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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



8037
Mishnah, Sanhedrin, 7.6


הָעוֹבֵד עֲבוֹדָה זָרָה, אֶחָד הָעוֹבֵד, וְאֶחָד הַזּוֹבֵחַ, וְאֶחָד הַמְקַטֵּר, וְאֶחָד הַמְנַסֵּךְ, וְאֶחָד הַמִּשְׁתַּחֲוֶה, וְאֶחָד הַמְקַבְּלוֹ עָלָיו לֶאֱלוֹהַּ, וְהָאוֹמֵר לוֹ אֵלִי אָתָּה. אֲבָל הַמְגַפֵּף וְהַמְנַשֵּׁק וְהַמְכַבֵּד וְהַמְּרַבֵּץ וְהַמַּרְחִיץ, הַסָּךְ, הַמַּלְבִּישׁ וְהַמַּנְעִיל, עוֹבֵר בְּלֹא תַעֲשֶׂה. הַנּוֹדֵר בִּשְׁמוֹ וְהַמְקַיֵּם בִּשְׁמוֹ, עוֹבֵר בְּלֹא תַעֲשֶׂה. הַפּוֹעֵר עַצְמוֹ לְבַעַל פְּעוֹר, זוֹ הִיא עֲבוֹדָתוֹ. הַזּוֹרֵק אֶבֶן לְמַרְקוּלִיס, זוֹ הִיא עֲבוֹדָתוֹ:He who engages in idol-worship [is executed]. This includes the one whoserves it, sacrifices, offers incense, makes libations, bows to it, accepts it as a god, or says to it, “You are my god.” But he who embraces, kisses it, sweeps or sprinkles the ground before it, washes it, anoints it, clothes it, or puts shoes on it, he transgresses a negative commandment [but is not executed]. He who vows or swears by its name, violates a negative commandment. He who uncovers himself before Baal-Peor [is guilty and is to be stoned for] this is how it is worshipped. He who casts a stone on Merculis [is guilty and is to be stoned for] this is how it is worshipped.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

28 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 1.39 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.39. וְטַפְּכֶם אֲשֶׁר אֲמַרְתֶּם לָבַז יִהְיֶה וּבְנֵיכֶם אֲשֶׁר לֹא־יָדְעוּ הַיּוֹם טוֹב וָרָע הֵמָּה יָבֹאוּ שָׁמָּה וְלָהֶם אֶתְּנֶנָּה וְהֵם יִירָשׁוּהָּ׃ 1.39. Moreover your little ones, that ye said should be a prey, and your children, that this day have no knowledge of good or evil, they shall go in thither, and unto them will I give it, and they shall possess it."
2. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 15.13 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

15.13. נָחִיתָ בְחַסְדְּךָ עַם־זוּ גָּאָלְתָּ נֵהַלְתָּ בְעָזְּךָ אֶל־נְוֵה קָדְשֶׁךָ׃ 15.13. Thou in Thy love hast led the people that Thou hast redeemed; Thou hast guided them in Thy strength to Thy holy habitation."
3. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 2.9 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

2.9. וַיַּצְמַח יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים מִן־הָאֲדָמָה כָּל־עֵץ נֶחְמָד לְמַרְאֶה וְטוֹב לְמַאֲכָל וְעֵץ הַחַיִּים בְּתוֹךְ הַגָּן וְעֵץ הַדַּעַת טוֹב וָרָע׃ 2.9. And out of the ground made the LORD God to grow every tree that is pleasant to the sight, and good for food; the tree of life also in the midst of the garden, and the tree of the knowledge of good and evil."
4. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 18.19 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

18.19. וְאֶל־אִשָּׁה בְּנִדַּת טֻמְאָתָהּ לֹא תִקְרַב לְגַלּוֹת עֶרְוָתָהּ׃ 18.19. And thou shalt not approach unto a woman to uncover her nakedness, as long as she is impure by her uncleanness."
5. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 31.17 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

31.17. וְעַתָּה הִרְגוּ כָל־זָכָר בַּטָּף וְכָל־אִשָּׁה יֹדַעַת אִישׁ לְמִשְׁכַּב זָכָר הֲרֹגוּ׃ 31.17. Now therefore kill every male among the little ones, and kill every woman that hath known man by lying with him."
6. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 7.15-7.16 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

7.15. חֶמְאָה וּדְבַשׁ יֹאכֵל לְדַעְתּוֹ מָאוֹס בָּרָע וּבָחוֹר בַּטּוֹב׃ 7.16. כִּי בְּטֶרֶם יֵדַע הַנַּעַר מָאֹס בָּרָע וּבָחֹר בַּטּוֹב תֵּעָזֵב הָאֲדָמָה אֲשֶׁר אַתָּה קָץ מִפְּנֵי שְׁנֵי מְלָכֶיהָ׃ 7.15. Curd and honey shall he eat, when he knoweth to refuse the evil, and choose the good." 7.16. Yea, before the child shall know to refuse the evil, and choose the good, the land whose two kings thou hast a horror of shall be forsaken."
7. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 29.10 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

29.10. For thus saith the LORD: After seventy years are accomplished for Babylon, I will remember you, and perform My good word toward you, in causing you to return to this place."
8. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 17.31 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

17.31. What is brighter than the sun? Yet its light fails. So flesh and blood devise evil.
9. Mishnah, Avodah Zarah, 3.1, 3.6 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

3.1. All images are prohibited because they are worshipped once a year, according to the opinion of Rabbi Meir; But the Sages say: [an image] is not prohibited except one that has a staff or bird or orb in its hand. Rabban Shimon b. Gamaliel says: any [image] which has anything in its hand [is prohibited]." 3.6. If [a Jew] has a house next to an idolatrous shrine and it collapsed, he is forbidden to rebuild it. What should he do? He withdraws a distance of four cubits into his own ground and build there. [If the wall] belonged both to him and the shrine, it is judged as being half and half. Its stones, timber and rubbish defile like a creeping thing, as it says, “you shall utterly detest it” (Deut. 7:26). ] Rabbi Akiba says: [it defiles] like a menstruous woman, as it says, “[and you will treat as unclean the silver overlay of your images and the golden plating of your idols]. You will cast them away like a menstruous woman. Out, you will call to them” (Isaiah 30:22), just as a menstruous woman impurifies [an object] by carrying it, so also an idolatrous object defiles by its being carried."
10. Mishnah, Avot, 2.11 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

2.11. Rabbi Joshua said: an evil eye, the evil inclination, and hatred for humankind put a person out of the world."
11. Mishnah, Bava Qamma, 8.6 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

8.6. If a man boxed the ear of his fellow, he must pay him a sela (four. Rabbi Judah says in the name of Rabbi Yose the Galilean: “A maneh (one hundred.” If he slapped him he must pay 200 zuz. If with the back of his hand, he must pay him 400 zuz. If he tore at his ear, plucked out his hair, spat at him and his spit touched him, or pulled his cloak from off him, or loosed a woman’s hair in the street, he must pay 400 zuz. This is the general rule: all is in accordance with the person’s honor. Rabbi Akiva said: “Even the poor in Israel are regarded as free people who have lost their possessions, for they are the children of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob. It once happened that a man unloosed a woman’s hair in the street and she came before Rabbi Akiva and he condemned him to pay her 400 zuz. He said, “Rabbi, give me time”. And he gave him time. He caught her standing at the entrance to her courtyard, and he broke a jug of one issar’s worth of oil in front of her. She unloosed her hair and scooped up the oil in her hand and laid her hand on her head. He had set up witnesses up against her and he came before Rabbi Akiva and said to him, “Rabbi, should I give one such as this 400 zuz?” He answered, “You have said nothing.” If a man injures himself, even though he has no right to do so, is not liable. But others who injure him are liable. If a man cuts down his own saplings, even though he has no right to do so, is not liable. But, if others cut them down, they are liable."
12. Mishnah, Berachot, 9.5 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

9.5. One must bless [God] for the evil in the same way as one blesses for the good, as it says, “And you shall love the Lord your God with all your heart, with all your soul and with all your might” (Deuteronomy 6:5). “With all your heart,” with your two impulses, the evil impulse as well as the good impulse. “With all your soul” even though he takes your soul [life] away from you. “With all your might” with all your money. Another explanation, “With all your might” whatever treatment he metes out to you. One should not show disrespect to the Eastern Gate, because it is in a direct line with the Holy of Holies. One should not enter the Temple Mount with a staff, or with shoes on, or with a wallet, or with dusty feet; nor should one make it a short cut, all the more spitting [is forbidden]. All the conclusions of blessings that were in the Temple they would say, “forever [lit. as long as the world is].” When the sectarians perverted their ways and said that there was only one world, they decreed that they should say, “for ever and ever [lit. from the end of the world to the end of the world]. They also decreed that a person should greet his fellow in God’s name, as it says, “And behold Boaz came from Bethlehem and said to the reapers, ‘May the Lord be with you.’ And they answered him, “May the Lord bless you’” (Ruth 2:. And it also says, “The Lord is with your, you valiant warrior” (Judges 6:12). And it also says, “And do not despise your mother when she grows old” (Proverbs 23:22). And it also says, “It is time to act on behalf of the Lord, for they have violated Your teaching” (Psalms 119:126). Rabbi Natan says: [this means] “They have violated your teaching It is time to act on behalf of the Lord.”"
13. Mishnah, Shabbat, 6.1-6.2, 9.1 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

6.1. With what may a woman go out and with what may she not go out?A woman may not go out with wool ribbons, linen ribbons, or straps around her head; Nor may she immerse while wearing them, until she loosens them. [She may not go out] with frontlets or head-bangles if they are not sewn, Or with a hair-net into the public domain, Or with a golden city, or with a necklace or with ear-rings, or with a finger-ring [even if it has] no signet, or with a needle [even if it] is unpierced. But if she goes out with these, she is not liable to a sin-offering." 6.2. A man may not go out with a nail-studded sandal, Nor with a single [sandal] if he has no wound on his foot; Nor with tefillin, Nor with an amulet, if it is not from an expert; Nor with a breastplate, Nor with a helmet; Nor with iron boots. Yet if he goes out with these, he is not liable for a sin-offering." 9.1. Rabbi Akiva said: From where do we know that an idol defiles by being carried like a menstruant? Because it is said, “You shall cast them [the idols] away as a menstruous woman. Out! You will say to them” (Isaiah 30:22): just as a menstruant defiles by being carried, so does an idol defile by being carried."
14. Mishnah, Sotah, 6.2 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

6.2. If one witness said, “I saw that she was defiled”, she does not drink the water. Not only that, but even a slave, male or female, is believed even to disqualify her from receiving her ketubah. Her mother-in-law, her mother-in-law’s daughter, her rival wife, her sister-in-law, and the daughter of her husband are believed, not to disqualify her from receiving her ketubah, but that she should not drink."
15. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 14.34-14.35 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

14.34. let your wives keepsilent in the assemblies, for it has not been permitted for them tospeak; but let them be in subjection, as the law also says. 14.35. Ifthey desire to learn anything, let them ask their own husbands at home,for it is shameful for a woman to chatter in the assembly.
16. New Testament, 1 Timothy, 3.11-3.12 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.11. Their wives in the same way must be reverent, not slanderers, temperate, faithful in all things. 3.12. Let deacons be husbands of one wife, ruling their children and their own houses well.
17. Tosefta, Avodah Zarah, 6.3 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

18. Tosefta, Shabbat, 15.17 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

19. Tosefta, Zavim, 5.6-5.7 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

20. Anon., Sifra, None (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

21. Anon., Sifre Deuteronomy, 36 (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

22. Palestinian Talmud, Sheviit, None (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

23. Tertullian, On Idolatry, 17, 19, 22, 3, 10 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

10. Moreover, we must inquire likewise touching schoolmasters; nor only of them, but also all other professors of literature. Nay, on the contrary, we must not doubt that they are in affinity with manifold idolatry: first, in that it is necessary for them to preach the gods of the nations, to express their names, genealogies, honourable distinctions, all and singular; and further, to observe the solemnities and festivals of the same, as of them by whose means they compute their revenues. What schoolmaster, without a table of the seven idols, will yet frequent the Quinquatria? The very first payment of every pupil he consecrates both to the honour and to the name of Minerva; so that, even though he be not said to eat of that which is sacrificed to idols nominally (not being dedicated to any particular idol), he is shunned as an idolater. What less of defilement does he recur on that ground, than a business brings which, both nominally and virtually, is consecrated publicly to an idol? The Minervalia are as much Minerva's, as the Saturnalia Saturn's; Saturn's, which must necessarily be celebrated even by little slaves at the time of the Saturnalia. New-year's gifts likewise must be caught at, and the Septimontium kept; and all the presents of Midwinter and the feast of Dear Kinsmanship must be exacted; the schools must be wreathed with flowers; the flamens' wives and the diles sacrifice; the school is honoured on the appointed holy-days. The same thing takes place on an idol's birthday; every pomp of the devil is frequented. Who will think that these things are befitting to a Christian master, unless it be he who shall think them suitable likewise to one who is not a master? We know it may be said, If teaching literature is not lawful to God's servants, neither will learning be likewise; and, How could one be trained unto ordinary human intelligence, or unto any sense or action whatever, since literature is the means of training for all life? How do we repudiate secular studies, without which divine studies cannot be pursued? Let us see, then, the necessity of literary erudition; let us reflect that partly it cannot be admitted, partly cannot be avoided. Learning literature is allowable for believers, rather than teaching; for the principle of learning and of teaching is different. If a believer teach literature, while he is teaching doubtless he commends, while he delivers he affirms, while he recalls he bears testimony to, the praises of idols interspersed therein. He seals the gods themselves with this name; whereas the Law, as we have said, prohibits the names of gods to be pronounced, and this name to be conferred on vanity. Hence the devil gets men's early faith built up from the beginnings of their erudition. Inquire whether he who catechizes about idols commit idolatry. But when a believer learns these things, if he is already capable of understanding what idolatry is, he neither receives nor allows them; much more if he is not yet capable. Or, when he begins to understand, it behooves him first to understand what he has previously learned, that is, touching God and the faith. Therefore he will reject those things, and will not receive them; and will be as safe as one who from one who knows it not, knowingly accepts poison, but does not drink it. To him necessity is attributed as an excuse, because he has no other way to learn. Moreover, the not teaching literature is as much easier than the not learning, as it is easier, too, for the pupil not to attend, than for the master not to frequent, the rest of the defilements incident to the schools from public and scholastic solemnities.
24. Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

26b. אמרו ליה משירייתך היכא אמר הדרו בי אמרו ליה אם כן אחוכי קא מחייכת בן נקבוהו בעקביו ותלאוהו בזנבי סוסיהם והיו מגררין אותו על הקוצים ועל הברקנין,אמר רבי אלעזר שבנא בעל הנאה היה כתיב הכא (ישעיהו כב, טו) לך בא אל הסוכן הזה וכתיב התם (מלכים א א, ב) ותהי לו סוכנת,(ואומר) (תהלים יא, ג) כי השתות יהרסון צדיק מה פעל רב יהודה ורב עינא חד אמר אילו חזקיה וסיעתו נהרסים צדיק מה פעל וחד אמר אילו בית המקדש יהרס צדיק מה פעל ועולא אמר אילו מחשבותיו של אותו רשע אינן נהרסות צדיק מה פעל,בשלמא למאן דאמר אילו מחשבותיו של אותו רשע היינו דכתיב כי השתות יהרסון,ולמ"ד בית המקדש נמי דתנן אבן היתה שם מימות נביאים הראשונים ושתייה היתה נקראת,אלא למ"ד חזקיה וסיעתו היכא אשכחן צדיקי דאיקרו שתות,דכתיב (שמואל א ב, ח) כי לה' מצוקי ארץ וישת עליהם תבל ואיבעית אימא מהכא (ישעיהו כח, כט) הפליא עצה הגדיל תושיה,א"ר חנן למה נקרא שמה תושיה מפני שהיא מתשת כחו של אדם דבר אחר תושיה שניתנה בחשאי מפני השטן דבר אחר תושיה דברים של תוהו שהעולם משותת עליהם,אמר עולא מחשבה מועלת אפילו לד"ת שנאמר (איוב ה, יב) מפר מחשבות ערומים ולא תעשינה ידיהם תושיה,אמר רבה אם עסוקין לשמה אינה מועלת שנאמר (משלי יט, כא) רבות מחשבות בלב איש ועצת ה' היא תקום עצה שיש בה דבר ה' היא תקום לעולם:,אמר ר' יהודה אימתי: א"ר אבהו א"ר אלעזר הלכה כרבי יהודה,וא"ר אבהו אמר רבי אלעזר כולן צריכין הכרזה בבית דין,רועה פליגי בה רב אחא ורבינא חד אמר בעי הכרזה וחד אמר לא בעי הכרזה,בשלמא למ"ד לא בעי הכרזה היינו דאמר רב יהודה אמר רב סתם רועה פסול אלא למ"ד בעי הכרזה מאי סתם רועה פסול,דבסתמא מכרזינן עליה,ההיא מתנה דהוו חתימי עלה תרין גזלנין סבר רב פפא בר שמואל לאכשורה דהא לא אכרזינן עלייהו,אמר ליה רבא נהי דבעינן הכרזה בגזלן דרבנן בגזלן דאורייתא מי בעינן הכרזה:,סימן דב"ר ועריו"ת גנ"ב:,אמר רב נחמן אוכלי דבר אחר פסולין לעדות,הני מילי בפרהסיא אבל בצינעה לא ובפרהסיא נמי לא אמרן אלא דאפשר ליה לאיתזוני בצינעה וקא מבזי נפשיה בפרהסיא אבל לא אפשר ליה חיותיה הוא,אמר רב נחמן החשוד על העריות כשר לעדות אמר רב ששת עני מרי ארבעין בכתפיה וכשר,אמר רבא ומודה רב נחמן לענין עדות אשה שהוא פסול אמר רבינא ואיתימא רב פפא לא אמרן אלא לאפוקה אבל לעיולה לית לן בה,פשיטא מהו דתימא הא עדיפא ליה דכתיב (משלי ט, יז) מים גנובים ימתקו וגו' קמ"ל דכמה דקיימא הכי שכיחא ליה,ואמר רב נחמן גנב ניסן וגנב תשרי לא שמיה גנב,הני מילי באריסא ודבר מועט ובדבר שנגמרה מלאכתו,איכריה דרב זביד חד גנב קבא דשערי ופסליה וחד גנב קיבורא דאהיני ופסליה,הנהו קבוראי דקבור נפשא ביום טוב ראשון של עצרת שמתינהו רב פפא ופסלינהו לעדות ואכשרינהו רב הונא בריה דרב יהושע,אמר ליה רב פפא והא רשעים נינהו סברי מצוה קא עבדי,והא קא משמתינא להו סברי כפרה קא עבדי לן רבנן:,איתמר 26b. The Assyrians bsaid to him: Where is your camp?Shebna bsaid: They backed out on me. They said to him: If so, you are mocking us;you led us to believe that behind you stands a large camp of supporters. bThey punched holes in his heels and hung him by the tails of their horses, and dragged him on the thorns and on the bristles. /b, bRabbi Elazar says: Shebna was a hedonist. It is written here: “Go, get yourself to this steward [ ihasokhen /i],to Shebna, who is over the house” (Isaiah 22:15), band it is written therewith regard to Abishag the Shunammite: b“And let her be a companion [ isokhenet /i] to him;and let her lie in your bosom, that my lord the king may get heat” (I Kings 1:2)., bAndfollowing the aforementioned verse: “For behold, the wicked bend the bow, they have made ready their arrow upon the string,” the next verse bstates: “When the foundations are destroyed, what has the Righteous One done?”(Psalms 11:3). bRav Yehuda and Rav Einainterpret this verse. bOne says: If Hezekiah and his camp are destroyed, what has the Righteous One done? And one says: If the Temple should be destroyed, what has the Righteous One done? And Ulla says: If the intentions of that wicked person,Sennacherib, bare not destroyed, what has the Righteous One done? /b,The Gemara asks: bGranted, according to the one who saysthat the verse means: bIf the intentions of that wicked personare not destroyed, what has the Righteous One done, bthis isthe reason bthat it is written: “When the foundations [ ihashatot /i] are destroyed,”i.e., the intentions of Sennacherib are destroyed, as intentions are called ishatot /i., bAnd according to the one who saysit is referring to bthe Temple,the word ihashatotis balsoclear, bas we learnedin a mishna ( iYoma53b): bThere was a stonein the Holy of Holies bfrom the days of the early prophets,David and Samuel, who laid the groundwork for construction of the Temple, bandthis stone bwas calledthe bFoundation [ ishetiyya /i]Stone., bBut according to the one who saysthat the reference is to bHezekiah and his camp, where do we find that righteous people are referred to as ishatot /i? /b,The Gemara answers: bAs it is written:“He raises up the poor out of the dust, He lifts up the needy from the dung hill, to make them sit with princes and inherit the throne of glory; bfor the pillars of the earth are the Lord’s, and He has set [ ivayyashet /i] the world upon them”(I Samuel 2:8). Since the righteous are considered the foundations of the world, this verse is interpreted in reference to them. bAnd if you wish, sayinstead that it is derived bfrom here: “Wonderful is His counsel, and great His wisdom [ itushiyya /i]”(Isaiah 28:29). Accordingly, the wise, righteous people are called ishatot /i.,With regard to the latter verse, bRabbi Ḥa says: Why isthe Torah bcalled itushiyya /i? Because it weakens [ imatteshet /i] the strength of a personwho engages in its study. bAlternatively, itushiyya /ican be interpreted as an abbreviation: bThat it was given in secret [ ishenittena beḥashai /i].This was done bbecause of the Satan,lest he claim that the Jewish people are not worthy of it. bAlternatively, itushiyya /ican be interpreted as an abbreviation for bamorphous [ itohu /i] matters thatseem foreign and strange, but nevertheless bthe world is founded [ imeshotat /i] on them. /b, bUlla says: Thought,i.e., concern, bis effective [ imo’elet /i] indisturbing beventhe study of bstatements of Torah, as it is stated: “He frustrates the thoughts of the crafty, so that their hands can perform nothing [ ivelo…tushiyya /i]”(Job 5:12), and itushiyyais a reference to Torah., bRabba says: Ifpeople bengagein Torah study bfor its own sake,concern bis not effective; as it is stated: “There are many devices in a man’s heart; but the counsel of the Lord, that shall stand”(Proverbs 19:21). Rabba interprets this to mean that ba counsel that has in it the statement of the Lord shall rise foreverand cannot be disturbed.,§ The mishna teaches that bRabbi Yehuda says: Whenare all these people, e.g., gamblers and those who lend with interest, disqualified from bearing witness? It is when they have no occupation other than this one. bRabbi Abbahu saysthat bRabbi Elazar says: The ihalakha /iis bin accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Yehuda. /b, bAnd Rabbi Abbahu saysthat bRabbi Elazar says: All ofthese brequire a proclamation in the court.In other words, one is disqualified only after it is proclaimed in court that he was found guilty of this behavior.,With regard to ba shepherd,who is also disqualified from bearing witness, bRav Aḥa and Ravina disagree. One saysthat bhe requires a proclamationthat he is disqualified due to his being a shepherd, band one saysthat bhe does not require a proclamationand is disqualified automatically.,The Gemara asks: bGranted, according to the one who saysthat bhe does not require a proclamation, this is what Rav Yehudameans when he bsaysthat bRav saysthat ban ordinary shepherd is disqualified,i.e., he does not require a specific proclamation. bBut according to the one who saysthat a shepherd brequires a proclamation, whatis meant by the statement that ban ordinary shepherd is disqualified? /b,The Gemara answers: It means bthat in an ordinarycase, the court bproclaims about himthat he is disqualified for having engaged in shepherding. If the court discovers that he regularly engages in this trade, it proclaims immediately that he is disqualified, and the court does not need to prove that he shepherds his flock in the fields of others.,The Gemara recounts: With regard to ba certaindeed of bgift on whichthe names of btwo robbers were signed, Rav Pappa bar Shmuel thought to deem it validdespite the identity of the witnesses, basthe court bdid not proclaim about themthat they were disqualified., bRava said to him: Although we require a proclamationin order to disqualify a robber from bearing witness, this is only bwith regard to a robberwho is guilty of stealing bby rabbinic law; with regard to a robberwho is guilty of stealing bby Torah law, do we require a proclamation?He is disqualified automatically.,§ The Gemara states ba mnemonicfor the following statements with regard to disqualification from testifying: bSomething; and forbidden sexual relations;and ba thief. /b, bRav Naḥman says: Those who eat something else,a euphemism for pork, bare disqualified from bearing witness.This is referring to those who accept charity from gentiles, thereby causing a desecration of God’s name. They are tantamount to wicked people guilty of monetary transgressions, as they are willing to desecrate God’s name for monetary gain.,The Gemara comments: bThis statementapplies with regard to taking charity from gentiles bin public [ ibefarhesya /i], butif one takes it bin privatehe is bnotdisqualified. bAnd evenif he takes it bin public, we saidthat he is disqualified bonlyin a case bwhere he can sustainhimself by accepting charity from gentiles bin private anddespite this bhe disgraces himselfby taking it bin public. Butif bhe cannotsupport himself in any other manner, he is not disqualified, as bit is his livelihood. /b, bRav Naḥman says: One whodue to a rumor bis suspected ofengaging in bforbidden sexual relations is fit to bear witness. Rav Sheshet saidto him: bAnswer me, my Master:The ihalakhais that one who is rumored to have engaged in forbidden sexual intercourse receives bfortylashes bon his shoulders, andyet you say bhe is fitto bear witness?, bRava said: And Rav Naḥman concedes that he is disqualified with regard to testimonyabout the status of a married bwoman,as he is clearly under suspicion with regard to this matter. bRavina says, and some say Rav Pappasays: bWe saidhe is disqualified bonly with regard totestimony that bremoves herstatus as a married woman, e.g., testimony that her husband died, as he is suspected of wanting her for himself. bBut with regard totestimony that bestablishes herin that status, bwe have noproblem bwith it. /b,The Gemara asks: Isn’t that bobvious?Why should he be suspected of lying in order to render a woman married? The Gemara answers: bLest you saythat if he wants her for himself, bthissituation, i.e., her being married to another, bis preferable to him; as it is written: “Stolen waters are sweetand bread eaten in secret is pleasant” (Proverbs 9:17), i.e., the forbidden is more pleasant than the permitted, Rav Pappa bteaches usthat this is not the case, bas the waythe woman bisnow, being unmarried, bshe ismore bavailable to him.He therefore is not motivated to testify falsely that she is married., bAnd Rav Naḥman says: A thief of Nisan and a thief of Tishrei,i.e., one who steals during the harvest seasons, bis not called a thiefand is therefore not disqualified from bearing witness.,The Gemara explains: bThis statementapplies specifically bwith regard to a tet farmer, andit is a situation where he took ba small amount, and ina case where it was ban item whose work was completed,i.e., that needed no further processing. Since the produce was sufficiently processed, the tet may assume that he deserves additional pay for any further labor and justify taking a small amount of the produce for his effort. Consequently, his theft is not willful.,The Gemara recounts: An incident occurred with bthetet bfarmers of Rav Zevid. One stole a ikavof barley, andRav Zevid bdisqualified himfrom bearing witness, band one stole a cluster of dates, and he disqualified him.The reason for their disqualification is that the quantity of produce they stole is not considered a small amount.,The Gemara relates: There were bthese gravediggers, who buried a person on the first day of the festival of iShavuot /i,desecrating the Festival. bRav Pappa excommunicated them andthen bdisqualified them from bearing witness, and Rav Huna, son of Rav Yehoshua, deemed them fitto bear witness., bRav Pappa said toRav Huna, son of Rav Yehoshua: bBut aren’t they wicked people,as they violated a Torah prohibition? Rav Huna, son of Rav Yehoshua, answered him: bThey assumed they were doing a mitzva,as they were burying the dead.,Rav Pappa asked: bBut didn’t I excommunicate themfor this? Nevertheless, they continued to bury people on the Festival. Rav Huna, son of Rav Yehoshua, answered: bThey assumed:We were not excommunicated for doing something wrong. Rather, since the mitzva of burying the dead involved desecrating the Festival, bthe Sages are achieving atonement for us,although our behavior was appropriate.,§ A conspiring witness is one who testified that a certain incident occurred at a particular time and place, and then two other witnesses testify that he was elsewhere at that time. The Gemara discusses the disqualification of a conspiring witness from providing testimony in other cases. bIt was stated /b
25. Babylonian Talmud, Shabbat, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

119b. מהדר אזוזי זוזי דרבנן א"ל במטותא מינייכו לא תחללוניה,אמר רבא ואיתימא ר' יהושע בן לוי אפי' יחיד המתפלל בע"ש צריך לומר ויכולו דאמר רב המנונא כל המתפלל בע"ש ואומר ויכולו מעלה עליו הכתוב כאילו נעשה שותף להקב"ה במעשה בראשית שנאמר ויכולו אל תקרי ויכולו אלא ויכלו אמר רבי אלעזר מניין שהדיבור כמעשה שנאמר (תהלים לג, ו) בדבר ה' שמים נעשו,אמר רב חסדא אמר מר עוקבא כל המתפלל בע"ש ואומר ויכולו שני מלאכי השרת המלוין לו לאדם מניחין ידיהן על ראשו ואומרים לו (ישעיהו ו, ז) וסר עונך וחטאתך תכופר תניא ר' יוסי בר יהודה אומר שני מלאכי השרת מלוין לו לאדם בע"ש מבית הכנסת לביתו אחד טוב ואחד רע וכשבא לביתו ומצא נר דלוק ושלחן ערוך ומטתו מוצעת מלאך טוב אומר יהי רצון שתהא לשבת אחרת כך ומלאך רע עונה אמן בעל כרחו ואם לאו מלאך רע אומר יהי רצון שתהא לשבת אחרת כך ומלאך טוב עונה אמן בעל כרחו,אמר ר' אלעזר לעולם יסדר אדם שלחנו בע"ש אע"פ שאינו צריך אלא לכזית ואמר ר' חנינא לעולם יסדר אדם שלחנו במוצאי שבת אע"פ שאינו צריך אלא לכזית חמין במוצאי שבת מלוגמא פת חמה במוצאי שבת מלוגמא ר' אבהו הוה עבדין ליה באפוקי שבתא עיגלא תילתא הוה אכיל מיניה כולייתא כי גדל אבימי בריה א"ל למה לך לאפסודי כולי האי נשבוק כולייתא ממעלי שבתא שבקוהו ואתא אריא אכליה,אריב"ל כל העונה אמן יהא שמיה רבא מברך בכל כחו קורעין לו גזר דינו שנאמר (שופטים ה, ב) בפרוע פרעות בישראל בהתנדב עם ברכו ה' מ"ט בפרוע פרעות משום דברכו ה' רבי חייא בר אבא א"ר יוחנן אפילו יש בו שמץ של עבודה זרה מוחלין לו כתיב הכא בפרוע פרעות וכתיב התם (שמות לב, כה) כי פרוע הוא אמר ריש לקיש כל העונה אמן בכל כחו פותחין לו שערי ג"ע שנאמר (ישעיהו כו, ב) פתחו שערים ויבא גוי צדיק שומר אמונים אל תיקרי שומר אמונים אלא שאומרים אמן מאי אמן א"ר חנינא אל מלך נאמן,א"ר יהודה בריה דרב שמואל משמיה דרב אין הדליקה מצויה אלא במקום שיש חילול שבת שנאמר (ירמיהו יז, כז) ואם לא תשמעו אלי לקדש את יום השבת ולבלתי שאת משא וגו' והצתי אש בשעריה ואכלה ארמנות ירושלים ולא תכבה מאי ולא תכבה אמר רב נחמן בר יצחק בשעה שאין בני אדם מצויין לכבותה אמר אביי לא חרבה ירושלים אלא בשביל שחללו בה את השבת שנאמר (יחזקאל כב, כו) ומשבתותי העלימו עיניהם ואחל בתוכם,אמר ר' אבהו לא חרבה ירושלים אלא בשביל שביטלו ק"ש שחרית וערבית שנאמר (ישעיהו ה, יא) הוי משכימי בבקר שכר ירדפו וגו' וכתיב (ישעיהו ה, יב) והיה כנור ונבל תוף וחליל ויין משתיהם ואת פועל ה' לא יביטו וכתיב (ישעיהו ה, יג) לכן גלה עמי מבלי דעת,אמר רב המנונא לא חרבה ירושלים אלא בשביל שביטלו בה תינוקות של בית רבן שנאמר (ירמיהו ו, יא) שפוך על עולל בחוץ וגו' מה טעם שפוך משום דעולל בחוץ אמר עולא לא חרבה ירושלים אלא מפני שלא היה להם בושת פנים זה מזה שנאמר (ירמיהו ו, טו) הובישו כי תועבה עשו גם בוש לא יבושו וגו' אמר ר' יצחק לא חרבה ירושלים אלא בשביל שהושוו קטן וגדול שנאמר (ישעיהו כד, ב) והיה כעם ככהן וכתיב בתריה הבוק תבוק הארץ,אמר רב עמרם בריה דר"ש בר אבא א"ר שמעון בר אבא א"ר חנינא לא חרבה ירושלים אלא בשביל שלא הוכיחו זה את זה שנאמר (איכה א, ו) היו שריה כאילים לא מצאו מרעה מה איל זה ראשו של זה בצד זנבו של זה אף ישראל שבאותו הדור כבשו פניהם בקרקע ולא הוכיחו זה את זה א"ר יהודה לא חרבה ירושלים אלא בשביל שביזו בה ת"ח שנאמר (דברי הימים ב לו, טז) ויהיו מלעיבים במלאכי האלהים ובוזים דבריו ומתעתעים בנביאיו עד עלות חמת ה' בעמו עד [ל] אין מרפא מאי עד לאין מרפא אמר רב יהודה אמר רב כל המבזה ת"ח אין לו רפואה למכתו,אמר רב יהודה אמר רב מאי דכתיב (דברי הימים א טז, כב) אל תגעו במשיחי ובנביאי אל תרעו אל תגעו במשיחי אלו תינוקות של בית רבן ובנביאי אל תרעו אלו ת"ח אמר ריש לקיש משום רבי יהודה נשיאה אין העולם מתקיים אלא בשביל הבל תינוקות של בית רבן א"ל רב פפא לאביי דידי ודידך מאי א"ל אינו דומה הבל שיש בו חטא להבל שאין בו חטא ואמר ריש לקיש משום ר"י נשיאה אין מבטלין תינוקות של בית רבן אפי' לבנין בית המקדש ואמר ר"ל לר"י נשיאה כך מקובלני מאבותי ואמרי לה מאבותיך כל עיר שאין בה תינוקות של בית רבן מחריבין אותה רבינא אמר מחרימין אותה,ואמר רבא לא חרבה ירושלים אלא בשביל שפסקו ממנה אנשי אמנה שנאמר (ירמיהו ה, א) שוטטו בחוצות ירושלים וראו נא [ודעו ובקשו ברחובותיה אם תמצאו איש] (אם יש איש) עושה משפט מבקש אמונה ואסלח לה איני והאמר רב קטינא אפי' בשעת כשלונה של ירושלים לא פסקו ממנה אנשי אמנה שנאמר (ישעיהו ג, ו) כי יתפש איש באחיו בית אביו (לאמר) שמלה לכה קצין תהיה לנו דברים שבני אדם מתכסין בהן כשמלה ישנן בידיך והמכשלה הזאת תחת ידך 119b. bwould seek pairs of Sagesengaged in conversation on Shabbat and bsaid to them: Please do not desecrateShabbat by failing to delight in Shabbat., bRava said, and some sayit was bRabbi Yehoshua ben Leviwho said: bEven an individual who prays on Shabbat evening must recitethe passage: “And the heavens and the earth bwere finished [ ivaykhullu /i]”(Genesis 2:1–3), bas Rav Hamnuna said: Anyone who prays on Shabbat evening and recitesthe passage of bvaykhullu, the verse ascribed himcredit bas if he became a partner with the Holy One, Blessed be He, in the act of Creation. As it is stated:“And the heavens and the earth bwere finished [ ivaykhullu /i].” Do not readit as: bWere finished [ ivaykhullu /i]; rather,as: bThey finished [ ivaykhallu /i].It is considered as though the Holy One, Blessed be He, and the individual who says this become partners and completed the work together. bRabbi Elazar said: From whereis it derived bthat speech is like action? As it is stated: “By the word of God the heavens were made,and all of their hosts by the breath of His mouth” (Psalms 33:6)., bRav Ḥisda saidthat bMar Ukva said: One who prays on Shabbat evening and recites ivaykhullu /i, the two ministering angels who accompany the personat all times bplace their hands on his head and say to him: “And your iniquity has passed, and your sin has been atoned”(Isaiah 6:7). bIt was taughtin a ibaraita /i: bRabbi Yosei bar Yehuda says: Two ministering angels accompany a person on Shabbat evening from the synagogue to his home, one goodangel band one evilangel. bAnd whenhe breaches his home and finds a lamp burning and a table set and his bed made, the good angel says: May it beYour bwill that it shall be like this for another Shabbat. And the evil angel answers against his will: Amen. And ifthe person’s home is bnotprepared for Shabbat in that manner, bthe evil angel says: May it beYour bwill that it shall be so for another Shabbat, and the good angel answers against his will: Amen. /b, bRabbi Elazar said: A person should always set his table on Shabbat evewith all the preparations for an important feast, beven if he only needsthe table set for ban olive-bulkof food. bAnd Rabbi Ḥanina said: A person should always set his table at the conclusion of Shabbat,Saturday night, for a feast in deference to the Shabbat that passed, beven if he only needsthe table set for ban olive-bulkof food. And with regard to the meal at the conclusion of Shabbat, they said: bHot water after Shabbatis a bremedy [ imelugma /i], warm bread at the conclusion of Shabbatis a bremedy.The Gemara relates: bThey would prepare for Rabbi Abbahu at the conclusion of Shabbat a third-born calf,and bhe would eatone bkidney from it. When his son Avimi grew up,he bsaid tohis father: bWhy do you waste so much? Let us leave a kidney over from Shabbat eve,and you will not need to slaughter an entire calf for that purpose. Indeed, bthey leftthe calf and did not slaughter it, band a lion came and ate it.This teaches that one should not be miserly when it comes to honoring Shabbat.,Apropos the reward for honoring Shabbat, the Gemara cites statements about the reward for answering amen. bRabbi Yehoshua ben Levi saidthat banyone who answers: Amen, may His great name be blessed,wholeheartedly, bwith all his might,they brip his sentence, as it is stated: “When punishments are annulled in Israel, when the people offer themselves, bless the Lord”(Judges 5:2). bWhat is the reason for when punishments are annulled? Becausethe Jewish people bblessed God.When one recites: Amen, may His great name be blessed, and blesses God, his punishment is annulled. bRabbi Ḥiyya bar Abbasaid that bRabbi Yoḥa said: Evenif bone has within him a trace of idolatry,when he answers amen bhe is forgiven. It is written here,in the verse above: b“When punishments [ ipera’ot /i] are annulled.” And it is written there,with regard to the sin of the Golden Calf: “And Moses saw bthatthe nation bwas wild [ iparu’a /i],for Aaron had let them loose for anyone who might rise against them” (Exodus 32:25). Even one with the wildness of idolatry is forgiven. bReish Lakish said: One who answers amen with all his strength, they open the gates of the Garden of Eden before him, as it is stated: “Open the gates, and a righteous nation shall come who keeps the faith”(Isaiah 26:2). bDo not read: Who keeps [ ishomer /i] the faith [ iemunim /i], but rather: Who say [ ishe’omerim /i] amen. Whatis the allusion of the word iamen /i? Rabbi Ḥanina said:It is an acronym of the words: bGod, faithful King [ iEl Melekh ne’eman /i]. /b, bRav Yehuda, son of Rav Shmuel, said in the name of Rav: Fire is only found in a place where there is desecration of Shabbat, as it is stated: “And if you do not heed Me to sanctify the day of Shabbat, and to refrain from carrying burdensand come to the gates of Jerusalem on the day of Shabbat, band I will light a fire in its gates and it will consume the palaces of Jerusalem and it will not be extinguished”(Jeremiah 17:27). The Gemara asks: bWhatis the meaning of: bAnd it will not be extinguished? Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said:Fire will break out bat a time when people are not found to extinguish it. Abaye said: Jerusalem was destroyed only because people desecrated the Shabbat in it, as it is stated: “And from My iShabbatotthey averted their eyes, and I was profaned among them”(Ezekiel 22:26). Several punishments were decreed to befall Jerusalem as punishment for this transgression.,The Gemara suggests additional reasons for the destruction of Jerusalem. br bRabbi Abbahu said: Jerusalem was destroyed only becauseits citizens intentionally bomitted recitation of iShemamorning and evening, as it is stated: “Woe to those who rise early in the morning and pursue the drinkand are aflame from wine until late in the evening” (Isaiah 5:11). bAnd it is writtenin the continuation of that passage: b“And their drinking parties have lyre and lute, drum and flute and wine, and they do not look upon the actions of God,and they do not see His hands’ creations” (Isaiah 5:12). This means that in the morning and evening, when the Jews should have been reciting iShema /i, they were drinking wine and liquor. bAnd it is writtenin that passage: b“Therefore My nation is being exiled for its ignorance;its honor will die of hunger and its multitudes will be parched with thirst” (Isaiah 5:13)., bRav Hamnuna said: Jerusalem was destroyed only because schoolchildren there were interruptedfrom studying Torah, bas it is stated:“And I am filled with the wrath of God, I cannot contain it, bpour it onto the infants in the streetand onto the gathering of youths together, for men and women alike will be captured, the elderly along with those of advanced years” (Jeremiah 6:11). Rav Hamnuna explains: bWhat is the reason thatthe wrath is bpoured?It is bbecause infants are outsidein the streets and are not studying Torah. br bUlla said: Jerusalem was destroyed only because people had no shame before each other, as it is stated: “They acted shamefully; they have performed abominations, yet they neither were ashamednor did they know humiliation. Therefore, they will fall among the fallen, they will fail at the time that I punish them, said God” (Jeremiah 6:15). br bRabbi Yitzḥak said: Jerusalem was destroyed only becauseits bsmall andthe bgreatcitizens bwere equated.They did not properly value the prominent leaders of their generation, bas it is stated: “And the common people were like the priest,the slave like his master, the maidservant like her mistress, the buyer like the seller, the lender like the borrower, the creditor like the one indebted to him” (Isaiah 24:2). bAnd it is written afterward: “The land shall be utterly desolateand completely plundered, for God has said this” (Isaiah 24:3)., bRav Amram, sonof bRabbi Shimon bar Abba, saidthat bRabbi Shimon bar Abba saidthat bRabbi Ḥanina said: Jerusalem was destroyed only because the people did not rebuke one another, as it is stated: “Her ministers were like stags that found no pasture,and they walked without strength before their pursuer” (Lamentations 1:6). bJust as this stagturns bits head toward the other’s tailwhen it grazes, and each one feeds on its own, bso too, the Jewish people in that generation lowered their faces to the ground and did not rebuke one another. br bRabbi Yehuda said: Jerusalem was destroyed only because they disparaged the Torah scholars in it, as it is stated: “And they mocked the messengers of God and disdained His words and taunted His prophets, until the wrath of God arose against His people, until it could not be healed”(II Chronicles 36:16). bWhatis the meaning of: bUntil it could not be healed? Rav Yehuda saidthat bRav said:It means that banyone who disparages Torah scholars cannot be healed from his wound. /b, bRav Yehuda saidthat bRav said: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “Do not touch My anointed ones and do My prophets no harm”(I Chronicles 16:22)? b“Do not touch My anointed ones,” these are the schoolchildren,who are as precious and important as kings and priests (Maharsha); b“and do not harm My prophets,” these are Torah scholars. Reish Lakish said in the name of Rabbi Yehuda Nesia: The world only exists because of the breath,i.e., reciting Torah, bof schoolchildren. Rav Pappa said to Abaye: MyTorah study band yours, whatis its status? Why is the Torah study of adults worth less? He bsaid to him: The breathof adults, bwhich istainted by bsin, is not similar to the breathof children, bwhich is nottainted by bsin. And Reish Lakish said in the name of Rabbi Yehuda Nesia: One may not interrupt schoolchildrenfrom studying Torah, beven in order to build the Temple. And Reish Lakish said to Rabbi Yehuda Nesia: I have received from my ancestors, and some saythat he said to him: I have received bfrom your ancestors as follows: Any city in which there are no schoolchildrenstudying Torah, they bdestroy it. Ravina said:They leave bit desolate. /b, bAnd Rava said: Jerusalem was destroyed only because there were no more trustworthy people there, as it is stated: “Roam about the streets of Jerusalem and see, and search its plazas, if you can find a person, who acts justly, who seeks integrity, that I should forgive it”(Jeremiah 5:1). The Gemara asks: bIs that so? Didn’t Rav Ketina say: Even at the time of Jerusalem’s failure, trustworthy people did not cease there, as it is stated: “For a man will grab his brother of his father’s house and say: You have a garment. Come be a chief over usand let this ruin be under your care” (Isaiah 3:6)? bThings that people use to cover up like a garment,secrets, bare in your handsand you know about them. Therefore, you should be a leader of the community. And that which is stated: b“And let this ruin be under your care,”meaning:
26. Babylonian Talmud, Yevamot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

60b. והא אמר רבי שמעון ראויה לכהן גדול מטמא לה שאין ראויה לכהן גדול אין מטמא לה שאני התם דרבי רחמנא קרובה,א"ה מוכת עץ נמי [רבי] קרובה אחת ולא שתים ומה ראית הא אתעביד בה מעשה הא לא אתעביד בה מעשה,ורבי יוסי מדשבקיה לבר זוגיה מכלל דבמוכת עץ כרבי מאיר סבירא ליה מנא ליה מלא היתה לאיש,והא אפיקתיה חד מלא היתה וחד מלאיש,אליו לרבות הבוגרת והא אמר ר' שמעון בתולה בתולה שלימה משמע טעמא דידיה נמי התם מהכא דדריש הכי מדאליו לרבות הבוגרת מכלל דבתולה בתולה שלימה משמע,תניא ר' שמעון בן יוחי אומר גיורת פחותה מבת שלש שנים ויום אחד כשירה לכהונה שנאמר (במדבר לא, יח) וכל הטף בנשים אשר לא ידעו משכב זכר החיו לכם והרי פנחס עמהם,ורבנן לעבדים ולשפחות אי הכי בת שלש שנים ויום אחד נמי,כדרב הונא דרב הונא רמי כתיב (במדבר לא, יז) כל אשה יודעת איש למשכב זכר הרוגו הא אינה יודעת קיימו מכלל דהטף בין ידעו בין לא ידעו קיימו וכתיב (במדבר לא, יח) וכל הטף בנשים אשר לא ידעו משכב זכר החיו לכם הא ידעי הרוגו,הוי אומר בראויה ליבעל הכתוב מדבר,תניא נמי הכי וכל אשה יודעת איש בראויה ליבעל הכתוב מדבר אתה אומר בראויה ליבעל או אינו אלא נבעלה ממש כשהוא אומר וכל הטף בנשים אשר לא ידעו משכב זכר הוי אומר בראויה ליבעל הכתוב מדבר,מנא ידעי אמר רב הונא בר ביזנא אמר ר' שמעון חסידא העבירום לפני הציץ כל שפניה מוריקות בידוע שהיא ראויה ליבעל כל שאין פניה מוריקות בידוע שאינה ראויה ליבעל אמר רב נחמן סימן לעבירה הדרוקן,כיוצא בדבר אתה אומר (שופטים כא, יב) וימצאו מיושבי יבש גלעד ארבע מאות נערה בתולה אשר לא ידעו איש למשכב זכר מנא ידעי אמר רב כהנא הושיבום על פי חבית של יין בעולה ריחה נודף בתולה אין ריחה נודף,ונעברינהו לפני הציץ אמר רב כהנא בריה דרב נתן (שמות כח, לח) לרצון להם כתיב לרצון ולא לפורענות אי הכי במדין נמי אמר רב אשי להם כתיב להם לרצון ולא לפורענות ולעובדי כוכבים אפילו לפורענות,אמר רבי יעקב בר אידי אמר רבי יהושע בן לוי הלכה כרבי שמעון בן יוחאי אמר ליה רבי זירא לרבי יעקב בר אידי בפירוש שמיע לך או מכללא שמיע לך,מאי כללא דאמר ר' יהושע בן לוי עיר אחת היתה בארץ ישראל שקרא עליה ערער ושגר רבי את רבי רומנוס ובדקה ומצא בה בת גיורת פחותה מבת שלש שנים ויום אחד והכשירה רבי לכהונה אמר ליה בפירוש שמיע לי,ואי מכללא מאי דלמא שאני התם הואיל ואנסיב אנסיב דהא רב ורבי יוחנן דאמרי תרוייהו בוגרת ומוכת עץ לא ישא ואם נשא נשוי,הכי השתא בשלמא התם סופה להיות בוגרת תחתיו סופה להיות בעולה תחתיו הכא סופה להיות זונה תחתיו,רב ספרא מתני לה מכללא וקשיא ליה ומשני ליה הכי,ההוא כהנא דאנסיב גיורת פחותה מבת שלש שנים ויום אחד אמר ליה ר"נ בר יצחק מאי האי אמר ליה דאמר רבי יעקב בר אידי אמר ר' יהושע בן לוי הלכה כר"ש בן יוחאי אמר ליה זיל אפיק ואי לא מפיקנא לך ר' יעקב בר אידי מאונך,תניא וכן היה ר"ש בן יוחאי אומר 60b. bDidn’t Rabbi Shimon say:If she was bfit for a High Priest,her brother must bbecome impure for her,and if she was bnot fit for a High Priest,her brother bmay not become impure for her?A divorced woman is not fit for a High Priest even if she had been only betrothed before her divorce. The Gemara answers: bIt is different there, as the Merciful One includesher by the term: Who is bnear,which includes any sister who is close to him, even if she is unfit for a High Priest.,The Gemara asks: bIf so, a woman whose hymen was torn accidentallyshould balsobe bincluded.The Gemara responds that the term: Who is bnear,which is written in the singular, includes only boneadditional case band not two.The Gemara asks: bAnd what did you seeto render forbidden a woman whose hymen was accidentally torn and permit a divorcée who had previously been only betrothed, and not the opposite? The Gemara answers: In bthiscase of the women whose hymen was torn, ban action has been performedon her body, whereas in bthatcase of the divorcée, bno action has been performedon her body.,The ibaraitacites Rabbi Yosei and Rabbi Shimon as holding that a priest may not become impure for his sister who was betrothed and then divorced, and it cites only Rabbi Shimon as holding that he may not become impure for his sister who was a grown woman. Based on this, the Gemara asks: bFromthe fact bthat Rabbi Yosei left his partner,Rabbi Shimon, bit may be inferred that with regard to a woman whose hymen was torn accidentally he holds in accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Meir,that a priest does become impure. bFrom wheredoes bhederive this ihalakha /i? The Gemara explains that he derives it bfromthe phrase: “Who bhas had no man,”as a woman whose hymen was torn accidentally has not been with a man.,The Gemara asks: bHaven’t youalready bderivedthe ihalakhaof a betrothed woman from that phrase? The Gemara answers: Rabbi Yosei learns bone ihalakha bfromthe phrase b“has had no,”which indicates that she has not even been betrothed, bandhe derives bone ihalakha bfromthe term b“man,”which indicates that only a woman who was with a man is no longer considered a virgin with regard to this ihalakha /i, but not one whose hymen was torn accidentally.,It was stated previously that according to Rabbi Shimon, the term b“to him,”comes bto include a grown woman.The Gemara asks: bDidn’t Rabbi Shimon saywith regard to a High Priest that the term bvirgin indicates a complete virgin,which does not include a grown woman? The Gemara answers: bHis reason there is alsoderived bfrom here, as he expounds as follows: Fromthe fact bthatthe expression b“to him”is needed bto include a grown woman,it may be binferred thatthe term bvirginby itself bindicates a complete virgin. /b,§ The Gemara cites another ruling of Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai, also related to the discussion of defining who is considered a virgin. bIt is taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai says: A female convertwho converted when she was bless than three years and one day old is permitted tomarry into bthe priesthood, as it is stated: “But all the women children that have not known man by lying with him, keep alive for yourselves”(Numbers 31:18). This verse indicates that these women were fit for all of the warriors, bandsince bPinehasthe priest bwas with them(see Numbers 31:6), it is clear that young converts are permitted to priests.,The Gemara asks: bAndhow do bthe Rabbis,who disagree with Rabbi Shimon, interpret this verse? The Gemara responds: They understand the phrase “keep alive for yourselves” to mean that they could keep them bas slaves and as maidservants,but they could not necessarily marry them. The Gemara asks: bIf so,if the source for Rabbi Shimon’s ruling is this verse, a girl who converted at the bage of three years and one day oldshould balsobe permitted to a priest, as long as she has never had intercourse, as stated by the verse.,The Gemara replies: His reasoning is basstated by bRav Huna, as Rav Huna raised a contradiction: It is writtenin one verse: b“Kill every woman that has known man by lying with him”(Numbers 31:17), which indicates that a woman who bhas not knowna man in this way byou may keepalive. This proves bby inference that thefemale bchildren,who are not classified as women, byou may keepalive regardless of bwhether they knewa man bor they did not knowa man. bAnd it is writtenin a different verse: b“But all the women children that have not known man by lying with him, keep alive for yourselves”(Numbers 31:18), which indicates that if bthey have knownmen, byou must killthem. This is an apparent contradiction.,Rav Huna explains: bYou must say that the verse is speaking ofa woman who is bfit for intercourse.The verse does not mean to distinguish between women who have actually engaged in sexual intercourse and those who have not. Rather, it distinguishes between a girl over the age of three, with whom an act of intercourse is recognized as such, and a girl below the age of three., bThis is also taughtin a ibaraita /i: b“Every woman that has known man”; the verse is speaking ofa woman bwho is fit for intercourse.The ibaraitaproceeds to discuss this ihalakha /i: Do byou sayit is referring btoone who is bfit for intercourse,or perhaps bit isreferring bonlyto bone who has actually had intercourse? Whenthe verse bstates: “But all the women children that have not known man by lying with him,keep alive for yourselves,” which indicates that grown women must be killed even if they have not had intercourse with a man, byou must say that the verse is speaking ofa woman bwho is fit for intercourse. /b,The Gemara asks a practical question with regard to the events described by the Torah: bFrom where did they knowwhether a particular girl was already three years old and fit for intercourse? bRav Huna bar Bizna said that Rabbi Shimon Ḥasida said: They passed them before the frontplateof the High Priest. bAnygirl bwhose facemiraculously bturned sallow, it was known that she was fit for intercourse,and banygirl bwhose face did not turn sallow, itwas thereby bknown that she was not fit for intercourse.Similarly, bRav Naḥman said: A sign of transgressionin the area of sexual morality bisthe disease ihidrokan /i,which causes one’s face to turn sallow., bSimilarly, youcan bsaywith regard to the verse: b“And they found among the inhabitants of Jabesh-gilead four hundred young virgins that had not known man by lying with him”(Judges 21:12). bFrom where did they knowthat they were virgins? bRav Kahana said: They sat them on the opening of a barrel of wine.If she was ba non-virgin, her breathwould bsmelllike wine; if she was ba virgin, her breath did not smelllike wine.,The Gemara suggests: bThey shouldhave bpassed them before the frontplate,as described previously with regard to the daughters of Midian. bRav Kahana, son of Rav Natan, said:The verse states with regard to the frontplate: “And it shall be upon Aaron’s forehead… bthat they may be acceptedbefore the Lord” (Exodus 28:38), which indicates that the frontplate is worn bfor acceptance but not for calamity.The Gemara raises a difficulty: bIf so,the frontplate should balsonot have been used bwith regard tothe women of bMidian. Rav Ashi said:The word b“they” is writtenin the verse, indicating that bfor them,the Jewish people, the frontplate is bfor acceptance but not for calamity; but for gentilesit can be used beven for calamity. /b, bRabbi Ya’akov bar Idi saidthat bRabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: The ihalakhais in accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai. Rabbi Zeira said to Rabbi Ya’akov bar Idi:Did byou hearRabbi Yehoshua ben Levi say this bexplicitly ordid byou learnit bby inference? /b,The Gemara asks: bWhat inferencewas Rabbi Zeira hinting at? The Gemara explains: bAs Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: There was a certain city in Eretz Yisrael where they contestedthe lineage of a particular family. bAnd RabbiYehuda HaNasi bsent Rabbi Romanus, and he examinedthe family’s lineage band foundthat bitincluded bthe daughterof ba convertwho had converted when she was bless than three years and one day old,and she had married a priest. bAnd RabbiYehuda HaNasi bpermitted her to the priesthood.This indicates that Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi ruled in accordance with Rabbi Shimon. Rabbi Ya’akov bar Idi bsaid to him: I heard explicitlythat Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi ruled in this manner.,The Gemara asks: bAnd ifRabbi Yehoshua ben Levi’s opinion had been derived bby inference, whatof it? The Gemara answers: bPerhaps it was different there,because bsince shehad already bmarrieda priest, bshecould remain bmarriedafter the fact, but it would not be permitted for her to marry a priest iab initio /i, basit is bRav and Rabbi Yoḥa who both say:A High Priest bmay not marry a grown woman and a woman whose hymen was torn accidentally, but if he marriedone of them bhe is marriedand not required to divorce her.,The Gemara refutes this claim: bHow canthese cases bbe compared? Granted, there,in the case of a grown woman, it is reasonable for her to be permitted after the fact, as a young woman bwill eventually be a grown woman under him,i.e., while married to him, and bshe will eventually be a non-virgin under him.However, bhere,in the case of a convert, bwill she eventually be a izonaunder him?If she is forbidden to a priest iab initioit is because she has the status of a izona /i, in which case she should be prohibited after the fact as well. Consequently, it can be proven from the incident cited previously that Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi rules in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Shimon.,The Gemara comments: bRav Safra taught this ihalakhaafter deriving Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi’s ruling bby inference,although he had never heard this ruling explicitly. bAndthe question mentioned above was bdifficult for him, and he resolved it in thissame manner.,The Gemara relates another incident related to this ihalakha /i: bA certain priest married a convert,who had converted when she was bless than three years and one day old. Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said to him: What is this?Why are you violating the ihalakha /i? bHe said to him:It is permitted for me to marry her, bas Rabbi Ya’akov bar Idi said that Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi saidthat bthe ihalakhais in accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai. He said to him: Go removeher, i.e., divorce her. bAnd if not, I will remove Rabbi Ya’akov bar Idi from your ear [ ime’unekh /i] for you.In other words, I will take the necessary action to ensure that you obey and divorce her, so that you can no longer follow Rabbi Ya’akov bar Idi’s opinion.,§ bIt is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bAnd similarly, Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai would say: /b
27. Babylonian Talmud, Yoma, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

86b. אמר ר' יוחנן גדולה תשובה שדוחה את לא תעשה שבתורה שנאמר (ירמיהו ג, א) לאמר הן ישלח איש את אשתו והלכה מאתו והיתה לאיש אחר הישוב אליה עוד הלא חנוף תחנף הארץ ההיא ואת זנית רעים רבים ושוב אלי נאם ה',א"ר יונתן גדולה תשובה (שמקרבת) את הגאולה שנאמר (ישעיהו נט, כ) ובא לציון גואל ולשבי פשע ביעקב מה טעם ובא לציון גואל משום דשבי פשע ביעקב,אמר ריש לקיש גדולה תשובה שזדונות נעשות לו כשגגות שנאמר (הושע יד, ב) שובה ישראל עד ה' אלהיך כי כשלת בעונך הא עון מזיד הוא וקא קרי ליה מכשול איני והאמר ריש לקיש גדולה תשובה שזדונות נעשות לו כזכיות שנאמר (יחזקאל לג, יט) ובשוב רשע מרשעתו ועשה משפט וצדקה עליהם (חיה) יחיה לא קשיא כאן מאהבה כאן מיראה,אמר ר' שמואל בר נחמני אמר ר' יונתן גדולה תשובה שמארכת שנותיו של אדם שנאמר (יחזקאל יח, כז) ובשוב רשע מרשעתו (חיו) יחיה,אמר ר' יצחק אמרי במערבא משמיה דרבה בר מרי בא וראה שלא כמדת הקדוש ברוך הוא מדת בשר ודם מדת בשר ודם מקניט את חבירו בדברים ספק מתפייס הימנו ספק אין מתפייס הימנו וא"ת מתפייס הימנו ספק מתפייס בדברים ספק אין מתפייס בדברים,אבל הקב"ה אדם עובר עבירה בסתר מתפייס ממנו בדברים שנאמר (הושע יד, ג) קחו עמכם דברים ושובו אל ה' ולא עוד אלא שמחזיק לו טובה שנאמר וקח טוב ולא עוד אלא שמעלה עליו הכתוב כאילו הקריב פרים שנאמר (הושע יד, ג) ונשלמה פרים שפתינו שמא תאמר פרי חובה ת"ל (הושע יד, ה) ארפא משובתם אוהבם נדבה,תניא היה ר"מ אומר גדולה תשובה שבשביל יחיד שעשה תשובה מוחלין לכל העולם כולו שנא' ארפא משובתם אוהבם נדבה כי שב אפי ממנו מהם לא נאמר אלא ממנו,היכי דמי בעל תשובה אמר רב יהודה כגון שבאת לידו דבר עבירה פעם ראשונה ושניה וניצל הימנה מחוי רב יהודה באותה אשה באותו פרק באותו מקום,א"ר יהודה רב רמי כתיב (תהלים לב, א) אשרי נשוי פשע כסוי חטאה וכתיב (משלי כח, יג) מכסה פשעיו לא יצליח לא קשיא הא בחטא מפורסם הא בחטא שאינו מפורסם רב זוטרא בר טוביה אמר רב נחמן כאן בעבירות שבין אדם לחבירו כאן בעבירות שבין אדם למקום,תניא ר' יוסי בר יהודה אומר אדם עובר עבירה פעם ראשונה מוחלין לו שניה מוחלין לו שלישית מוחלין לו רביעית אין מוחלין לו שנאמר (עמוס ב, ו) כה אמר ה' על שלשה פשעי ישראל ועל ארבעה לא אשיבנו (ונאמר) (איוב לג, כט) הן כל אלה יפעל אל פעמים שלש עם גבר,מאי ואומר וכי תימא הני מילי בציבור אבל ביחיד לא ת"ש הן כל אלה יפעל אל פעמים שלש עם גבר מכאן ואילך אין מוחלין לו שנאמר על שלשה פשעי ישראל ועל ארבעה לא אשיבנו,ת"ר עבירות שהתודה עליהן יוה"כ זה לא יתודה עליהן יום הכפורים אחר ואם שנה בהן צריך להתודות יוה"כ אחר ואם לא שנה בהן וחזר והתודה עליהן עליו הכתוב אומר (משלי כו, יא) ככלב שב על קיאו כסיל שונה באולתו,רבי אליעזר בן יעקב אומר כ"ש שהוא משובח שנאמר (תהלים נא, ה) כי פשעי אני אדע וחטאתי נגדי תמיד אלא מה אני מקיים ככלב שב על קיאו וגו' כדרב הונא דאמר רב הונא כיון שעבר אדם עבירה ושנה בה הותרה לו הותרה לו סלקא דעתך אלא אימא נעשית לו כהיתר,וצריך לפרוט את החטא שנאמר (שמות לב, לא) אנא חטא העם הזה חטאה גדולה ויעשו להם אלהי זהב דברי ר' יהודה בן בבא רבי עקיבא אומר אשרי נשוי פשע כסוי חטאה אלא מהו שאמר משה ויעשו להם אלהי זהב כדר' ינאי דאמר ר' ינאי אמר משה לפני הקדוש ברוך הוא רבש"ע כסף וזהב שהרבית להם לישראל עד שאמרו די גרם להם שיעשו אלהי זהב,שני פרנסים טובים עמדו להם לישראל משה ודוד משה אמר יכתב סורחני שנאמר (במדבר כ, יב) יען לא האמנתם בי להקדישני דוד אמר אל יכתב סורחני שנאמר אשרי נשוי פשע כסוי חטאה,משל דמשה ודוד למה הדבר דומה לשתי נשים שלקו בבית דין אחת קלקלה ואחת אכלה פגי שביעית אמרה להן אותה שאכלה פגי שביעית בבקשה מכם הודיעו על מה היא לוקה שלא יאמרו על מה שזו לוקה זו לוקה הביאו פגי שביעית ותלו בצוארה והיו מכריזין לפניה ואומרין על עסקי שביעית היא לוקה,מפרסמין את החנפין מפני חילול השם שנאמר (יחזקאל ג, כ) ובשוב צדיק מצדקו ועשה עול ונתתי מכשול לפניו תשובת המוחלטין מעכבת הפורענות ואע"פ שנחתם עליו גזר דין של פורענות,שלות רשעים סופה תקלה והרשות מקברת את בעליה ערום נכנס לה וערום יצא ממנה ולואי שתהא יציאה כביאה רב כי הוה נפיק למידן דינא אמר הכי בצבו נפשיה לקטלא נפיק וצבו ביתיה לית הוא עביד וריקן לביתיה אזיל ולואי שתהא ביאה כיציאה,רבא כי הוה נפיק לדינא אמר הכי 86b. § bRabbi Yoḥa said: Great is repentance, asit boverrideseven ba prohibition of the Torah.How so? bAs it is statedthat God said: b“…Saying: If a man sends away his wife and she goes from him and becomes another man’s, may he return to her again? Will not that land be greatly polluted? But you have committed adultery with many lovers; and would you yet return to Me, said the Lord”(Jeremiah 3:1). Indeed, the Torah states: “Her former husband, who sent her away, may not take her again to be his wife after she has been made impure” (Deuteronomy 24:4). The relationship between the Jewish people and the Holy One, Blessed be He, is compared to that between a husband and wife. Just as it is prohibited for an adulterous wife to return to her husband, it should be prohibited for the Jewish people to return to God from their sins, yet repentance overrides this prohibition., bRabbi Yonatan said: Great is repentance, which hastens the redemption, as it is stated: “And a redeemer will come to Zion, and to those who repent from transgression in Jacob”(Isaiah 59:20). bWhat is the reasonthat ba redeemer will come to Zion?It is bbecausethere are bthose who repent from transgression in Jacob. /b, bReish Lakish said: Great is repentance, asthe penitent’s bintentional sins are counted for him as unwitting transgressions, as it is stated: “Return, Israel, to the Lord your God, for you have stumbled in your iniquity”(Hosea 14:2). The Gemara analyzes this: bDoesn’t “iniquity”mean ban intentional sin? Yetthe prophet bcalls it stumbling,implying that one who repents is considered as though he only stumbled accidentally in his transgression. The Gemara asks: bIs that so? Didn’t Reish Lakishhimself bsay: Great is repentance, as one’s intentional sins are counted for him as merits, as it is stated: “And when the wicked turns from his wickedness, and does that which is lawful and right, he shall live thereby”(Ezekiel 33:19), and all his deeds, even his transgressions, will become praiseworthy? The Gemara reconciles: This is bnot difficult: Here,when one repents bout of love,his sins become like merits; bthere,when one repents bout of fear,his sins are counted as unwitting transgressions., bRabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani saidthat bRabbi Yonatan said: Great is repentance, which lengthensthe byears of a person’slife, bas it is stated: “When the wicked man turns from his wickednessthat he has committed, and does that which is lawful and right, bhe will preserve his life”(Ezekiel 18:27).,§ bRabbi Yitzḥak said: They say in the West,Eretz Yisrael, bin the name of Rabba bar Mari: Come and see that the attribute of flesh and blood is unlike the attribute of the Holy One, Blessed be He.With bflesh and bloodpeople, if one binsults his friend with words, it is uncertain whetherthe victim will bbe appeased by him orwill bnot be appeased by him. And if you say he will be appeased, it isstill buncertain whether hewill bbe appeased by wordsalone borwill bnot be appeased by wordsalone, and one must try to appease him in other ways., bButwith regard to bthe Holy One, Blessed be He,if ba person commits a transgression in private,God bis appeased by words, as it is stated: “Take with you words and return to God”(Hosea 14:3). bAnd not only that, butGod bconsiders itas though he has done ba favorfor God by repenting, bas it is stated: “Accept that which is good”(Hosea 14:3). bAnd not only that, but the verse ascribes himcredit bas though he had sacrificed bulls, as it is stated: “So we will render for bulls the offering of our lips”(Hosea 14:3). bLest you sayhe is considered only like one who offers bobligatory bulls,therefore bthe verse states: “I will heal their backsliding, I will love them freely”(Hosea 14:5). Repentance is considered as though it were the sacrifice of a free-will offering., bIt was taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Meir would say: Great is repentance because the entire world is forgiven on account ofone bindividual who repents, as it is stated: “I will heal their backsliding, I will love them freely; for My anger has turned away from him”(Hosea 14:5). bIt does not say: From them,i.e., from the sinners, bbut “from him,”i.e., from that individual. Because he repented, everyone will be healed.,§ With regard to repentance, the Gemara asks: bWhat are the circumstancesthat demonstrate that one bhascompletely brepented? Rav Yehuda said: For example, the prohibited matter came to his hand a first time and a second time, and he was saved from it,thereby proving that he has completely repented. bRav Yehuda demonstratedwhat he meant: If one has the opportunity to sin bwith the same womanhe sinned with previously, bat the same timeand bthe same place,and everything is aligned as it was that first time when he sinned, but this time he overcomes his inclination, it proves his repentance is complete, and he is forgiven., bRav Yehuda saidthat bRav raised a contradiction: It is written: “Fortunate is he whose transgression is forgiven, whose sin is hidden”(Psalms 32:1), implying that it is inappropriate for one to reveal his sins, band it is written: “He who hides his transgressions shall not prosper”(Proverbs 28:13). He resolved the contradiction as follows: This is bnot difficult. Hereit is referring to ba publicized sin;since his sin is public knowledge it is fitting for him to also publicize his repentance. bThere,it is referring bto a sin that is not publicized,in which case it is inappropriate to publicize one’s repentance. bRav Zutra bar Toviyasaid that bRav Naḥman said: Here,it is referring bto sins a person commits against another;he must publicize his repentance so that those who hear him may persuade the other to forgive him. bThere,it is referring bto sins a person commits against God,in which case he need not repent publicly.,§ bIt was taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Yosei bar Yehuda says:When ba person commits a transgressionthe bfirst time, he is forgiven; a secondtime, bhe is forgiven; a thirdtime, bhe is forgiven;but the bfourthtime, bhe is not forgiven, as it is stated: “Thus said the Lord: For three transgressions of Israel, but for four I will not reverse it”(Amos 2:6). bAnd it says: “All these things does God do twice or three times with a man”(Job 33:29).,The Gemara asks: bWhat is: And it says?Why did he need to bring an additional biblical proof when the first verse seems to suffice? The Gemara explains: bLest you saythat bthisstatement that the Holy One, Blessed be He, forgives easily the first three times bapplies to a community but not to an individual, comeand bhearproof from another verse that states: b“All these things does God do twice or three times with a man,”implying that this is so even for an individual. bFrom thispoint bonward, he is not forgiven, as it is stated: “For three transgressions of Israel, but for four I will not reverse it.” /b,§ bThe Sages taughtin the iTosefta /i: With regard to btransgressions that one confessed on this Yom Kippur, he should not confess them on another Yom Kippur,since he has already been forgiven. bBut if he repeated thosesame transgressions during the year, bhe must confessthem again bon another Yom Kippur. And if he did not repeat them but did confess them again, about him the verse states: “As a dog that returns to its vomit, so is a fool who repeats his folly”(Proverbs 26:11), since it is inappropriate to go back and mention one’s earlier sins., bRabbi Eliezer ben Ya’akov says:If one confesses in subsequent years, ball the more so is he praiseworthy,as he remembers his earlier sins and is thereby humbled, bas it is stated: “For I know my transgressions; and my sin is ever before me”(Psalms 51:5). bBut how do I establish themeaning of the verse: b“Like a dog that returns to its vomit”?It may be established bin accordance with the opinion of Rav Huna, as Rav Huna said: When a person commits a transgression and repeats it, it is permitted to him.The Gemara is surprised at this: bCan it enter your mind that it is permitted to himbecause he has sinned twice? bRather, say it becomes to him as ifit were bpermitted. /b,Furthermore, during confession, bone must detail the sinhe committed and not suffice with a general admission of sin, bas it is stated:“And Moses returned to the Lord and said: bPlease, this people have sinned a great sin, and have made themselves a god of gold”(Exodus 32:31); this is bthe statement of Rabbi Yehuda ben Bava. Rabbi Akiva saysthat the verse states: b“Fortunate is he whose transgression is forgiven, whose sin is hidden”(Psalms 32:1), which teaches that one need not detail his sins. bBut what isthe meaning of that bwhich Moses said: “And have made themselves a god of gold”(Exodus 32:31)? It should be understood bin accordance withthe statement bof Rabbi Yannai, as Rabbi Yannai said: Moses said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the universe,it is the bsilver and gold that you gave to the Jewish people in abundance, until they said: Enough,which bcaused them to make a god of gold.Consequently, the phrase: “And have made themselves a god of gold,” is not a description of the sin but an explanation and justification of it.,It is said that btwo good leaders arose for the Jewish people: Moses and David. Moses said: Let my disgrace be written,i.e., may the sin I committed be written explicitly, bas it is stated: “Because you did not believe in Me, to sanctify Me”(Numbers 20:12). In contrast, bDavid said: Let my disgrace not be written, as it is stated: “Fortunate is he whose transgression is forgiven, whose sin is hidden”(Psalms 32:1).,The Gemara explains: bA parablewith regard to bMoses and Davidshows bto what this may be compared.It may be compared bto two women who were flogged in courtfor their sins. bOneof them bsinnedby engaging in forbidden relations, band one ate unripe figs of the Sabbatical Yearalthough they are forbidden. bThe woman who ate the unripe figs of the Sabbatical Year said tothe court: bPlease publicizethe sin bfor whichI am being bflogged, so thatpeople bwill not saythat bwhat thatwoman bis being flogged for isalso bwhat thiswoman bis being flogged for. They brought unripe figs of the Sabbatical Year, and hung them around her neck, and announced before her, saying: She is receiving lashes on account of the Sabbatical Year.Moses requested that his sin be publicized so that people would not think that he committed the same sins as the members of his generation, i.e., the Golden Calf and the report of the spies.,Furthermore, they said: bOne exposes the hypocrites due tothe bdesecration ofGod’s bname,so others will not think that they are truly righteous and that their deeds bear imitating, bas it is stated: “When a righteous man turns from his righteousness and commits iniquity, I will lay a stumbling block before him”(Ezekiel 3:20). That is, when people do not know that someone is wicked to the core, he causes other people to err and this desecrates the name of God when it is revealed. bThe repentance of utterlywicked bpeople prevents sufferingfrom coming upon them. bAnd although the sentence of judgment hasalready bbeen signedagainst them bfor suffering,their repentance prevents them from being punished., bThe tranquility of the wicked is ultimately their destruction,as in their contentment they sit and think about forbidden matters. bAnd authority buries one who owns it. He was naked when he enteredinto power, band he will be naked when he leaves it, and if only his exit would be like his entrance,without sin and added iniquity. The Gemara relates: bWhen Rav would leavehis home btogo to court to bjudge cases, hewould bsay thisof himself: bof his own will, he goes to die,because a judge who misjudges a case is liable to death at the hand of Heaven; band he does not fulfill the will of his household and he goes empty-handed to his household,because a judge does not receive a salary; band if only his entrance would be like his exit,without sin or transgression., bWhen Rava would go to judge, he would say thisof himself:
28. Anon., Avot Derabbi Nathan B, 30 (6th cent. CE - 8th cent. CE)



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
adaptation Binder, Tertullian, on Idolatry and Mishnah Avodah Zarah: Questioning the Parting of the Ways Between Christians and Jews (2012) 147
aramaic Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 70
army Binder, Tertullian, on Idolatry and Mishnah Avodah Zarah: Questioning the Parting of the Ways Between Christians and Jews (2012) 147
authority, of the romans Binder, Tertullian, on Idolatry and Mishnah Avodah Zarah: Questioning the Parting of the Ways Between Christians and Jews (2012) 147
authority Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 223
belief/believers Binder, Tertullian, on Idolatry and Mishnah Avodah Zarah: Questioning the Parting of the Ways Between Christians and Jews (2012) 147
christ Binder, Tertullian, on Idolatry and Mishnah Avodah Zarah: Questioning the Parting of the Ways Between Christians and Jews (2012) 149
closed (in on itself) Binder, Tertullian, on Idolatry and Mishnah Avodah Zarah: Questioning the Parting of the Ways Between Christians and Jews (2012) 147
community Binder, Tertullian, on Idolatry and Mishnah Avodah Zarah: Questioning the Parting of the Ways Between Christians and Jews (2012) 149
contacts Binder, Tertullian, on Idolatry and Mishnah Avodah Zarah: Questioning the Parting of the Ways Between Christians and Jews (2012) 147
cult/cults Binder, Tertullian, on Idolatry and Mishnah Avodah Zarah: Questioning the Parting of the Ways Between Christians and Jews (2012) 147, 161
demons, terminology Rosen-Zvi, Demonic Desires: Yetzer Hara and the Problem of Evil in Late Antiquity (2011). 149
education Binder, Tertullian, on Idolatry and Mishnah Avodah Zarah: Questioning the Parting of the Ways Between Christians and Jews (2012) 147
exodus Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 223
faith Binder, Tertullian, on Idolatry and Mishnah Avodah Zarah: Questioning the Parting of the Ways Between Christians and Jews (2012) 147, 149
food Binder, Tertullian, on Idolatry and Mishnah Avodah Zarah: Questioning the Parting of the Ways Between Christians and Jews (2012) 147
forbidden Binder, Tertullian, on Idolatry and Mishnah Avodah Zarah: Questioning the Parting of the Ways Between Christians and Jews (2012) 147, 149, 161
functions Binder, Tertullian, on Idolatry and Mishnah Avodah Zarah: Questioning the Parting of the Ways Between Christians and Jews (2012) 147
gamaliel Binder, Tertullian, on Idolatry and Mishnah Avodah Zarah: Questioning the Parting of the Ways Between Christians and Jews (2012) 147
glory, divine Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 223
god Binder, Tertullian, on Idolatry and Mishnah Avodah Zarah: Questioning the Parting of the Ways Between Christians and Jews (2012) 161
gods Binder, Tertullian, on Idolatry and Mishnah Avodah Zarah: Questioning the Parting of the Ways Between Christians and Jews (2012) 147, 149, 161
greek Binder, Tertullian, on Idolatry and Mishnah Avodah Zarah: Questioning the Parting of the Ways Between Christians and Jews (2012) 147
heart, and yetzer Rosen-Zvi, Demonic Desires: Yetzer Hara and the Problem of Evil in Late Antiquity (2011). 150
hebrew, biblical Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 70
hebrew, masoretic Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 70
hebrew, qumran Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 70
hebrew Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 177
homer Binder, Tertullian, on Idolatry and Mishnah Avodah Zarah: Questioning the Parting of the Ways Between Christians and Jews (2012) 147
honours Binder, Tertullian, on Idolatry and Mishnah Avodah Zarah: Questioning the Parting of the Ways Between Christians and Jews (2012) 147
identity Binder, Tertullian, on Idolatry and Mishnah Avodah Zarah: Questioning the Parting of the Ways Between Christians and Jews (2012) 147
idol/s Binder, Tertullian, on Idolatry and Mishnah Avodah Zarah: Questioning the Parting of the Ways Between Christians and Jews (2012) 147, 149, 161
idolatry Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 177, 178
incense Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 178
incense (frankincense) Binder, Tertullian, on Idolatry and Mishnah Avodah Zarah: Questioning the Parting of the Ways Between Christians and Jews (2012) 161
interpretation, rabbinic Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 223
josephus Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 70
law, jewish law Binder, Tertullian, on Idolatry and Mishnah Avodah Zarah: Questioning the Parting of the Ways Between Christians and Jews (2012) 147
law, pharisaic Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 70
laws, non-scriptural Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 70
leader Binder, Tertullian, on Idolatry and Mishnah Avodah Zarah: Questioning the Parting of the Ways Between Christians and Jews (2012) 147
lenient/leniency Binder, Tertullian, on Idolatry and Mishnah Avodah Zarah: Questioning the Parting of the Ways Between Christians and Jews (2012) 161
libation Binder, Tertullian, on Idolatry and Mishnah Avodah Zarah: Questioning the Parting of the Ways Between Christians and Jews (2012) 161
libations Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 178
loyal Binder, Tertullian, on Idolatry and Mishnah Avodah Zarah: Questioning the Parting of the Ways Between Christians and Jews (2012) 147
meir, r. Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 177, 178
middle ages Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 177
midrash Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 223
mishnah, school of r. akiva Rosen-Zvi, Demonic Desires: Yetzer Hara and the Problem of Evil in Late Antiquity (2011). 149
mishnah Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 177, 178
mosaics Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 177
moses, art Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 223
oath Binder, Tertullian, on Idolatry and Mishnah Avodah Zarah: Questioning the Parting of the Ways Between Christians and Jews (2012) 149; Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 70
orthography, masoretic, qumran Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 70
participation Binder, Tertullian, on Idolatry and Mishnah Avodah Zarah: Questioning the Parting of the Ways Between Christians and Jews (2012) 147, 161
philosophy/philosophers Binder, Tertullian, on Idolatry and Mishnah Avodah Zarah: Questioning the Parting of the Ways Between Christians and Jews (2012) 147
prescriptions Binder, Tertullian, on Idolatry and Mishnah Avodah Zarah: Questioning the Parting of the Ways Between Christians and Jews (2012) 161
profession Binder, Tertullian, on Idolatry and Mishnah Avodah Zarah: Questioning the Parting of the Ways Between Christians and Jews (2012) 147
public Binder, Tertullian, on Idolatry and Mishnah Avodah Zarah: Questioning the Parting of the Ways Between Christians and Jews (2012) 147
purity, impurity, purification Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 177
rabbi akiba Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 223
rabbinic halakhah Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 177, 178
rabbis, as legal scholars Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 177, 178
rabbis, rabbinic literature Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 70
rabbis, titles (ḥakham, rabbi) Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 177, 178
reality Binder, Tertullian, on Idolatry and Mishnah Avodah Zarah: Questioning the Parting of the Ways Between Christians and Jews (2012) 149
religious ceremonies (processions, festivals, rituals) Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 178
revelation, law Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 223
revelation Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 223
rome (city) Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 178
rules Binder, Tertullian, on Idolatry and Mishnah Avodah Zarah: Questioning the Parting of the Ways Between Christians and Jews (2012) 149, 161
sacrifices Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 178
sculpture, attributes Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 177, 178
sculpture, ceremonies and rituals for Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 177, 178
sculpture, in baths Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 177
sculpture, of gods Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 177
sculpture Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 177, 178
sexual life, relations Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 70
shekhina Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 223
simeon b. gamaliel, r. Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 177, 178
sin/sinner Binder, Tertullian, on Idolatry and Mishnah Avodah Zarah: Questioning the Parting of the Ways Between Christians and Jews (2012) 147, 149
sinai Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 223
slave (household) Binder, Tertullian, on Idolatry and Mishnah Avodah Zarah: Questioning the Parting of the Ways Between Christians and Jews (2012) 147, 161
social Binder, Tertullian, on Idolatry and Mishnah Avodah Zarah: Questioning the Parting of the Ways Between Christians and Jews (2012) 147, 161
swearing (sea also oath) Binder, Tertullian, on Idolatry and Mishnah Avodah Zarah: Questioning the Parting of the Ways Between Christians and Jews (2012) 147
temple Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 223
testimony Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 70
torah, righteousness Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 223
torah, study Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 223
wall paintings Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 177
witnesses, qualifications of Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 70
women, testimony of Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 70
working Binder, Tertullian, on Idolatry and Mishnah Avodah Zarah: Questioning the Parting of the Ways Between Christians and Jews (2012) 147
worship Binder, Tertullian, on Idolatry and Mishnah Avodah Zarah: Questioning the Parting of the Ways Between Christians and Jews (2012) 147, 161
yerushalmi (palestinian talmud) Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 178
yetzer, antinomian Rosen-Zvi, Demonic Desires: Yetzer Hara and the Problem of Evil in Late Antiquity (2011). 149
yetzer, causing death' Rosen-Zvi, Demonic Desires: Yetzer Hara and the Problem of Evil in Late Antiquity (2011). 150
ḥiya, r. Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 178