיךָ (בראשית יב, ג): וּמְקַלֶּלְךָ אָאֹר (בראשית יב, ג): וְנִבְרְכוּ בְךָ. כְּנֶגֶד שִׁבְעָה פְּסוּקִים שֶׁבְּמַעֲשֵׂה בְרֵאשִׁית שֶׁכָּתוּב בָּהֶן כִּי טוֹב. רַבִּי לֵוִי בַּר חַיָּתָא וְרַבִּי אַבָּא בְּרֵיהּ דְּרַבִּי חִיָּא בַּר אַבָּא אָמַר שָׁלשׁ גְּדֻלּוֹת וְאַרְבַּע בְּרָכוֹת כְּתִיב כָּאן. בִּשֵֹּׂר שֶׁהֵן שְׁלשָׁה אָבוֹת וְאַרְבַּע אִמָּהוֹת. וַהֲלוֹא גְּדֻלּוֹת אֵינָן אֶלָּא שְׁתַּיִם, וְאֶעֶשְׂךָ, גְּדֻלָּה הִיא, דִּכְתִיב (שמואל א יב, ו): ה' אֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה אֶת משֶׁה. אָמַר רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן לָקִישׁ: וְאֶעֶשְׂךָ לְגוֹי גָדוֹל, זֶה שֶׁאוֹמְרִים אֱלֹהֵי אַבְרָהָם. וַאֲבָרֶכְךָ, זֶה שֶׁאוֹמְרִים אֱלֹהֵי יִצְחָק. וַאֲגַדְּלָה שְׁמֶךָ, זֶה שֶׁאוֹמְרִים אֱלֹהֵי יַעֲקֹב. יָכוֹל יִהְיוּ חוֹתְמִין בְכֻלָּן, תַּלְמוּד לוֹמַר: וֶהְיֵה בְּרָכָה, בְּךָ חוֹתְמִין וְאוֹמְרִים מָגֵן אַבְרָהָם, וְאֵין חוֹתְמִין בְּכֻלָּן. אָמַר רַבִּי חִיָּא בַּר זְעֵירָא וֶהְיֵה בְּרָכָה, בִּרְכָתְךָ קוֹדֶמֶת לְבִרְכָתִי, שֶׁמִּשֶּׁהֵם אוֹמְרִים מָגֵן אַבְרָהָם, אַחַר כָּךְ אוֹמְרִים מְחַיֵּה הַמֵּתִים. דָּבָר אַחֵר, וֶהְיֵה בְּרָכָה, וֶהְיֵה בְּרֵכָה, מָה הַבְּרֵכָה הַזּוֹ מְטַהֶרֶת אֶת הַטְּמֵאִים, אַף אַתָּה מְקָרֵב רְחוֹקִים תַּחַת כַּנְפֵי הַשְּׁכִינָה. וְאֶעֶשְׂךָ לְגוֹי גָדוֹל, אָמַר רַבִּי בֶּרֶכְיָה, אֶתֶּנְךָ, אֲשִׂימְךָ, אֵין כְּתִיב כָּאן, אֶלָּא וְאֶעֶשְׂךָ, מִשֶּׁאֶבְרָא אוֹתְךָ בְּרִיָּה חֲדָשָׁה, וּכְשֵׁם שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (בראשית א, ז): וַיַּעַשׂ אֱלֹהִים אֶת הָרָקִיעַ, אַתְּ פָּרֶה וְרָבֶה. לְגוֹי גָדוֹל, אָמַר אַבְרָהָם לְפָנָיו רִבּוֹנוֹ שֶׁל עוֹלָם, מִנֹּחַ לֹא הֶעֱמַדְתָּ שִׁבְעִים אֻמּוֹת, אָמַר לוֹ אוֹתָהּ אֻמָּה שֶׁכָּתוּב בָּהּ (דברים ד, ז): כִּי מִי גוֹי גָדוֹל, אֲנִי מַעֲמִידָהּ מִמְּךָ. אָמַר רַבִּי פִּנְחָס הַכֹּהֵן בַּר חָמָא אֵימָתַי עָשָׂה הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא אַבְרָהָם לְגוֹי גָדוֹל, כְּשֶׁיָּצְאוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל מִמִּצְרַיִם וּבָאוּ לְסִינַי וְקִבְּלוּ אֶת הַתּוֹרָה וְהִגִּיעוּ לְאֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל, הִבִּיט בָּהֶם משֶׁה וְאָמַר הֲרֵי הֵן עֲשׂוּיִים כְּשֵׁם שֶׁהִבְטִיחַ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לַזָּקֵן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים ד, ח): וּמִי גוֹי גָדוֹל. דָּבָר אַחֵר, לְגוֹי גָדוֹל, שֶׁאֶתֵּן לְבָנֶיךָ אֶת הַתּוֹרָה וּמִמֶּנָּהּ יִקָּרְאוּ גוֹי גָדוֹל, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים ד, ו): רַק עַם חָכָם וְנָבוֹן הַגּוֹי הַגָּדוֹל הַזֶּה. וַאֲבָרֶכְךָ, אָמַר רַבִּי בֶּרֶכְיָה לְפִי שֶׁהַדֶּרֶךְ גּוֹרֶמֶת לָאָדָם לִשְׁלשָׁה דְבָרִים, מְמַעֶטֶת פְּרִיָּה וּרְבִיָּה, מְמַעֶטֶת אֶת הַיְצִיאָה, וּמְמַעֶטֶת אֶת הַשֵּׁם, לְכָךְ נֶאֱמַר לוֹ: וְאֶעֶשְׂךָ לְגוֹי גָדוֹל, שֶׁאֵין הַדֶּרֶךְ מְמַעֶטֶת לְךָ פְּרִיָּה וּרְבִיָּה. וַאֲבָרֶכְךָ, שֶׁלֹא תְמַעֵט לְךָ הַדֶּרֶךְ אֶת הַיְצִיאָה. וַאֲגַדְּלָה שְׁמֶךָ, שֶׁלֹא תְמַעֵט לְךָ אֶת הַשֵּׁם. אָמְרֵי אִינְשֵׁי בְּמַתְלָא מִבֵּיתָא לְבֵיתָא חָלוּק, מֵאֲתַר לַאֲתַר נְפָשׁ. בְּרַם אַתְּ לָא נֶפֶשׁ חָסֵר וְלָא מָמוֹן אַתְּ חָסֵר. וֶהְיֵה בְּרָכָה, כְּבָר כְּתִיב: וַאֲבָרֶכְךָ, מַה תַּלְמוּד לוֹמַר: וֶהְיֵה בְּרָכָה, אָמַר רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר אָמַר לוֹ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא מִשֶּׁבָּרָאתִי עוֹלָמִי וְעַד עַכְשָׁו הָיִיתִי זָקוּק לְבָרֵךְ אֶת בְּרִיּוֹתַי, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (בראשית א, כח): וַיְבָרֶךְ אֹתָם אֱלֹהִים וגו', וְאוֹמֵר (בראשית ט, א): וַיְבָרֶךְ אֱלֹהִים אֶת נֹחַ וְאֶת בָּנָיו, אֲבָל מִכָּאן וָאֵילָךְ הֲרֵי בְּרָכוֹת מְסוּרוֹת לָךְ, לְמַאן דְּהָנֵי לְךָ לִמְבָרְכָה בָּרֵךְ. וְאַף עַל פִּי כֵן לֹא בֵּרַךְ אַבְרָהָם לְבָנָיו, לָמָּה כֵן, מָשָׁל לְמֶלֶךְ שֶׁהָיָה לוֹ פַּרְדֵּס נְתָנוֹ לְאָרִיס, וְהָיָה בְּתוֹךְ אוֹתוֹ פַּרְדֵּס אִילָן אֶחָד שֶׁל סַם חַיִּים וְאִילָן אֶחָד שֶׁל סַם הַמָּוֶת, אָמַר הֶאָרִיס אֲנִי אֶעֱבֹד וְאַשְׁלִים וּמַה שֶּׁהַמֶּלֶךְ רוֹצֶה לַעֲשׂוֹת לוֹ בְּפַרְדֵּסוֹ יַעֲשֶׂה. כָּךְ הַמֶּלֶךְ זֶה הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, וְהַפַּרְדֵּס זֶה הָעוֹלָם, מְסָרוֹ לְאַבְרָהָם, שֶׁאָמַר לוֹ: וֶהְיֵה בְּרָכָה, מֶה עָשָׂה אַבְרָהָם הָיוּ לוֹ שְׁנֵי בָנִים אֶחָד צַדִּיק וְאֶחָד רָשָׁע, יִצְחָק וְיִשְׁמָעֵאל, אָמַר אַבְרָהָם אִם מְבָרֵךְ אֲנִי אֶת יִצְחָק הֲרֵי יִשְׁמָעֵאל מְבַקֵּשׁ לְהִתְבָּרֵךְ וְהוּא רָשָׁע, אֶלָּא עֶבֶד אָנִי, בָּשָׂר וָדָם אָנִי, לְמָחָר אֶפָּטֵר מִן הָעוֹלָם וּמַה שֶּׁהַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא חָפֵץ לַעֲשׂוֹת בְּעוֹלָמוֹ, יַעֲשֶׂה. כְּשֶׁנִּפְטַר אַבְרָהָם נִגְלָה הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא עַל יִצְחָק וּבֵרֲכוֹ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (בראשית כה, א): וַיְהִי אַחֲרֵי מוֹת אַבְרָהָם וגו', וְיִצְחָק בֵּרַךְ אֶת יַעֲקֹב, וְיַעֲקֹב בֵּרַךְ לִשְׁנֵים עָשָׂר שְׁבָטִים, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (בראשית מט, כח): כָּל אֵלֶּה שִׁבְטֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל שְׁנֵים עָשָׂר וְזֹאת אֲשֶׁר דִּבֶּר לָהֶם אֲבִיהֶם וַיְבָרֶךְ אוֹתָם. מִכָּאן וָאֵילָךְ אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא הֲרֵי הַבְּרָכוֹת מְסוּרוֹת לָכֶם, הַכֹּהֲנִים יִהְיוּ מְבָרְכִים אֶת בָּנַי, כְּשֵׁם שֶׁאָמַרְתִּי לְאַבְרָהָם אֲבִיהֶם וֶהְיֵה בְּרָכָה, לְכָךְ נֶאֱמַר: כֹּה תְבָרְכוּ וגו'.


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
aaron Brooten, Women Leaders in the Ancient Synagogue (1982) 248
abba saul Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 147
acts, prayers in temple Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 168
agency Eilberg-Schwartz, The Human Will in Judaism: The Mishnah's Philosophy of Intention (1986) 217
author, of 2 maccabees, educational purpose Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 501
bertinoro Eilberg-Schwartz, The Human Will in Judaism: The Mishnah's Philosophy of Intention (1986) 217
blessings Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 501
breuer, yochanan Cohn, The Memory of the Temple and the Making of the Rabbis (2013) 136
christian clerics Brooten, Women Leaders in the Ancient Synagogue (1982) 248
christianity Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 147
death penalty Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 147
deuteronomist Eilberg-Schwartz, The Human Will in Judaism: The Mishnah's Philosophy of Intention (1986) 217
divine name, surrogate Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 147
egypt Brooten, Women Leaders in the Ancient Synagogue (1982) 248
eichrodt Eilberg-Schwartz, The Human Will in Judaism: The Mishnah's Philosophy of Intention (1986) 217
eleazar, martyr' Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 501
epstein, j. n. Cohn, The Memory of the Temple and the Making of the Rabbis (2013) 136
hai gaon Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 147
hasidim Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 147
hebrew, qumran Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 147
heinemann j. Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 177
hererobaptists Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 147
high priest Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 168; Trudinger, The Psalms of the Tamid Service: A Liturgical Text from the Second Temple (2004) 16, 18
matthew, prayer Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 168
oath, formula Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 147
pharisaic-rabbinic tradition, law Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 147
pharisees Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 147
prayer, communal, public Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 168
prayer, communal vs. individual Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 168
prayer, pre- Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 168
purity and impurity, ritual purity Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 147
reading, blessings before and after Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 168
simeon the just (simeon ii) Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 147
synagogues Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 177
tamid service, blessing at Trudinger, The Psalms of the Tamid Service: A Liturgical Text from the Second Temple (2004) 16
tamid service, components Trudinger, The Psalms of the Tamid Service: A Liturgical Text from the Second Temple (2004) 16, 18
tamid service, description Trudinger, The Psalms of the Tamid Service: A Liturgical Text from the Second Temple (2004) 16, 18
tamid service, prayers in Trudinger, The Psalms of the Tamid Service: A Liturgical Text from the Second Temple (2004) 16
tamid service, priests, role of Trudinger, The Psalms of the Tamid Service: A Liturgical Text from the Second Temple (2004) 16
tamid tractate, gaps in Trudinger, The Psalms of the Tamid Service: A Liturgical Text from the Second Temple (2004) 18
tamid tractate, in mishnah Trudinger, The Psalms of the Tamid Service: A Liturgical Text from the Second Temple (2004) 16, 18
worship, daily and weekly Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 177