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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



8037
Mishnah, Sanhedrin, 1.5


אֵין דָּנִין לֹא אֶת הַשֵּׁבֶט וְלֹא אֶת נְבִיא הַשֶּׁקֶר וְלֹא אֶת כֹּהֵן גָּדוֹל, אֶלָּא עַל פִּי בֵית דִּין שֶׁל שִׁבְעִים וְאֶחָד. וְאֵין מוֹצִיאִין לְמִלְחֶמֶת הָרְשׁוּת, אֶלָּא עַל פִּי בֵית דִּין שֶׁל שִׁבְעִים וְאֶחָד. אֵין מוֹסִיפִין עַל הָעִיר וְעַל הָעֲזָרוֹת, אֶלָּא עַל פִּי בֵית דִּין שֶׁל שִׁבְעִים וְאֶחָד. אֵין עוֹשִׂין סַנְהֶדְרִיּוֹת לַשְּׁבָטִים, אֶלָּא עַל פִּי בֵית דִּין שֶׁל שִׁבְעִים וְאֶחָד. אֵין עוֹשִׂין עִיר הַנִּדַּחַת, אֶלָּא עַל פִּי בֵית דִּין שֶׁל שִׁבְעִים וְאֶחָד. וְאֵין עוֹשִׂין עִיר הַנִּדַּחַת בַּסְּפָר, וְלֹא שְׁלֹשָׁה, אֲבָל עוֹשִׂין אַחַת אוֹ שְׁתָּיִם:A tribe, a false prophet, or the high priest may not be tried save by the court of seventy-one; They may not send forth the people to wage a battle of free choice save by the decision of the court of one and seventy; They may not add to the City [of Jerusalem], or the Courts of the Temple save by the decision of the court of seventy-one; They may not set up sanhedrins for the several tribes save by the decision of the court of one and seventy. And they may not proclaim [any city to be] an Apostate City (ir ha-niddahat) (Deut. 13:13–19] save by the decision of one and seventy. No city on the frontier may be proclaimed an Apostate City, nor three together, but only one or two.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

23 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 1.15-1.17, 7.10-7.11, 13.2, 13.6, 13.12, 17.8, 17.14-17.20, 18.15, 18.20 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.15. וָאֶקַּח אֶת־רָאשֵׁי שִׁבְטֵיכֶם אֲנָשִׁים חֲכָמִים וִידֻעִים וָאֶתֵּן אֹתָם רָאשִׁים עֲלֵיכֶם שָׂרֵי אֲלָפִים וְשָׂרֵי מֵאוֹת וְשָׂרֵי חֲמִשִּׁים וְשָׂרֵי עֲשָׂרֹת וְשֹׁטְרִים לְשִׁבְטֵיכֶם׃ 1.16. וָאֲצַוֶּה אֶת־שֹׁפְטֵיכֶם בָּעֵת הַהִוא לֵאמֹר שָׁמֹעַ בֵּין־אֲחֵיכֶם וּשְׁפַטְתֶּם צֶדֶק בֵּין־אִישׁ וּבֵין־אָחִיו וּבֵין גֵּרוֹ׃ 1.17. לֹא־תַכִּירוּ פָנִים בַּמִּשְׁפָּט כַּקָּטֹן כַּגָּדֹל תִּשְׁמָעוּן לֹא תָגוּרוּ מִפְּנֵי־אִישׁ כִּי הַמִּשְׁפָּט לֵאלֹהִים הוּא וְהַדָּבָר אֲשֶׁר יִקְשֶׁה מִכֶּם תַּקְרִבוּן אֵלַי וּשְׁמַעְתִּיו׃ 7.11. וְשָׁמַרְתָּ אֶת־הַמִּצְוָה וְאֶת־הַחֻקִּים וְאֶת־הַמִּשְׁפָּטִים אֲשֶׁר אָנֹכִי מְצַוְּךָ הַיּוֹם לַעֲשׂוֹתָם׃ 13.2. כִּי־יָקוּם בְּקִרְבְּךָ נָבִיא אוֹ חֹלֵם חֲלוֹם וְנָתַן אֵלֶיךָ אוֹת אוֹ מוֹפֵת׃ 13.6. וְהַנָּבִיא הַהוּא אוֹ חֹלֵם הַחֲלוֹם הַהוּא יוּמָת כִּי דִבֶּר־סָרָה עַל־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם הַמּוֹצִיא אֶתְכֶם מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם וְהַפֹּדְךָ מִבֵּית עֲבָדִים לְהַדִּיחֲךָ מִן־הַדֶּרֶךְ אֲשֶׁר צִוְּךָ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לָלֶכֶת בָּהּ וּבִעַרְתָּ הָרָע מִקִּרְבֶּךָ׃ 13.12. וְכָל־יִשְׂרָאֵל יִשְׁמְעוּ וְיִרָאוּן וְלֹא־יוֹסִפוּ לַעֲשׂוֹת כַּדָּבָר הָרָע הַזֶּה בְּקִרְבֶּךָ׃ 17.8. כִּי יִפָּלֵא מִמְּךָ דָבָר לַמִּשְׁפָּט בֵּין־דָּם לְדָם בֵּין־דִּין לְדִין וּבֵין נֶגַע לָנֶגַע דִּבְרֵי רִיבֹת בִּשְׁעָרֶיךָ וְקַמְתָּ וְעָלִיתָ אֶל־הַמָּקוֹם אֲשֶׁר יִבְחַר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ בּוֹ׃ 17.14. כִּי־תָבֹא אֶל־הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ נֹתֵן לָךְ וִירִשְׁתָּהּ וְיָשַׁבְתָּה בָּהּ וְאָמַרְתָּ אָשִׂימָה עָלַי מֶלֶךְ כְּכָל־הַגּוֹיִם אֲשֶׁר סְבִיבֹתָי׃ 17.15. שׂוֹם תָּשִׂים עָלֶיךָ מֶלֶךְ אֲשֶׁר יִבְחַר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ בּוֹ מִקֶּרֶב אַחֶיךָ תָּשִׂים עָלֶיךָ מֶלֶךְ לֹא תוּכַל לָתֵת עָלֶיךָ אִישׁ נָכְרִי אֲשֶׁר לֹא־אָחִיךָ הוּא׃ 17.16. רַק לֹא־יַרְבֶּה־לּוֹ סוּסִים וְלֹא־יָשִׁיב אֶת־הָעָם מִצְרַיְמָה לְמַעַן הַרְבּוֹת סוּס וַיהוָה אָמַר לָכֶם לֹא תֹסִפוּן לָשׁוּב בַּדֶּרֶךְ הַזֶּה עוֹד׃ 17.17. וְלֹא יַרְבֶּה־לּוֹ נָשִׁים וְלֹא יָסוּר לְבָבוֹ וְכֶסֶף וְזָהָב לֹא יַרְבֶּה־לּוֹ מְאֹד׃ 17.18. וְהָיָה כְשִׁבְתּוֹ עַל כִּסֵּא מַמְלַכְתּוֹ וְכָתַב לוֹ אֶת־מִשְׁנֵה הַתּוֹרָה הַזֹּאת עַל־סֵפֶר מִלִּפְנֵי הַכֹּהֲנִים הַלְוִיִּם׃ 17.19. וְהָיְתָה עִמּוֹ וְקָרָא בוֹ כָּל־יְמֵי חַיָּיו לְמַעַן יִלְמַד לְיִרְאָה אֶת־יְהוָה אֱלֹהָיו לִשְׁמֹר אֶת־כָּל־דִּבְרֵי הַתּוֹרָה הַזֹּאת וְאֶת־הַחֻקִּים הָאֵלֶּה לַעֲשֹׂתָם׃ 18.15. נָבִיא מִקִּרְבְּךָ מֵאַחֶיךָ כָּמֹנִי יָקִים לְךָ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ אֵלָיו תִּשְׁמָעוּן׃ 1.15. So I took the heads of your tribes, wise men, and full of knowledge, and made them heads over you, captains of thousands, and captains of hundreds, and captains of fifties, and captains of tens, and officers, tribe by tribe." 1.16. And I charged your judges at that time, saying: ‘Hear the causes between your brethren, and judge righteously between a man and his brother, and the stranger that is with him." 1.17. Ye shall not respect persons in judgment; ye shall hear the small and the great alike; ye shall not be afraid of the face of any man; for the judgment is God’s; and the cause that is too hard for you ye shall bring unto me, and I will hear it.’" 7.10. and repayeth them that hate Him to their face, to destroy them; He will not be slack to him that hateth Him, He will repay him to his face." 7.11. Thou shalt therefore keep the commandment, and the statutes, and the ordices, which I command thee this day, to do them." 13.2. If there arise in the midst of thee a prophet, or a dreamer of dreams—and he give thee a sign or a wonder," 13.6. And that prophet, or that dreamer of dreams, shall be put to death; because he hath spoken perversion against the LORD your God, who brought you out of the land of Egypt, and redeemed thee out of the house of bondage, to draw thee aside out of the way which the LORD thy God commanded thee to walk in. So shalt thou put away the evil from the midst of thee." 13.12. And all Israel shall hear, and fear, and shall do no more any such wickedness as this is in the midst of thee." 17.8. If there arise a matter too hard for thee in judgment, between blood and blood, between plea and plea, and between stroke and stroke, even matters of controversy within thy gates; then shalt thou arise, and get thee up unto the place which the LORD thy God shall choose." 17.14. When thou art come unto the land which the LORD thy God giveth thee, and shalt possess it, and shalt dwell therein; and shalt say: ‘I will set a king over me, like all the nations that are round about me’;" 17.15. thou shalt in any wise set him king over thee, whom the LORD thy God shall choose; one from among thy brethren shalt thou set king over thee; thou mayest not put a foreigner over thee, who is not thy brother." 17.16. Only he shall not multiply horses to himself, nor cause the people to return to Egypt, to the end that he should multiply horses; forasmuch as the LORD hath said unto you: ‘Ye shall henceforth return no more that way.’" 17.17. Neither shall he multiply wives to himself, that his heart turn not away; neither shall he greatly multiply to himself silver and gold." 17.18. And it shall be, when he sitteth upon the throne of his kingdom, that he shall write him a copy of this law in a book, out of that which is before the priests the Levites." 17.19. And it shall be with him, and he shall read therein all the days of his life; that he may learn to fear the LORD his God, to keep all the words of this law and these statutes, to do them;" 17.20. that his heart be not lifted up above his brethren, and that he turn not aside from the commandment, to the right hand, or to the left; to the end that he may prolong his days in his kingdom, he and his children, in the midst of Israel." 18.15. A prophet will the LORD thy God raise up unto thee, from the midst of thee, of thy brethren, like unto me; unto him ye shall hearken;" 18.20. But the prophet, that shall speak a word presumptuously in My name, which I have not commanded him to speak, or that shall speak in the name of other gods, that same prophet shall die.’"
2. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 1.5, 18.25-18.26, 24.9 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.5. וַיְהִי כָּל־נֶפֶשׁ יֹצְאֵי יֶרֶךְ־יַעֲקֹב שִׁבְעִים נָפֶשׁ וְיוֹסֵף הָיָה בְמִצְרָיִם׃ 18.25. וַיִּבְחַר מֹשֶׁה אַנְשֵׁי־חַיִל מִכָּל־יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיִּתֵּן אֹתָם רָאשִׁים עַל־הָעָם שָׂרֵי אֲלָפִים שָׂרֵי מֵאוֹת שָׂרֵי חֲמִשִּׁים וְשָׂרֵי עֲשָׂרֹת׃ 18.26. וְשָׁפְטוּ אֶת־הָעָם בְּכָל־עֵת אֶת־הַדָּבָר הַקָּשֶׁה יְבִיאוּן אֶל־מֹשֶׁה וְכָל־הַדָּבָר הַקָּטֹן יִשְׁפּוּטוּ הֵם׃ 24.9. וַיַּעַל מֹשֶׁה וְאַהֲרֹן נָדָב וַאֲבִיהוּא וְשִׁבְעִים מִזִּקְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 1.5. And all the souls that came out of the loins of Jacob were seventy souls; and Joseph was in Egypt already." 18.25. And Moses chose able men out of all Israel, and made them heads over the people, rulers of thousands, rulers of hundreds, rulers of fifties, and rulers of tens." 18.26. And they judged the people at all seasons: the hard causes they brought unto Moses, but every small matter they judged themselves." 24.9. Then went up Moses, and Aaron, Nadab, and Abihu, and seventy of the elders of Israel;"
3. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 10.31, 11.7-11.9 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

10.31. אֵלֶּה בְנֵי־שֵׁם לְמִשְׁפְּחֹתָם לִלְשֹׁנֹתָם בְּאַרְצֹתָם לְגוֹיֵהֶם׃ 11.7. הָבָה נֵרְדָה וְנָבְלָה שָׁם שְׂפָתָם אֲשֶׁר לֹא יִשְׁמְעוּ אִישׁ שְׂפַת רֵעֵהוּ׃ 11.8. וַיָּפֶץ יְהוָה אֹתָם מִשָּׁם עַל־פְּנֵי כָל־הָאָרֶץ וַיַּחְדְּלוּ לִבְנֹת הָעִיר׃ 11.9. עַל־כֵּן קָרָא שְׁמָהּ בָּבֶל כִּי־שָׁם בָּלַל יְהוָה שְׂפַת כָּל־הָאָרֶץ וּמִשָּׁם הֱפִיצָם יְהוָה עַל־פְּנֵי כָּל־הָאָרֶץ׃ 10.31. These are the sons of Shem, after their families, after their tongues, in their lands, after their nations." 11.7. Come, let us go down, and there confound their language, that they may not understand one another’s speech.’" 11.8. So the LORD scattered them abroad from thence upon the face of all the earth; and they left off to build the city." 11.9. Therefore was the name of it called Babel; because the LORD did there aconfound the language of all the earth; and from thence did the LORD scatter them abroad upon the face of all the earth."
4. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 21.12, 21.14 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

21.12. וּמִן־הַמִּקְדָּשׁ לֹא יֵצֵא וְלֹא יְחַלֵּל אֵת מִקְדַּשׁ אֱלֹהָיו כִּי נֵזֶר שֶׁמֶן מִשְׁחַת אֱלֹהָיו עָלָיו אֲנִי יְהוָה׃ 21.14. אַלְמָנָה וּגְרוּשָׁה וַחֲלָלָה זֹנָה אֶת־אֵלֶּה לֹא יִקָּח כִּי אִם־בְּתוּלָה מֵעַמָּיו יִקַּח אִשָּׁה׃ 21.12. neither shall he go out of the sanctuary, nor profane the sanctuary of his God; for the consecration of the anointing oil of his God is upon him: I am the LORD." 21.14. A widow, or one divorced, or a profaned woman, or a harlot, these shall he not take; but a virgin of his own people shall he take to wife."
5. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 11.16, 27.21, 29.12-29.34 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

11.16. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה אֶסְפָה־לִּי שִׁבְעִים אִישׁ מִזִּקְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אֲשֶׁר יָדַעְתָּ כִּי־הֵם זִקְנֵי הָעָם וְשֹׁטְרָיו וְלָקַחְתָּ אֹתָם אֶל־אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד וְהִתְיַצְּבוּ שָׁם עִמָּךְ׃ 27.21. וְלִפְנֵי אֶלְעָזָר הַכֹּהֵן יַעֲמֹד וְשָׁאַל לוֹ בְּמִשְׁפַּט הָאוּרִים לִפְנֵי יְהוָה עַל־פִּיו יֵצְאוּ וְעַל־פִּיו יָבֹאוּ הוּא וְכָל־בְּנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל אִתּוֹ וְכָל־הָעֵדָה׃ 29.12. וּבַחֲמִשָּׁה עָשָׂר יוֹם לַחֹדֶשׁ הַשְּׁבִיעִי מִקְרָא־קֹדֶשׁ יִהְיֶה לָכֶם כָּל־מְלֶאכֶת עֲבֹדָה לֹא תַעֲשׂוּ וְחַגֹּתֶם חַג לַיהוָה שִׁבְעַת יָמִים׃ 29.13. וְהִקְרַבְתֶּם עֹלָה אִשֵּׁה רֵיחַ נִיחֹחַ לַיהוָה פָּרִים בְּנֵי־בָקָר שְׁלֹשָׁה עָשָׂר אֵילִם שְׁנָיִם כְּבָשִׂים בְּנֵי־שָׁנָה אַרְבָּעָה עָשָׂר תְּמִימִם יִהְיוּ׃ 29.14. וּמִנְחָתָם סֹלֶת בְּלוּלָה בַשָּׁמֶן שְׁלֹשָׁה עֶשְׂרֹנִים לַפָּר הָאֶחָד לִשְׁלֹשָׁה עָשָׂר פָּרִים שְׁנֵי עֶשְׂרֹנִים לָאַיִל הָאֶחָד לִשְׁנֵי הָאֵילִם׃ 29.15. וְעִשָּׂרוֹן עִשָּׂרוֹן לַכֶּבֶשׂ הָאֶחָד לְאַרְבָּעָה עָשָׂר כְּבָשִׂים׃ 29.16. וּשְׂעִיר־עִזִּים אֶחָד חַטָּאת מִלְּבַד עֹלַת הַתָּמִיד מִנְחָתָהּ וְנִסְכָּהּ׃ 29.17. וּבַיּוֹם הַשֵּׁנִי פָּרִים בְּנֵי־בָקָר שְׁנֵים עָשָׂר אֵילִם שְׁנָיִם כְּבָשִׂים בְּנֵי־שָׁנָה אַרְבָּעָה עָשָׂר תְּמִימִם׃ 29.18. וּמִנְחָתָם וְנִסְכֵּיהֶם לַפָּרִים לָאֵילִם וְלַכְּבָשִׂים בְּמִסְפָּרָם כַּמִּשְׁפָּט׃ 29.19. וּשְׂעִיר־עִזִּים אֶחָד חַטָּאת מִלְּבַד עֹלַת הַתָּמִיד וּמִנְחָתָהּ וְנִסְכֵּיהֶם׃ 29.21. וּמִנְחָתָם וְנִסְכֵּיהֶם לַפָּרִים לָאֵילִם וְלַכְּבָשִׂים בְּמִסְפָּרָם כַּמִּשְׁפָּט׃ 29.22. וּשְׂעִיר חַטָּאת אֶחָד מִלְּבַד עֹלַת הַתָּמִיד וּמִנְחָתָהּ וְנִסְכָּהּ׃ 29.23. וּבַיּוֹם הָרְבִיעִי פָּרִים עֲשָׂרָה אֵילִם שְׁנָיִם כְּבָשִׂים בְּנֵי־שָׁנָה אַרְבָּעָה עָשָׂר תְּמִימִם׃ 29.24. מִנְחָתָם וְנִסְכֵּיהֶם לַפָּרִים לָאֵילִם וְלַכְּבָשִׂים בְּמִסְפָּרָם כַּמִּשְׁפָּט׃ 29.25. וּשְׂעִיר־עִזִּים אֶחָד חַטָּאת מִלְּבַד עֹלַת הַתָּמִיד מִנְחָתָהּ וְנִסְכָּהּ׃ 29.26. וּבַיּוֹם הַחֲמִישִׁי פָּרִים תִּשְׁעָה אֵילִם שְׁנָיִם כְּבָשִׂים בְּנֵי־שָׁנָה אַרְבָּעָה עָשָׂר תְּמִימִם׃ 29.27. וּמִנְחָתָם וְנִסְכֵּיהֶם לַפָּרִים לָאֵילִם וְלַכְּבָשִׂים בְּמִסְפָּרָם כַּמִּשְׁפָּט׃ 29.28. וּשְׂעִיר חַטָּאת אֶחָד מִלְּבַד עֹלַת הַתָּמִיד וּמִנְחָתָהּ וְנִסְכָּהּ׃ 29.29. וּבַיּוֹם הַשִּׁשִּׁי פָּרִים שְׁמֹנָה אֵילִם שְׁנָיִם כְּבָשִׂים בְּנֵי־שָׁנָה אַרְבָּעָה עָשָׂר תְּמִימִם׃ 29.31. וּשְׂעִיר חַטָּאת אֶחָד מִלְּבַד עֹלַת הַתָּמִיד מִנְחָתָהּ וּנְסָכֶיהָ׃ 29.32. וּבַיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי פָּרִים שִׁבְעָה אֵילִם שְׁנָיִם כְּבָשִׂים בְּנֵי־שָׁנָה אַרְבָּעָה עָשָׂר תְּמִימִם׃ 29.33. וּמִנְחָתָם וְנִסְכֵּהֶם לַפָּרִים לָאֵילִם וְלַכְּבָשִׂים בְּמִסְפָּרָם כְּמִשְׁפָּטָם׃ 29.34. וּשְׂעִיר חַטָּאת אֶחָד מִלְּבַד עֹלַת הַתָּמִיד מִנְחָתָהּ וְנִסְכָּהּ׃ 11.16. And the LORD said unto Moses: ‘Gather unto Me seventy men of the elders of Israel, whom thou knowest to be the elders of the people, and officers over them; and bring them unto the tent of meeting, that they may stand there with thee." 27.21. And he shall stand before Eleazar the priest, who shall inquire for him by the judgment of the Urim before the LORD; at his word shall they go out, and at his word they shall come in, both he, and all the children of Israel with him, even all the congregation.’" 29.12. And on the fifteenth day of the seventh month ye shall have a holy convocation: ye shall do no manner of servile work, and ye shall keep a feast unto the LORD seven days;" 29.13. and ye shall present a burnt-offering, an offering made by fire, of a sweet savour unto the LORD: thirteen young bullocks, two rams, fourteen he-lambs of the first year; they shall be without blemish;" 29.14. and their meal-offering, fine flour mingled with oil, three tenth parts for every bullock of the thirteen bullocks, two tenth parts for each ram of the two rams," 29.15. and a several tenth part for every lamb of the fourteen lambs;" 29.16. and one he-goat for a sin-offering beside the continual burnt-offering, the meal-offering thereof, and the drink-offering thereof." 29.17. And on the second day ye shall present twelve young bullocks, two rams, fourteen he-lambs of the first year without blemish;" 29.18. and their meal-offering and their drink-offerings for the bullocks, for the rams, and for the lambs, according to their number, after the ordice;" 29.19. and one he-goat for a sin-offering; beside the continual burnt-offering, and the meal-offering thereof, and their drink-offerings." 29.20. And on the third day eleven bullocks, two rams, fourteen he-lambs of the first year without blemish;" 29.21. and their meal-offering and their drink-offerings for the bullocks, for the rams, and for the lambs, according to their number, after the ordice;" 29.22. and one he-goat for a sin-offering; beside the continual burnt-offering, and the meal-offering thereof, and the drink-offering thereof." 29.23. And on the fourth day ten bullocks, two rams, fourteen he-lambs of the first year without blemish;" 29.24. their meal-offering and their drink-offerings for the bullocks, for the rams, and for the lambs, according to their number, after the ordice;" 29.25. and one he-goat for a sin-offering; beside the continual burnt-offering, the meal-offering thereof, and the drink-offering thereof." 29.26. And on the fifth day nine bullocks, two rams, fourteen he-lambs of the first year without blemish;" 29.27. and their meal-offering and their drink-offerings for the bullocks, for the rams, and for the lambs, according to their number, after the ordice;" 29.28. and one he-goat for a sin-offering; beside the continual burnt-offering, and the meal-offering thereof, and the drink-offering thereof." 29.29. And on the sixth day eight bullocks, two rams, fourteen he-lambs of the first year without blemish;" 29.30. and their meal-offering and their drink-offerings for the bullocks, for the rams, and for the lambs, according to their number, after the ordice;" 29.31. and one he-goat for a sin-offering; beside the continual burnt-offering, the meal-offering thereof, and the drink-offerings thereof." 29.32. And on the seventh day seven bullocks, two rams, fourteen he-lambs of the first year without blemish;" 29.33. and their meal-offering and their drink-offerings for the bullocks, for the rams, and for the lambs, according to their number, after the ordice;" 29.34. and one he-goat for a sin-offering; beside the continual burnt-offering, the meal-offering thereof, and the drink-offering thereof."
6. Hebrew Bible, 2 Samuel, 12.8 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

12.8. וָאֶתְּנָה לְךָ אֶת־בֵּית אֲדֹנֶיךָ וְאֶת־נְשֵׁי אֲדֹנֶיךָ בְּחֵיקֶךָ וָאֶתְּנָה לְךָ אֶת־בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל וִיהוּדָה וְאִם־מְעָט וְאֹסִפָה לְּךָ כָּהֵנָּה וְכָהֵנָּה׃ 12.8. and I gave thee thy master’s house, and thy master’s wives into thy bosom, and gave thee the house of Yisra᾽el and of Yehuda; and if that had been too little, I would moreover have given thee as much again."
7. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 2.2-2.4 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

2.2. וְהָיָה בְּאַחֲרִית הַיָּמִים נָכוֹן יִהְיֶה הַר בֵּית־יְהוָה בְּרֹאשׁ הֶהָרִים וְנִשָּׂא מִגְּבָעוֹת וְנָהֲרוּ אֵלָיו כָּל־הַגּוֹיִם׃ 2.2. בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא יַשְׁלִיךְ הָאָדָם אֵת אֱלִילֵי כַסְפּוֹ וְאֵת אֱלִילֵי זְהָבוֹ אֲשֶׁר עָשׂוּ־לוֹ לְהִשְׁתַּחֲוֺת לַחְפֹּר פֵּרוֹת וְלָעֲטַלֵּפִים׃ 2.3. וְהָלְכוּ עַמִּים רַבִּים וְאָמְרוּ לְכוּ וְנַעֲלֶה אֶל־הַר־יְהוָה אֶל־בֵּית אֱלֹהֵי יַעֲקֹב וְיֹרֵנוּ מִדְּרָכָיו וְנֵלְכָה בְּאֹרְחֹתָיו כִּי מִצִּיּוֹן תֵּצֵא תוֹרָה וּדְבַר־יְהוָה מִירוּשָׁלִָם׃ 2.4. וְשָׁפַט בֵּין הַגּוֹיִם וְהוֹכִיחַ לְעַמִּים רַבִּים וְכִתְּתוּ חַרְבוֹתָם לְאִתִּים וַחֲנִיתוֹתֵיהֶם לְמַזְמֵרוֹת לֹא־יִשָּׂא גוֹי אֶל־גּוֹי חֶרֶב וְלֹא־יִלְמְדוּ עוֹד מִלְחָמָה׃ 2.2. And it shall come to pass in the end of days, That the mountain of the LORD’S house Shall be established as the top of the mountains, And shall be exalted above the hills; And all nations shall flow unto it." 2.3. And many peoples shall go and say: ‘Come ye, and let us go up to the mountain of the LORD, To the house of the God of Jacob; And He will teach us of His ways, And we will walk in His paths.’ For out of Zion shall go forth the law, And the word of the LORD from Jerusalem." 2.4. And He shall judge between the nations, And shall decide for many peoples; And they shall beat their swords into plowshares, And their spears into pruninghooks; Nation shall not lift up sword against nation, Neither shall they learn war any more."
8. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 25.11-25.12, 26.7, 26.12, 28.16, 29.10 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

25.11. וְהָיְתָה כָּל־הָאָרֶץ הַזֹּאת לְחָרְבָּה לְשַׁמָּה וְעָבְדוּ הַגּוֹיִם הָאֵלֶּה אֶת־מֶלֶךְ בָּבֶל שִׁבְעִים שָׁנָה׃ 25.12. וְהָיָה כִמְלֹאות שִׁבְעִים שָׁנָה אֶפְקֹד עַל־מֶלֶךְ־בָּבֶל וְעַל־הַגּוֹי הַהוּא נְאֻם־יְהוָה אֶת־עֲוֺנָם וְעַל־אֶרֶץ כַּשְׂדִּים וְשַׂמְתִּי אֹתוֹ לְשִׁמְמוֹת עוֹלָם׃ 26.7. וַיִּשְׁמְעוּ הַכֹּהֲנִים וְהַנְּבִאִים וְכָל־הָעָם אֶת־יִרְמְיָהוּ מְדַבֵּר אֶת־הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה בְּבֵית יְהוָה׃ 26.12. וַיֹּאמֶר יִרְמְיָהוּ אֶל־כָּל־הַשָּׂרִים וְאֶל־כָּל־הָעָם לֵאמֹר יְהוָה שְׁלָחַנִי לְהִנָּבֵא אֶל־הַבַּיִת הַזֶּה וְאֶל־הָעִיר הַזֹּאת אֵת כָּל־הַדְּבָרִים אֲשֶׁר שְׁמַעְתֶּם׃ 28.16. לָכֵן כֹּה אָמַר יְהוָה הִנְנִי מְשַׁלֵּחֲךָ מֵעַל פְּנֵי הָאֲדָמָה הַשָּׁנָה אַתָּה מֵת כִּי־סָרָה דִבַּרְתָּ אֶל־יְהוָה׃ 25.11. And this whole land shall be a desolation, and a waste; and these nations shall serve the king of Babylon seventy years." 25.12. And it shall come to pass, when seventy years are accomplished, that I will punish the king of Babylon, and that nation, saith the LORD, for their iniquity, and the land of the Chaldeans; and I will make it perpetual desolations." 26.7. So the priests and the prophets and all the people heard Jeremiah speaking these words in the house of the LORD." 26.12. Then spoke Jeremiah unto all the princes and to all the people, saying: ‘The LORD sent me to prophesy against this house and against this city all the words that ye have heard." 28.16. ’Therefore thus saith the LORD: Behold, I will send thee away from off the face of the earth; this year thou shalt die, because thou hast spoken perversion against the LORD.’" 29.10. For thus saith the LORD: After seventy years are accomplished for Babylon, I will remember you, and perform My good word toward you, in causing you to return to this place."
9. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 8.11 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

8.11. וְשִׁבְעִים אִישׁ מִזִּקְנֵי בֵית־יִשְׂרָאֵל וְיַאֲזַנְיָהוּ בֶן־שָׁפָן עֹמֵד בְּתוֹכָם עֹמְדִים לִפְנֵיהֶם וְאִישׁ מִקְטַרְתּוֹ בְּיָדוֹ וַעֲתַר עֲנַן־הַקְּטֹרֶת עֹלֶה׃ 8.11. And there stood before them seventy men of the elders of the house of Israel, and in the midst of them stood Jaazaniah the son of Shaphan, every man with his censer in his hand; and a thick cloud of incense went up."
10. Dead Sea Scrolls, Temple Scroll, 58.15-58.21 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

11. Hebrew Bible, Daniel, 9.2 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

9.2. בִּשְׁנַת אַחַת לְמָלְכוֹ אֲנִי דָּנִיֵּאל בִּינֹתִי בַּסְּפָרִים מִסְפַּר הַשָּׁנִים אֲשֶׁר הָיָה דְבַר־יְהוָה אֶל־יִרְמִיָה הַנָּבִיא לְמַלֹּאות לְחָרְבוֹת יְרוּשָׁלִַם שִׁבְעִים שָׁנָה׃ 9.2. וְעוֹד אֲנִי מְדַבֵּר וּמִתְפַּלֵּל וּמִתְוַדֶּה חַטָּאתִי וְחַטַּאת עַמִּי יִשְׂרָאֵל וּמַפִּיל תְּחִנָּתִי לִפְנֵי יְהוָה אֱלֹהַי עַל הַר־קֹדֶשׁ אֱלֹהָי׃ 9.2. in the first year of his reign I Daniel meditated in the books, over the number of the years, whereof the word of the LORD came to Jeremiah the prophet, that He would accomplish for the desolations of Jerusalem seventy years."
12. Josephus Flavius, Against Apion, 1.37 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.37. and this is justly, or rather necessarily done, because every one is not permitted of his own accord to be a writer, nor is there any disagreement in what is written; they being only prophets that have written the original and earliest accounts of things as they learned them of God himself by inspiration; and others have written what hath happened in their own times, and that in a very distinct manner also. 8.
13. Mishnah, Peah, 2.6 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

2.6. It happened that Rabbi Shimon of Mitzpah planted his field [with two different kinds] and came before Rabban Gamaliel. They both went up to the Chamber of Hewn Stone and asked [about the law]. Nahum the scribe said: I have a tradition from Rabbi Meyasha, who received it from Abba, who received it from the pairs [of sage], who received it from the prophets, a halakhah of Moses from Sinai, that one who plants his field with two species of wheat, if he makes up of it one threshing-floor, he gives only one peah, but if two threshing-floors, he gives two peahs."
14. Mishnah, Rosh Hashanah, 1.7 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

1.7. If a father and a son have seen the new moon, they should both go [to Jerusalem], not that they can join together as witnesses but so that if one of them is disqualified the other may join with another witness. Rabbi Shimon says that a father and son and all relatives are eligible to testify to the appearance of the new moon. Rabbi Yose said: it happened once that Tobias the doctor saw the new moon in Jerusalem along with his son and his freed slave. The priests accepted his evidence and that of his son and disqualified his slave. But when they appeared before the court they accepted his evidence and that of his slave and disqualified his son."
15. Mishnah, Sanhedrin, 1.1-1.4, 1.6, 2.1, 2.3-2.5, 4.2, 11.2 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

1.1. Cases concerning property [are decided] by three. Cases concerning robbery or personal injury, by three. Claims for full damages or half-damages, twofold restitution, or fourfold or fivefold restitution, by three. Claims against a rapist, a seducer and one who defames [a virgin are decided] by three, according to Rabbi Meir. The Sages say: “One who defames [a virgin is decided] by twenty-three, for there may arise from it a capital case." 1.2. [Cases concerning offenses punishable by] beating [are decided] by three. In the name of Rabbi Yishmael they said twenty-three. The intercalation of the month and intercalation of the year [are decided] by three, according to Rabbi Meir. Rabban Shimon ben Gamaliel says: “The matter is begun by three, discussed by five, and decided upon by seven. But if they decided upon it with three, the intercalation is valid.”" 1.3. The laying on of the elders’ hands and the breaking of the heifer’s neck [are decided upon] by three, according to Rabbi Shimon. But Rabbi Judah says: “By five.” The rites of halitzah and “refusal” [are performed] before three. The fruit of fourth year plantings and Second Tithes whose value is not known [are redeemed] before three. Things dedicated to the Temple [are redeemed] before three. Vows of evaluation to be redeemed with movable property, [are evaluated] before three. Rabbi Judah says: “One must be a priest.” [Vows of evaluation], [to be redeemed] with land [are evaluated] before nine and a priest. And similarly [for the evaluation] of a man." 1.4. Cases concerning offenses punishable by death [are decided] by twenty three. A beast that has sexual relations with a woman or with a man is [judged] by twenty three, as it says, “You shall execute the woman and the beast” (Lev. 20:16) and it says, “You shall execute the beast”. The ox that is stoned [is judged] by twenty three., as it says, “The ox shall be stoned and also its owner shall be put to death” (Exodus 21:29), as is the death of the owner, so too is the death of the ox. The wolf, the lion, the bear, the leopard, the panther, or serpent [that have killed a human being] their death is [adjudicated] by twenty three. Rabbi Eliezer says: “Anyone who kills them before they come to court merits.” But Rabbi Akiva says: “Their death must be [adjudicated] by twenty three." 1.6. The greater Sanhedrin was made up of seventy one and the little Sanhedrin of twenty three.From where do we learn that the greater Sanhedrin should be made up of seventy one? As it says, “Gather unto me seventy men of the elders of Israel” (Num. 11:16), and when Moses is added to them there is seventy one. Rabbi Judah says: “Seventy.” From where do we learn that the little Sanhedrin should be made up of twenty three? As it says, “The assembly shall judge”, “The assembly shall deliver” (Num. 35:24-25), an assembly that judges and an assembly that delivers, thus we have twenty. And from where do we know that an assembly has ten? As it says, “How long shall I bear this evil congregation?” (Num. 14:27) [which refers to the twelve spies] but Joshua and Caleb were not included. And from where do we learn that we should bring three others [to the twenty]? By inference from what it says, “You shall not follow after the many to do evil” (Ex. 23:2), I conclude that I must be with them to do well. Then why does it say, “[To follow] after the many to change judgment” (Ex. 23:2). [It means that] your verdict of condemnation should not be like your verdict of acquittal, for your verdict of acquittal is reached by the decision of a majority of one, but your verdict of condemnation must be reached by the decision of a majority of two. The court must not be divisible equally, therefore they add to them one more; thus they are twenty three. And how many should there be in a city that it may be fit to have a Sanhedrin? A hundred and twenty. Rabbi Nehemiah says: “Two hundred and thirty, so that [the Sanhedrin of twenty three] should correspond with them that are chiefs of [at least] groups of ten." 2.1. The High Priest can judge and be judged; he can testify and others can testify against him. He can perform halitzah for another’s wife and others can perform halitzah for his wife or contract levirate marriage with his widow, but he cannot contract levirate marriage since he is forbidden to marry a widow. If any of his near kin die he may not follow after the bier, rather when the bearers are not visible, he is visible, when they are visible he is not visible, and he may go out with them as far as the city gate, according to Rabbi Meir. Rabbi Judah says, “He may not leave the Temple, as it says, “Nor shall he go out of the Sanctuary”. And when he comforts other mourners the custom is for all of the people to pass by, the one after the other, while the appointed [priest] stands between him and the people. And when he receives comfort from others, all the people say to him, “Let us be your atonement”, and he says to them, “May you be blessed by Heaven.” When they feed him the funeral meal all the people sit around on the ground and he sits on a stool." 2.3. If any of his near kin die he may not go out of the door of his palace. Rabbi Judah says: “If he wishes to follow the bier he may, since we have found that David followed the bier of Avner, as it says, “And King David followed the bier” (II Samuel 3:31) They answered, “That was only to appease the people.” When they feed him the funeral meal all the people sit on the floor and he sits on a couch." 2.4. He may send forth the people to a battle waged of free choice by the decision of the court of seventy one. He may break through [the private domain of any man] to make himself a road and none may protest him. The king’s road has no limit. Whatsoever the people take in plunder they must place before him, and he may take first. “And he shall not have many wives” (Deut. 17:17) eighteen only. Rabbi Judah says: “He may take many wives provided they don’t turn his heart away [from worshipping God]. Rabbi Shimon says: “Even one that might turn his heart away, he should not marry. Why then does it say, “He shall not have many wives”, even if they are like Avigayil. “He shall not keep many horses” (Deut. 17:16) enough for his chariot only. “Nor shall he amass silver and gold to excess” (Deut. 17:17) enough to pay his soldier’s wages. He must write a Torah scroll for himself; when he goes forth to battle he shall take it with him, and when he returns he shall bring it back with him; when he sits in judgement it shall be with him, and when he sits to eat it shall be with him, as it says, “Let it remain with him and let him read it all his life” (Deut. 17:19)" 2.5. None may ride his horse and none may sit on his throne and none may make use of his scepter. No one may see him when his hair is being cut or when he is naked or when he is in the bath house, for it says, “You shall set a king upon yourself” (Deut. 17:15) that his awe should be over you." 4.2. In non-capital cases and those concerning uncleanness and cleanness [the judges declare their opinion] beginning from the eldest, but in capital cases they begin from [them that sit at] the side. All are qualified to try non-capital cases, but not all are qualified to try capital cases, only priests, levites and Israelites that may give [their daughters] in marriage to priests." 11.2. An elder rebelling against the ruling of the court [is strangled], for it says, “If there arise a matter too hard for you for judgement […you shall promptly repair to the place that the Lord your God will have chosen, and appear before the levitical priests, or the magistrate in charge at the time, and present your problem. When they have announced to you the verdict in the case, you shall carry out the verdict that is announced to you from that place that the Lord chose, observing scrupulously all their instructions to you. You shall act in accordance with the instructions given you and the ruling handed down to you; you must not deviate from the verdict that they announce to you either to the right or to the left. Should a man act presumptuously and disregard the priest charged with serving there the Lord your God, or the magistrate, that man shall die” (Deut. 17:8-13, JPS translation). Three courts of law were there, one situated at the entrance to the Temple mount, another at the door of the [Temple] court, and the third in the Chamber of Hewn Stone. They [first] went to the court which is at the entrance to the Temple mount, and he [the rebellious elder] stated, “Thus have I expounded and thus have my colleagues expounded; thus have I taught, and thus have my colleagues taught.” If [this first court] had heard [a ruling on the matter], they state it. If not, they go to the [second court] which is at the entrance of the Temple court, and he declares, “Thus have I expounded and thus have my colleagues expounded; thus have I taught, and thus have my colleagues taught.” If [this second court] had heard [a ruling on the matter] they state it; if not, they all proceed to the great court of the Chamber of Hewn Stone from whence instruction issued to all Israel, for it says, [you shall carry out the verdict that is announced to you] from that place that the Lord chose (Deut. 17:10). If he returned to his town and taught again as he did before, he is not liable. But if he gave a practical decision, he is guilty, for it says, “Should a man act presumptuously” (Deut. 17:12) he is liable only for a practical ruling. But if a disciple gave a practical decision [opposed to the court], he is exempt: thus his stringency is his leniency."
16. Mishnah, Sotah, 7.5 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

7.5. How were the blessings and curses [pronounced]?When Israel crossed the Jordan and came to Mt. Gerizim and Mt. Ebal which are by Samaria, in the vicinity of Shechem which is near the terebinths of Moreh, as it is said, “Are they not the other side of the Jordan, [beyond the west road that is in the land of the Canaanites who dwell in the Arabah near Gilgal, by the terebinths of Moreh] (Deut. 11:30), and elsewhere it says, “And Abram passed through the land unto the place of Shechem unto the terebinth of Moreh” (Genesis 12:6) just as the terebinth of Moreh mentioned in this latter verse is Shechem, so the terebinth of Moreh mentioned in the former verse is Shechem. Six tribes went up Mt. Gerizim and six tribes went up Mt. Ebal, and the priests and Levites with the ark stood below in the middle, the priests surrounding the ark, the Levites [surrounding] the priests, and all Israel on this side and that side, as it is said, “And all Israel, with their elders, officials, and judges stood on both sides of the ark, facing the levitical priests” (Joshua 8:33). They turned their faces towards Mt. Gerizim and opened with the blessing: Blessed be anyone who does not make a graven or molten image”. And these and these respond amen. They then turned their faces towards Mt. Ebal and opened with the curse: “Cursed be anyone who makes a graven or molten image” (Deut. 27:15). And these and these respond amen. [So they continue] until they complete the blessings and curses. After that they brought the stones, built the altar and plastered it with plaster, and inscribed upon it all the words of the Torah in seventy languages, as it is said, “most distinctly (be’er hetev). Then they took the stones and went and spent the night in their place."
17. Mishnah, Shekalim, 5.1 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

5.1. These were the officers in the Temple:Yoha the son of Pinchas was over the seals. Ahiyah over the libations. Mattityah the son of Shmuel over the lots. Petahiah over the bird-offering. (Petahiah was Mordecai. Why was his name called Petahiah? Because he ‘opened’ matters and expounded them, and he understood the seventy tongues). The son of Ahijah over the sickness of the bowels. Nehuniah, the digger of ditches. Gevini, the crier. The son of Gever over the locking of the gates. The son of Bevai over the strips [for lighting the menorah]. The son of Arza over the cymbal. Hugras the son of Levi over the song. The house of Garmu over the making of the showbread. The house of Avtinas over the preparing of the frankincense. Elazar over the curtains. And Pinchas over the priestly vestments."
18. Tosefta, Sanhedrin, 3.4, 4.1-4.2, 4.5, 4.7, 4.10 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

19. Anon., Sifre Deuteronomy, 160, 351, 144 (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

20. Palestinian Talmud, Sanhedrin, None (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

21. Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

10b. למחייה עשרים וחדא וכי מיית בהך חדא לימות דהא כי מחית אגבא דחייא קא מחית אמר ליה אמר קרא (דברים כה, ג) ונקלה אחיך לעיניך אחר שלקה אחיך בעינא וליכא:,עיבור החדש בשלשה: חישוב לא קתני קידוש לא קתני אלא עיבור לא ליקדשא וממילא לעבר,אמר אביי תני קידוש החדש תניא נמי הכי קידוש החדש ועיבור השנה בשלשה דברי רבי מאיר אמר רבא והא עיבור קתני אלא אמר רבא קידוש ביום עיבור בשלשה אחר עיבור ליכא קידוש,ומני רבי אלעזר (בן) צדוק היא דתניא רבי אלעזר (בן) צדוק אומר אם לא נראה בזמנו אין מקדשין אותו שכבר קידשוהו בשמים,רב נחמן אמר קידוש אחר עיבור בשלשה ביום עיבור ליכא קידוש ומני פלימו היא דתניא פלימו אומר בזמנו אין מקדשין אותו שלא בזמנו מקדשין אותו,רב אשי אמר לעולם חישוב קתני ומאי עיבור חישוב דעיבור ואיידי דקבעי למיתני עיבור שנה תנא נמי עיבור חודש,חישוב חודש אין קידוש חודש לא מני ר' אליעזר היא דתניא ר' אליעזר אומר בין בזמנו בין שלא בזמנו אין מקדשין אותו שנאמר (ויקרא כה, י) וקדשתם את שנת החמשים שנה שנים אתה מקדש ואי אתה מקדש חדשים:,רבן שמעון בן גמליאל אומר בשלשה כו': תניא כיצד אמר רבן שמעון בן גמליאל בשלשה מתחילין ובחמשה נושאין ונותנין וגומרין בשבעה אחד אומר לישב ושנים אומרים שלא לישב בטל יחיד במיעוטו,שנים אומרים לישב ואחד אומר שלא לישב מוסיפין עליהם עוד שנים ונושאין ונותנין בדבר שנים אומרים צריכה ושלשה אומרים אינה צריכה בטלו שנים במיעוטן שלשה אומרים צריכה ושנים אומרים אינה צריכה מוסיפין עליהם עוד שנים שאין המנין פחות משבעה,הני שלשה חמשה ושבעה כנגד מי פליגי בה רבי יצחק בר נחמני וחד דעימיה ומנו רבי שמעון בן פזי ואמרי לה רבי שמעון בן פזי וחד דעימיה ומנו ר' יצחק בר נחמני חד אמר כנגד ברכת כהנים וחד אמר שלשה כנגד שומרי הסף חמשה מרואי פני המלך שבעה רואי פני המלך,תני רב יוסף הני שלשה וחמשה ושבעה שלשה כנגד שומרי הסף חמשה מרואי פני המלך שבעה רואי פני המלך א"ל אביי לרב יוסף עד האידנא מאי טעמא לא פריש לן מר הכי אמר להו לא הוה ידענא דצריכיתו מי בעיתו מנאי מילתא ולא אמרי לכו:,זמן נשיא צריך גדי סימן: ת"ר אין מעברין את השנה אלא 10b. bLetthe court bstrike himwith btwenty-onelashes, band if he dies with thislast bone, let him die.According to the medical evaluation, he will still be alive after the twentieth lash. There would be no concern of flogging a dead man, bas whenthe court bstrikeshim with the twenty-first lash, it is bupon the back of a living manthat the court bis striking.If so, why should he not receive the last blow? Rav Ashi bsaid to him: The verse states: “Then your brother will be dishonored before your eyes.”The verse means: Even bafter he is hit, I needhim to remain byour brother; andif he dies, he bis nolonger your brother.,§ The mishna teaches: The bintercalation of the monthis performed bbya panel of bthreejudges. The Gemara extrapolates: The itanna bdoes not teach:The bcalculationto determine if the month must be extended is performed by three judges, and he bdoes not teach:The bsanctificationof the new month is performed by three judges; brather,he teaches: The bintercalationof the month, referring to the decision to extend the month by an extra day and begin the following month on the thirty-first day instead of the thirtieth, is performed by a panel of three judges. The Gemara asks: Why are judges necessary to extend the month? Simply bdo not sanctifythe new month, bandlet the previous month bbe intercalated by itself.When the thirtieth day of any month is not declared the first day of the new month, the earlier month is extended by default. Why, then, does the mishna specify: Intercalation?, bAbaye said:Emend the text of the mishna and bteach: The sanctification of thenew bmonthis performed by three judges. bThis is also taughtin a ibaraita( iTosefta2:1): bThe sanctification of thenew bmonth and the intercalation of the yearis performed bby threejudges; this is bthe statement of Rabbi Meir. Rava saidin objection to Abaye’s explanation: bButthe mishna bteaches: Intercalation,not sanctification. bRather, Rava said:Explain the mishna this way: If there will be bsanctificationof the new month bon thethirtieth day of the first month, which is the bdaythat would otherwise be the bintercalation,this is done bby threejudges. But bafterthe day of the bintercalation,i.e., if the month is sanctified on the thirty-first day, bthere is noactive bsanctificationnecessary., bAndin accordance with bwhoseopinion is this? bIt isin accordance with the opinion of bRabbi Elazar ben Tzadok, as it is taughtin a mishna ( iRosh HaShana24a): bRabbi Elazar ben Tzadok says: Ifthe new moon bwas not seen at itsanticipated btime,the court bdoes notformally bsanctifythe New Moon on the following day, basthe celestial court bin Heaven has already sanctified it,precluding the need for the additional sanctification by the earthly court.,Taking the opposite opinion, bRav Naḥman says:In the instance of bsanctificationof the new moon bafterthe bintercalationof the month through the addition of a thirtieth day to the previous month, the sanctification is performed bby threejudges. But if the New Moon is declared bon the day of the intercalation,so that the previous month is left with only twenty-nine days, bthere is noactive bsanctification.This is the standard time for the New Moon, and no intervention is necessary. bAndin accordance with bwhoseopinion is this? bIt isin accordance with the opinion of bPeleimu, as it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bPeleimu says:If the new moon was reported bat itsanticipated btime,the court bdoes not sanctifythe New Moon. But if the new moon was reported bnot at itsanticipated btime,the court bsanctifiesthe New Moon., bRav Ashi said: Actually,the mishna bteachesthat three judges are necessary for the bcalculationto determine when the New Moon should be declared. bAnd whatis the term: bIntercalation,that is mentioned in the mishna? It is bthe calculation of the intercalation. Andalthough the wording of the mishna is imprecise, it is written this way for a reason: bSincethe mishna bneeded to teachthe number of judges necessary for bthe intercalation of the year,the mishna balso taught: The intercalation of the month,so as to describe the similar processes of adding to the year and adding to the month with the same verb.,The Gemara notes: With regard to bthe calculation of the month, yes,this requires three judges. But with regard to the bsanctification of month,this does bnotrequire three judges. In accordance with bwhoseopinion is this? bIt isin accordance with the opinion of bRabbi Eliezer. As it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bRabbi Eliezer says: Whetherit was reported bin itsanticipated btimeor bwhetherit was reported bnot in itsanticipated btime, we do not sanctifythe New Moon formally, bas it is stated: “And you shall sanctify the fiftieth year”(Leviticus 25:10), which teaches: bYoumust formally bsanctify years, but you do notformally bsanctify months,as they are sanctified automatically. In any case, calculation, when necessary, is performed by three judges.,§ The mishna teaches: bRabban Shimon ben Gamliel saysthat intercalation is performed in stages: The deliberations begin bwith threejudges, they debate the matter with five judges, and they conclude the matter with seven judges. The Gemara elaborates: bIt is taughtin a ibaraita( iTosefta2:1): bHow does Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel saythe intercalation is to be conducted? The court bbeginsthe deliberation bwith threejudges, bandthey bdebatethe matter bwith five, andthey bconclude with seven.At first, three judges convene for a preliminary discussion with regard to the necessity of adding a month to the year. If bone saysit is necessary bto sitand deliberate the question of intercalation band two say thatthere is bnota need bto sitand continue, bthe singleopinion in favor of intercalation bis negated in its minority,i.e., it is the minority opinion, and the process ends.,The ibaraitacontinues: If btwo say to sit and one says not to sit,the majority decision causes the process to move to the next stage, and the court then badds another twojudges bto them andall five bdebate the matter.If btwo say:The year bneedsthe extra month, band three say:It bdoes not needit, the opinions of bthe two are negated in their minority.If bthree say:The year bneedsit, band two say:It bdoes not needit, the court badds to them another twojudges, bas the quorumfor declaring an intercalation may bnotbe bfewer than seven. /b,The Gemara asks: bCorresponding to whatwas it determined that the intercalation procedure should incorporate bthesenumbers of bthree, five, and sevenjudges? bRabbi Yitzḥak bar Naḥmani and oneother Sage bwho was with him disagree about this. And who isthat other scholar? bRabbi Shimon ben Pazi. And some saythat this was a matter of dispute between bRabbi Shimon ben Pazi and oneother scholar bwho was with him. And who isthat other scholar? bRabbi Yitzḥak bar Naḥmani. One said:These numbers bcorrespond tothe number of Hebrew words in each of the three verses of bthe priestly benediction(see Numbers 6:24–26). bAnd one said: Three corresponds to thethree bguards of the door(see II Kings 25:18), five corresponds to bfive ofthe officers who bsaw the king’s face(see II Kings 25:19), and seven corresponds to bsevenofficers who bsaw the king’s face(see Jeremiah 52:25). Since these numbers represent appointments of distinction, the Rabbis saw fit to employ them in the composition of the court as well.,Similarly, bRav Yosef taughta ibaraita /i: bThesenumbers: bThree, five, and sevenmembers of the court for intercalation, are adopted from different numbers of the king’s servants. bThree corresponds to: Guards of the door; fivecorresponds to: bofthose officers bwho saw the king’s face,mentioned in the book of II Kings; and bsevencorresponds to: officers bwho saw the king’s face,mentioned in the book of Jeremiah. When Rav Yosef taught this, bAbaye said to Rav Yosef: What is the reasonthat buntil now the Master did not explainthe matter bto us this way,although you have taught this material before? Rav Yosef bsaid toAbaye and the others with him: bI did not know that you neededthis information, as I thought that you were already familiar with the ibaraita /i. bHave youever basked me something and I did not tell you? /b,§ The Gemara presents ba mnemonicdevice for several other sources cited with regard to the intercalation of the year: iZeman /i, iNasi /i, itzarikh /i, igedi /i. The Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: bThe yearmay be bintercalated only /b
22. Babylonian Talmud, Sukkah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

55b. big strongמתני׳ /strong /big יום טוב הראשון של חג היו שם י"ג פרים אילים שנים ושעיר אחד נשתיירו שם י"ד כבשים לשמונה משמרות ביום ראשון ששה מקריבין שנים שנים והשאר אחד אחד,בשני חמשה מקריבין שנים שנים והשאר אחד אחד בשלישי ד' מקריבין שנים שנים והשאר אחד אחד,ברביעי שלשה מקריבין שנים שנים והשאר אחד אחד בחמישי שנים מקריבין שנים שנים והשאר אחד אחד בששי אחד מקריב שנים והשאר אחד אחד,בשביעי כולן שוין בשמיני חזרו לפייס כברגלים אמרו מי שהקריב פרים היום לא יקריב למחר אלא חוזרין חלילה:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big נימא מתני' רבי היא ולא רבנן דתניא פר הבא בשמיני בתחילה מפיסין עליו דברי רבי וחכמים אומרים אחת משתי משמרות דלא שלשו בפרים עושה אותו,אפילו תימא רבנן אטו שתי משמרות לא אפוסי בעי,כמאן אזלא הא דתניא כל המשמרות שונות ומשלשות חוץ משני משמרות ששונות ואין משלשות נימא רבי ולא רבנן אפי' תימא רבנן מאי לא שלשו בפרי החג,ומאי קמ"ל הא קמ"ל מי שהקריב פרים היום לא יקריב למחר אלא חוזרין חלילה,א"ר אליעזר הני שבעים פרים כנגד מי כנגד שבעים אומות פר יחידי למה כנגד אומה יחידה,משל למלך בשר ודם שאמר לעבדיו עשו לי סעודה גדולה ליום אחרון אמר לאוהבו עשה לי סעודה קטנה כדי שאהנה ממך,א"ר יוחנן אוי להם לעובדי כוכבים שאבדו ואין יודעין מה שאבדו בזמן שבהמ"ק קיים מזבח מכפר עליהן ועכשיו מי מכפר עליהן:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big בשלשה פרקים בשנה היו כל משמרות שוות באימורי הרגלים ובחילוק לחם הפנים,בעצרת אומר לו הילך מצה הילך חמץ משמר שזמנו קבוע הוא מקריב תמידין נדרים ונדבות ושאר קרבנות צבור ומקריב את הכל:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big אימורי הרגלים של גבוה נינהו אמר רב חסדא מה שאמור ברגלים,ת"ר מנין שכל המשמרות שוות באימורי הרגלים ת"ל (דברים יח, ו) ובא בכל אות נפשו ושרת יכול אף בשאר ימות השנה כן תלמוד לומר מאחד שעריך לא אמרתי אלא בשעה שכל ישראל נכנסין בשער אחד:,ובחילוק לחם הפנים כו': תנו רבנן מנין שכל המשמרות שוות בחילוק לחם הפנים 55b. strongMISHNA: /strong On bthe first Festivalday bof iSukkotthere were thirteen bulls, two rams, and one goat there.The mishna proceeds to discuss the division of labor for the Festival offerings among the twenty-four priestly watches, all of which serve in the Temple on the pilgrimage Festivals. The sixteen offerings mentioned above were divided among sixteen priestly watches, one offering per watch. bFourteen sheep remained tobe divided among the beightremaining bwatches. On the first dayof the Festival, bsixof the eight remaining watches bsacrifice twosheep beachfor a total of twelve, band the remainingtwo watches sacrifice bonesheep beach. /b, bOn the secondday of the Festival, i.e., the first day of the intermediate days, when twelve bulls were sacrificed, fifteen of the priestly watches sacrifice the bulls, rams, and goat, bfiveof the remaining watches bsacrifice twosheep beach, and the remainingfour watches sacrifice bonesheep beach. On the thirdday of the Festival, when eleven bulls were sacrificed, fourteen of the priestly watches sacrifice the bulls, rams, and goat, bfourof the remaining watches bsacrifice twosheep beach, and the remainingsix watches sacrifice bonesheep beach. /b, bOn the fourthday of the Festival, when ten bulls were sacrificed, thirteen of the priestly watches sacrifice the bulls, rams, and goat, bthreeof the remaining watches bsacrifice twosheep beach, and the remainingeight watches sacrifice bonesheep beach. On the fifthday, when nine bulls were sacrificed, twelve watches sacrifice the bulls, rams, and goat, btwoof the twelve remaining watches bsacrifice twosheep beach, and the remainingten watches sacrifice bonesheep beach. On the sixthday, when eight bulls were sacrificed, eleven watches sacrifice the bulls, rams, and goat, boneof the remaining watches bsacrifices twosheep, band the remainingtwelve watches sacrifice bonesheep beach. /b, bOn the seventhday bthey are all equaland bring one offering each. bOn the eighthday, when there was a completely different configuration of offerings, bthey returned to thestandard blotterysystem used to determine which of the priestly watches would sacrifice the offerings, basthey did bon the other pilgrimage Festivals,which do not have as many offerings as does iSukkot /i. bThey saidabout the ordering of the priestly watches: bOne who sacrificed bulls today will not sacrificebulls btomorrow; rather,they will sacrifice one of the other types of offerings. bThey rotate,so that each of the watches will have the opportunity to sacrifice bulls as well as other animals., strongGEMARA: /strong The Gemara suggests: bLet us saythat bthe mishnathat says that on the eighth day they returned to the standard lottery of the other pilgrimage Festivals bisaccording to bRabbiYehuda HaNasi band notaccording to bthe Rabbis. As it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: To determine the priestly watch that would sacrifice bthe bull that comesas an additional offering bon the EighthDay of Assembly, bthey draw lots over it from the beginning;this is bthe statement of RabbiYehuda HaNasi. bAnd the Rabbis say: One of the two watches that did not sacrifice three bullsduring iSukkot bsacrifices it.Only two of the twenty-four watches sacrifices two bulls over the course of iSukkot /i. Each of the other watches sacrifices three bulls. Since the mishna mentions that a lottery was held, apparently the mishna is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi.,The Gemara rejects this suggestion: bEvenif byou saythat it is in accordance with the opinion of bthe Rabbis, is that to say that the tworemaining bpriestly watches are not required to draw lotsto determine which will merit sacrificing the bull?,The Gemara asks: bIn accordance with whoseopinion bis that which is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bAll of the priestly watchessacrifice a bull btwice and threetimes, bexcept for two watches thatsacrifice a bull btwice and do notsacrifice a bull bthreetimes? bLet us saythat it is in accordance with the opinion of bRabbiYehuda HaNasi band notin accordance with the opinion of bthe Rabbis,as they hold that one of those watches sacrifices a third bull on the Eighth Day of Assembly. The Gemara rejects this suggestion: bEvenif byou saythat it is in accordance with the opinion of bthe Rabbis; what isthe meaning of the phrase: bThey did notsacrifice a bull bthreetimes? It means that bwith regard to the bulls of the festivalof iSukkotthey did not sacrifice a bull three times.,The Gemara asks: With regard to the bulls sacrificed on iSukkot /i, bwhat doesthe ibaraita bteach us?It is a simple calculation that seventy bulls divided by twenty-four watches leaves two watches that sacrificed only two bulls. The Gemara answers: bThisis what the ibaraitacomes to bteach us: One who sacrificed bulls today will not sacrificebulls btomorrow; rather, they rotate.Therefore, each watch sacrifices at least two bulls, and most of them sacrifice three., bRabbi Elazar said: These seventy bullsthat are sacrificed as additional offerings over the course of the seven days of iSukkot /i, bto what do they correspond? They correspond to the seventy nationsof the world, and are brought to atone for their sins and to hasten world peace. bWhyis ba single bullsacrificed on the Eighth Day of Assembly? bIt corresponds to the singular nation,Israel.,The Gemara cites ba parableabout ba king of flesh and blood who said to his servants: Prepare me a great feastthat will last for several days. When the feast concluded, bon the last day, he said to his belovedservant: bPrepare me a small feast so that I can derive pleasure from youalone., bRabbi Yoḥa said: Woe unto the nationsof the world bthat lostsomething band do not know what they lost. When the Temple is standing, theseventy bulls sacrificed on the baltarduring the festival of iSukkot batones for them. And nowthat the Temple is destroyed, bwho atones for them? /b, strongMISHNA: /strong bAt three times during the year, alltwenty-four bpriestly watcheshave bequalstatus, in that all receive a share in the Temple service independent of the standard order of the watches and all receive a share in the accompanying gifts of the priesthood: bIn the portions of the offerings of the Festivalssacrificed on the altar band in the distribution of the shewbreadon Shabbat during the Festivals., bOn iShavuot /ithat coincides with Shabbat, when the two loaves offered on iShavuotwould be distributed together with the distribution of the shewbread, the priest charged with the distribution bsays toeach priest: bHere is imatza /ifrom the shewbread bfor you,and bhere is leavened breadfrom the two loaves bfor you.The principle is that bthe priestly watch whose time is fixedduring the Festival bsacrificesthe bdaily offeringsduring the Festival, as well as vow-offerings, bfree-will offerings, and all other communal offerings. Andthat watch bsacrifices all of themeven during the Festival, when other aspects of the service are shared by all the watches., strongGEMARA: /strong The Gemara wonders: How is it that the priests divide those bportions of the Festival offerings?Don’t btheybelong bto God,and must be placed on the altar? How do the priestly watches share these portions? bRav Ḥisda said:The mishna is referring not to portions sacrificed on the altar [ ieimurim /i] but to bwhat was stated [ iamur /i] with regard to the pilgrimage Festivals,all those portions of the offerings that the Torah commanded to sacrifice at the Temple that are not burnt on the altar and are shared by the priests, e.g., hides of the burnt-offerings of appearance and the breast and thigh of the Festival peace-offerings., bThe Sages taught: From whereis it derived bthat all of the priestly watcheshave bequalstatus bin the portions of the Festival offerings? The verse states:“And if a Levite comes from any of your gates out of all Israel, where he sojourns, band comes with all the desire of his soulunto the place that the Lord shall choose; bthen he shall minister /b…as all his brethren…They shall have like portions to eat, besides the transactions of their fathers’ houses” (Deuteronomy 18:6–8). Based on these verses, one bmighthave thought that bthisis the case beven on the rest of the days of the yearand the priestly watches would have equal status. Therefore, bthe verse states: From one of your gates. I saidthat all have equal status bonly when all of Israel enters through one gate,i.e., on a pilgrimage Festival.,The mishna continues: bAnd in the distribution of the shewbreadon the three pilgrimage Festivals, all twenty-four priestly watches have equal status. bThe Sages taught: From whereis it derived bthat all of the priestly watcheshave bequalstatus bin the distribution of the shewbread? /b
23. Anon., Letter of Aristeas, 46

46. holy law might prove advantageous to you and be carried out successfully. In the presence of all the people I selected six elders from each tribe, good men and true, and I have sent them to you with a copy of our law. It will be a kindness, O righteous king, if you will give instruction that as soon as the translation of the law is completed, the men shall be restored again to us in safety. Farewell.'


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
adjuration Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 43
albeck, chanoch Flatto, The Crown and the Courts (2021) 316
alon, gedalyahu Flatto, The Crown and the Courts (2021) 308
ben-ari, michael Flatto, The Crown and the Courts (2021) 310
bible, study of Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 43
chamber of hewn stone Flatto, The Crown and the Courts (2021) 160, 161
collectivity, of israel Neusner, The Theology of Halakha (2001) 223
conviction Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 58
court, in jerusalem Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 58
court, of ten Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 43
court Feldman, Goldman and Dimant, Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible (2014) 285
court procedures in rabbinic literature enforcement of, evidentiary rules Flatto, The Crown and the Courts (2021) 149
criminal Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 58
criminalization Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 58
crucifixion Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 58
dead sea scrolls, mishnaic passages on Flatto, The Crown and the Courts (2021) 160
decalogue, court, rabbinic Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 300, 324
elders/council of elders Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 302
elders Feldman, Goldman and Dimant, Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible (2014) 285
elite Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 58
execution Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 58
exegesis, pesher Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 43
false prophecy Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 58
false prophet Feldman, Goldman and Dimant, Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible (2014) 285
great court Flatto, The Crown and the Courts (2021) 160
greek Fraade, Multilingualism and Translation in Ancient Judaism: Before and After Babel (2023) 6, 37
halakhah Feldman, Goldman and Dimant, Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible (2014) 285
hermeneutics/hermeneutical—see also, interpretation Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 324
hidden (things, matters) Feldman, Goldman and Dimant, Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible (2014) 285
high priest Feldman, Goldman and Dimant, Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible (2014) 285
honor Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 300, 324, 325
horayot Neusner, The Theology of Halakha (2001) 223
individual justice Flatto, The Crown and the Courts (2021) 155
institutional justice, nasi and Flatto, The Crown and the Courts (2021) 155
institutional justice, rabbinical sources on Flatto, The Crown and the Courts (2021) 160, 161
institutional justice Flatto, The Crown and the Courts (2021) 155, 158, 160, 161
interpretation—see also midrash Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 302, 324, 325
israel, collectivity of Neusner, The Theology of Halakha (2001) 223
israel, nan Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 300, 302
jerusalem Feldman, Goldman and Dimant, Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible (2014) 285
jewish, leadership Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 58
judges Feldman, Goldman and Dimant, Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible (2014) 285; Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 43
judicial administration, criticism of alternative models Flatto, The Crown and the Courts (2021) 149, 155
judicial administration, institutional justice Flatto, The Crown and the Courts (2021) 155, 158, 160, 161
judicial administration, responses to priestly justice Flatto, The Crown and the Courts (2021) 149, 155
kings, biblical Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 300, 302, 324, 325
ladino Fraade, Multilingualism and Translation in Ancient Judaism: Before and After Babel (2023) 6
law, biblical/rabbinic—see also, halakhah Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 300, 302, 324, 325
law, geonic Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 43
law, medieval Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 43
magistrates Feldman, Goldman and Dimant, Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible (2014) 285
marriage, levirate Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 43
medieval Fraade, Multilingualism and Translation in Ancient Judaism: Before and After Babel (2023) 6
midrash/midrashim Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 302, 325
mishnah sanhedrin Flatto, The Crown and the Courts (2021) 117, 155, 158
modern Fraade, Multilingualism and Translation in Ancient Judaism: Before and After Babel (2023) 6
myth Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 58
oath Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 43
patriarchs Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 324, 325
perjury' Rosen-Zvi, The Mishnaic Sotah Ritual: Temple, Gender and Midrash (2012) 53
power Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 58
prayer Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 300, 302, 324, 325
priest Feldman, Goldman and Dimant, Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible (2014) 285
priesthood, high priest Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 58
priestly justice, appropriating clear-cut responsibilities of Flatto, The Crown and the Courts (2021) 155
priestly justice, containing Flatto, The Crown and the Courts (2021) 149
priestly justice, incorporating into a broader judicial framework Flatto, The Crown and the Courts (2021) 149
priestly justice, opposition to Flatto, The Crown and the Courts (2021) 149, 155
priestly justice, responses to Flatto, The Crown and the Courts (2021) 149, 155
priestly justice Flatto, The Crown and the Courts (2021) 155
priests/priesthood Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 324, 325
prophecy Feldman, Goldman and Dimant, Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible (2014) 285
prophet Feldman, Goldman and Dimant, Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible (2014) 285
punishment Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 58
qumran community / sect Feldman, Goldman and Dimant, Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible (2014) 285
qumran literature on, tannaitic literature Flatto, The Crown and the Courts (2021) 117
rabbi ismael, mishnah sanhedrin Flatto, The Crown and the Courts (2021) 117
rabbi ismael, priestly justice Flatto, The Crown and the Courts (2021) 149, 155
rabbi ismael, royalty and judicial authority in Flatto, The Crown and the Courts (2021) 117
rabbinic literature Fraade, Multilingualism and Translation in Ancient Judaism: Before and After Babel (2023) 37; Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 58
rabbis, rabbinic literature Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 43
sages, the Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 302, 325
sanhedrin Flatto, The Crown and the Courts (2021) 117, 158; Fraade, Multilingualism and Translation in Ancient Judaism: Before and After Babel (2023) 37
septuagint Fraade, Multilingualism and Translation in Ancient Judaism: Before and After Babel (2023) 37
seventy languages Fraade, Multilingualism and Translation in Ancient Judaism: Before and After Babel (2023) 37
seventy nations Fraade, Multilingualism and Translation in Ancient Judaism: Before and After Babel (2023) 37
simeon ben gamliel Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 43
sin, collective guilt for individual action Neusner, The Theology of Halakha (2001) 223
stern, sacha Flatto, The Crown and the Courts (2021) 316
tannaitic literature Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 300, 302
tannaitic literature alternative juridical models, criticism of alternative models Flatto, The Crown and the Courts (2021) 149, 155
tannaitic literature alternative juridical models, institutional justice Flatto, The Crown and the Courts (2021) 155, 158, 160, 161
tannaitic literature alternative juridical models, juridical models in Flatto, The Crown and the Courts (2021) 149, 155, 158, 160, 161
tannaitic literature alternative juridical models, kingship and law in Flatto, The Crown and the Courts (2021) 117
temple Feldman, Goldman and Dimant, Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible (2014) 285
torah Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 300, 302; Fraade, Multilingualism and Translation in Ancient Judaism: Before and After Babel (2023) 37
tribes Feldman, Goldman and Dimant, Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible (2014) 285
urim (and thummim) Feldman, Goldman and Dimant, Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible (2014) 285
violence Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 58
witnesses Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 43
yiddish Fraade, Multilingualism and Translation in Ancient Judaism: Before and After Babel (2023) 6