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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



8049
Mishnah, Shekalim, 5.1-5.4


אֵלּוּ הֵן הַמְמֻנִּין שֶׁהָיוּ בַּמִּקְדָּשׁ, יוֹחָנָן בֶּן פִּנְחָס עַל הַחוֹתָמוֹת, אֲחִיָּה עַל הַנְּסָכִים, מַתִּתְיָה בֶּן שְׁמוּאֵל עַל הַפְּיָסוֹת, פְּתַחְיָה עַל הַקִּנִּין. פְּתַחְיָה, זֶה מָרְדְּכָי. לָמָּה נִקְרָא שְׁמוֹ פְּתַחְיָה. שֶׁהָיָה פּוֹתֵחַ בִּדְבָרִים וְדוֹרְשָׁן, וְיוֹדֵעַ שִׁבְעִים לָשׁוֹן. בֶּן אֲחִיָּה עַל חוֹלֵי מֵעַיִם, נְחוּנְיָא חוֹפֵר שִׁיחִין, גְּבִינֵי כָרוֹז, בֶּן גֶּבֶר עַל נְעִילַת שְׁעָרִים, בֶּן בֵּבָי עַל הַפָּקִיעַ, בֶּן אַרְזָה עַל הַצִּלְצָל, הֻגְרַס בֶּן לֵוִי עַל הַשִּׁיר, בֵּית גַּרְמוּ עַל מַעֲשֵׂה לֶחֶם הַפָּנִים, בֵּית אַבְטִינָס עַל מַעֲשֵׂה הַקְּטֹרֶת, אֶלְעָזָר עַל הַפָּרוֹכוֹת, וּפִנְחָס עַל הַמַּלְבּוּשׁ:These were the officers in the Temple:Yohanan the son of Pinchas was over the seals. Ahiyah over the libations. Mattityah the son of Shmuel over the lots. Petahiah over the bird-offering. (Petahiah was Mordecai. Why was his name called Petahiah? Because he ‘opened’ matters and expounded them, and he understood the seventy tongues). The son of Ahijah over the sickness of the bowels. Nehuniah, the digger of ditches. Gevini, the crier. The son of Gever over the locking of the gates. The son of Bevai over the strips [for lighting the menorah]. The son of Arza over the cymbal. Hugras the son of Levi over the song. The house of Garmu over the making of the showbread. The house of Avtinas over the preparing of the frankincense. Elazar over the curtains. And Pinchas over the priestly vestments.


אֵין פּוֹחֲתִין מִשְּׁלֹשָה גִּזְבָּרִין וּמִשִּׁבְעָה אֲמַרְכָּלִין, וְאֵין עוֹשִׂין שְׂרָרָה עַל הַצִּבּוּר בְּמָמוֹן פָּחוּת מִשְּׁנַיִם, חוּץ מִבֶּן אֲחִיָּה שֶׁעַל חוֹלֵי מֵעַיִם וְאֶלְעָזָר שֶׁעַל הַפָּרוֹכוֹת, שֶׁאוֹתָן קִבְּלוּ רוֹב הַצִּבּוּר עֲלֵיהֶן:They did not have less than three treasurers. Or less than seven superintendents. Nor create positions of authority over the public in matters of money [with] less than two [officers], except [in the case] of the son of Ahiyah who was over the sickness of the bowels and Elazar who was over the veil, for these had been accepted by the majority of the public.


אַרְבָּעָה חוֹתָמוֹת הָיוּ בַּמִּקְדָּשׁ, וְכָתוּב עֲלֵיהֶן, עֵגֶל, זָכָר, גְּדִי, חוֹטֵא. בֶּן עַזַּאי אוֹמֵר, חֲמִשָּׁה הָיוּ, וַאֲרָמִית כָּתוּב עֲלֵיהֶן, עֵגֶל, זָכָר, גְּדִי, חוֹטֵא דַּל, וְחוֹטֵא עָשִׁיר. עֵגֶל מְשַׁמֵּשׁ עִם נִסְכֵּי בָּקָר גְּדוֹלִים וּקְטַנִּים, זְכָרִים וּנְקֵבוֹת. גְּדִי מְשַׁמֵּשׁ עִם נִסְכֵּי צֹאן גְּדוֹלִים וּקְטַנִּים, זְכָרִים וּנְקֵבוֹת, חוּץ מִשֶּׁל אֵילִים. זָכָר מְשַׁמֵּשׁ עִם נִסְכֵּי אֵילִים בִּלְבָד. חוֹטֵא מְשַׁמֵּשׁ עִם נִסְכֵּי שָׁלשׁ בְּהֵמוֹת שֶׁל מְצוֹרָעִין:There were four seals in the Temple, and on them was inscribed [respectively]: ‘calf’, ‘ram’, ‘kid’, ‘sinner’. Ben Azzai says: there were five and on them was inscribed in Aramaic [respectively]” ‘calf’, ‘ram’, ‘kid’, ‘poor sinner’, and ‘rich sinner’. [The seal inscribed] ‘calf’ served for the libations of cattle, both large and small, male and female. [The seal inscribed] ‘kid’ served for the libations of flock animals, both large and small, male and female, with the exception of rams. [The one inscribed] ‘ram’ served for the libations of rams alone. [The one inscribed] ‘sinner’ served for the libations of the three animals [offered] by lepers.


מִי שֶׁהוּא מְבַקֵּשׁ נְסָכִים הוֹלֵךְ לוֹ אֵצֶל יוֹחָנָן שֶׁהוּא מְמֻנֶּה עַל הַחוֹתָמוֹת, נוֹתֵן לוֹ מָעוֹת וּמְקַבֵּל מִמֶּנּוּ חוֹתָם. בָּא לוֹ אֵצֶל אֲחִיָּה שֶׁהוּא מְמֻנֶּה עַל הַנְּסָכִים, וְנוֹתֵן לוֹ חוֹתָם וּמְקַבֵּל מִמֶּנּוּ נְסָכִים. וְלָעֶרֶב בָּאִין זֶה אֵצֶל זֶה, וַאֲחִיָּה מוֹצִיא אֶת הַחוֹתָמוֹת וּמְקַבֵּל כְּנֶגְדָּן מָעוֹת. וְאִם הוֹתִירוּ הוֹתִירוּ לַהֶקְדֵּשׁ. וְאִם פָּחָתוּ, הָיָה מְשַׁלֵּם יוֹחָנָן מִבֵּיתוֹ, שֶׁיַּד הֶקְדֵּשׁ עַל הָעֶלְיוֹנָה:If one required libations he would go to Yohanan who was the officer over the seals, and give him money and receive from him a seal. Then he would go to Ahiyah who was the officer over the libations, and give him the seal, and receive from him the libations. And in the evening these two [officers] would come together, and Ahiyah would bring out the seals and receive money for their value. And if there was more [than their value] the surplus belonged to the sanctuary, but if there was less [than their value] Yohanan would pay [the loss] out of his own pocket; for the Temple has the upper hand.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

31 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 27.5 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

27.5. וּבָנִיתָ שָּׁם מִזְבֵּחַ לַיהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ מִזְבַּח אֲבָנִים לֹא־תָנִיף עֲלֵיהֶם בַּרְזֶל׃ 27.5. And there shalt thou build an altar unto the LORD thy God, an altar of stones; thou shalt lift up no iron tool upon them."
2. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 1.5, 24.9 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.5. וַיְהִי כָּל־נֶפֶשׁ יֹצְאֵי יֶרֶךְ־יַעֲקֹב שִׁבְעִים נָפֶשׁ וְיוֹסֵף הָיָה בְמִצְרָיִם׃ 24.9. וַיַּעַל מֹשֶׁה וְאַהֲרֹן נָדָב וַאֲבִיהוּא וְשִׁבְעִים מִזִּקְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 1.5. And all the souls that came out of the loins of Jacob were seventy souls; and Joseph was in Egypt already." 24.9. Then went up Moses, and Aaron, Nadab, and Abihu, and seventy of the elders of Israel;"
3. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 10.31, 11.7-11.9, 21.21, 32.4 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

10.31. אֵלֶּה בְנֵי־שֵׁם לְמִשְׁפְּחֹתָם לִלְשֹׁנֹתָם בְּאַרְצֹתָם לְגוֹיֵהֶם׃ 11.7. הָבָה נֵרְדָה וְנָבְלָה שָׁם שְׂפָתָם אֲשֶׁר לֹא יִשְׁמְעוּ אִישׁ שְׂפַת רֵעֵהוּ׃ 11.8. וַיָּפֶץ יְהוָה אֹתָם מִשָּׁם עַל־פְּנֵי כָל־הָאָרֶץ וַיַּחְדְּלוּ לִבְנֹת הָעִיר׃ 11.9. עַל־כֵּן קָרָא שְׁמָהּ בָּבֶל כִּי־שָׁם בָּלַל יְהוָה שְׂפַת כָּל־הָאָרֶץ וּמִשָּׁם הֱפִיצָם יְהוָה עַל־פְּנֵי כָּל־הָאָרֶץ׃ 21.21. וַיֵּשֶׁב בְּמִדְבַּר פָּארָן וַתִּקַּח־לוֹ אִמּוֹ אִשָּׁה מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם׃ 32.4. וַיִּשְׁלַח יַעֲקֹב מַלְאָכִים לְפָנָיו אֶל־עֵשָׂו אָחִיו אַרְצָה שֵׂעִיר שְׂדֵה אֱדוֹם׃ 10.31. These are the sons of Shem, after their families, after their tongues, in their lands, after their nations." 11.7. Come, let us go down, and there confound their language, that they may not understand one another’s speech.’" 11.8. So the LORD scattered them abroad from thence upon the face of all the earth; and they left off to build the city." 11.9. Therefore was the name of it called Babel; because the LORD did there aconfound the language of all the earth; and from thence did the LORD scatter them abroad upon the face of all the earth." 21.21. And he dwelt in the wilderness of Paran; and his mother took him a wife out of the land of Egypt." 32.4. And Jacob sent messengers before him to Esau his brother unto the land of Seir, the field of Edom."
4. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 11.16, 29.12-29.34 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

11.16. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה אֶסְפָה־לִּי שִׁבְעִים אִישׁ מִזִּקְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אֲשֶׁר יָדַעְתָּ כִּי־הֵם זִקְנֵי הָעָם וְשֹׁטְרָיו וְלָקַחְתָּ אֹתָם אֶל־אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד וְהִתְיַצְּבוּ שָׁם עִמָּךְ׃ 29.12. וּבַחֲמִשָּׁה עָשָׂר יוֹם לַחֹדֶשׁ הַשְּׁבִיעִי מִקְרָא־קֹדֶשׁ יִהְיֶה לָכֶם כָּל־מְלֶאכֶת עֲבֹדָה לֹא תַעֲשׂוּ וְחַגֹּתֶם חַג לַיהוָה שִׁבְעַת יָמִים׃ 29.13. וְהִקְרַבְתֶּם עֹלָה אִשֵּׁה רֵיחַ נִיחֹחַ לַיהוָה פָּרִים בְּנֵי־בָקָר שְׁלֹשָׁה עָשָׂר אֵילִם שְׁנָיִם כְּבָשִׂים בְּנֵי־שָׁנָה אַרְבָּעָה עָשָׂר תְּמִימִם יִהְיוּ׃ 29.14. וּמִנְחָתָם סֹלֶת בְּלוּלָה בַשָּׁמֶן שְׁלֹשָׁה עֶשְׂרֹנִים לַפָּר הָאֶחָד לִשְׁלֹשָׁה עָשָׂר פָּרִים שְׁנֵי עֶשְׂרֹנִים לָאַיִל הָאֶחָד לִשְׁנֵי הָאֵילִם׃ 29.15. וְעִשָּׂרוֹן עִשָּׂרוֹן לַכֶּבֶשׂ הָאֶחָד לְאַרְבָּעָה עָשָׂר כְּבָשִׂים׃ 29.16. וּשְׂעִיר־עִזִּים אֶחָד חַטָּאת מִלְּבַד עֹלַת הַתָּמִיד מִנְחָתָהּ וְנִסְכָּהּ׃ 29.17. וּבַיּוֹם הַשֵּׁנִי פָּרִים בְּנֵי־בָקָר שְׁנֵים עָשָׂר אֵילִם שְׁנָיִם כְּבָשִׂים בְּנֵי־שָׁנָה אַרְבָּעָה עָשָׂר תְּמִימִם׃ 29.18. וּמִנְחָתָם וְנִסְכֵּיהֶם לַפָּרִים לָאֵילִם וְלַכְּבָשִׂים בְּמִסְפָּרָם כַּמִּשְׁפָּט׃ 29.19. וּשְׂעִיר־עִזִּים אֶחָד חַטָּאת מִלְּבַד עֹלַת הַתָּמִיד וּמִנְחָתָהּ וְנִסְכֵּיהֶם׃ 29.21. וּמִנְחָתָם וְנִסְכֵּיהֶם לַפָּרִים לָאֵילִם וְלַכְּבָשִׂים בְּמִסְפָּרָם כַּמִּשְׁפָּט׃ 29.22. וּשְׂעִיר חַטָּאת אֶחָד מִלְּבַד עֹלַת הַתָּמִיד וּמִנְחָתָהּ וְנִסְכָּהּ׃ 29.23. וּבַיּוֹם הָרְבִיעִי פָּרִים עֲשָׂרָה אֵילִם שְׁנָיִם כְּבָשִׂים בְּנֵי־שָׁנָה אַרְבָּעָה עָשָׂר תְּמִימִם׃ 29.24. מִנְחָתָם וְנִסְכֵּיהֶם לַפָּרִים לָאֵילִם וְלַכְּבָשִׂים בְּמִסְפָּרָם כַּמִּשְׁפָּט׃ 29.25. וּשְׂעִיר־עִזִּים אֶחָד חַטָּאת מִלְּבַד עֹלַת הַתָּמִיד מִנְחָתָהּ וְנִסְכָּהּ׃ 29.26. וּבַיּוֹם הַחֲמִישִׁי פָּרִים תִּשְׁעָה אֵילִם שְׁנָיִם כְּבָשִׂים בְּנֵי־שָׁנָה אַרְבָּעָה עָשָׂר תְּמִימִם׃ 29.27. וּמִנְחָתָם וְנִסְכֵּיהֶם לַפָּרִים לָאֵילִם וְלַכְּבָשִׂים בְּמִסְפָּרָם כַּמִּשְׁפָּט׃ 29.28. וּשְׂעִיר חַטָּאת אֶחָד מִלְּבַד עֹלַת הַתָּמִיד וּמִנְחָתָהּ וְנִסְכָּהּ׃ 29.29. וּבַיּוֹם הַשִּׁשִּׁי פָּרִים שְׁמֹנָה אֵילִם שְׁנָיִם כְּבָשִׂים בְּנֵי־שָׁנָה אַרְבָּעָה עָשָׂר תְּמִימִם׃ 29.31. וּשְׂעִיר חַטָּאת אֶחָד מִלְּבַד עֹלַת הַתָּמִיד מִנְחָתָהּ וּנְסָכֶיהָ׃ 29.32. וּבַיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי פָּרִים שִׁבְעָה אֵילִם שְׁנָיִם כְּבָשִׂים בְּנֵי־שָׁנָה אַרְבָּעָה עָשָׂר תְּמִימִם׃ 29.33. וּמִנְחָתָם וְנִסְכֵּהֶם לַפָּרִים לָאֵילִם וְלַכְּבָשִׂים בְּמִסְפָּרָם כְּמִשְׁפָּטָם׃ 29.34. וּשְׂעִיר חַטָּאת אֶחָד מִלְּבַד עֹלַת הַתָּמִיד מִנְחָתָהּ וְנִסְכָּהּ׃ 11.16. And the LORD said unto Moses: ‘Gather unto Me seventy men of the elders of Israel, whom thou knowest to be the elders of the people, and officers over them; and bring them unto the tent of meeting, that they may stand there with thee." 29.12. And on the fifteenth day of the seventh month ye shall have a holy convocation: ye shall do no manner of servile work, and ye shall keep a feast unto the LORD seven days;" 29.13. and ye shall present a burnt-offering, an offering made by fire, of a sweet savour unto the LORD: thirteen young bullocks, two rams, fourteen he-lambs of the first year; they shall be without blemish;" 29.14. and their meal-offering, fine flour mingled with oil, three tenth parts for every bullock of the thirteen bullocks, two tenth parts for each ram of the two rams," 29.15. and a several tenth part for every lamb of the fourteen lambs;" 29.16. and one he-goat for a sin-offering beside the continual burnt-offering, the meal-offering thereof, and the drink-offering thereof." 29.17. And on the second day ye shall present twelve young bullocks, two rams, fourteen he-lambs of the first year without blemish;" 29.18. and their meal-offering and their drink-offerings for the bullocks, for the rams, and for the lambs, according to their number, after the ordice;" 29.19. and one he-goat for a sin-offering; beside the continual burnt-offering, and the meal-offering thereof, and their drink-offerings." 29.20. And on the third day eleven bullocks, two rams, fourteen he-lambs of the first year without blemish;" 29.21. and their meal-offering and their drink-offerings for the bullocks, for the rams, and for the lambs, according to their number, after the ordice;" 29.22. and one he-goat for a sin-offering; beside the continual burnt-offering, and the meal-offering thereof, and the drink-offering thereof." 29.23. And on the fourth day ten bullocks, two rams, fourteen he-lambs of the first year without blemish;" 29.24. their meal-offering and their drink-offerings for the bullocks, for the rams, and for the lambs, according to their number, after the ordice;" 29.25. and one he-goat for a sin-offering; beside the continual burnt-offering, the meal-offering thereof, and the drink-offering thereof." 29.26. And on the fifth day nine bullocks, two rams, fourteen he-lambs of the first year without blemish;" 29.27. and their meal-offering and their drink-offerings for the bullocks, for the rams, and for the lambs, according to their number, after the ordice;" 29.28. and one he-goat for a sin-offering; beside the continual burnt-offering, and the meal-offering thereof, and the drink-offering thereof." 29.29. And on the sixth day eight bullocks, two rams, fourteen he-lambs of the first year without blemish;" 29.30. and their meal-offering and their drink-offerings for the bullocks, for the rams, and for the lambs, according to their number, after the ordice;" 29.31. and one he-goat for a sin-offering; beside the continual burnt-offering, the meal-offering thereof, and the drink-offerings thereof." 29.32. And on the seventh day seven bullocks, two rams, fourteen he-lambs of the first year without blemish;" 29.33. and their meal-offering and their drink-offerings for the bullocks, for the rams, and for the lambs, according to their number, after the ordice;" 29.34. and one he-goat for a sin-offering; beside the continual burnt-offering, the meal-offering thereof, and the drink-offering thereof."
5. Hebrew Bible, Habakkuk, 3.3 (8th cent. BCE - 6th cent. BCE)

3.3. אֱלוֹהַ מִתֵּימָן יָבוֹא וְקָדוֹשׁ מֵהַר־פָּארָן סֶלָה כִּסָּה שָׁמַיִם הוֹדוֹ וּתְהִלָּתוֹ מָלְאָה הָאָרֶץ׃ 3.3. God cometh from Teman, And the Holy One from mount Paran. Selah His glory covereth the heavens, And the earth is full of His praise."
6. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 25.11-25.12, 29.10 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

25.11. וְהָיְתָה כָּל־הָאָרֶץ הַזֹּאת לְחָרְבָּה לְשַׁמָּה וְעָבְדוּ הַגּוֹיִם הָאֵלֶּה אֶת־מֶלֶךְ בָּבֶל שִׁבְעִים שָׁנָה׃ 25.12. וְהָיָה כִמְלֹאות שִׁבְעִים שָׁנָה אֶפְקֹד עַל־מֶלֶךְ־בָּבֶל וְעַל־הַגּוֹי הַהוּא נְאֻם־יְהוָה אֶת־עֲוֺנָם וְעַל־אֶרֶץ כַּשְׂדִּים וְשַׂמְתִּי אֹתוֹ לְשִׁמְמוֹת עוֹלָם׃ 25.11. And this whole land shall be a desolation, and a waste; and these nations shall serve the king of Babylon seventy years." 25.12. And it shall come to pass, when seventy years are accomplished, that I will punish the king of Babylon, and that nation, saith the LORD, for their iniquity, and the land of the Chaldeans; and I will make it perpetual desolations." 29.10. For thus saith the LORD: After seventy years are accomplished for Babylon, I will remember you, and perform My good word toward you, in causing you to return to this place."
7. Hebrew Bible, Judges, 5.4 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

5.4. יְהוָה בְּצֵאתְךָ מִשֵּׂעִיר בְּצַעְדְּךָ מִשְּׂדֵה אֱדוֹם אֶרֶץ רָעָשָׁה גַּם־שָׁמַיִם נָטָפוּ גַּם־עָבִים נָטְפוּ מָיִם׃ 5.4. Lord, when Thou didst go out of Se῾ir, when Thou didst march out of the field of Edom, the earth trembled, and the heavens dropped, the clouds also dropped water."
8. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 8.11, 8.16 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

8.11. וְשִׁבְעִים אִישׁ מִזִּקְנֵי בֵית־יִשְׂרָאֵל וְיַאֲזַנְיָהוּ בֶן־שָׁפָן עֹמֵד בְּתוֹכָם עֹמְדִים לִפְנֵיהֶם וְאִישׁ מִקְטַרְתּוֹ בְּיָדוֹ וַעֲתַר עֲנַן־הַקְּטֹרֶת עֹלֶה׃ 8.16. וַיָּבֵא אֹתִי אֶל־חֲצַר בֵּית־יְהוָה הַפְּנִימִית וְהִנֵּה־פֶתַח הֵיכַל יְהוָה בֵּין הָאוּלָם וּבֵין הַמִּזְבֵּחַ כְּעֶשְׂרִים וַחֲמִשָּׁה אִישׁ אֲחֹרֵיהֶם אֶל־הֵיכַל יְהוָה וּפְנֵיהֶם קֵדְמָה וְהֵמָּה מִשְׁתַּחֲוִיתֶם קֵדְמָה לַשָּׁמֶשׁ׃ 8.11. And there stood before them seventy men of the elders of the house of Israel, and in the midst of them stood Jaazaniah the son of Shaphan, every man with his censer in his hand; and a thick cloud of incense went up." 8.16. And He brought me into the inner court of the LORD’S house, and, behold, at the door of the temple of the LORD, between the porch and the altar, were about five and twenty men, with their backs toward the temple of the LORD, and their faces toward the east; and they worshipped the sun toward the east."
9. Hebrew Bible, Daniel, 9.2 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

9.2. בִּשְׁנַת אַחַת לְמָלְכוֹ אֲנִי דָּנִיֵּאל בִּינֹתִי בַּסְּפָרִים מִסְפַּר הַשָּׁנִים אֲשֶׁר הָיָה דְבַר־יְהוָה אֶל־יִרְמִיָה הַנָּבִיא לְמַלֹּאות לְחָרְבוֹת יְרוּשָׁלִַם שִׁבְעִים שָׁנָה׃ 9.2. וְעוֹד אֲנִי מְדַבֵּר וּמִתְפַּלֵּל וּמִתְוַדֶּה חַטָּאתִי וְחַטַּאת עַמִּי יִשְׂרָאֵל וּמַפִּיל תְּחִנָּתִי לִפְנֵי יְהוָה אֱלֹהַי עַל הַר־קֹדֶשׁ אֱלֹהָי׃ 9.2. in the first year of his reign I Daniel meditated in the books, over the number of the years, whereof the word of the LORD came to Jeremiah the prophet, that He would accomplish for the desolations of Jerusalem seventy years."
10. Philo of Alexandria, On The Confusion of Tongues, 13 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

13. For if a man has learnt many dialects, he immediately is looked upon with consideration and respect by those who are also acquainted with them, as being already a friendly person, and contributing no small introduction and means of friendship by reason of his familiarity with words which they too understand; which familiarity very commonly imparts a feeling of security, that one is not likely to suffer any great evil at the hands of such a man. Why, then, did God remove sameness of language from among men as a cause of evils, when it seems it should rather have been established as a most useful thing? V.
11. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 15.185, 20.194 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

15.185. But as to Mariamne his wife, because of the misunderstanding between her and his sister, and his sister’s mother, which made it impossible for them to live together, he placed her at Alexandrium, with Alexandra her mother, and left his treasurer Joseph and Sohemus of Iturea to take care of that fortress. These two had been very faithful to him from the beginning, and were now left as a guard to the women. 20.194. and when Festus had given them leave so to do, they sent ten of their principal men to Nero, as also Ismael the high priest, and Helcias, the keeper of the sacred treasure.
12. Mishnah, Arakhin, 2.6 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

2.6. There were never less than twelve levites standing on the platform and their number could be increased into infinity. No minor could enter the court of the sanctuary to take part in the service except when the Levites stood up to sing. Nor did they join in the singing with harp and lyre, but with the mouth alone, to add flavor to the music. Rabbi Eliezer ben Jacob said: they did not count in the required number, nor did they stand on the platform. Rather they would stand on the ground, so that their heads were between the feet of the levites. And they were called the youth of the Levites."
13. Mishnah, Avot, 1.1 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

1.1. Moses received the torah at Sinai and transmitted it to Joshua, Joshua to the elders, and the elders to the prophets, and the prophets to the Men of the Great Assembly. They said three things: Be patient in [the administration of] justice, raise many disciples and make a fence round the Torah."
14. Mishnah, Bikkurim, 3.2-3.7 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

3.2. How were the bikkurim taken up [to Jerusalem]? All [the inhabitants of] the cities of the maamad would assemble in the city of the maamad, and they would spend the night in the open street and they would not entering any of the houses. Early in the morning the officer would say: “Let us arise and go up to Zion, into the house of the Lord our God” (Jeremiah 31:5)." 3.3. Those who lived near [Jerusalem] would bring fresh figs and grapes, while those who lived far away would bring dried figs and raisins. An ox would go in front of them, his horns bedecked with gold and with an olive-crown on its head. The flute would play before them until they would draw close to Jerusalem. When they drew close to Jerusalem they would send messengers in advance, and they would adorn their bikkurim. The governors and chiefs and treasurers [of the Temple] would go out to greet them, and according to the rank of the entrants they would go forth. All the skilled artisans of Jerusalem would stand up before them and greet them saying, “Our brothers, men of such and such a place, we welcome you in peace.”" 3.4. The flute would play before them, until they reached the Temple Mount. When they reached the Temple Mount even King Agrippas would take the basket and place it on his shoulder and walk as far as the Temple Court. When he got to the Temple Court, the Levites would sing the song: “I will extol You, O Lord, for You have raised me up, and You have not let my enemies rejoice over me” (Psalms 30:2)." 3.5. The birds [tied to] the basket were [offered] as whole burnt-offerings, and those which they held in their hands they gave to the priests." 3.6. While the basket was still on his shoulder he recites from: \"I acknowledge this day before the LORD your God that I have entered the land that the LORD swore to our fathers to assign us” (Deuteronomy 26:3) until he completes the passage. Rabbi Judah said: until [he reaches] “My father was a fugitive Aramean” (v.. When he reaches, “My father was a fugitive Aramean”, he takes the basket off his shoulder and holds it by its edges, and the priest places his hand beneath it and waves it. He then recites from “My father was a fugitive Aramean” until he completes the entire passage. He then deposits the basket by the side of the altar, bow and depart." 3.7. Originally all who knew how to recite would recite while those who did not know how to recite, others would read it for them [and they would repeat the words]. But when they refrained from bringing, they decreed that they should read the words to both those who could and those who could not [recite so that they could repeat after them]."
15. Mishnah, Berachot, 5.5 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

5.5. One who is praying and makes a mistake, it is a bad sign for him. And if he is the messenger of the congregation (the prayer leader) it is a bad sign for those who have sent him, because one’s messenger is equivalent to one’s self. They said about Rabbi Hanina ben Dosa that he used to pray for the sick and say, “This one will die, this one will live.” They said to him: “How do you know?” He replied: “If my prayer comes out fluently, I know that he is accepted, but if not, then I know that he is rejected.”"
16. Mishnah, Middot, 2.5 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

2.5. The courtyard of the women was a hundred and thirty-five cubits long by a hundred and thirty-five wide. It had four chambers in its four corners, each of which was forty cubits. They were not roofed, and so they will be in the time to come, as it says, “Then he brought me forth into the outer court, and caused me to pass by the four corners of the court, and behold in every corner of the court there was a court. In the four corners of the court there were keturot courts” (Ezekiel 46:21-22) and keturot means that they were not roofed. For what were they used? The southeastern one was the chamber of the Nazirites where the Nazirites used to boil their shelamim and shave their hair and throw it under the pot. The northeastern one was the wood chamber where priests with physical defects used to pick out the wood which had worms, every piece with a worm in it being unfit for use on the altar. The northwestern one was the chamber of those with skin disease. The southwestern one: Rabbi Eliezer ben Jacob said: I forget what it was used for. Abba Shaul says: they used to store there wine and oil, and it was called the chamber of oil. It [the courtyard of the women] had originally been smooth [without protrusions in the walls] but subsequently they surrounded it with a balcony so that the women could look on from above while the men were below, and they should not mix together. Fifteen steps led up from it to the courtyard of Israel, corresponding to the fifteen [songs of] ascents mentioned in the Book of Psalms, and upon which the Levites used to sing. They were not rectangular but circular like the half of a threshing floor."
17. Mishnah, Negaim, 14.1-14.2, 14.4-14.5, 14.8, 14.10 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

14.1. How would they purify a metzora?A new earthenware flask and a quarter of a log of living water was put in it. Two undomesticated birds are also brought. One of these was slaughtered over the earthenware vessel and over the living water. A hole was dug and it was buried in his presence. Cedarwood, hyssop and scarlet wool were taken and bound together with the remaining ends of the strip of wool. Near to these were brought the tips of the wings and the tip of the tail of the second bird. All were dipped together, and sprinkled upon the back of the metzora's hand seven times. Some say that the sprinkling was done upon his forehead. In the same manner one would sprinkle on the lintel of a house from the outside. 14.2. He now comes to set free the living bird. He does not turn his face towards the sea or towards the city or towards the wilderness, for it is said, \"But he shall let the living bird go out of the city into the open field\" (Leviticus 14:53). He now comes to shave off the hair of the metzora. He passes a razor over the whole of his skin, and he [the metzora] washes his clothes and immerses himself. He is then clean so far as to not convey uncleanness by entrance, but he still conveys uncleanness as does a sheretz. He may enter within the walls [of Jerusalem], but must keep away from his house for seven days, and he is forbidden to have intercourse." 14.4. There are three who must shave their hair, and their shaving of it is a commandment: the nazirite, the metzora, and the Levites. If any of these cut their hair but not with a razor, or if they left even two remaining hairs, their act is of no validity." 14.5. With regard to the two birds: the commandment is that they be alike in appearance, in size and in price; and they must be purchased at the same time. But even if they are not alike they are valid; And if one was purchased on one day and the other the next they are also valid. If after one of the birds had been slaughtered it was found that it was not wild, a partner must be purchased for the second, and the first may be eaten. If after it had been slaughtered it was found to terefah, a partner must be purchased for the second and the first may be made use of. If the blood had been spilled out, the bird that was to be let go must be left to die. If the one that was to be let go died, the blood must be spilled out." 14.8. He comes to the guilt-offering and he puts his two hands on it. He then slaughters it. Two priests receive its blood, one in a vessel and the other in his hand. He who received it in the vessel proceeded to sprinkle it on the wall of the altar. The one who received it in his hand would approach the metzora. The metzora had in the meantime immersed himself in the chamber of the metzoraim. He would come and stand at the Nikanor gate. Rabbi Judah says: he did not require immersion." 14.10. [The priest] then took some [of the contents] of the log of oil and poured it into his colleague's hand; And if he poured it into his own hand, the obligation is fulfilled. He then dipped [his right forefinger] in the oil and sprinkled it seven times towards the Holy of Holies, dipping it for every sprinkling. He then approached the metzora, to the same places that he applied the blood he now applied the oil, as it is said, \"Over the same places as the blood of the guilt offering; 29 and what is left of the oil in his palm the priest shall put on the head of the one being cleansed, to make expiation for him before the Lord.\" (Leviticus 14:28-29). If he \"put upon,\" he has made atonement, but if he did not \"put upon,\" he did not make atonement, the words of Rabbi Akiba. Rabbi Yoha ben Nuri says: these are but the remainders of the mitzvah. Whether he \"put upon\" or did not \"put upon,\" atonement is made, only it is accounted to him as if he did not make atonement. If any oil was missing from the log before it was poured out it may be filled up again; if after it was poured out, other oil must be brought anew, the words of Rabbi Akiva. Rabbi Shimon says: if any oil was missing from the log before it was applied, it may be filled up; but if after it had been applied, other oil must be brought anew."
18. Mishnah, Parah, 3.1-3.8 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

3.1. Seven days before the burning of the [red] cow they would separate the priest who was to burn the cow from his house to a chamber that was facing the north-eastern corner of the birah, and which was called the Stone Chamber. They would sprinkle upon him throughout the seven days with [a mixture of] all the sin-offerings that were there. Rabbi Yose said: they sprinkled upon him only on the third and the seventh days. Rabbi Hanina the vice-chief of the priests said: on the priest that was to burn the cow they sprinkled all the seven days, but on the one that was to perform the service on Yom Kippur they sprinkled on the third and the seventh days only." 3.2. Courtyards were built in Jerusalem over rock, and beneath them there was a hollow which served as a protection against a grave in the depths. And they used to bring there pregt women, and there they gave birth to their children and there they raised them. And they brought oxen, upon whose backs were placed doors, and the children sat upon them with stone cups in their hands. When they reached the Shiloah spring they got down and filled the cups with water and then they ascended and sat again on the doors. Rabbi Yose said: each child used to let down his cup and fill it from his place." 3.3. They arrived at the Temple Mount and got down. Beneath the Temple Mount and the courts was a hollow which served as a protection against a grave in the depths. And at the entrance of the courtyard there was the jar of the ashes of the sin-offerings. They would bring a male from among the sheep and tie a rope between its horns, and a stick or a bushy twig was tied at the other end of the rope, and this was thrown into the jar. They then struck the male [sheep] was so that it started backwards. And [a child] took the ashes and put it [enough] so that it could be seen upon the water. Rabbi Yose said: do not give the Sadducees an opportunity to rule! Rather, [a child] himself took it and mixed it." 3.4. One may not bring a sin-offering by virtue of [the purifications made for] another sin-offering, nor one child by virtue of [the preparations made for] another. The children had to be sprinkle on each other, the words of Rabbi Yose the Galilean. Rabbi Akiva says: they did not need to sprinkle." 3.5. If they did not find the residue of the ashes of the seven [red cows] they performed the sprinkling with those of six, of five, of four, of three, of two or of one. And who prepared these? Moses prepared the first, Ezra prepared the second, and five were prepared from the time of Ezra, the words of Rabbi Meir. But the sages say: seven from the time of Ezra. And who prepared them? Shimon the Just and Yoha the high priest prepared two; Elihoenai the son of Ha-Kof and Hanamel the Egyptian and Ishmael the son of Piabi prepared one each." 3.6. They made a ramp from the Temple Mount to the Mount of Olives, being constructed of arches above arches, each arch placed directly above each foundation [of the arch below] as a protection against a grave in the depths, whereby the priest who was to burn the cow, the cow itself and all who aided in its preparation went forth to the Mount of olives." 3.7. If the cow refused to go out, they may not take out with it a black one lest people say, \"They slaughtered a black cow\" nor another red [cow] lest people say, \"They slaughtered two.\" Rabbi Yose says: it was not for this reason but because it is said \"And he shall bring her out\" by herself. The elders of Israel used to go first by foot to the Mount of Olives, where there was a place of immersion. The priest that was to burn the cow was (deliberately) made unclean on account of the Sadducees so that they should not be able to say, \"It can be done only by those on whom the sun has set.\"" 3.8. They laid their hands upon him and said, \"My Lord the high priest, perform immersion once.\" He went down and immersed himself and came up and dried himself. Different kinds of wood were set in order there: cedar wood, pine, spruce and the wood of smooth fig trees. They made it in the shape of a tower and opened air holes in it; and its foreside was turned towards the west."
19. Mishnah, Sanhedrin, 1.5 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

1.5. A tribe, a false prophet, or the high priest may not be tried save by the court of seventy-one; They may not send forth the people to wage a battle of free choice save by the decision of the court of one and seventy; They may not add to the City [of Jerusalem], or the Courts of the Temple save by the decision of the court of seventy-one; They may not set up sanhedrins for the several tribes save by the decision of the court of one and seventy. And they may not proclaim [any city to be] an Apostate City (ir ha-niddahat) (Deut. 13:13–19] save by the decision of one and seventy. No city on the frontier may be proclaimed an Apostate City, nor three together, but only one or two."
20. Mishnah, Sotah, 3.1-3.3, 7.5, 9.15 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

3.1. He takes her meal-offering out of the basket of palm-twigs and places it in a ministering vessel and sets it upon her hand. And the priest places his hand under hers and waves it." 3.2. He waves it, he brings it near [the altar], he takes a handful and he turns it into smoke, and then the remainder is eaten by the priests. He [first] gives [her the water] to drink, and then sacrifices her meal-offering. Rabbi Shimon says: he sacrifices her meal-offering and then gives her to drink, as it is said, “And afterward he shall make the woman drink the water” (Numbers 5:26), but if he gave her to drink and then sacrificed her meal-offering it is valid." 3.3. If before [the writing on] the scroll had been rubbed out, she said “I refuse to drink”, her scroll is stored away and her meal-offering is scattered over the ashes. And her scroll is not valid to be used in giving another sotah to drink. If [the writing on] the scroll has been rubbed out and she said “I am defiled”, the water is poured out and her meal-offering is scattered over the ashes. If [the writing on] the scroll had been rubbed out and she said “I refuse to drink”, they open her throat and make her drink by force." 7.5. How were the blessings and curses [pronounced]?When Israel crossed the Jordan and came to Mt. Gerizim and Mt. Ebal which are by Samaria, in the vicinity of Shechem which is near the terebinths of Moreh, as it is said, “Are they not the other side of the Jordan, [beyond the west road that is in the land of the Canaanites who dwell in the Arabah near Gilgal, by the terebinths of Moreh] (Deut. 11:30), and elsewhere it says, “And Abram passed through the land unto the place of Shechem unto the terebinth of Moreh” (Genesis 12:6) just as the terebinth of Moreh mentioned in this latter verse is Shechem, so the terebinth of Moreh mentioned in the former verse is Shechem. Six tribes went up Mt. Gerizim and six tribes went up Mt. Ebal, and the priests and Levites with the ark stood below in the middle, the priests surrounding the ark, the Levites [surrounding] the priests, and all Israel on this side and that side, as it is said, “And all Israel, with their elders, officials, and judges stood on both sides of the ark, facing the levitical priests” (Joshua 8:33). They turned their faces towards Mt. Gerizim and opened with the blessing: Blessed be anyone who does not make a graven or molten image”. And these and these respond amen. They then turned their faces towards Mt. Ebal and opened with the curse: “Cursed be anyone who makes a graven or molten image” (Deut. 27:15). And these and these respond amen. [So they continue] until they complete the blessings and curses. After that they brought the stones, built the altar and plastered it with plaster, and inscribed upon it all the words of the Torah in seventy languages, as it is said, “most distinctly (be’er hetev). Then they took the stones and went and spent the night in their place." 9.15. When Rabbi Meir died, the composers of fables ceased. When Ben Azzai died, the diligent students [of Torah] ceased. When Ben Zoma died, the expounders ceased. When Rabbi Joshua died, goodness ceased from the world. When Rabban Shimon ben Gamaliel died, locusts come and troubles multiplied. When Rabbi Elazar ben Azaryah died, the sages ceased to be wealthy. When Rabbi Akiba died, the glory of the Torah ceased. When Rabbi Hanina ben Dosa died, men of wondrous deeds ceased. When Rabbi Yose Katnuta died, the pious men (hasidim) ceased and why was his name called Katnuta? Because he was the youngest of the pious men. When Rabban Yoha ben Zakkai died, the splendor of wisdom ceased. When Rabban Gamaliel the elder died, the glory of the torah ceased, and purity and separateness perished. When Rabbi Ishmael ben Fabi died, the splendor of the priesthood ceased. When Rabbi died, humility and fear of sin ceased. Rabbi Phineas ben Yair says: when Temple was destroyed, scholars and freemen were ashamed and covered their head, men of wondrous deeds were disregarded, and violent men and big talkers grew powerful. And nobody expounds, nobody seeks, and nobody asks. Upon whom shall we depend? Upon our father who is in heaven. Rabbi Eliezer the Great says: from the day the Temple was destroyed, the sages began to be like scribes, scribes like synagogue-attendants, synagogue-attendants like common people, and the common people became more and more debased. And nobody seeks. Upon whom shall we depend? Upon our father who is in heaven. In the footsteps of the messiah insolence (hutzpah) will increase and the cost of living will go up greatly; the vine will yield its fruit, but wine will be expensive; the government will turn to heresy, and there will be no one to rebuke; the meeting-place [of scholars] will be used for licentiousness; the Galilee will be destroyed, the Gablan will be desolated, and the dwellers on the frontier will go about [begging] from place to place without anyone to take pity on them; the wisdom of the learned will rot, fearers of sin will be despised, and the truth will be lacking; youths will put old men to shame, the old will stand up in the presence of the young, “For son spurns father, daughter rises up against mother, daughter-in-law against mother-in-law a man’s own household are his enemies” (Micah 7:6). The face of the generation will be like the face of a dog, a son will not feel ashamed before his father. Upon whom shall we depend? Upon our father who is in heaven. Rabbi Pinchas ben Yair says, “Heedfulness leads to cleanliness, cleanliness leads to purity, purity leads to separation, separation leads to holiness, holiness leads to modesty, modesty leads to fear of sin, fear of sin leads to piety, piety leads to the Holy Spirit, The Holy Spirit leads to the resurrection of the dead, and the resurrection of the dead comes from Elijah, blessed be his memory, Amen.”"
21. Mishnah, Sukkah, 5.1-5.5 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

5.1. The flute was for five or six days. This refers to the flute at the Bet Hashoevah [the place of the water-drawing] which does not override Shabbat or the festival day. They said: he who has not seen the Simchat Bet Hashoevah has never seen rejoicing in his life." 5.2. At the conclusion of the first festival day of Sukkot they descended to the Women’s Court (Ezrat Nashim) and they would make there a great enactment. And golden candlesticks were there, and four golden bowls on the top of each of them and four ladders to each, and four youths drawn from the young priests, and in their hands there were jars of oil containing one hundred and twenty logs which they poured into the bowls." 5.3. From the worn-out pants and belts of the priests they made wicks and with them they kindled the lamps. And there was not a courtyard in Jerusalem that was not illuminated by the light of the Bet Hashoevah." 5.4. Men of piety and good deeds used to dance before them with lighted torches in their hands, and they would sing songs and praises. And Levites with innumerable harps, lyres, cymbals and trumpets and other musical instruments stood upon the fifteen steps leading down from the Court of the Israelites to the Court of the Women, corresponding to the fifteen songs of ascents in the Psalms, and it was on these [steps] that the Levites stood with their musical instruments and sang their songs. Two priests stood by the upper gate which leads down from the Court of the Israelites to the Court of the Women, with two trumpets in their hands. When the cock crowed they sounded a teki'ah [drawn-out blast], a teru'ah [staccato note] and again a teki'ah. When they reached the tenth step they sounded a teki'ah, a teru'ah and again a teki'ah. When they reached the Court [of the Women] they sounded a teki'ah, a teru'ah and again a teki'ah. They would sound their trumpets and proceed until they reached the gate which leads out to the east. When they reached the gate which leads out to the east, they turned their faces from east to west and said, “Our fathers who were in this place ‘their backs were toward the Temple of the Lord, and their faces toward the east, and they worshipped the sun toward the east’, but as for us, our eyes are turned to the Lord.” Rabbi Judah said: they used to repeat [the last words] and say “We are the Lord’s and our eyes are turned to the Lord.”" 5.5. They never have less than twenty-one blasts in the Temple, and never more than forty-eight. Every day there were twenty-one blasts in the Temple, three at the opening of the gates, nine at the morning tamid sacrifice, and nine at the evening tamid sacrifice. At the musafim (additional sacrifices) they would add another nine. And on the eve of Shabbat they would add another six, three as a sign to the people to stop working and three to mark a distinction between the holy and the profane. On the eve of Shabbat in the intermediate days of the [Sukkoth] festival, there were [therefore] forty-eight blasts: three at the opening of the gates, three at the upper gate, three at the lower gate, three at the water-drawing, three at the altar, nine at the daily morning sacrifice, nine at the daily evening sacrifice, nine at the additional sacrifices, three as a sign to the people to cease from work, and three to mark a distinction between the holy and the profane."
22. Mishnah, Tamid, 1.2, 7.4 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

1.2. Anyone who desired to remove the ashes from the altar used to rise early and bathe before the superintendent came. At what time did the superintendent come? He did not always come at the same time; sometimes he came just at cock-crow, sometimes a little before or a little after. The superintendent would come and knock and they would open for him, and he would say to them, let all who have bathed come and draw lots. So they drew lots, and whoever was successful." 7.4. The following are the psalms that were chanted in the Temple.On the first day they used to say, “The earth is the Lord's and the fullness thereof, the world and they that dwell therein” (Psalms. On the second day they used to say: “Great is the Lord and highly to be praised, in the city of our God. His holy mountain” (Psalms. On the third day they used to say: “God stands in the congregation of God, in the midst of the judges he judges” (Psalms. On the fourth day they used to say: “O Lord, God to whom vengeance belongs. God to whom vengeance belongs, shine forth” (Psalms. On the fifth day they used to say: “Sing aloud unto God our strength, shout unto the God of Jacob” (Psalms. On the sixth day they used to say: “The lord reigns, he is clothed in majesty, the Lord is clothed, He has girded himself with strength” (Psalms. On Shabbat they used to say: “A psalm, a song for the Sabbath day” (Psalms. A psalm, a song for the time to come, for the day that will be all Shabbat and rest for everlasting life. Congratulations! We have finished Tractate Tamid! It is a tradition at this point to thank God for helping us finish learning the tractate and to commit ourselves to going back and relearning it, so that we may not forget it and so that its lessons will stay with us for all of our lives. Tamid may have been one of the more unusual tractates that we have ever learned. Instead of disputes between sages, heaps of logic and laws, we get an intricate description of the Temple service. Indeed, although the language is clearly rabbinic Hebrew, its descriptive style is more characteristic of the Bible than of rabbinic literature. It is likely that these descriptions, or at least parts thereof, come from Temple times. They were preserved because the rabbis fervently hoped that the Temple would be rebuilt during their own lifetimes. While we may or may not share in this wish, I think we can all appreciate the respect in which they held this ceremony. Despite the fact that it was performed each and every day, twice every day, they don’t seem to have lost their sense of wonder at the intimate connection that they received with God through the sacrificial process. I hope you have enjoyed Tamid. Tomorrow we begin Tractate Middot (the last tractate in Seder Kodashim!)."
23. Mishnah, Yoma, 1.3, 1.8 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

1.3. They delivered to him elders from the elders of the court and they read before him [throughout the seven days] from the order of the day. And they say to him, “Sir, high priest, you read it yourself with your own mouth, lest you have forgotten or lest you have never learned.” On the eve of Yom HaKippurim in the morning they place him at the eastern gate and pass before him oxen, rams and sheep, so that he may recognize and become familiar with the service." 1.8. Every day they would remove [the ashes from] the altar at the cock’s crow or close to that time, either before or after. But on Yom HaKippurim from midnight, and on the festivals at the [end of the] first watch; And the cock’s crow would not arrive before the Temple court was full of Israelites."
24. Mishnah, Shekalim, 5.2-5.4, 5.6, 6.1-6.6 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

5.2. They did not have less than three treasurers. Or less than seven superintendents. Nor create positions of authority over the public in matters of money [with] less than two [officers], except [in the case] of the son of Ahiyah who was over the sickness of the bowels and Elazar who was over the veil, for these had been accepted by the majority of the public." 5.3. There were four seals in the Temple, and on them was inscribed [respectively]: ‘calf’, ‘ram’, ‘kid’, ‘sinner’. Ben Azzai says: there were five and on them was inscribed in Aramaic [respectively]” ‘calf’, ‘ram’, ‘kid’, ‘poor sinner’, and ‘rich sinner’. [The seal inscribed] ‘calf’ served for the libations of cattle, both large and small, male and female. [The seal inscribed] ‘kid’ served for the libations of flock animals, both large and small, male and female, with the exception of rams. [The one inscribed] ‘ram’ served for the libations of rams alone. [The one inscribed] ‘sinner’ served for the libations of the three animals [offered] by lepers." 5.4. If one required libations he would go to Yoha who was the officer over the seals, and give him money and receive from him a seal. Then he would go to Ahiyah who was the officer over the libations, and give him the seal, and receive from him the libations. And in the evening these two [officers] would come together, and Ahiyah would bring out the seals and receive money for their value. And if there was more [than their value] the surplus belonged to the sanctuary, but if there was less [than their value] Yoha would pay [the loss] out of his own pocket; for the Temple has the upper hand." 5.6. There were two chambers in the Temple, one the chamber of secret gifts and the other the chamber of the vessels. The chamber of secret gifts: sin-fearing persons used to put their gifts there in secret, and the poor who were descended of the virtuous were secretly supported from them. The chamber of the vessels: whoever offered a vessel as a gift would throw it in, and once in thirty days the treasurers opened it; and any vessel they found in it that was of use for the repair of the temple they left there, but the others were sold and their price went to the chamber of the repair of the temple." 6.1. There were in the Temple thirteen chests, thirteen tables and thirteen prostrations. [Members] of the household of Rabban Gamaliel and of Rabbi Haiah the chief of the priests used would prostrate fourteen [times. And where was the additional [prostration]? In front of the wood storage yard, for they had a tradition from their forefathers that the Ark was hidden there." 6.2. It once happened that a priest who was busy [there] noticed that the floor [of the wood storage area] was different from the others. He went and told it to his friend but before he had time to finish his words his soul departed. Then they knew for certain that there the Ark was hidden." 6.3. And where did they make the prostrations? Four [times] in the north, four [times] in the south, three [times] in the east, and twice in the west, in front of the thirteen gates. The southern gates close to the west [side were]: the Upper Gate, the Fuel Gate, the Gate of the Firstborn [Animals], and the Water Gate. Why was it called the Water Gate? Because through it was brought in the flask of water for the libation on Sukkot. Rabbi Eliezer ben Yaakov says: through it the waters trickle forth and in the time to come “they will come forth from under the threshold of the Temple” (Ezekiel 47:1). On the opposite side in the north close to the west were: Jechoniah’ Gate, the Gate of the offerings, the Gate of the Women, and the Gate of Song. And why was it called the Jechoniah’ Gate? Because through it Jechoniah went out into his captivity. In the east was the Nicanor’s Gate, and it had two small gates, one to the right and one to the left. There were also two gates in the west which had no name." 6.4. There were thirteen tables in the Temple:Eight of marble in the place of slaughtering and on them they would rinse the entrails. And two to the west of the ramp [which ascends the altar], one of marble and one of silver; on that of marble they would place the limbs [of the offerings], and on that of silver the ministering vessels. And there were two tables in the Porch on the inside of the entrance to the Temple, one of marble and the other of gold; on that of marble they would place the showbread placed when it was brought in, and on that of gold [they would place the showbread] when it was taken out, because things sacred may be raised [in honor] but not lowered. And there was one [table] of gold on the inside of the Sanctuary on which the showbread lay continually." 6.5. There were thirteen chests in the Temple and on them was inscribed [respectively]:“new shekels”;“New shekels” those for each year; “old shekels”;“Old shekels” whoever has not paid his shekel in the past year may pay it in the coming year; “bird-offerings”;“Bird-offerings” these are turtle-doves; “young pigeons for burnt-offerings”;“Young pigeons for burnt-offerings” these are young pigeons. “wood”; “frankincense”; “gold for the kapporet”; and on six, “freewill offerings”. Both [these two chests] are for burnt-offerings, the words of Rabbi Judah. But the sages say: “bird-offerings” one [half] is for sin-offerings and the other [half] for burnt-offerings, but “young pigeons for burnt-offerings” all goes to burnt-offerings." 6.6. One who says: “Behold, I am obligated to bring wood”, he may not bring less than two logs. [If he says: “Behold, I am obligated to bring] frankincense”, he may not bring less than a handful of it. [If he says: “Behold, I am obligated to bring] gold”, he may not bring less than a gold denar. “On six [was inscribed] “for freewill-offerings”: What was done with the freewill-offerings? They would buy with them burnt-offerings, the flesh [of which] was for the name [of God] and the hides for the priests. The following is the midrash which was expounded by Yehoyada the high priest: “It is a guilt-offering; it is a guilt offering, it goes to the Lord” (Leviticus 5:19). This is the general rule: anything which is brought because of a sin or because of guilt, they should purchase with it burnt offerings, the flesh [of which] was for the name [of God] and the hides for the priests. Thus the two verses are fulfilled: a guilt offering for the Lord and a guilt offering for the priests, and it says: “Money brought as a guilt offering or as a sin offering was not deposited in the House of the Lord; it went to the priests” (II Kings 12:17)."
25. Tosefta, Shekalim, 2.14 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

26. Anon., Sifre Deuteronomy, 343 (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

27. Anon., Sifre Numbers, 131 (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

28. Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

17a. עמך עמך ואת בהדייהו ורבי יהודה עמך משום שכינה,ורבנן אמר קרא (במדבר יא, יז) ונשאו אתך במשא העם אתך ואת בהדייהו ורבי יהודה אתך בדומין לך,ורבנן (שמות יח, כב) מוהקל מעליך ונשאו אתך נפקא וילפא סנהדרי גדולה מסנהדרי קטנה,ת"ר (במדבר יא, כו) וישארו שני אנשים במחנה יש אומרים בקלפי נשתיירו,שבשעה שאמר לו הקב"ה למשה אספה לי שבעים איש מזקני ישראל אמר משה כיצד אעשה אברור ששה מכל שבט ושבט נמצאו שנים יתירים אברור חמשה חמשה מכל שבט ושבט נמצאו עשרה חסרים אברור ששה משבט זה וחמשה משבט זה הריני מטיל קנאה בין השבטים,מה עשה בירר ששה ששה והביא שבעים ושנים פיתקין על שבעים כתב זקן ושנים הניח חלק בללן ונתנן בקלפי אמר להם בואו וטלו פיתקיכם כל מי שעלה בידו זקן אמר כבר קידשך שמים מי שעלה בידו חלק אמר המקום לא חפץ בך אני מה אעשה לך,כיוצא בדבר אתה אומר (במדבר ג, מז) ולקחת חמשת חמשת שקלים לגולגולת אמר משה כיצד אעשה להן לישראל אם אומר לו תן לי פדיונך וצא יאמר לי כבר פדאני בן לוי,מה עשה הביא עשרים ושנים אלפים פיתקין וכתב עליהן בן לוי ועל שלשה ושבעים ומאתים כתב עליהן חמשה שקלים בללן ונתנן בקלפי אמר להן טלו פיתקיכם מי שעלה בידו בן לוי אמר לו כבר פדאך בן לוי מי שעלה בידו חמשת שקלים אמר לו תן פדיונך וצא,רבי שמעון אומר במחנה נשתיירו בשעה שאמר לו הקב"ה למשה אספה לי שבעים איש אמרו אלדד ומידד אין אנו ראויין לאותה גדולה אמר הקב"ה הואיל ומיעטתם עצמכם הריני מוסיף גדולה על גדולתכם ומה גדולה הוסיף להם שהנביאים כולן נתנבאו ופסקו והם נתנבאו ולא פסקו,ומה נבואה נתנבאו אמרו משה מת יהושע מכניס את ישראל לארץ אבא חנין אומר משום רבי אליעזר על עסקי שליו הן מתנבאים עלי שליו עלי שליו,רב נחמן אמר על עסקי גוג ומגוג היו מתנבאין שנאמר (יחזקאל לח, ג) כה אמר ה' אלהים האתה הוא אשר דברתי בימים קדמונים ביד עבדי נביאי ישראל הנבאים בימים ההם שנים להביא אותך עליהם וגו' אל תיקרי שנים אלא שנים ואיזו הן שנים נביאים שנתנבאו בפרק אחד נבואה אחת הוי אומר אלדד ומידד,אמר מר כל הנביאים כולן נתנבאו ופסקו והן נתנבאו ולא פסקו מנא לן דפסקו אילימא מדכתיב (במדבר יא, כה) ויתנבאו ולא יספו אלא מעתה (דברים ה, יח) קול גדול ולא יסף ה"נ דלא אוסיף הוא אלא דלא פסק הוא,אלא הכא כתיב ויתנבאו התם כתיב (במדבר יא, כז) מתנבאים עדיין מתנבאים והולכים,בשלמא למ"ד משה מת היינו דכתיב (במדבר יא, כח) אדוני משה כלאם אלא למ"ד הנך תרתי מאי אדני משה כלאם דלאו אורח ארעא דהוה ליה כתלמיד המורה הלכה לפני רבו,בשלמא למ"ד הנך תרתי היינו דכתיב מי יתן אלא למ"ד משה מת מינח הוה ניחא ליה לא סיימוה קמיה,מאי כלאם א"ל הטל עליהן צרכי ציבור והן כלין מאיליהן:,מניין להביא עוד שלשה:,סוף סוף לרעה ע"פ שנים לא משכחת לה אי אחד עשר מזכין ושנים עשר מחייבין אכתי חד הוא אי עשרה מזכין ושלשה עשר מחייבין תלתא הוו א"ר אבהו אי אתה מוצא אלא במוסיפין ודברי הכל ובסנהדרי גדולה ואליבא דרבי יהודה דאמר שבעים,וא"ר אבהו במוסיפין עושין ב"ד שקול לכתחילה פשיטא מהו דתימא האי דקאמר איני יודע כמאן דאיתיה דמי ואי אמר מילתא שמעינן ליה קמ"ל דהאי דקאמר איני יודע כמאן דליתיה דמי ואי אמר טעמא לא שמעינן ליה,אמר רב כהנא סנהדרי שראו כולן לחובה פוטרין אותו מ"ט כיון דגמירי הלנת דין למעבד ליה זכותא והני תו לא חזו ליה,א"ר יוחנן אין מושיבין בסנהדרי אלא בעלי קומה ובעלי חכמה ובעלי מראה ובעלי זקנה ובעלי כשפים ויודעים בע' לשון שלא תהא סנהדרי שומעת מפי המתורגמן,אמר רב יהודה אמר רב אין מושיבין בסנהדרין אלא מי שיודע לטהר את השרץ מה"ת אמר רב אני אדון ואטהרנו 17a. bwith you”(Numbers 11:16), i.e., they will stand b“with you,” and youare to be counted bwith them,leading to a total number of seventy-one. bAnd Rabbi Yehudaholds that the term b“with you”is mentioned bdue to the Divine Presencethat rested on Moses. According to Rabbi Yehuda, Moses was instructed to remain with the seventy Elders in order for the Divine Presence to rest upon them as well. He was not formally part of their court and therefore the number of Sages on the Great Sanhedrin is seventy.,The Gemara asks: bAndhow would bthe Rabbisrespond to this line of reasoning? The Gemara answers: bThe verse states: “And they shall bear the burden of the people with you”(Numbers 11:17), which indicates: b“With you,” and youare to be counted bwith them. Andhow would bRabbi Yehudarespond to that? He would explain that the term b“with you”means bsimilar to you,meaning, that the Elders appointed to the court had to be of fit lineage and free of blemish, like Moses., bAndfrom where do bthe Rabbisderive that ihalakha /i? They bderive it fromwhat was stated with regard to the appointment of the ministers of thousands and the ministers of hundreds: b“And they shall make it easier for you, and bear the burden with you”(Exodus 18:22), understanding the term “with you” to mean: Similar to you. bAndthe ihalakhaof the judges of bthe Great Sanhedrinof seventy bis derived fromthe ihalakhaof the judges of bthe lesser Sanhedrin,i.e., those ministers, that Moses appointed.,§ Apropos the appointment of the Elders by Moses, the Gemara discusses additional aspects of that event. There were seventy-two candidates for Elder but only seventy were needed. They were chosen by lots with their names put into a box. bThe Sages taught:The verse states: b“And there remained two men in the camp;the name of one was Eldad and the name of the other Medad, and the spirit rested upon them, and they were among those who were written but who did not go out to the tent, and they prophesied in the camp” (Numbers 11:26). Where did they remain? bSome saythis means bthey,i.e., their names, bremainedexcluded from those selected from the lots bin the box. /b,The ibaraitaexplains: bAt the time that the Holy One, Blessed be He, said to Moses: “Gather for Me seventy men of the Elders of Israel”(Numbers 11:16), bMoses said: How shall I doit? If bI select six from each and every tribe, there will bea total of seventy-two, which will be btwo extra.But if bI select five from each and every tribe, there will bea total of sixty, blacking ten.And if bI select six from this tribe and five from that tribe, I will bring about envy between the tribes,as those with fewer representatives will resent the others., bWhat did he do? He selected sixfrom every tribe band he brought seventy-two slips [ ipitakin /i]. On seventyof them bhe wrote: Elder, and he left twoof them bblank. He mixed them and placed them in the box. Hethen bsaid tothe seventy-two chosen candidates: bCome and draw your slips. Everyone whose hand drew upa slip that said: bElder, he saidto him: bHeaven has already sanctified you.And beveryone whose hand drew upa bblankslip, bhe saidto him: bThe Omnipresent does not desire you; what can I do for you? /b,The Gemara comments: bYoucan bsaysomething bsimilar to thisto explain the verse about the redemption of the firstborn by the Levites: “Take the Levites in place of all of the firstborn of the children of Israel…and as for the redemption of the 273 of the firstborn of the children of Israel who are in excess over the number of the Levites… byou shall take five shekels per head”(Numbers 3:45–47). It can be explained that bMoses said: How shall I dothis bfor the Jews? If I say toone of the firstborns: bGive memoney for byour redemption andyou may bleave,as you are among the 273 extra firstborns, bhe will say to me: A Levite already redeemed me;what is the reason you think that I am among those who were not redeemed?, bWhat did he do? He brought 22,000 slips ( /bsee Numbers 3:39), band he wrote on them: Levite, and on 273additional ones bhe wrote: Five shekels. He mixed them up and placed them in a box. He said to them: Draw your slips. Everyone whose hand drew upa slip that said: bLevite, he said to him: A Levite already redeemed you. Everyone whose hand drew upa slip that said: bFive shekels, he said to him: Pay your redemptionmoney and you may bleave. /b, bRabbi Shimon says:Eldad and Medad bremained in the camp,as they did not want to come to the lottery for the Elders. bAt the time that the Holy One, Blessed be He, said to Moses: Gather for me seventy Elders, Eldad and Medad said: We are not fitting for thatlevel of bgreatness;we are not worthy of being appointed among the Elders. bThe Holy One, Blessed be He, said: Since you have made yourselves humble, I will add greatness to your greatness. And what isthe bgreatnessthat bhe added to them?It was bthat all of the prophets,meaning the other Elders, who were given prophecy, bprophesiedfor a time bandthen bstoppedprophesying, bbut they prophesied and did not stop. /b,Apropos Eldad and Medad being prophets, the Gemara asks: bAnd what prophecy did they prophesy? They said: Moses will die,and bJoshua will bring the Jewish people into EretzYisrael. bAbba Ḥanin says in the name of Rabbi Eliezer: They prophesied about the matter of the quailthat came afterward (Numbers 11:31–33), saying: bArise quail, arise quail,and then the quail came., bRav Naḥman says: They were prophesying about the matter of Gog and Magog, as it is statedwith regard to Gog and Magog: b“So says the Lord God: Are you the one of whom I spoke in ancient days, through my servants, the prophets of Israel, who prophesied in those days for many years [ ishanim /i] that I would bring you against them?”(Ezekiel 38:17). bDo not readit as: b“Years [ ishanim /i]”; rather,read it as: bTwo [ ishenayim /i]. And who are the two prophets who prophesied the same prophecy at the same time? You must say: Eldad and Medad. /b, bThe Master says:The ibaraitasaid: bAll of the prophets prophesied andthen bstopped, butEldad and Medad bprophesied and did not stop.The Gemara asks: bFrom where do wederive bthatthe other prophets bstoppedprophesying? bIf we sayit is bfrom that which is writtenabout them: b“And they prophesied but they did so no more [ ivelo yasafu /i]”(Numbers 11:25), that is difficult: bBut if that is so,then concerning that which is stated in relation to the giving of the Torah: “These words the Lord spoke to all your assembly…with ba great voice, and it went on no more [ ivelo yasaf /i]”(Deuteronomy 5:19), bso tooshall it be understood bthatthe great voice bdid not continue? Rather,the intention there is bthat it did not stop,interpreting the word iyasafuas related to isof /i, meaning: End. Consequently, with regard to the seventy Elders as well, the word can be interpreted to mean that they did not stop prophesying., bRather,the proof is as follows: bIt is written herewith regard to the seventy Elders: b“They prophesied”(Numbers 11:25), and bit is written there:“Eldad and Medad bare prophesyingin the camp” (Numbers 11:27), from which it can be derived that bthey were continuously prophesying. /b,With regard to the content of Eldad and Medad’s prophecy, the Gemara asks: bGranted, according to the one who saystheir prophecy was that bMoses will die, this isthe reason for that bwhich is writtenthere: “And Joshua, son of Nun, the servant of Moses from his youth, answered and said: bMy master Moses, imprison them”(Numbers 11:28), as their prophecy appeared to be a rebellion against Moses. bBut according to the one who says thoseother btwoopinions with regard to the content of the prophecy, according to which their prophecy had no connection to Moses, bwhatis the reason that Joshua said: b“My master Moses, imprison them”?The Gemara answers: He said this bbecauseit is bnot proper conductfor them to prophesy publicly in close proximity to Moses, basby doing so bthey are like a student who teaches a ihalakhain his teacher’s presence,which is inappropriate.,The Gemara asks: bGranted, according to the one who says thoseother btwoopinions, bthis isthe reason for that bwhich is written:“And Moses said to him: Are you jealous for my sake? bWouldthat all of the Lord’s people were prophets” (Numbers 11:29). bBut according to the one who saysthat Eldad and Medad prophesied that bMoses will dieand Joshua will bring Israel into the land, bwould it have been satisfactory to Mosesthat all of the people of God would utter similar prophecies? The Gemara answers: bThey did not conclude it before him.Moses was not aware of what they had said, but only that they were prophesying.,The Gemara asks: bWhatis the meaning of: b“Imprison them [ ikela’em /i]”?The Gemara answers: Joshua bsaid to him: Placeresponsibility for the bneeds of the public upon them,so that they will be occupied like the other Elders of Israel band they will cease [ ikalin /i]prophesying, bon their own.Due to the burden of public responsibility they would not be able to be prophets.,§ The mishna derives the ihalakhathat there are twenty-three judges on a lesser Sanhedrin from the verses: “And the congregation shall judge,” and: “And the congregation shall save” (Numbers 35:24–25). The mishna understands that the term “congregation” is referring to ten judges, so that the two congregations, one in each verse, total twenty judges. The mishna then asks: bFrom whereis it derived bto bring three morejudges to the court? The mishna answers: The implication of the verse: “You shall not follow a multitude to convict” (Exodus 23:2), is that your inclination after a majority to exonerate is not like your inclination after a majority to convict, and a conviction must be by a majority of two.,The Gemara objects: bUltimately, you do not findan occurrence of the inclination bfor evil according toa majority of btwojudges. bIf elevenjudges vote to bacquitthe defendant band twelvevote to bconvict, this is stillonly a majority of bone,and bif tenvote to bacquit and thirteenvote to bconvict, they area majority of bthree.With a court of twenty-three judges, there is no possible way to convict with a majority of two. bRabbi Abbahu says: You do not findsuch a scenario bexceptin a case bwhere they addtwo additional judges because one of the judges abstained from the deliberation, the other judges are split in their decisions, and the two added judges both vote to convict. bAndthis is a possibility baccording toall itanna’im /i, band ina case tried by bthe Great Sanhedrin according tothe opinion bof Rabbi Yehuda, who saysthere are bseventyjudges on the Great Sanhedrin. With an even number, it is possible to have a majority of two., bAnd Rabbi Abbahu says: When they addadditional judges, they bcreate a courtconsisting of ban evennumber of judges iab initio /i.The Gemara asks: Isn’t that bobvious?What is the novelty in Rabbi Abbahu’s statement? The Gemara answers: bLest you say: Thisjudge bwho says: I do not know, isviewed bas one who isstill bthere, and if he says somethingafterward, bwe listen to himand include him in the count, so there are actually an odd number of judges on the court; therefore, Rabbi Abbahu bteaches us that thisjudge bwho says: I do not know, isviewed bas one who is notstill bthere, and if he says a reasonto rule in a certain manner afterward, bwe do not listen to him.Consequently, the court consists of an even number of judges.,§ bRav Kahana says:In ba Sanhedrin where allthe judges bsawfit bto convictthe defendant in a case of capital law, they bacquit him.The Gemara asks: bWhat is the reasoningfor this ihalakha /i? It is bsinceit bis learnedas a tradition that bsuspension of the trialovernight is necessary in order bto createa possibility of bacquittal.The ihalakhais that they may not issue the guilty verdict on the same day the evidence was heard, as perhaps over the course of the night one of the judges will think of a reason to acquit the defendant. bAndas bthosejudges all saw fit to convict him they bwill not seeany bfurtherpossibility to acquit bhim,because there will not be anyone arguing for such a verdict. Consequently, he cannot be convicted.,§ bRabbi Yoḥa says:They bplace on theGreat bSanhedrin onlymen bofhigh bstature, and of wisdom, and ofpleasant bappearance, and ofsuitable bageso that they will be respected. bAndthey must also be bmasters of sorcery,i.e., they know the nature of sorcery, so that they can judge sorcerers, bandthey must bknowall bseventy languagesin order bthat the Sanhedrin will notneed to bheartestimony bfrom the mouth of a translatorin a case where a witness speaks a different language., bRav Yehuda saysthat bRav says:They bplace on the Sanhedrin only one who knowshow bto rendera carcass of ba creeping animal pure by Torah law.The judges on the Sanhedrin must be so skilled at logical reasoning that they could even produce a convincing argument that creeping animals, which the Torah states explicitly are ritually impure, are actually pure. bRav said: I will discussthe ihalakhaof the creeping animal band render it pure,i.e., I am able to demonstrate how it is possible to construct such a proof:
29. Babylonian Talmud, Sukkah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

53b. אחספא ונשדיה בתהומא ומנח ליכא דקאמר ליה מידי אמר דוד כל דידע למימר ואינו אומר יחנק בגרונו נשא אחיתופל ק"ו בעצמו ומה לעשות שלום בין איש לאשתו אמרה תורה שמי שנכתב בקדושה ימחה על המים לעשות שלום לכל העולם כולו על אחת כמה וכמה אמר ליה שרי,כתב שם אחספא ושדי לתהומא ונחית תהומא שיתסר אלפי גרמידי כי חזי דנחית טובא אמר כמה דמידלי טפי מירטב עלמא אמר חמש עשרה מעלות ואסקיה חמיסר אלפי גרמידי ואוקמיה באלפי גרמידי אמר עולא ש"מ סומכא דארעא אלפי גרמידי והא חזינן דכרינן פורתא ונפקי מיא אמר רב משרשיא ההוא מסולמא דפרת:,ועמדו כהנים בשער העליון שיורד כו': בעי ר' ירמיה למעלה עשירית דנחית חמשה וקאי אעשרה או דלמא דנחית עשרה וקאי אחמשה תיקו,תנו רבנן ממשמע שנאמר (יחזקאל ח, טז) ופניהם קדמה איני יודע שאחוריהם אל היכל ה',אלא מה תלמוד לומר אחוריהם אל היכל ה' מלמד שהיו פורעין עצמן ומתריזין כלפי מטה:,אנו ליה וליה עינינו כו': איני והאמר רבי זירא כל האומר שמע שמע כאילו אמר מודים מודים אלא הכי אמרי המה משתחוים קדמה ואנו ליה (אנחנו מודים) ועינינו ליה מיחלות:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big אין פוחתין מעשרים ואחת תקיעות במקדש ואין מוסיפין על ארבעים ושמנה בכל יום היו שם עשרים ואחת תקיעות במקדש שלש לפתיחת שערים ותשע לתמיד של שחר ותשע לתמיד של בין הערבים ובמוספין היו מוסיפין עוד תשע,ובערב שבת היו מוסיפין שש שלש להבטיל את העם ממלאכה ושלש להבדיל בין קדש לחול,ערב שבת שבתוך החג היו שם ארבעים ושמנה שלש לפתיחת שערים שלש לשער העליון ושלש לשער התחתון ושלש למילוי המים ושלש על גבי מזבח תשע לתמיד של שחר ותשע לתמיד של בין הערבים ותשע למוספין שלש להבטיל את העם מן המלאכה ושלש להבדיל בין קודש לחול:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big מתניתין דלא כרבי יהודה דתניא ר"י אומר הפוחת לא יפחות משבע והמוסיף לא יוסיף על שש עשרה במאי קא מיפלגי ר"י סבר תקיעה תרועה תקיעה אחת היא ורבנן סברי תקיעה לחוד ותרועה לחוד,מ"ט דרבי יהודה אמר קרא (במדבר י, ה) ותקעתם תרועה וכתיב תרועה יתקעו הא כיצד תקיעה ותרועה אחת היא ורבנן ההוא לפשוטה לפניה ולאחריה הוא דאתא ור' יהודה לפניה ולאחריה מנליה נפקא ליה משנית,ורבנן מאי טעמייהו דכתיב (במדבר י, ז) ובהקהיל את הקהל תתקעו ולא תריעו ואי ס"ד תקיעה תרועה אחת היא אמר רחמנא פלגא דמצוה עביד ופלגא לא עביד ור' יהודה ההוא לסימנא בעלמא הוא דאתא,ורבנן סימנא הוא ורחמנא שויה מצוה כמאן אזלא הא דאמר רב כהנא אין בין תקיעה לתרועה ולא כלום כמאן כרבי יהודה אי רבי יהודה פשיטא 53b. bon an earthenware shard?If it is permitted, bwe willwrite it and bthrow it into the depths, andthey bwill subside. There was no one who said anything to him. David said: Anyone who knowswhat bto say and does not sayanything bmay he be strangled in his throat.Then bAhithophel raised an ia fortioriargument on his ownand said: bAnd just asin order bto make peace between a man and his wifein the case of isota /i, when the husband suspects his wife of having committed adultery, bthe Torah said: My Name that was written in sanctity will be erased on the water to establish peace for the whole world in its entirety, all the more soit is permitted. bHe said toDavid: bIt is permitted. /b, bHe wrote thesacred bname on an earthenware shard and cast it into the depths, and thewaters in bthe depths subsided sixteen thousand cubits. When he saw that they subsided excessively, he said: The higherthe waters in the aquifers, bthe moisterand more fertile the soil of bthe world. He recited the fifteenSongs of the bAscents and elevated them fifteen thousand cubits, and established them ata depth of bone thousand cubits. Ulla said: Learn from here that the thickness of the earthabove the waters of the depths bis one thousand cubits.The Gemara asks: bBut don’t we see thatwhen bwe dig a little,significantly less than one thousand cubits, bwater emerges? Rav Mesharshiyya said: That is from the ascent of the EuphratesRiver, which flows at a higher altitude than do other rivers. The water flows up through underground passages to reach the river. That is why water emerges when one digs in the hills of Babylonia.,§ The mishna continues: bAnd two priests stoodwith two trumpets bat the Upper Gate that descendsfrom the Israelites’ courtyard to the Women’s Courtyard, and when those drawing the water reached the tenth stair they sounded the trumpets. bRabbi Yirmeya raised a dilemma:Does the phrase reached the btenth stairmean bthat he would descend fivestairs band stand on the tenthfrom the bottom? bOr perhapsit means bthat he would descend tenstairs band stand on the fifthfrom the bottom? The Gemara notes: The dilemma bshall standunresolved.,The mishna describes: When they reached the gate through which one exits to the east, they turned from facing east to facing west toward the Holy of Holies, and said: Our ancestors who were in this place during the First Temple period did not conduct themselves appropriately and stood “with their backs toward the Sanctuary of the Lord, and their faces toward the east; and they worshipped the sun toward the east” (Ezekiel 8:16), and we, our eyes are to God. bThe Sages taught: By inference, fromthe fact bthat it is stated: “And their faces toward the east,” don’t I know that “their backswere btoward the Sanctuary of the Lord”?The Sanctuary was to the west., bRather,to bwhatpurpose bdoes the verse state: “Their backs toward the Sanctuary of the Lord”?It is an allusion to the fact that in addition to turning their backs on the Sanctuary of the Lord, they performed an additional evil. bIt teaches that they would expose themselves and defecate downward,a euphemism for the direction of the Divine Presence.,The mishna continues: In the Second Temple period they would say: bWe are to God, and to God are our eyes.The Gemara asks: bIs that so?May one pray in that manner? bDidn’t Rabbi Zeira say: One whorepeats himself while reciting iShemaand bsays: Listen, listen, islike one bwho says: We give thanks, we give thanks,and he is silenced, as it appears that he is worshipping two authorities. How then did they recite God’s name twice, consecutively? bRather, this is what they said: They bow toward the east,while bwe give thanks to God, and our eyes turn in hope to God,so that they would not recite God’s name consecutively., strongMISHNA: /strong bOnesounds bno fewer than twenty-onetrumpet bblasts in the Temple, and onesounds bno more than forty-eight.The mishna elaborates: bEach day there were twenty-onetrumpet bblasts in the Temple: Threeblasts were sounded bfor the opening of the gatesin the morning, bnine for the daily morning offering, and nine for the daily afternoon offering,totaling twenty-one. bAndon a day when the additional offerings were sacrificed, e.g., the New Moon, bwith the additional offerings they would add nine additional blasts. /b, bAnd on Shabbat eve they would add sixblasts sounded adjacent to the onset of Shabbat: bThree to stop the people fromtheir blabor,as the blasts inform the people that Shabbat is approaching and they stop working, band threeat the onset of Shabbat bto demarcate between sacred and profane. /b,On bShabbat eve during the festivalof iSukkot /i, bthere were forty-eightblasts. How so? bThreein the morning bfor the opening of the gates; three for the upper gate; and three for the lower gate; and three for the filling of thevessel with bwater,as described in the sequence of the ritual of drawing the water for the water libation (48b); band threewhen pouring the water libation bupon the altar; nine for the daily morning offering; and nine for the daily afternoon offering; and nine for the additional offerings; three to stop the people from work; and threemore bto demarcate between sacred and profane,totaling forty-eight blasts., strongGEMARA: /strong The Gemara notes: bThe mishna is not in accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Yehuda, as it is taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Yehuda says: The one whoseeks to bminimizethe number of blasts bshall not minimizetheir number to bfewer than sevenblasts. bAnd one whoseeks to baddto the number of blasts bshall not addbeyond bsixteen.The Gemara asks: With regard to bwhat do they disagree?The Gemara explains that bRabbi Yehuda holds:A series of blasts consisting of itekia /i, iterua /i, itekiaiscounted as bone blast. And the Rabbis hold: A itekia /iis counted bseparately and a iterua /iis counted bseparately.They agree with regard to the sequence and the number of the blasts, and disagree only with regard to how the blasts are tallied.,The Gemara asks: bWhat is the rationalefor the opinion bof Rabbi Yehuda?It is as bthe verse states: “And you shall sound [ iutkatem /i] a iterua /i”(Numbers 10:5), band it is written: “A iteruathey will sound [ iyitke’u /i]”(Numbers 10:6). bHow is itthat the Torah uses a verb from the root of itekiato describe the sounding of a iterua /i? Apparently, ba itekiaand a iterua /itogether compose boneblast. bAndhow do bthe Rabbisinterpret these verses? bThis comesto teach that each iteruablast is accompanied by ba plainunembellished blast, a itekia /i, bpreceding it and following it.The Gemara asks: bAnd from where does Rabbi Yehuda derivethat each iteruamust be accompanied by a itekia bpreceding it and following it?The Gemara explains: bHe derives it fromthe verse when it says: “And you shall sound [ iutkatem /i] a iterua ba second time”(Numbers 10:6), indicating an additional itekia /i.,The Gemara asks: bAnd what is the rationalefor the opinion of bthe Rabbis?It is bas it is written: “And when congregating the people you shall sound a itekiaand shall not sound a iterua /i”(Numbers 10:7). bAnd if it enters your mindthat a itekia /iand a iteruaareconsidered boneblast, bwould the Merciful One say to perform half a mitzva and not to performthe other bhalfof the mitzva? Apparently, each is a separate mitzva. The Gemara asks: bAndhow does bRabbi Yehudainterpret the verse? The Gemara answers: bThatsingle itekiamentioned in the context of congregating the people bcame merely as a signalto the camps and was not for the purpose of fulfilling the mitzva, which, in Rabbi Yehuda’s opinion, always comes in groups of three., bAndhow do bthe Rabbiscounter that assertion? They say: Indeed, bit is a signalto assemble the people; however, bthe Merciful One rendered it a mitzva.Therefore, one can derive that a single itekiablast is a distinct mitzva. The Gemara asks: bIn accordance with whoseopinion bis this statement of Rav Kahana: There is nopause bbetween a itekiaand a iteruaat alland they are sounded in one continuous blast? bIn accordance with whoseopinion is it? It is bin accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Yehuda.The Gemara asks: bIfRav Kahana’s statement is in accordance with the opinion of bRabbi Yehuda;that is bobvious.Why was it necessary for the Gemara to raise the matter at all?
30. Babylonian Talmud, Yoma, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

18a. ומאי ארבע או חמש לרבנן דאמרי נכנס נוטל שש ויוצא נוטל שש ושכר הגפת דלתות לא משתים עשרה בעי מיפלג בציר חדא מפלגא חמש שקיל,לר' יהודה דאמר נכנס נוטל שבע שתים בשכר הגפת דלתות ויוצא נוטל חמש מעשר בעי מיפלג בציר חדא מפלגא ושקיל ארבע,רבא אמר כולה רבי היא וסבר לה כר' יהודה ואלא מאי ארבע הא חמש בעי למשקל,לא קשיא הא דאיכא משמר המתעכב הא דליכא משמר המתעכב,אי איכא משמר המתעכב משמנה בעי למפלג ושקיל ארבע אי ליכא משמר המתעכב מעשר בעי למפלג ושקיל חמש,אי הכי מאי רבי אומר לעולם חמש קשיא, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big מסרו לו זקנים מזקני בית דין וקורין לפניו בסדר היום ואומרים לו אישי כהן גדול קרא אתה בפיך שמא שכחת או שמא לא למדת ערב יום כפורים שחרית מעמידין אותו בשער מזרח ומעבירין לפניו פרים ואילים וכבשים כדי שיהא מכיר ורגיל בעבודה כל שבעת הימים לא היו מונעין ממנו מאכל ומשתה ערב יוה"כ עם חשיכה לא היו מניחין אותו לאכול הרבה מפני שהמאכל מביא את השינה, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big בשלמא שמא שכח לחיי אלא שמא לא למד מי מוקמינן כי האי גוונא,והתניא (ויקרא כא, י) והכהן הגדול מאחיו שיהא גדול מאחיו בכח בנוי בחכמה ובעושר אחרים אומרים מנין שאם אין לו שאחיו הכהנים מגדלין אותו ת"ל והכהן הגדול מאחיו גדלהו משל אחיו,אמר רב יוסף לא קשיא כאן במקדש ראשון כאן במקדש שני דאמר ר' אסי תרקבא דדינרי עיילא ליה מרתא בת בייתוס לינאי מלכא על דאוקמיה ליהושע בן גמלא בכהני רברבי,ערב יום הכפורים שחרית וכו' תנא אף השעירים ותנא דידן מאי טעמא לא תנא שעירים כיון דעל חטא קא אתו חלשא דעתיה,אי הכי פר נמי על חטא הוא דאתי פר כיון דעליו ועל אחיו הכהנים הוא דאתי באחיו הכהנים אי איכא איניש דאית ביה מילתא מידע ידע ליה ומהדר ליה בתשובה בכולהו ישראל לא ידע,אמר רבינא היינו דאמרי אינשי אי בר אחתיך דיילא הוי חזי בשוקא קמיה לא תחליף,כל שבעת הימים לא היו מונעין וכו' תניא רבי יהודה בן נקוסא אומר מאכילין אותו סלתות וביצים כדי למסמסו אמרו לו כל שכן שאתה מביאו לידי חימום,תניא סומכוס אמר משום ר' מאיר אין מאכילין אותו לא אב"י ואמרי לה לא אבב"י ויש אומרים אף לא יין לבן לא אב"י לא אתרוג ולא ביצים ולא יין ישן ואמרי לה לא אבב"י לא אתרוג ולא ביצים ולא בשר שמן ולא יין ישן ויש אומרים אף לא יין לבן מפני שהיין לבן מביא את האדם לידי טומאה,תנו רבנן זב תולין לו במאכל וכל מיני מאכל אלעזר בן פנחס אומר משום רבי יהודה בן בתירא אין מאכילין אותו לא חגב"י ולא גב"ם ולא כל דברים המביאין לידי טומאה לא חגב"י לא חלב ולא גבינה ולא ביצה ולא יין ולא גב"ם מי גריסין של פול ובשר שמן ומרייס,ולא כל דברים המביאין לידי טומאה לאתויי מאי לאתויי הא דת"ר חמשה דברים מביאים את האדם לידי טומאה ואלו הן השום 18a. bAnd whatis the meaning of bfour or five;i.e., when does the High Priest take four loaves and when does he take five? According bto the Rabbis, who say:The priestly watch that is bincomingon Shabbat btakes sixof the loaves, bandthe boutgoingwatch btakes six, andthe incoming watch receives bnogreater portion as bpayment for closing the doors,it is bfrom twelveloaves that the High Priest bmust divideand take his share, but he receives bhalfof the loaves bless one,meaning that bhe takes five.According to the Rabbis, the High Priest receives less than half; however, since it is inappropriate to give him a piece of a loaf, less than half is five whole loaves.,According bto Rabbi Yehuda, who said:The priestly watch that is bincomingon Shabbat btakes sevenof the loaves, btwoof which bare payment for closing the doors;and the boutgoingwatch btakes fiveloaves, it is bfrom tenthat bhe must dividethe loaves. Those two of the twelve loaves are a separate payment and are not factored into the tally of those designated for distribution. bSubtract one from halfof that total, as subtracting less than one loaf would lead to a situation where the High Priest receives a piece of a loaf, which is inappropriate. bAndtherefore, the High Priest btakes four. /b, bRava saidthat the ibaraitashould be explained differently. The bentire ibaraita bisin accordance with the opinion of bRabbiYehuda HaNasi, band he holdsin accordance with the opinion of bRabbi Yehudathat only ten loaves are divided. bRather, whatthen is the meaning of the statement that the High Priest takes bfourloaves? According to Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi, bdoesn’t he need to take five? /b,The Gemara answers: This is bnot difficult. This ihalakhathat the High Priest takes four loaves is in a case bwhere there is a watch that is detained.When the start of a Festival occurs on a Sunday night and one of the priestly watches was forced to arrive before Shabbat to ensure that they would arrive in time for the Festival; or, alternatively, if the Festival ended on a Thursday and one of the priestly watches was detained until the conclusion of Shabbat and only then departed, that priestly watch takes two loaves. bThat ihalakhathat the High Priest takes five loaves is in a case bwhere there is not a watch that is detained,and the shewbread in divided only between the watch that concludes its service that Shabbat and the watch that begins its service that Shabbat., bIf there is a watch that is detained,that detained watch takes two loaves, and the outgoing watch takes two loaves as payment for closing the doors. Therefore, it is bfrom eightthat the High Priest bmust dividethe loaves, and he btakes four. If there is not a watch that is detained,it is bfrom tenthat bhe must dividethe loaves and the High Priest btakes five. /b,The Gemara asks: bIf so,that even the middle statement of the ibaraitais attributed to Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi and it is referring to a watch that is detained, bwhatis the meaning of the last clause in the ibaraita /i: bRabbiYehuda HaNasi bsays:The High Priest balwaystakes bfiveloaves? That statement indicates that Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi disagrees with the middle clause, while according to Rava’s interpretation Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi concedes that in certain circumstances the High Priest takes only four loaves. The Gemara concludes: Indeed, it is bdifficultto reconcile Rava’s interpretation with the language of the ibaraita /i., strongMISHNA: /strong The Sages bprovidedthe High Priest bwith Eldersselected bfrom the Elders of the court, and theywould bread before him the orderof the service bof the dayof Yom Kippur. bAnd theywould bsay to him: My Master, High Priest. Readthe order of the service bwith your own mouth,as bperhaps you forgotthis reading bor perhaps you did not learnto read. bOn Yom Kippur evein the bmorning,the Elders bstand him atthe beastern gateof the courtyard band pass before him bulls and rams and sheep so that he will be familiarwith the animals bandgrow baccustomed to the service,as these were the animals sacrificed on Yom Kippur. Throughout ball the seven daysthat the High Priest was in the iParhedrinchamber, bthey would not withhold from himany bfood or drinkthat he desired. However, bon Yom Kippur eve at nightfall, they would not allow him to eat a great deal because food induces sleepand they did not allow him to sleep, as will be explained., strongGEMARA: /strong The Gemara wonders about the depiction in the mishna of the Elders questioning the High Priest as to whether he forgot this reading or perhaps did not learn to read. bGranted, perhaps he forgot,that is bfine,as it is conceivable that he is not accustomed to reading the Torah and might have forgotten this portion. bHowever,is it conceivable that bperhapsthe High Priest bdid not learnto read? bDo we appointa High Priest bof that sortwho never learned the Bible?, bBut wasn’t it taughtin a ibaraitathat it is stated: b“And the priest who is greater than his brethren”(Leviticus 21:10); this teaches bthat hemust bbe greater than hispriestly bbrethren in strength, in beauty, in wisdom, and in wealth. iAḥerimsay:Wealth is not a prerequisite for selecting a High Priest, but bfrom whereis it derived bthat if he does not haveproperty of his own bthat his brethren the priests elevate himand render him wealthy from their own property? bThe verse states: “And the priest who is greater [ ihaggadol /i] than his brethren”; elevate him [ igaddelehu /i] fromthe property bof his brethren.In any event, there is a consensus that wisdom is a prerequisite for his selection., bRav Yosef said:This is bnot difficult. There,the ibaraitathat lists wisdom among the attributes of the High Priest is referring to bthe First Temple,where this ihalakhawas observed and the High Priests possessed those attributes listed. bHere,the mishna is referring to bthe Second Temple,where this ihalakhawas not observed, so a situation where the High Priest was not well-versed in the Bible was conceivable. bAs Rav Asi said:The wealthy bMarta, daughter of Baitos, brought a half- ise’aof dinars in to King Yannai forthe fact bthat he appointed Yehoshua ben Gamla as High Priest.This is an example of the appointment of High Priests by means of bribery and gifts. Since that was the practice, a totally ignorant High Priest could have been appointed.,§ It was taught in the mishna: bOn Yom Kippur evein the bmorning,the elders pass different animals before the High Priest. A itanna btaughtin the iTosefta /i: bEven goatswere brought before him. The Gemara asks: bAnd the itanna /iof bourmishna, bwhat is the reasonthat bhe did not teachthat bgoatswere among the animals that passed before the High Priest? The Gemara answers: bSincegoats bcomeas atonement bfor sins,passing them before the High Priest will evoke transgressions and he will bbecome distraught. /b,The Gemara asks: bIf so, a bullshould not be passed before him, bas it too comesto atone bfor sin.The Gemara answers that there is a difference in the case of ba bull, sinceit is to atone bfor hissins band forthe sins of bhis brethren the priests that it comes; among his brethren the priests, if there is a person who has asinful bmatter,the High Priest bwould knowabout it bandlead bhim back tothe path of righteousness bthrough repentance.Therefore, passing a bull before the High Priest will not render him distraught, as it will merely remind him of his responsibility toward his priestly brethren. On the other hand, bwith regard to the entire Jewish people, he does not knowof their sinful matters and is unable to facilitate their repentance. Passing goats before the High Priest will evoke their sins as well as his inability to correct the situation, leaving him distraught.,Apropos the High Priest being privy to the sinful behavior of his fellow priests, bRavina saidthat bthisexplains the folk saying bthat people say: Ifthe beloved bson of yourbeloved bsister becomes a policeman [ idayyala /i], seeto it that bin the marketplace you do not pass before him.Be wary of him because he knows your sins.,§ We learned in the mishna: Throughout ball the seven daysthat the High Priest was in the iParhedrinchamber, bthey would not withholdfrom him any food or drink that he desired. bIt was taughtin a ibaraita /i: bRabbi Yehuda ben Nekosa says:On Yom Kippur eve bthey feed him fine flour and eggs in order to loosen hisbowels, so that he will not need to relieve himself on Yom Kippur. bThey said toRabbi Yehuda ben Nekosa: In feeding him those foods, ball the more so that you bring him to a state of arousal.Feeding him those foods is antithetical to the efforts to prevent the High Priest from becoming impure, as they are liable to cause him to experience a seminal emission., bIt was taughtin a ibaraitathat bSumakhos said in the name of Rabbi Meir: One does not feed himfoods represented by the acrostic: iAlef /i, ibeit /i, iyod /i; and some saythat one does bnotfeed him foods represented by the acrostic: iAlef /i, ibeit /i, ibeit /i, iyod /i; and some say neitherdoes one feed him bwhite wine.The Gemara elaborates: bNot ialef /i, ibeit /i, iyod /imeans bneither ietrog /i, nor eggs [ ibeitzim /i], nor old wine [ iyayin /i]. And some say: Not ialef /i, ibeit /i, ibeit /i, iyod /imeans bneither ietrog /i, nor eggs [ ibeitzim /i], nor fatty meat [ ibasar /i], nor old wine [ iyayin /i]. And some say neitherdoes one feed him bwhite wine because white wine bringsa bman tothe bimpurityof a seminal emission.,Similarly, bthe Sages taught:If a man experienced an emission that could render him ba izav /i, one attributesthe emission not to his being a izavbut perhaps to a different cause, e.g., bto food, or to all kinds of food,i.e., he may have eaten too much food, which could have caused the emission. bElazar ben Pineḥas says in the name of Rabbi Yehuda ben Beteira:During the days that a izavis examining himself to determine whether or not he is impure, bone feeds him neitherfoods represented by the acrostic: iḤet /i, igimmel /i, ibeit /i, iyod /i, norfoods represented by the acrostic: iGimmel /i, ibeit /i, imem /i, nor anyfood bitems thatmight bbring him to impuritycaused by an emission. The Gemara explains: bNot iḥet /i, igimmel /i, ibeit /i, iyod /imeans bneither milk [ iḥalav /i], nor cheese [ igevina /i], nor egg [ ibeitza /i], nor wine [ iyayin /i]. And not igimmel /i, ibeit /i, imem /imeans bneither soup of pounded beans [ imei gerisin /i], nor fatty meat [ ibasar /i], norsmall bfishpickled bin brine [ imuryas /i]. /b,The Gemara asks about the phrase: bNor anyfood bitems thatmight bbring him to impurity; what does itcome bto include? Itcomes bto include that which the Sages taught: Fivefood bitems bringa bman toa state of bimpuritydue to emission. bAnd these are: Garlic, /b
31. Anon., Letter of Aristeas, 46

46. holy law might prove advantageous to you and be carried out successfully. In the presence of all the people I selected six elders from each tribe, good men and true, and I have sent them to you with a copy of our law. It will be a kindness, O righteous king, if you will give instruction that as soon as the translation of the law is completed, the men shall be restored again to us in safety. Farewell.'


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
albeck, h. Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 132, 133
altar Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 133
ariel Samely, Rabbinic Interpretation of Scripture in the Mishnah (2002) 376
beth phage list Hachlili, Jewish Funerary Customs, Practices And Rites In The Second Temple Period (2005) 197
dance Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 132
derogatory Hachlili, Jewish Funerary Customs, Practices And Rites In The Second Temple Period (2005) 205
eden Fraade, Multilingualism and Translation in Ancient Judaism: Before and After Babel (2023) 39
endearment Hachlili, Jewish Funerary Customs, Practices And Rites In The Second Temple Period (2005) 205
family Hachlili, Jewish Funerary Customs, Practices And Rites In The Second Temple Period (2005) 205, 216
flute Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 132
fox, h. Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 132, 133
goliath Hachlili, Jewish Funerary Customs, Practices And Rites In The Second Temple Period (2005) 205
goliath tomb Hachlili, Jewish Funerary Customs, Practices And Rites In The Second Temple Period (2005) 205
gophna Hachlili, Jewish Funerary Customs, Practices And Rites In The Second Temple Period (2005) 216
greed, alleged of priests Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 178
greek Fraade, Multilingualism and Translation in Ancient Judaism: Before and After Babel (2023) 37
high priesthood Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 178
inscriptions Hachlili, Jewish Funerary Customs, Practices And Rites In The Second Temple Period (2005) 205
israel, nan Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 462
jericho Hachlili, Jewish Funerary Customs, Practices And Rites In The Second Temple Period (2005) 205
jerusalem Hachlili, Jewish Funerary Customs, Practices And Rites In The Second Temple Period (2005) 197, 205, 216
joy, rejoicing Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 132
judah (bar ilai), rabbi Fraade, Multilingualism and Translation in Ancient Judaism: Before and After Babel (2023) 63
lids Hachlili, Jewish Funerary Customs, Practices And Rites In The Second Temple Period (2005) 197, 205
lieberman, s. Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 133
masada Hachlili, Jewish Funerary Customs, Practices And Rites In The Second Temple Period (2005) 197, 205
matronymic Hachlili, Jewish Funerary Customs, Practices And Rites In The Second Temple Period (2005) 205
mishna Hachlili, Jewish Funerary Customs, Practices And Rites In The Second Temple Period (2005) 197, 205, 216
mishnah Fraade, Multilingualism and Translation in Ancient Judaism: Before and After Babel (2023) 39, 60
moral defilement, of land or temple, in rabbinic literature Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 178
moses Fraade, Multilingualism and Translation in Ancient Judaism: Before and After Babel (2023) 39
mount of olives Hachlili, Jewish Funerary Customs, Practices And Rites In The Second Temple Period (2005) 205, 216
mount scopus Hachlili, Jewish Funerary Customs, Practices And Rites In The Second Temple Period (2005) 216
multilingualism Fraade, Multilingualism and Translation in Ancient Judaism: Before and After Babel (2023) 39, 41
nickname Hachlili, Jewish Funerary Customs, Practices And Rites In The Second Temple Period (2005) 197, 205, 216
onias Tropper, Simeon the Righteous in Rabbinic Literature: A Legend Reinvented (2013) 165
onomasticon Hachlili, Jewish Funerary Customs, Practices And Rites In The Second Temple Period (2005) 197
ossuary, ossuaries Hachlili, Jewish Funerary Customs, Practices And Rites In The Second Temple Period (2005) 197, 205, 216
ostracon, ostraca Hachlili, Jewish Funerary Customs, Practices And Rites In The Second Temple Period (2005) 197, 205
painter Hachlili, Jewish Funerary Customs, Practices And Rites In The Second Temple Period (2005) 197, 205
patronymy Hachlili, Jewish Funerary Customs, Practices And Rites In The Second Temple Period (2005) 197
prayer Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 462
priests Hachlili, Jewish Funerary Customs, Practices And Rites In The Second Temple Period (2005) 205, 216
psalms Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 132
qumran Hachlili, Jewish Funerary Customs, Practices And Rites In The Second Temple Period (2005) 197
rabbi Hachlili, Jewish Funerary Customs, Practices And Rites In The Second Temple Period (2005) 216
rabbinic literature Fraade, Multilingualism and Translation in Ancient Judaism: Before and After Babel (2023) 37, 39
revelation Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 462
ritual purity, of temple, according to rabbis Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 178
sabbath Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 132
safrai, s. Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 132
sanhedrin Fraade, Multilingualism and Translation in Ancient Judaism: Before and After Babel (2023) 37, 39
schwartz, seth Flatto, The Crown and the Courts (2021) 320
scribe Fraade, Multilingualism and Translation in Ancient Judaism: Before and After Babel (2023) 63; Hachlili, Jewish Funerary Customs, Practices And Rites In The Second Temple Period (2005) 216
second temple Hachlili, Jewish Funerary Customs, Practices And Rites In The Second Temple Period (2005) 197
septuagint Fraade, Multilingualism and Translation in Ancient Judaism: Before and After Babel (2023) 37
seventy languages Fraade, Multilingualism and Translation in Ancient Judaism: Before and After Babel (2023) 37, 39, 60, 63
seventy nations Fraade, Multilingualism and Translation in Ancient Judaism: Before and After Babel (2023) 37, 39
simhat beit hashoeva Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 132
sinai, mount Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 462
talmud Hachlili, Jewish Funerary Customs, Practices And Rites In The Second Temple Period (2005) 216
talpiyot Hachlili, Jewish Funerary Customs, Practices And Rites In The Second Temple Period (2005) 205
tannaitic literature Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 462
temple Hachlili, Jewish Funerary Customs, Practices And Rites In The Second Temple Period (2005) 197, 205, 216; Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 132, 133
thematization Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 462
title' Hachlili, Jewish Funerary Customs, Practices And Rites In The Second Temple Period (2005) 205
title Hachlili, Jewish Funerary Customs, Practices And Rites In The Second Temple Period (2005) 216
torah Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 462; Fraade, Multilingualism and Translation in Ancient Judaism: Before and After Babel (2023) 37
tower of babel Fraade, Multilingualism and Translation in Ancient Judaism: Before and After Babel (2023) 39, 41
trumpet Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 133