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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



8037
Mishnah, Sanhedrin, 7.1


אַרְבַּע מִיתוֹת נִמְסְרוּ לְבֵית דִּין, סְקִילָה, שְׂרֵפָה, הֶרֶג, וָחֶנֶק. רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן אוֹמֵר, שְׂרֵפָה, סְקִילָה, חֶנֶק, וָהֶרֶג. זוֹ מִצְוַת הַנִּסְקָלִין:Four deaths have been entrusted to the court: stoning, burning, slaying [by the sword] and strangulation. R. Simeon says: “burning, stoning, strangulation and slaying.” That (the previous chapter) is the manner of stoning.


הַמֵּסִית, זֶה הֶדְיוֹט. הַמֵּסִית אֶת הַהֶדְיוֹט, אָמַר לוֹ יֵשׁ יִרְאָה בְמָקוֹם פְּלוֹנִי, כָּךְ אוֹכֶלֶת, כָּךְ שׁוֹתָה, כָּךְ מֵטִיבָה, כָּךְ מְרֵעָה. כָּל חַיָּבֵי מִיתוֹת שֶׁבַּתּוֹרָה אֵין מַכְמִינִין עֲלֵיהֶם, חוּץ מִזּוֹ. אָמַר לִשְׁנַיִם וְהֵן עֵדָיו, מְבִיאִין אוֹתוֹ לְבֵית דִּין וְסוֹקְלִין אוֹתוֹ. אָמַר לְאֶחָד, הוּא אוֹמֵר יֶשׁ לִי חֲבֵרִים רוֹצִים בְּכָךְ. אִם הָיָה עָרוּם וְאֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לְדַבֵּר בִּפְנֵיהֶם, מַכְמִינִין לוֹ עֵדִים אֲחוֹרֵי הַגָּדֵר, וְהוּא אוֹמֵר לוֹ אֱמֹר מַה שֶּׁאָמַרְתָּ לִּי בְיִחוּד, וְהַלָּה אוֹמֵר לוֹ, וְהוּא אוֹמֵר לוֹ הֵיאַךְ נַנִּיחַ אֶת אֱלֹהֵינוּ שֶׁבַּשָּׁמַיִם וְנֵלֵךְ וְנַעֲבֹד עֵצִים וַאֲבָנִים. אִם חוֹזֵר בּוֹ, הֲרֵי זֶה מוּטָב. וְאִם אָמַר כָּךְ הִיא חוֹבָתֵנוּ וְכָךְ יָפֶה לָנוּ, הָעוֹמְדִין מֵאֲחוֹרֵי הַגָּדֵר מְבִיאִין אוֹתוֹ לְבֵית דִּין וְסוֹקְלִין אוֹתוֹ. הָאוֹמֵר אֶעֱבֹד, אֵלֵךְ וְאֶעֱבֹד, נֵלֵךְ וְנַעֲבֹד. אֲזַבֵּחַ, אֵלֵךְ וַאֲזַבֵּחַ, נֵלֵךְ וּנְזַבֵּחַ. אַקְטִיר, אֵלֵךְ וְאַקְטִיר, נֵלֵךְ וְנַקְטִיר. אֲנַסֵּךְ, אֵלֵךְ וַאֲנַסֵּךְ, נֵלֵךְ וּנְנַסֵּךְ. אֶשְׁתַּחֲוֶה, אֵלֵךְ וְאֶשְׁתַּחֲוֶה, נֵלֵךְ וְנִשְׁתַּחֲוֶה. הַמַּדִּיחַ, זֶה הָאוֹמֵר, נֵלֵךְ וְנַעֲבֹד עֲבוֹדָה זָרָה:Four deaths have been entrusted to the court: stoning, burning, slaying [by the sword] and strangulation. R. Simeon says: “burning, stoning, strangulation and slaying.” That (the previous chapter) is the manner of stoning.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

2 results
1. Tosefta, Avodah Zarah, 8.4 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

2. Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

57b. נהרג עליו,אשכח ר' יעקב בר אחא דהוה כתיב בספר אגדתא דבי רב בן נח נהרג בדיין א' ובעד אחד שלא בהתראה מפי איש ולא מפי אשה ואפילו קרוב משום רבי ישמעאל אמרו אף על העוברין,מנהני מילי אמר רב יהודה דאמר קרא (בראשית ט, ה) אך את דמכם לנפשותיכם אדרוש אפילו בדיין אחד,(בראשית ט, ה) מיד כל חיה אפילו שלא בהתראה (בראשית ט, ה) אדרשנו ומיד האדם אפילו בעד אחד (בראשית ט, ה) מיד איש ולא מיד אשה אחיו אפילו קרוב,משום רבי ישמעאל אמרו אף על העוברין מאי טעמיה דרבי ישמעאל דכתיב (בראשית ט, ו) שופך דם האדם באדם דמו ישפך איזהו אדם שהוא באדם הוי אומר זה עובר שבמעי אמו,ותנא קמא תנא דבי מנשה הוא דאמר כל מיתה האמורה לבני נח אינו אלא חנק ושדי ליה האי באדם אסיפיה דקרא ודרוש ביה הכי באדם דמו ישפך איזהו שפיכות דמים של אדם שהוא בגופו של אדם הוי אומר זה חנק,מתיב רב המנונא ואשה לא מפקדה והכתיב (בראשית יח, יט) כי ידעתיו למען אשר יצוה וגו',הוא מותיב לה והוא מפרק לה בניו לדין ביתו לצדקה,אמר ליה רב אויא סבא לרב פפא אימא בת נח שהרגה לא תיהרג מיד איש ולא מיד אשה כתיב אמר ליה הכי אמר רב יהודה שופך דם האדם מכל מקום,אימא בת נח שזינתה לא תיהרג דכתיב (בראשית ב, כד) על כן יעזב איש ולא אשה א"ל הכי אמר רב יהודה (בראשית ב, כד) והיו לבשר אחד הדר ערבינהו קרא,ת"ר איש מה תלמוד לומר (ויקרא יח, ו) איש איש לרבות את הכותים שמוזהרין על העריות כישראל,והא מהכא נפקא מהתם נפקא לאמר זה גילוי עריות,התם בעריות דידהו והכא בעריות דידן דקתני סיפא בא על עריות ישראל נידון בדיני ישראל,למאי הלכתא אמר רב נחמן אמר רבה בר אבוה לא נצרכה אלא לעדה ועדים והתראה,מגרע גרע,אלא א"ר יוחנן לא נצרכה אלא לנערה המאורסה דלדידהו לית להו דדיינינן להו בדינא דידן,אבל אשת איש בדינא דידהו דיינינן להו והתניא בא על נערה המאורסה נידון בסקילה על אשת איש נידון בחנק ואי בדינא דידהו סייף הוא,אמר רב נחמן בר יצחק מאי אשת איש דקתני כגון שנכנסה לחופה ולא נבעלה דלדידהו לית להו דיינינן להו בדינא דידן,דתני ר' חנינא בעולת בעל יש להן נכנסה לחופה ולא נבעלה אין להן,תניא כוותיה דר' יוחנן כל ערוה שב"ד של ישראל ממיתין עליה בן נח מוזהר עליה אין ב"ד של ישראל ממיתין עליה אין בן נח מוזהר עליה דברי רבי מאיר וחכמים אומרים הרבה עריות יש שאין בית דין של ישראל ממיתין עליהן ובן נח מוזהר עליהן,בא על עריות ישראל נידון בדיני ישראל בא על עריות בן נח נידון בדיני בן נח ואנו אין לנו אלא נערה המאורסה בלבד,ונחשוב נמי נכנסה לחופה ולא נבעלה האי תנא תנא דבי מנשה הוא דאמר כל מיתה האמורה לבני נח אינו אלא חנק אידי ואידי חנק הוא,וסבר רבי מאיר כל ערוה שבית דין של ישראל ממיתין עליה בן נח מוזהר עליה והא תניא גר 57b. he bis executed forkilling bhimeven though he acted in self-defense, and a descendant of Noah is also killed for this.,§ bRabbi Ya’akov bar Aḥa found that it was written in a book of iAggadotin the study hall of Rav:Contrary to the ihalakhawith regard to a Jew, ba descendant of Noah is executed on the basis ofthe verdict of even bone judge, and bythe testimony of even bone witness,and bwithoutbeing given bforewarningbefore committing the transgression. He can be judged or testified against only bby the mouth of a man and not by the mouth of a woman; but even a relativemay judge his case or testify against him. The Sages bsaid in the name of Rabbi Yishmaelthat a descendant of Noah is executed beven forkilling bfetuses. /b,The Gemara asks: bFrom where are these mattersderived? bRav Yehuda says:They are derived from that bwhich the verse states:“And byour blood of your lives I will require;at the hand of every animal I will require it; and at the hand of man, even at the hand of every man’s brother, I will require the life of man” (Genesis 9:5). It is derived from the term “I will require,” which is stated in the singular, that a descendant of Noah is executed bon the basisof the verdict of beven one judge. /b,It is derived from the phrase b“at the hand of every animal”that one is executed beven without forewarning,as an animal certainly cannot forewarn someone. It is derived from the phrase b“I will require it; and at the hand of man,”with “I” stated in the singular, that the sentence is issued bon the basisof the testimony of beven one witness.It is derived from the phrase b“at the hand of every man,”that the judgment and testimony must be at the hand of a man, bbut not at the hand of a woman.It is derived from the term b“his brother”that the testimony of the witness is accepted bevenif he is ba relativeof the defendant.,It is stated in that book of iAggadotthat the Sages bsaid in the name of Rabbi Yishmael:A descendant of Noah is executed beven forkilling bfetuses.The Gemara asks: bWhat is the reasonfor the opinion bof Rabbi Yishmael?The Gemara answers: It is derived from that bwhich is written: “One who sheds the blood of a person, by a person [ iba’adam /i] his blood shall be shed”(Genesis 9:6). The word iba’adamliterally means: In a person, and is interpreted homiletically: bWhat is a person that is in a person? You must say: This is a fetus that is in its mother’s womb.Accordingly, a descendant of Noah is liable for killing a fetus.,The Gemara comments: bAnd the first itanna /i,who does not derive the ihalakhaconcerning fetuses, bis the itannaof the school of Menashe, who saysthat ball deathpenalties bstated with regard to the descendants of Noah arereferring to bnothing other than strangulation. Andhe interprets this verse as follows: bCast,i.e., redirect, bthisterm: b“In a person,”and explain it bwith regard to the latterpart bof the verse, and interpret it homiletically like this: “In a person, his blood shall be shed.”In bwhatmanner bis a person’s blood shed while it is inthe bperson’s body,without external bleeding? bYou must saythat bthis is strangulation.It is therefore derived that the execution of a descendant of Noah is by strangulation., bRav Hamnuna raises an objectionto the statement in the book of iAggadotthat a descendant of Noah can be judged or testified against only by a man and not by a woman: bAnd is a womanwho is a descendant of Noah bnot commandedto establish courts of judgment? bBut isn’t it writtenwith regard to Abraham, who at that point had the status of a descendant of Noah: b“For I have known him, to the end that he may commandhis sons and his household after him, that they may keep the way of the Lord, to do righteousness and justice” (Genesis 18:19). The word “household” is referring to the women, indicating that they are also commanded to execute justice., bHe raises the objection and he resolves it:Abraham commanded bhis sons tocarry out bjustice,whereas bhis household,the women in his family, he commanded btogive bcharity;the Hebrew word for righteousness [ itzedek /i] can also mean charity [ itzedaka /i]., bRav Avya the Elder said to Rav Pappa:Why not bsaythat ba female descendant of Noah who killedsomeone bshould not be executed;as bit is written: “At the hand of every man,” and not “at the hand of every woman”?Rav Pappa bsaid to him: Thisis what bRav Yehuda says:It is derived from the phrase b“one who sheds the blood of a person”that one who murders is liable to be executed bin any case,whether that person is male or female.,Rav Avya asked further: Why not bsaythat ba female descendant of Noah who committed adultery should not be executed, as it is written: “Therefore a man shall leavehis father and his mother, and shall cleave to his wife, and they shall be one flesh” (Genesis 2:24); a man, bbut not a woman?Rav Pappa bsaid to him: Thisis what bRav Yehuda says:At the end of the verse it states: b“And they shall be one flesh.” The verse then combinesmen and women, indicating that the same ihalakhaapplies to both.,§ bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraitawith regard to the verse: “No one [ iish ish /i] shall approach any that is kin to him, to uncover their nakedness” (Leviticus 18:6): The verse could have stated: bOne [ iish /i]shall not approach. bWhymust bthe verse state “no one”?It is bto include the gentiles, who are prohibited fromengaging in bforbidden sexual relations, as Jewsare.,The Gemara asks: bBut is it derived from here? It is derived from there,from the verse that was already interpreted as teaching this ihalakha /i: “And the Lord God commanded the man, bsaying”(Genesis 2:16), bthisalludes to bforbidden sexual relations(see 56b).,The Gemara answers: bThere,the verse is referring bto theirwomen, gentiles, bwith whom relations are forbidden. And hereit is referring bto ourwomen, Jews, bwith whom relations are forbidden.In other words, a gentile who engages in intercourse with a married Jewish woman is liable. bAs it is taught in the latter clauseof the ibaraita /i: If a gentile bengages in intercourse with those Jewishwomen bwith whom relations are forbidden,i.e., a married Jewish woman, bhe is judged according to the ihalakhotof the Jews. /b,The Gemara asks: bWith regard to what ihalakha /iis this gentile judged according to the ihalakhotof the Jews? bRav Naḥman saysthat bRabba bar Avuh says:The statement of the ibaraita bis necessary onlyto teach these ihalakhot /i: That he must be judged bby a Sanhedrin, andthat he is punished only if two bwitnessestestify concerning him, bandonly if he was issued ba forewarningbefore his transgression.,The Gemara asks: Should the ihalakhaof a gentile who engaged in intercourse with a forbidden Jewish woman be blessstringent than that of a gentile who engaged in intercourse with a forbidden gentile woman, in which case these conditions do not apply?, bRather, Rabbi Yoḥa says:The statement of the ibaraita bis necessary only toteach the ihalakhain the case of a gentile who engages in intercourse with ba betrothed youngJewish bwoman, whichdoes bnotapply btogentiles. By ihalakha /i, only marriage applies to gentiles, not betrothal. Therefore, bwe judge them according to our ihalakha /iin that case.,The Gemara asks: bAndwith regard to gentiles who engage in intercourse with ba marriedJewish bwoman, do we judge them according to their ihalakha /i? But isn’t it taughtin a ibaraita /i: If a gentile bengages in intercourse with a betrothed youngJewish bwoman, he is punished by stoning;if he engages in intercourse bwith a marriedJewish bwoman he is punished by strangulation?The Gemara explains its question: bAnd ifthey are judged baccording to their ihalakha /i,he would bbeexecuted by the bsword. /b, bRav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak says: Whatis the meaning of the phrase: bA married woman, whichthe itanna bteaches?It is referring to a case bwherethe woman bhad entered the wedding canopy but had notyet bengaged in intercoursewith her husband, in which case she is considered married according to the ihalakhotthat apply to Jews but not according to the ihalakhotthat apply to gentiles. bSince with regard togentiles, marriage has bnotyet taken effect, bwe judge them according to our ihalakhot /i.Therefore, a gentile who engages in intercourse with such a Jewish woman is executed by strangulation., bAs Rabbi Ḥanina teaches:Gentiles can bhavethe status of a married woman bwho has engaged in intercourse with her husband,i.e., such a woman is considered married according to their laws, but bthey cannot havethe status of a married woman bwho has entered the wedding canopy but has not engaged in intercoursewith her husband., bIt is taughtin a ibaraita bin accordance withthe opinion bof Rabbi Yoḥa: Any forbidden sexual relations for which a Jewish court administers capital punishment are prohibited to a descendant of Noah,and any forbidden sexual relations bfor which a Jewish court does not administer capital punishment are not prohibited to a descendant of Noah;this is bthe statement of Rabbi Meir. And the Rabbis say: There are manytypes of bforbidden sexual relations for which a Jewish court does not administer capital punishment and arenevertheless bprohibited to a descendant of Noah. /b,If a gentile bengages in intercourse with those Jews with whom relations are forbidden, he is judged according to the ihalakhotof the Jews.If he bengages in intercourse with those descendants of Noah with whom relations are forbidden, he is judged according to the ihalakhotof the descendants of Noah. And we have onlythe case of ba betrothed young womanas a case where a gentile is judged according to the ihalakhotof the Jews, in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yoḥa.,The Gemara suggests: bAnd letthe itanna balso countthe case of a woman who bhad entered the wedding canopy but had notyet bengaged in intercoursewith her husband. The Gemara explains: bThis itannais the itannaof the school of Menashe, who saysthat ball deathpenalties bstated with regard to the descendants of Noah arereferring to bnothing other than strangulation,and since the punishment in Jewish ihalakhafor engaging in intercourse with a married woman is also strangulation, both bthispunishment band thatpunishment are bstrangulation;there is no difference between the ihalakhafor Jews and the ihalakhafor gentiles in such a case.,With regard to the opinion of Rabbi Meir stated in the first clause of the ibaraita /i, the Gemara asks: bAnd does Rabbi Meir holdthat bany forbidden sexual relations for which a Jewish court administers capital punishment is prohibited to a descendant of Noah? But isn’t it taughtin a ibaraita /i: With regard to ba convert /b


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
albeck, h. Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 59
authority Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 80
betrothal, as jewish phenomenon Monnickendam, Jewish Law and Early Christian Identity: Betrothal, Marriage, and Infidelity in the Writings of Ephrem the Syrian (2020) 180
blasphemy Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 80
buying and/or selling Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 59
canaanite slaves Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 59
children Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 59
court Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 59
death penalty, beheading Monnickendam, Jewish Law and Early Christian Identity: Betrothal, Marriage, and Infidelity in the Writings of Ephrem the Syrian (2020) 180
death penalty, roman law Monnickendam, Jewish Law and Early Christian Identity: Betrothal, Marriage, and Infidelity in the Writings of Ephrem the Syrian (2020) 180
death penalty, stoning Monnickendam, Jewish Law and Early Christian Identity: Betrothal, Marriage, and Infidelity in the Writings of Ephrem the Syrian (2020) 180
divorce Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 59
execution, death penalty Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 80
execution Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 80
fornication, during betrothal Monnickendam, Jewish Law and Early Christian Identity: Betrothal, Marriage, and Infidelity in the Writings of Ephrem the Syrian (2020) 180
fornication, in rabbinic literature Monnickendam, Jewish Law and Early Christian Identity: Betrothal, Marriage, and Infidelity in the Writings of Ephrem the Syrian (2020) 180
fornication, law Monnickendam, Jewish Law and Early Christian Identity: Betrothal, Marriage, and Infidelity in the Writings of Ephrem the Syrian (2020) 180
halakha, rejected Monnickendam, Jewish Law and Early Christian Identity: Betrothal, Marriage, and Infidelity in the Writings of Ephrem the Syrian (2020) 180
meir, r. Monnickendam, Jewish Law and Early Christian Identity: Betrothal, Marriage, and Infidelity in the Writings of Ephrem the Syrian (2020) 180
mimicry Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 80
power Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 80
punishment, death penalty Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 80
punishment Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 80
rabbinic literature Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 80
sexual relations, gentile with betrothed' Monnickendam, Jewish Law and Early Christian Identity: Betrothal, Marriage, and Infidelity in the Writings of Ephrem the Syrian (2020) 180
theology, jewish Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 80