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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



8039
Mishnah, Shabbat, 22.6


סָכִין וּמְמַשְׁמְשִׁין בִּבְנֵי מֵעַיִם, אֲבָל לֹא מִתְעַמְּלִין וְלֹא מִתְגָּרְדִין. אֵין יוֹרְדִין לְקוֹרְדִּימָה, וְאֵין עוֹשִׂין אַפִּקְטְוִזִין, וְאֵין מְעַצְּבִין אֶת הַקָּטָן, וְאֵין מַחֲזִירִין אֶת הַשֶּׁבֶר. מִי שֶׁנִּפְרְקָה יָדוֹ וְרַגְלוֹ, לֹא יִטְרְפֵם בְּצוֹנֵן, אֲבָל רוֹחֵץ הוּא כְדַרְכּוֹ, וְאִם נִתְרַפָּא נִתְרַפָּא:One may oil and [lightly] massage [the body] but not step on [the body] or scrape [the skin]. One may not go down to a piloma, And one may not drink an epiktvizin [to induce vomiting]; And one may not straighten an infant[‘s limbs]. And one may not set a broken bone. If one's hand or foot is dislocated, he must not agitate it violently in cold water but he may bathe it in the usual way, and if it heals, it heals.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

9 results
1. Dead Sea Scrolls, Damascus Covenant, 11.16-11.17 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

2. Dead Sea Scrolls, (Cairo Damascus Covenant) Cd-A, 11.17 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

3. Mishnah, Avodah Zarah, 1.7 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

1.7. One should not sell them bears, lions or anything which may injure the public. One should not join them in building a basilica, a scaffold, a stadium, or a platform. But one may join them in building public or private bathhouses. When however he reaches the cupola in which the idol is placed he must not build."
4. Mishnah, Eruvin, 10.13 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

10.13. One may replace a plaster bandage on a wound in the Temple but not in the country. At the outset, it is prohibited in both. A harp string may be tied up in the Temple but not in the country. At the outset, it is prohibited in both. One may remove a wart in the Temple but not in the country. If [the operation must be performed] with an instrument it is forbidden in both."
5. Mishnah, Shabbat, 2.6, 7.2, 14.3-14.4 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

2.6. For three sins women die in childbirth: because they are not observant of [the laws of] niddah, hallah, and the kindling of the [Shabbat] lights." 7.2. The primary labors are forty less one:sowing, plowing, reaping, binding sheaves, threshing, winnowing, selecting, grinding, sifting, kneading, baking, shearing wool, bleaching, hackling, dyeing, spinning, weaving, the making of two loops, weaving two threads, dividing two threads, tying and untying, sewing two stitches, tearing in order to sew two stitches, capturing a deer, slaughtering, or flaying, or salting it, curing its hide, scraping it [of its hair], cutting it up, writing two letters, erasing in order to write two letters [over the erasure], building, tearing down, extinguishing, kindling, striking with a hammer, [and] carrying out from one domain to another, These are the forty primary labors less one." 14.3. They do not eat Greek hyssop on Shabbat, because it is not the food of healthy people. But he may eat yo’ezer and drink abuv ro’eh. A man may eat any kind of food as medicine, and drink any liquid, except water of palm trees and a potion of roots, because they are for jaundice. But he may drink water of palm trees for his thirst and rub himself with oil of roots for a non-medical purpose." 14.4. He who feels pain in his teeth may not sip vinegar through them, but he may dip [his bread in vinegar] in the usual manner, and if he is cured, he is cured. He who feels pain in his hips may not rub them with wine or vinegar, but he may anoint them with oil but not rose oil. The children of royalty may anoint their wounds with rose oil, since it is their practice to anoint themselves thus on weekdays. Rabbi Shimon said: all Israel are royal children."
6. Tosefta, Shabbat, 2.10, 12.8, 12.12 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

7. Babylonian Talmud, Hulin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

106a. חזנהו דקא שדו מיא מפומא דחצבא אמר אי הוה ידענא דרגיליתו למיעבד הכי לא איעכבי,כי אתא רב דימי אמר מים הראשונים האכילו בשר חזיר,אחרונים הוציאו את האשה מבעלה,כי אתא רבין אמר ראשונים האכילו בשר נבלה אחרונים הרגו את הנפש אמר רב נחמן בר יצחק וסימניך אתא רב דימי אפקה אתא רבין קטלה,ר' אבא מתני חדא מהני וחדא מהני לחומרא,איתמר חמי האור חזקיה אמר אין נוטלים מהן לידים ורבי יוחנן אמר נוטלין מהם לידים אמר רבי יוחנן שאלתי את רבן גמליאל בנו של רבי ואוכל טהרות ואמר לי כל גדולי גליל עושין כן,חמי טבריא חזקיה אמר אין נוטלין מהם לידים אבל מטבילין בהן הידים ורבי יוחנן אמר כל גופו טובל בהן אבל לא פניו ידיו ורגליו,השתא כל גופו טובל בהם פניו ידיו ורגליו לא כ"ש אמר רב פפא במקומן דכולי עלמא לא פליגי דשרי משקל מינייהו במנא דכ"ע לא פליגי דאסיר כי פליגי דפסקינהו בבת בירתא מר סבר גזרינן בת בירתא אטו מנא ומר סבר לא גזרינן,כתנאי מים שנפסלו משתיית בהמה בכלים פסולים בקרקע כשרין רבי שמעון בן אלעזר אומר אף בקרקע טובל בהן כל גופו אבל לא פניו ידיו ורגליו,השתא כל גופו טובל בהן ידיו ורגליו לא כ"ש אלא לאו דפסקינהו בבת בירתא ובהא פליגי דמר סבר גזרינן בת בירתא אטו מנא ומר סבר לא גזרינן,אמר רב אידי בר אבין אמר רב יצחק בר אשיאן נטילת ידים לחולין מפני סרך תרומה,ועוד משום מצוה מאי מצוה אמר אביי מצוה לשמוע דברי חכמים רבא אמר מצוה לשמוע דברי ר"א בן ערך דכתיב (ויקרא טו, יא) וכל אשר יגע בו הזב וידיו לא שטף במים אמר ר"א בן ערך מכאן סמכו חכמים לנטילת ידים מן התורה,אמר ליה רבא לרב נחמן מאי משמע דכתיב וידיו לא שטף במים הא שטף טהור הא טבילה בעי אלא הכי קאמר ואחר שלא שטף טמא,אמר ר' אלעזר אמר רבי אושעיא לא אמרו נטילת ידים לפירות אלא משום נקיות סבור מינה חובה הוא דליכא הא מצוה איכא אמר להו רבא לא חובה ולא מצוה אלא רשות ופליגא דרב נחמן דאמר רב נחמן הנוטל ידיו לפירות אינו אלא מגסי הרוח,אמר רבה בר בר חנה הוה קאימנא קמיה דרבי אמי ורבי אסי אייתו לקמייהו כלכלה דפירי ואכלו ולא משו ידייהו ולא יהבו לי מידי ובריך חד חד לחודיה שמע מינה תלת שמע מינה אין נטילת ידים לפירות וש"מ אין מזמנין על הפירות ושמע מינה שנים שאכלו מצוה ליחלק,תניא נמי הכי שנים שאכלו מצוה ליחלק במה דברים אמורים שהיו שניהם סופרים אבל אחד סופר ואחד בור סופר מברך ובור יוצא,תנו רבנן נטילת ידים לחולין עד הפרק לתרומה 106a. the demon bsawthe members of Rav Pappa’s household bpouring water from the mouth of the pitcherbefore drinking from it. The demon bsaidto them: bIf I had known that you regularly do this, I would not have delayed.I would have brought the water straight from the river, knowing you would pour out the foul waters.,§ bWhen Rav Dimi camefrom Eretz Yisrael bhe said:Due to the failure to wash with bthe first waters,they ultimately bfeda Jew bpig meat.This case involved a storekeeper who would sell different meat to his Jewish and gentile customers. When a Jew who came to eat with him neglected to wash before eating, the storekeeper assumed he was a gentile and fed him pig meat.,And due to the failure to wash with bfinalwaters ba womanwas ultimately bdivorced from her husband.In this incident, a host who had stolen his guests’ money had lentils on his mustache from a previous meal because he had not washed his hands and mouth after eating. Realizing he had eaten lentils that day, his victims approached the man’s wife and said that her husband had instructed them to tell her to return their money. They then claimed that the man told them to tell her that he had eaten lentils that day as proof that they were telling the truth. They thereby fooled his wife into thinking he wanted her to give their money back. Out of anger, the host divorced his wife., bWhen Ravin camefrom Eretz Yisrael bhe saidthe statement slightly differently: Due to the failure to wash with bfirstwaters, they bfeda Jew meat from ban animal carcass,and the failure to wash with bfinalwaters bkilled a person,as in the second incident the host was so angry with his wife that he killed her. bRav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said: And your mnemonicto remember which Sage said which version is: bRav Dimi cameand bdivorced herfrom her husband, i.e., according to his version she was divorced, and bRavin cameand bkilled her,since in his version the husband killed his wife., bRabbi Abba would teach one of theseversions involving first waters band one of themwith regard to final waters, and in both cases he taught bthe more severeversion, i.e., he specified the meat of a pig and that the husband killed his wife.,A disagreement bwas statedwith regard to bwater heated by fire: Ḥizkiyya saysthat bone may not washhis bhands withsuch water, band Rabbi Yoḥa saysthat bone may washhis bhands with it. Rabbi Yoḥa said: I asked Rabban Gamliel, son of RabbiYehuda HaNasi, about this ihalakha /i, bandhe was one who would beatonly in a state of britual purityand was therefore careful about washing his hands; band he said to methat ball the great men of the Galilee would do so,i.e., wash their hands in heated water.,Likewise, with regard to bthe hot springs of Tiberias, Ḥizkiyya saysthat bone may not washhis bhands withwater from them before eating, bbutif there are forty ise’a /i, the requisite size of a ritual bath, then bone may immerse the handsdirectly bin them,and this is effective for the ritual of washing the hands before a meal. bAnd Rabbi Yoḥa saysthat an impure person bmay immerse his entire body insuch water to become pure, bbutone may still bnotuse it for the immersion of part of his body, such as bhis face, hands, and feet,as this immersion is not considered equivalent to washing the hands.,The Gemara asks: bNowthat it has been said that one bmay immerse his entire body inthe hot springs of Tiberias, is it bnot all the more sopermitted for bhis face, hands, and feet? Rav Pappa said:When the water in the hot springs stands bin place, everyone,both Ḥizkiyya and Rabbi Yoḥa, bagrees that it is permittedto immerse one’s hands in it. Likewise, beveryone agrees thatto btake fromthese waters bin a vesseland wash one’s hands from it bis prohibited. They disagree when one drawsthe waters bthrough a ditch.One bSage,Rabbi Yoḥa, bholdsthat bwe decreeagainst the use of bditchwater bdue tothe concern that one might come to use water in ba vessel, andone bSage,Ḥizkiyya, bholdsthat bwe do not decreeagainst it.,The Gemara comments: This dispute is blikea dispute between itanna’im /i,as it was taught: When bwater that has ceased to be fit for drinkingeven bby an animalis bin vessels,it is bunfitfor washing the hands, but when it is bin the groundit is bfitfor immersion, like a ritual bath. bRabbi Shimon ben Elazar says: Evenwhen the water is bin the ground,one bmay immerse his entire body in it, buthe may bnotimmerse bhis face, hands, and feet. /b,As above, one might ask: bNowthat one bmay immerse his entire body inthe water, is it bnot all the more sothe case that one may immerse bhis hands and feetin it? bRather,must it bnotbe referring to a case bwhen one drawsthe waters bthrough a ditch? Andif so, bthey disagree about this:One bSage,Rabbi Shimon ben Elazar, bholdsthat bwe decreeagainst the use of bditchwater bdue toconcern that one may come to use ba vessel, andone bSage,the first itannaof that ibaraita /i, bholdsthat bwe do not decreeagainst it.,§ bRav Idi bar Avin saysthat bRav Yitzḥak bar Ashiyan says:The obligation of bwashing handsbefore eating bnon-sacredfood is bdue to an ancillarydecree on account of iteruma /i,the portion of produce designated for the priest, which must be consumed in a state of ritual purity. By rabbinic decree, one’s hands are considered impure with second-degree ritual impurity, as they may have touched impure items. Therefore, they render iterumaimpure. Consequently, priests who partake of iterumaare obligated to wash their hands first. The Sages therefore decreed that all must wash their hands even before eating non-sacred food, so that people not become accustomed to eating without washing their hands, which would in turn lead the priests to partake of iterumawithout washing their hands., bAndthe obligation is bfurther due toits being ba mitzva.The Gemara asks: bWhat mitzvadoes it involve? bAbaye says:It is ba mitzva to listen toand obey bthe statements of the Sages,who instituted this washing of the hands. bRava says:It is ba mitzva to listen to the statement of Rabbi Elazar ben Arakh, as it is writtenwith regard to a man who experiences a gonorrhea-like discharge [ izav /i]: b“And whomever he that has the issue touches, without having rinsed his hands in water,”he contracts ritual impurity (Leviticus 15:11), and bRabbi Elazar ben Arakh says: From here the Sages based washing of the handsupon a verse bfrom the Torah. /b, bRava said to Rav Naḥman: From whereis this binferred?How can this verse, which concerns a izav /i, be interpreted as referring to washing the hands before a meal? Rava explains: bAs it is written: “Without having rinsed his hands in water.” Consequently,one could infer that if he brinsedhis hands the izavbecomes britually pure. Butthis cannot be correct, as verses elsewhere prove that a izav brequiresthe bimmersionof his entire body. bRather, thisis what the verse bis saying: Andthere is banothertype of person bwho,if he bhas not rinsedhis hands in water, is considered like one who is bimpure.The verse thereby serves as the basis for washing the hands., bRabbi Elazar saysthat bRabbi Oshaya says:The Sages bsaidthat bwashing of the handsbefore eating bfruitis mandatory bonly due to cleanliness.The Gemara comments: bThey understood from thisstatement that bthere is notrue bobligationto wash the hands before eating fruit, bbut there is a mitzvato do so. bRava said to them:This practice is bnot an obligation nor a mitzva, butmerely boptional. Andthe Gemara notes that Rava bdisagrees with Rav Naḥmanin this regard, bas Rav Naḥman said: One who washes his handsbefore eating bfruit is nothing other thanone bof the arrogant,i.e., it is actually prohibited to do so., bRabba bar bar Ḥana said: I was standing before Rabbi Ami and Rabbi Asiwhen attendants bbrought a basket of fruit before them, and they ate and did not wash their hands. And they did not give me anythingto eat, to enable me to join the izimmun /i, the quorum required for communal Grace after Meals, band they each recited a blessingafter eating, bseparately.One may blearn three ihalakhot bfromthis incident. bLearn from itthat bthere is no washing of the handsbefore bfruit. And learn from itthat bone does not issue a izimmunon fruit,i.e., the ihalakhathat when three people eat together, one leads the Grace after Meals does not apply when they ate fruit. bAndfinally, blearn from itthat if only btwopeople bate,it is ba mitzvafor them bto separate,i.e., each should recite the blessing after eating for himself.,The Gemara notes: bThis ihalakha bis also taughtin a ibaraita /i: If only btwoindividuals bate,it is ba mitzvafor them bto separate. In whatcase bis this statement said?It is said bwhen they were both scribes,i.e., Torah scholars, who know how to recite Grace after Meals properly. bButif boneof them was ba scribe and onewas ban ignoramus,the bscribe recites Graceafter Meals bandthe bignoramus fulfillshis obligation by listening to the scribe., bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: In bwashing of the hands forconsumption of bnon-sacredfood, one must pour the water on the area that extends buntil the jointof the fingers. In washing hands bforconsumption of iteruma /i, /b
8. Babylonian Talmud, Niddah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

31a. מאי קרא (תהלים עא, ו) ממעי אמי אתה גוזי מאי משמע דהאי גוזי לישנא דאשתבועי הוא דכתיב (ירמיהו ז, כט) גזי נזרך והשליכי,ואמר רבי אלעזר למה ולד דומה במעי אמו לאגוז מונח בספל של מים אדם נותן אצבעו עליו שוקע לכאן ולכאן,תנו רבנן שלשה חדשים הראשונים ולד דר במדור התחתון אמצעיים ולד דר במדור האמצעי אחרונים ולד דר במדור העליון וכיון שהגיע זמנו לצאת מתהפך ויוצא וזהו חבלי אשה,והיינו דתנן חבלי של נקבה מרובין משל זכר,ואמר רבי אלעזר מאי קרא (תהלים קלט, טו) אשר עשיתי בסתר רקמתי בתחתיות ארץ דרתי לא נאמר אלא רקמתי,מאי שנא חבלי נקבה מרובין משל זכר זה בא כדרך תשמישו וזה בא כדרך תשמישו זו הופכת פניה וזה אין הופך פניו,תנו רבנן שלשה חדשים הראשונים תשמיש קשה לאשה וגם קשה לולד אמצעיים קשה לאשה ויפה לולד אחרונים יפה לאשה ויפה לולד שמתוך כך נמצא הולד מלובן ומזורז,תנא המשמש מטתו ליום תשעים כאילו שופך דמים מנא ידע אלא אמר אביי משמש והולך (תהלים קטז, ו) ושומר פתאים ה',תנו רבנן שלשה שותפין יש באדם הקב"ה ואביו ואמו אביו מזריע הלובן שממנו עצמות וגידים וצפרנים ומוח שבראשו ולובן שבעין אמו מזרעת אודם שממנו עור ובשר ושערות ושחור שבעין והקב"ה נותן בו רוח ונשמה וקלסתר פנים וראיית העין ושמיעת האוזן ודבור פה והלוך רגלים ובינה והשכל,וכיון שהגיע זמנו להפטר מן העולם הקב"ה נוטל חלקו וחלק אביו ואמו מניח לפניהם אמר רב פפא היינו דאמרי אינשי פוץ מלחא ושדי בשרא לכלבא,דרש רב חיננא בר פפא מאי דכתיב (איוב ט, י) עושה גדולות עד אין חקר ונפלאות עד אין מספר בא וראה שלא כמדת הקב"ה מדת בשר ודם מדת בשר ודם נותן חפץ בחמת צרורה ופיה למעלה ספק משתמר ספק אין משתמר ואילו הקב"ה צר העובר במעי אשה פתוחה ופיה למטה ומשתמר,דבר אחר אדם נותן חפציו לכף מאזנים כל זמן שמכביד יורד למטה ואילו הקב"ה כל זמן שמכביד הולד עולה למעלה,דרש רבי יוסי הגלילי מאי דכתיב {תהילים קל״ט:י״ד } אודך (ה') על כי נוראות נפליתי נפלאים מעשיך ונפשי יודעת מאד בא וראה שלא כמדת הקב"ה מדת בשר ודם מדת בשר ודם אדם נותן זרעונים בערוגה כל אחת ואחת עולה במינו ואילו הקב"ה צר העובר במעי אשה וכולם עולין למין אחד,דבר אחר צבע נותן סמנין ליורה כולן עולין לצבע אחד ואילו הקב"ה צר העובר במעי אשה כל אחת ואחת עולה למינו,דרש רב יוסף מאי דכתיב (ישעיהו יב, א) אודך ה' כי אנפת בי ישוב אפך ותנחמני במה הכתוב מדבר,בשני בני אדם שיצאו לסחורה ישב לו קוץ לאחד מהן התחיל מחרף ומגדף לימים שמע שטבעה ספינתו של חבירו בים התחיל מודה ומשבח לכך נאמר ישוב אפך ותנחמני,והיינו דאמר רבי אלעזר מאי דכתיב (תהלים עב, יח) עושה נפלאות (גדולות) לבדו וברוך שם כבודו לעולם אפילו בעל הנס אינו מכיר בנסו,דריש רבי חנינא בר פפא מאי דכתיב (תהלים קלט, ג) ארחי ורבעי זרית וכל דרכי הסכנת מלמד שלא נוצר אדם מן כל הטפה אלא מן הברור שבה תנא דבי רבי ישמעאל משל לאדם שזורה בבית הגרנות נוטל את האוכל ומניח את הפסולת,כדרבי אבהו דרבי אבהו רמי כתיב (שמואל ב כב, מ) ותזרני חיל וכתיב (תהלים יח, לג) האל המאזרני חיל אמר דוד לפני הקב"ה רבש"ע זיריתני וזרזתני,דרש רבי אבהו מאי דכתיב (במדבר כג, י) מי מנה עפר יעקב ומספר את רובע ישראל מלמד שהקב"ה יושב וסופר את רביעיותיהם של ישראל מתי תבא טיפה שהצדיק נוצר הימנה,ועל דבר זה נסמית עינו של בלעם הרשע אמר מי שהוא טהור וקדוש ומשרתיו טהורים וקדושים יציץ בדבר זה מיד נסמית עינו דכתיב (במדבר כד, ג) נאם הגבר שתום העין,והיינו דאמר רבי יוחנן מאי דכתיב (בראשית ל, טז) וישכב עמה בלילה הוא מלמד שהקב"ה סייע באותו מעשה שנאמר (בראשית מט, יד) יששכר חמור גרם חמור גרם לו ליששכר,אמר רבי יצחק אמר רבי אמי אשה מזרעת תחילה יולדת זכר איש מזריע תחילה יולדת נקבה שנאמר (ויקרא יג, כט) אשה כי תזריע וילדה זכר,תנו רבנן בראשונה היו אומרים אשה מזרעת תחילה יולדת זכר איש מזריע תחלה יולדת נקבה ולא פירשו חכמים את הדבר עד שבא רבי צדוק ופירשו (בראשית מו, טו) אלה בני לאה אשר ילדה ליעקב בפדן ארם ואת דינה בתו תלה הזכרים בנקבות ונקבות בזכרים,(דברי הימים א ח, מ) ויהיו בני אולם אנשים גבורי חיל דורכי קשת ומרבים בנים ובני בנים וכי בידו של אדם להרבות בנים ובני בנים אלא מתוך 31a. bWhat is the versefrom which it is derived that a fetus is administered an oath on the day of its birth? “Upon You I have relied from birth; bYou are He Who took me out [ igozi /i] of my mother’s womb”(Psalms 71:6). bFrom where mayit bbe inferred that thisword: b“ iGozi /i,” is a term of administering an oath? As it is written: “Cut off [ igozi /i] your hair and cast it away”(Jeremiah 7:29), which is interpreted as a reference to the vow of a nazirite, who must cut off his hair at the end of his term of naziriteship., bAnd Rabbi Elazar says: To what is a fetus in its mother’s womb comparable?It is comparable bto a nut placed in a basinfull bof water,floating on top of the water. If ba person puts his finger on top ofthe nut, bit sinkseither bin this direction or in that direction. /b,§ bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: During bthe first three monthsof pregcy, the bfetus resides in the lower compartmentof the womb; in the bmiddlethree months, the bfetus resides in the middle compartment;and during the blastthree months of pregcy the bfetus resides in the upper compartment. And once its time to emerge arrives, it turns upside down and emerges; and this iswhat causes blabor pains. /b,With regard to the assertion that labor pains are caused by the fetus turning upside down, the Gemara notes: bAnd this isthe explanation for bthat which we learnedin a ibaraita /i: bThe labor pains experienced bya woman who gives birth to ba female are greater thanthose bexperienced bya woman who gives birth to ba male.The Gemara will explain this below., bAnd Rabbi Elazar says: What is the versefrom which it is derived that a fetus initially resides in the lower part of the womb? b“When I was made in secret, and I was woven together in the lowest parts of the earth”(Psalms 139:15). Since it bis not stated: I residedin the lowest parts of the earth, bbut rather: “I was woven togetherin the lowest parts of the earth,” this teaches that during the initial stage of a fetus’s development, when it is woven together, its location is in the lower compartment of the womb.,The Gemara asks: bWhat is differentabout bthe labor pains experienced bya woman who gives birth to ba female,that they bare greater than those experienced bya woman who gives birth to ba male?The Gemara answers: bThisone, a male fetus, bemerges in the manner in which it engages in intercourse.Just as a male engages in intercourse facing downward, so too, it is born while facing down. bAnd thatone, a female fetus, bemerges in the manner in which it engages in intercourse,i.e., facing upward. Consequently, bthatone, a female fetus, bturns its face aroundbefore it is born, bbut thisone, a male fetus, bdoes not turn its face aroundbefore it is born.,§ bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: During bthe first three monthsof pregcy, bsexual intercourse is difficultand harmful bfor the woman and is also difficult for the offspring.During the bmiddlethree months, intercourse is bdifficult for the woman but is beneficial for the offspring.During the blastthree months, sexual intercourse is bbeneficial for the woman and beneficial for the offspring; as a result of it the offspring is found to be strong and fair skinned. /b,The Sages btaughtin a ibaraita /i: With regard to bone who engages in intercoursewith his wife bon the ninetieth dayof her pregcy, bit is as though he spillsher bblood.The Gemara asks: bHow does one knowthat it is the ninetieth day of her pregcy? bRather, Abaye says: One should go ahead and engage in intercoursewith his wife even if it might be the ninetieth day, bandrely on God to prevent any ensuing harm, as the verse states: b“The Lord preserves the simple”(Psalms 116:6).,§ bThe Sages taught: There are three partners inthe creation of ba person: The Holy One, Blessed be He, and his father, and his mother. His father emits the white seed, from whichthe following body parts are formed: The bbones,the bsinews,the bnails,the bbrain that is in its head, andthe bwhite of the eye. His mother emits red seed, from whichare formed the bskin,the bflesh,the bhair, andthe bblack of the eye. And the Holy One, Blessed be He, inserts into him a spirit, a soul,his bcountece [ iukelaster /i], eyesight, hearing of the ear,the capability of bspeechof bthe mouth,the capability of bwalkingwith bthe legs, understanding, and wisdom. /b, bAnd whena person’s btime to depart from the world arrives, the Holy One, Blessed be He, retrieves His part, and He leaves the part ofthe person’s bfather and mother before them. Rav Pappa said: Thisis in accordance with the adage bthat people say: Remove the saltfrom a piece of meat, bandyou may then btoss the meat to a dog,as it has become worthless.,§ bRav Ḥina bar Pappa taught: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “Who does great deeds beyond comprehension, wondrous deeds without number”(Job 9:10)? bCome and see that the attribute of flesh and blood is unlike the attribute of the Holy One, Blessed be He. The attribute of flesh and bloodis that if one bputs an article in a flask,even if the flask is btied and its openingfaces bupward, it is uncertain whetherthe item bis preservedfrom getting lost, band it is uncertain whether it is not preservedfrom being lost. bBut the Holy One, Blessed be He, forms the fetus in a woman’s open womb, and its openingfaces bdownward, andyet the fetus bis preserved. /b, bAnother matterthat demonstrates the difference between the attributes of God and the attributes of people is that when ba person places his articles on a scaleto be measured, bthe heavierthe item bis,the more bit descends. Butwhen bthe Holy One, Blessed be He,forms a fetus, bthe heavier the offspring gets,the more bit ascends upwardin the womb., bRabbi Yosei HaGelili taught: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “I will give thanks to You, for I am fearfully and wonderfully made; wonderful are Your works, and that my soul knows very well”(Psalms 139:14)? bCome and see that the attribute of flesh and blood is unlike the attribute of the Holy One, Blessed be He. The attribute of flesh and bloodis that when ba person plants seedsof different species binone bgarden bed, each and every oneof the seeds bemergesas a grown plant baccording to its species. But the Holy One, Blessed be He, forms the fetus in a woman’s womb, and all ofthe seeds, i.e., those of both the father and the mother, bemergewhen the offspring is formed bas onesex., bAlternatively,when ba dyer puts herbs in a cauldron [ ileyora /i], they all emerge as one colorof dye, bwhereas the Holy One, Blessed be He, forms the fetus in a woman’s womb,and beach and every oneof the seeds bemerges as its own type.In other words, the seed of the father form distinct elements, such as the white of the eye, and the seed of the mother forms other elements, such as the black of the eye, as explained above., bRav Yosef taught: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written:“And on that day you shall say: bI will give thanks to You, Lord, for You were angry with me; Your anger is turned away, and You comfort me”(Isaiah 12:1)? bWith regard to whatmatter bis the verse speaking? /b,It is referring, for example, bto two people who lefttheir homes to go bon a businesstrip. bA thorn penetratedthe body bof one of them,and he was consequently unable to go with his colleague. bHe started blaspheming and cursingin frustration. bAfter a period of time, he heard that the ship of the otherperson bhad sunk in the sea,and realized that the thorn had saved him from death. He then bstarted thankingGod band praisingHim for his delivery due to the slight pain caused to him by the thorn. This is the meaning of the statement: I will give thanks to You, Lord, for You were angry with me. bTherefore, it is statedat the end of the verse: b“Your anger is turned away, and You comfort me.” /b, bAnd thisstatement bisidentical to bthat which Rabbi Elazar said: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written:“Blessed be the Lord God, the God of Israel, bWho does wondrous things alone; and blessed be His glorious name forever”(Psalms 72:18–19)? What does it mean that God “does wondrous things alone”? It means that beven the one for whom the miracle was performed does not recognize the miraclethat was performed for bhim. /b, bRabbi Ḥanina bar Pappa taught: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “You measure [ izerita /i] my going about [ iorḥi /i] and my lying down [ iriv’i /i], and are acquainted with all my ways”(Psalms 139:3)? This verse bteaches that a person is not created from the entire dropof semen, bbut from its clearpart. iZeritacan mean to winnow, while iorḥiand iriv’ican both be explained as references to sexual intercourse. Therefore the verse is interpreted homiletically as saying that God separates the procreative part of the semen from the rest. bThe school of Rabbi Yishmael taught a parable:This matter is comparable bto a person who winnowsgrain bin the granary; he takes the food and leaves the waste. /b,This is bin accordance witha statement bof Rabbi Abbahu, as Rabbi Abbahu raises a contradiction: It is writtenin one of King David’s psalms: b“For You have girded me [ ivatazreni /i] with strength for battle”(II Samuel 22:40), without the letter ialefin ivatazreni /i; band it is writtenin another psalm: b“Who girds me [ ihame’azreni /i] with strength”(Psalms 18:33), with an ialefin ihame’azreini /i. What is the difference between these two expressions? bDavid said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe, You selected me [ izeiritani /i],i.e., You separated between the procreative part and the rest of the semen in order to create me, band You have girded me [ izeraztani /i] with strength. /b, bRabbi Abbahu taught: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is writtenin Balaam’s blessing: b“Who has counted the dust of Jacob, or numbered the stock [ irova /i] of Israel”(Numbers 23:10)? The verse bteaches that the Holy One, Blessed be He, sits and counts the times that the Jewish people engage in intercourse [ irevi’iyyoteihem /i],anticipating the time bwhen the drop from which the righteous person will be created will arrive. /b, bAndit was bdue to this matterthat bthe eye of wicked Balaam went blind. He said: ShouldGod, bwho is pure and holy, and whose ministers are pure and holy, peek at this matter? Immediately his eye was blindedas a divine punishment, bas it is written: “The saying of the man whose eye is shut”(Numbers 24:3)., bAnd thisstatement bisthe same as that bwhich Rabbi Yoḥa said: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written,with regard to Leah’s conceiving Issachar: b“And he lay with her that night”(Genesis 30:16)? The verse bteaches that the Holy One, Blessed be He, contributed to that act.The manner in which God contributed to this act is derived from another verse, bas it is stated: “Issachar is a large-boned [ igarem /i] donkey”(Genesis 49:14). This teaches that God directed Jacob’s bdonkeytoward Leah’s tent so that he would engage in intercourse with her, thereby bcausing [ igaram /i]Leah’s conceiving bIssachar. /b,§ bRabbi Yitzḥak saysthat bRabbi Ami says:The sex of a fetus is determined at the moment of conception. If the bwoman emits seed first, she gives birth to a male,and if the bman emits seed first, she gives birth to a female, as it is stated: “If a woman bears seed and gives birth to a male”(Leviticus 12:2)., bThe Sages taught: At first,people bwould saythat if the bwoman emits seed first she gives birth to a male,and if the bman emits seed first, she gives birth to a female. But the Sages did not explainfrom which verse this bmatteris derived, buntil Rabbi Tzadok came and explainedthat bitis derived from the following verse: b“These are the sons of Leah, whom she bore to Jacob in Paddan Aram, with his daughter Dinah”(Genesis 46:15). From the fact that the verse battributes the males to the females,as the males are called: The sons of Leah, bandit attributes bthe females to the males, /bin that Dinah is called: His daughter, it is derived that if the woman emits seed first she gives birth to a male, whereas if the man emits seed first, she bears a female.,This statement is also derived from the following verse: b“And the sons of Ulam were mighty men of valor, archers, and had many sons and sons’ sons”(I Chronicles 8:40). bIs it in a person’s power to have many sons and sons’ sons? Rather, because /b
9. Babylonian Talmud, Shabbat, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

109a. לגיגית תקצץ יד מסמא יד מחרשת יד מעלה פוליפוס תניא רבי נתן אומר בת חורין היא זו ומקפדת עד שירחוץ ידיו ג' פעמים א"ר יוחנן פוך מעביר בת מלך ופוסק את הדמעה ומרבה שיער בעפעפים תניא נמי הכי רבי יוסי אומר פוך מעביר בת מלך ופוסק את הדמעה ומרבה שיער בעפעפים,ואמר מר עוקבא אמר שמואל עלין אין בהם משום רפואה אמר רב יוסף כוסברתא אין בה משום רפואה אמר רב ששת כשות אין בהן משום רפואה אמר רב יוסף כוסברתא אפילו לדידי קשה לי אמר רב ששת גרגירא אפילו לדידי מעלי ואמר מר עוקבא אמר שמואל כל מיני כשות שרו לבר מטרוזא,אמר רב חסדא שריקא טויא שרי פיעפועי ביעי אסור דביתהו דזעירי עבדא ליה לחייא בר אשי ולא אכל אמרה ליה לרבך עבדי ליה ואכל ואת לא אכלת זעירי לטעמיה דאמר זעירי נותן אדם יין צלול ומים צלולין לתוך המשמרת בשבת ואינו חושש אלמא כיון דמשתתי הכי לאו מידי קעביד הכא נמי כיון דמיתכיל הכי לאו מידי קעביד,ואמר מר עוקבא מי שנגפה ידו או רגלו צומתה ביין ואינו חושש איבעיא להו חלא מאי אמר רב הלל לרב אשי כי הוינא בי רב כהנא אמרי חלא לא אמר רבא והני בני מחוזא כיון דמפנקי אפילו חמרא נמי מסי להו,רבינא איקלע לבי רב אשי חזייה דדריכא ליה חמרא אגבא דכרעיה ויתיב קא צמית ליה בחלא אמר ליה לא סבר לה מר להא דאמר רב הילל חלא לא א"ל גב היד וגב הרגל שאני,איכא דאמרי חזייה דקא צמית ליה בחמרא אמר ליה לא סבר לה מר להא דאמר רבא הני בני מחוזא כיון דמפנקי אפי' חמרא נמי מסי להו ומר נמי הא מפנק אמר ליה גב היד וגב הרגל שאני דאמר רב אדא בר מתנה אמר רב גב היד וגב הרגל הרי הן כמכה של חלל ומחללין עליהן את השבת,ת"ר רוחצים במי גרר במי חמתן במי עסיא ובמי טבריא אבל לא בים הגדול ולא במי משרה ולא בימה של סדום,ורמינהו רוחצים במי טבריא ובים הגדול אבל לא במי משרה ולא בימה של סדום קשיא ים הגדול אים הגדול,א"ר יוחנן לא קשיא הא ר"מ הא ר' יהודה דתנן כל הימים כמקוה שנאמר (בראשית א, י) ולמקוה המים קרא ימים דברי ר"מ ר' יהודה אומר ים הגדול כמקוה ולא נאמר ימים אלא שיש בו מיני ימים הרבה,רבי יוסי אומר כל הימים מטהרין בזוחלין ופסולים לזבים ולמצורעים ולקדש בהן מי חטאת מתקיף לה רב נחמן בר יצחק 109a. that is placed binto a barrelof beer bshould be severedbecause the beer will not ferment. bA handthat frequently touches the eye bcauses blindness. A handthat frequently touches the ear bcauses deafness. A handthat touches the nose or mouth bcauses polyps [ ipolypus /i]. It was taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Natan says: She is a liberatedentity b, thisevil spirit that rests on one’s hands before they are washed in the morning, band she refusesto leave buntil one washes his hands three times. Rabbi Yoḥa said:When beye shadowis placed on the eyes it bcausesthe evil spirit called bthe Daughter of the King to pass, and it stops tears and causes eyelashes to grow. That was also taughtin a ibaraita /i: bRabbi Yosei says: Eye shadow causes the Daughter of the King to pass, and stops tears and causes eyelashes to grow. /b, bAnd Mar Ukva saidthat bShmuel said: Leavesthat are placed on the eye (Rabbeinu Ḥael) bcontain no element of healing,and therefore one may place them on his eyes on Shabbat. br bRav Yosef said: Coriander contains no element of healing.br bRav Sheshet said: Hops contain no element of healing.br bRav Yosef said: Even for me,who is blind, bcoriander is harmful.He overstated coriander’s inefficacy, asserting that it is in fact harmful. br bRav Sheshet said: Arugula even for me,despite my blindness, bis beneficial.br bAnd Mar Ukvaalso bsaidthat bShmuel said: All types of hops maybe eaten on Shabbat bexcept for iteruza /i,which is used exclusively for medicinal purposes., bRav Ḥisda said: Melon juice,which is beneficial for the intestines, bmay bestrained and drunk on Shabbat ( ige’onim /i). bThe juice of ipipuim /i,which are a type of vegetable (Rashba), bmay not bedrunk on Shabbat. The Gemara relates: bZe’iri’s wife mademelon juice bfor Ḥiyya bar Ashi and he did not consumeit. bShe said to him: I made it for your Rabbi,Ze’iri, band he ateit, band you do not eatit? The Gemara explains: bZe’irifollowed bhis own reasoningin permitting this drink, bas Ze’iri said: One may place clear wine and clear water into a strainerused to strain dregs from wine bon Shabbat without concern. Apparently, sincethe wine and water bare drunkeven with what little dregs may remain, bone is doing nothingto improve them. bHere, too, sincemelon juice bis consumed this way /b, without being strained and for non-medical purposes, bone is doing nothingand it is permitted., bAnd Mar Ukvaalso bsaid: One whose hand or foot was wounded may immerse it in wineon Shabbat to stop the flow of blood, band he need not be concernedthat he is violating the prohibition against healing on Shabbat. bA dilemma was raised beforethe Sages: With regard to bvinegar, whatis the ruling? May one immerse a wound in it? bRav Hillel said to Rav Ashi: When we were in Rav Kahana’s house they saidthat bvinegar is notpermitted, as it is considered actual medicine. bRava said: And these people from Meḥoza, since they are delicate, even wine heals them.Therefore, they may not immerse their wounds in wine.,The Gemara relates: bRavina happenedto come bto the house of Rav Ashi. He saw that a donkey stepped on the back ofRav Ashi’s bfoot, andRav Ashi bsat and immersedhis foot bin vinegaron Shabbat. Ravina bsaid toRav Ashi: bDoesthe bMaster not holdaccording to bthatwhich bRav Hillel stated,that bvinegaris bnotpermitted? bHe said to him: The back of the hand and the back of the foot are differentbecause their wounds are dangerous., bSome saythat Ravina bsaw thatRav Ashi bimmersedhis foot bin wine.Ravina bsaid to him: Doesthe bMaster not holdaccording to bthatwhich bRava said: These people from Meḥoza, since they are delicate, even wine heals them? Andthe bMaster is also delicate.Rav Ashi bsaid to him: The back of the hand and the back of the foot are different, as Rav Adda bar Mattana saidthat bRav said:A wound on bthe back of the hand or the back of the foot is like a fatal wound, and one may desecrate Shabbat for it. /b, bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: On Shabbat, bone may bathe inthe therapeutic hot springs of the bwaters of Gerar, in the waters of Ḥamatan, in the waters of Asya, and in the waters of Tiberias; however,one may bnotbathe bin the Great Sea,namely, the Mediterranean sea, bnor in waterin which flax was bsoaked, nor in the Sea of Sodom,because people bathe in those bodies of water only for medicinal purposes., bAndthe Gemara braises a contradictionbased on that which was taught in another ibaraita /i: bOne may bathe in the waters of Tiberiason Shabbat band in the Great Sea; butone may bnotbathe bin waterin which flax bwas soaked, nor in the Sea of Sodom.This is bdifficultbecause in the first ibaraitathe Sages prohibit bathing in bthe Great Sea,and in this ibaraitathey permit bathing in bthe Great Sea. /b, bRabbi Yoḥa said:This is bnot difficult,because bthis ibaraita,which permits bathing in the Great Sea, is in accordance with the opinion of bRabbi Meir,who deems all seas equal. bThat ibaraita,which prohibits bathing there, is in accordance with the opinion of bRabbi Yehuda,who holds that the Great Sea is unlike other seas. bAs we learnedin a mishna: bAll seaspurify blike a ritual bath [ imikve /i], as it is stated:“And God called the dry land earth, band the gathering together of the waters [ imikve /i] He called seas”(Genesis 1:10); this is bthe statement of Rabbi Meir. Rabbi Yehuda says:Only bthe Great Seapurifies blike a ritual bath, andthe verse bstates seas onlybecause bthere are many seas inthe Great Sea, not because all seas purify., bRabbi Yosei says: All seas purifylike a ritual bath. They actually purify even more than a ritual bath, as they purify even bwhenthey are bflowing.Immersion in a sea is purifying not only when its waters are still, but even when they are flowing. That is not the case with a ritual bath, whose waters only purify when still. bAndsea water bis invalid forpurifying izavimand lepers and for sanctifying purification waterto mix the ashes of the red heifer bwith it.Those cases require spring water. bRav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak strongly objects to thisexplanation:


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
admission fees, eating and drinking in Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 72
admission fees, furniture (e.g., benches) and equipment Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 72
aphrodite Spielman, Jews and Entertainment in the Ancient World (2020) 138
aramaic Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 72
bath houses Spielman, Jews and Entertainment in the Ancient World (2020) 138
beast hunts Spielman, Jews and Entertainment in the Ancient World (2020) 151
childbirth Libson, Law and self-knowledge in the Talmud (2018) 106
dead sea scrolls Nutzman, Contested Cures: Identity and Ritual Healing in Roman and Late Antique Palestine (2022) 189
flasks Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 72
gladiatorial combat Spielman, Jews and Entertainment in the Ancient World (2020) 151
glass Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 72
gymnasia, in jerusalem Spielman, Jews and Entertainment in the Ancient World (2020) 151
hammat gader, sabbath restrictions Nutzman, Contested Cures: Identity and Ritual Healing in Roman and Late Antique Palestine (2022) 189
herod the great Spielman, Jews and Entertainment in the Ancient World (2020) 151
hippodromes Spielman, Jews and Entertainment in the Ancient World (2020) 132
hot springs, jewish elite rhetoric on Nutzman, Contested Cures: Identity and Ritual Healing in Roman and Late Antique Palestine (2022) 189
industry Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 72
intention Libson, Law and self-knowledge in the Talmud (2018) 106
interior and structure, maintece, repair, and staff Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 72
interior and structure Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 72
jason the high priest Spielman, Jews and Entertainment in the Ancient World (2020) 151
jewish elite rhetoric, healing sites Nutzman, Contested Cures: Identity and Ritual Healing in Roman and Late Antique Palestine (2022) 189
jewish elite rhetoric, sabbath restrictions Nutzman, Contested Cures: Identity and Ritual Healing in Roman and Late Antique Palestine (2022) 189
jewish elite rhetoric Nutzman, Contested Cures: Identity and Ritual Healing in Roman and Late Antique Palestine (2022) 189
jews, sacred sites Nutzman, Contested Cures: Identity and Ritual Healing in Roman and Late Antique Palestine (2022) 189
josephus Spielman, Jews and Entertainment in the Ancient World (2020) 151
latin Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 72
maccabees, i Spielman, Jews and Entertainment in the Ancient World (2020) 151
maccabees, ii Spielman, Jews and Entertainment in the Ancient World (2020) 151
marble Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 72
mekhilta de arayot Spielman, Jews and Entertainment in the Ancient World (2020) 151
menstrual purity Libson, Law and self-knowledge in the Talmud (2018) 106
mishnah Spielman, Jews and Entertainment in the Ancient World (2020) 132, 138
olyar Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 72
operating hours, paraphernalia Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 72
palaestra Spielman, Jews and Entertainment in the Ancient World (2020) 138, 151
phylacteries Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 72
praefurnium (furnace) Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 72
pregnancy' Libson, Law and self-knowledge in the Talmud (2018) 106
property law Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 72
rabbinic halakhah Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 72
rabbinic literature, distinctiveness Spielman, Jews and Entertainment in the Ancient World (2020) 132
rabbis, attending the baths Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 72
roman entertainment, pagan critiques Spielman, Jews and Entertainment in the Ancient World (2020) 151
sabbath Libson, Law and self-knowledge in the Talmud (2018) 105, 106; Nutzman, Contested Cures: Identity and Ritual Healing in Roman and Late Antique Palestine (2022) 189
shabbat Spielman, Jews and Entertainment in the Ancient World (2020) 138
strigil Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 72
theaters, in palestine Spielman, Jews and Entertainment in the Ancient World (2020) 132
yerushalmi (palestinian talmud) Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 72
yoḥanan b. zakkai, r. Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 72