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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



8023
Mishnah, Miqvaot, 8.3


הַמֵּטִיל טִפִּין עָבוֹת מִתּוֹךְ הָאַמָּה, טָמֵא, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר חִסְמָא. הַמְהַרְהֵר בַּלַּיְלָה וְעָמַד וּמָצָא בְשָׂרוֹ חַם, טָמֵא. הַפּוֹלֶטֶת זֶרַע בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁלִישִׁי, טְהוֹרָה, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר בֶּן עֲזַרְיָה. רַבִּי יִשְׁמָעֵאל אוֹמֵר, פְּעָמִים שֶׁהֵם אַרְבַּע עוֹנוֹת, פְּעָמִים שֶׁהֵם חָמֵשׁ, פְּעָמִים שֶׁהֵם שֵׁשׁ. רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא אוֹמֵר, לְעוֹלָם חָמֵשׁ:If he emitted thick drops from his member, he is unclean, the words of Rabbi Elazar Hisma. If one had sexual dreams in the night and arose and found his flesh heated, he is unclean. If a woman discharged semen on the third day, she is clean, the words of Rabbi Elazar ben Azariah. Rabbi Ishmael says: sometimes there are four time periods, and sometimes five, and sometimes six. Rabbi Akiva says: there are always five.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

23 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 21.5, 23.9 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

21.5. וְנִגְּשׁוּ הַכֹּהֲנִים בְּנֵי לֵוִי כִּי בָם בָּחַר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לְשָׁרְתוֹ וּלְבָרֵךְ בְּשֵׁם יְהוָה וְעַל־פִּיהֶם יִהְיֶה כָּל־רִיב וְכָל־נָגַע׃ 23.9. בָּנִים אֲשֶׁר־יִוָּלְדוּ לָהֶם דּוֹר שְׁלִישִׁי יָבֹא לָהֶם בִּקְהַל יְהוָה׃ 21.5. And the priests the sons of Levi shall come near—for them the LORD thy God hath chosen to minister unto Him, and to bless in the name of the LORD; and according to their word shall every controversy and every stroke be." 23.9. The children of the third generation that are born unto them may enter into the assembly of the LORD."
2. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 13.1-13.3, 15.16, 18.19, 20.18 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

13.1. וַיְדַבֵּר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה וְאֶל־אַהֲרֹן לֵאמֹר׃ 13.1. וְרָאָה הַכֹּהֵן וְהִנֵּה שְׂאֵת־לְבָנָה בָּעוֹר וְהִיא הָפְכָה שֵׂעָר לָבָן וּמִחְיַת בָּשָׂר חַי בַּשְׂאֵת׃ 13.2. וְרָאָה הַכֹּהֵן וְהִנֵּה מַרְאֶהָ שָׁפָל מִן־הָעוֹר וּשְׂעָרָהּ הָפַךְ לָבָן וְטִמְּאוֹ הַכֹּהֵן נֶגַע־צָרַעַת הִוא בַּשְּׁחִין פָּרָחָה׃ 13.2. אָדָם כִּי־יִהְיֶה בְעוֹר־בְּשָׂרוֹ שְׂאֵת אוֹ־סַפַּחַת אוֹ בַהֶרֶת וְהָיָה בְעוֹר־בְּשָׂרוֹ לְנֶגַע צָרָעַת וְהוּבָא אֶל־אַהֲרֹן הַכֹּהֵן אוֹ אֶל־אַחַד מִבָּנָיו הַכֹּהֲנִים׃ 13.3. וְרָאָה הַכֹּהֵן אֶת־הַנֶּגַע וְהִנֵּה מַרְאֵהוּ עָמֹק מִן־הָעוֹר וּבוֹ שֵׂעָר צָהֹב דָּק וְטִמֵּא אֹתוֹ הַכֹּהֵן נֶתֶק הוּא צָרַעַת הָרֹאשׁ אוֹ הַזָּקָן הוּא׃ 13.3. וְרָאָה הַכֹּהֵן אֶת־הַנֶּגַע בְּעוֹר־הַבָּשָׂר וְשֵׂעָר בַּנֶּגַע הָפַךְ לָבָן וּמַרְאֵה הַנֶּגַע עָמֹק מֵעוֹר בְּשָׂרוֹ נֶגַע צָרַעַת הוּא וְרָאָהוּ הַכֹּהֵן וְטִמֵּא אֹתוֹ׃ 15.16. וְאִישׁ כִּי־תֵצֵא מִמֶּנּוּ שִׁכְבַת־זָרַע וְרָחַץ בַּמַּיִם אֶת־כָּל־בְּשָׂרוֹ וְטָמֵא עַד־הָעָרֶב׃ 18.19. וְאֶל־אִשָּׁה בְּנִדַּת טֻמְאָתָהּ לֹא תִקְרַב לְגַלּוֹת עֶרְוָתָהּ׃ 20.18. וְאִישׁ אֲשֶׁר־יִשְׁכַּב אֶת־אִשָּׁה דָּוָה וְגִלָּה אֶת־עֶרְוָתָהּ אֶת־מְקֹרָהּ הֶעֱרָה וְהִיא גִּלְּתָה אֶת־מְקוֹר דָּמֶיהָ וְנִכְרְתוּ שְׁנֵיהֶם מִקֶּרֶב עַמָּם׃ 13.1. And the LORD spoke unto Moses and unto Aaron, saying:" 13.2. When a man shall have in the skin of his flesh a rising, or a scab, or a bright spot, and it become in the skin of his flesh the plague of leprosy, then he shall be brought unto Aaron the priest, or unto one of his sons the priests." 13.3. And the priest shall look upon the plague in the skin of the flesh; and if the hair in the plague be turned white, and the appearance of the plague be deeper than the skin of his flesh, it is the plague of leprosy; and the priest shall look on him, and pronounce him unclean." 15.16. And if the flow of seed go out from a man, then he shall bathe all his flesh in water, and be unclean until the even." 18.19. And thou shalt not approach unto a woman to uncover her nakedness, as long as she is impure by her uncleanness." 20.18. And if a man shall lie with a woman having her sickness, and shall uncover her nakedness—he hath made naked her fountain, and she hath uncovered the fountain of her blood—both of them shall be cut off from among their people."
3. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 31.19 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

31.19. וְאַתֶּם חֲנוּ מִחוּץ לַמַּחֲנֶה שִׁבְעַת יָמִים כֹּל הֹרֵג נֶפֶשׁ וְכֹל נֹגֵעַ בֶּחָלָל תִּתְחַטְּאוּ בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁלִישִׁי וּבַיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי אַתֶּם וּשְׁבִיכֶם׃ 31.19. And encamp ye without the camp seven days; whosoever hath killed any person, and whosoever hath touched any slain, purify yourselves on the third day and on the seventh day, ye and your captives."
4. Dead Sea Scrolls, Damascus Covenant, 10.21 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

5. Mishnah, Kelim, 1.8 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

1.8. The area within the wall [of Jerusalem] is holier, for it is there that lesser holy things and second tithe may be eaten. The Temple Mount is holier, for zavim, zavot, menstruants and women after childbirth may not enter it. The chel is holier, for neither non-Jews nor one who contracted corpse impurity may enter it. The court of women is holier, for a tevul yom may not enter it, though he is not obligated a hatat for doing so. The court of the Israelites is holier, for a man who has not yet offered his obligatory sacrifices may not enter it, and if he enters he is liable for a hatat. The court of the priests is holier, for Israelites may not enter it except when they are required to do so: for laying on of the hands, slaying or waving."
6. Mishnah, Miqvaot, 8.4 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

8.4. If a non-Jewish woman discharged semen from an Israelite, it is unclean. If an Israelite woman discharged semen from a non-Jewish man, it is clean. If a woman had intercourse and then went down and immersed herself but did not sweep out the house, it is as though she had not immersed herself. If a man who had a seminal emission immersed himself but did not first pass urine, he again becomes unclean when he passes urine. Rabbi Yose says: if he was sick or old he is unclean, but if he was young and healthy he remains clean."
7. Mishnah, Niddah, 1.7, 2.1, 3.2, 4.2-4.3, 7.3, 8.1, 8.3, 9.3, 10.3 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

1.7. Although though they said [that for a woman who has a regular period] it suffices to reckon her period of uncleanness from the time she observes a flow, she should nevertheless examine herself [regularly], except for a menstruant or one who is sitting over pure blood. She should also use testing-rags when she has marital intercourse except when she is sitting over pure blood or when she is a virgin whose blood is clean. And twice [daily] she should examine herself: in the morning and at the [evening] twilight, and also when she is about to have sexual relations. Priestly women are subject to an additional restriction [for they should examine themselves] when they are going to eat terumah. Rabbi Judah said: [these must examine themselves] also after they have concluded eating terumah." 2.1. Every hand that makes frequent examination: In the case of women is praiseworthy, But in the case of men it ought to be cut off. In the case of a deaf, an person not of sound senses, a blind or an insane woman, if other women of sound senses are available they attend to her, and they may eat terumah. It is the custom of the daughters of Israel to have intercourse using two testing-rags, one for the man and the other for herself. Virtuous women prepare also a third rag to prepare the \"house\" [before intercourse]." 3.2. If a woman miscarried an object that was like a rind, like a hair, like earth, like red flies, let her put it in water: If it dissolves she is unclean, But if it does not she is clean. If she miscarried an object in the shape of fishes, locusts, or any forbidden things or creeping things: If there was blood with them she is unclean, If not, she is clean. If she miscarried an object in the shape of a beast, a wild animal or a bird, whether clean or unclean: If it was a male she sits in uncleanness as she would for a male; And if it was a female she sits in uncleanness as she would for a female. But if the sex is unknown she sits in uncleanness for both male and female, the words of Rabbi Meir. The sages say: anything that has not the shape of a human being cannot be regarded as a human child." 4.2. The daughters of the Sadducees, so long as they are accustomed to walking in the paths of their fathers, are to be regarded as Samaritan women. If they left those paths to walk in the paths of Israel, they are to be regarded as Israelite women. Rabbi Yose says: they are always regarded as Israelite women unless they leave the paths of Israel to walk in the paths of their fathers." 4.3. The blood of a Gentile and the clean blood of a metzoraat (a woman with scale disease): Bet Shammai declares clean. And Bet Hillel holds that it is like her spittle or her urine. The blood of a woman after childbirth who did not immerse [in a mikveh]: Bet Shammai says it is like her spittle or her urine, But Bet Hillel says: it conveys uncleanness both when wet and when dry. They agree that if she gave birth while in zivah, it conveys uncleanness both when wet and when dry." 7.3. All bloodstains that come from Rekem are clean. Rabbi Judah declares them unclean, because the people who live there are proselytes though misguided. Those that come from non-Jews are clean. Those that come from Israelites or from Samaritans: Rabbi Meir declares them unclean, But the sages declare them clean because they are not suspected in regard to their stains." 8.1. If a woman observed a bloodstain on her body: If it was opposite her genital area she is unclean; But if it was not near the genital are she remains clean. If it was on her heel or on the tip of her large toe, she is unclean. On her thigh or on her feet: If on the inner side, she is unclean; If on their outer side, she remains clean. And if on the front and back sides she remains clean. If she observed it on her garment: Below the belt, she is unclean, But if above the belt, she remains clean. If she observed it on the sleeve of her shirt: If it can reach as low as her genital area, she is unclean, But if it cannot, she remains clean. If she takes it off and covers herself with it in the night, she is unclean wherever the stain is found, since it can turn about. And the same law applies to a pallium." 8.3. It happened that a woman came in front of Rabbi Akiva and said. She said to him: I have seen a bloodstain. He said to her: Perhaps you had a wound? She said to him: Yes, but it has healed. He said to her: Perhaps it could have opened again and let out some blood.\" She said to him: Yes. And Rabbi Akiva declared her clean. He saw his disciples looked at each other in astonishment. He said to them: Why do you find this difficult, for the sages did not say this rule in order to be stringent but rather to be lenient, for it is said, \"And if a woman have issue, and her issue in her flesh be blood\" blood but not a bloodstain." 9.3. If she lent her shirt to a non-Jewish woman or to a menstruant she may attribute a stain to either. If three women had worn the same shirt or had sat on the same wooden bench and subsequently blood was found on it, all are regarded as unclean. If they had sat on a stone bench or on the projection within the colonnade of a bath House: Rabbi Nehemiah says that they are clean, for Rabbi Nehemiah says: anything that is not susceptible to uncleanness is not susceptible to stains." 10.3. If a zav or a zavah examined themselves on the first day and found themselves clean and on the seventh day and found themselves clean, but did not examine themselves during the other intervening, days: Rabbi Eliezer says: they are in a presumptive condition of cleanness. Rabbi Joshua says: they are entitled [to count as clean] only the first day and the seventh day. Rabbi Akiva says: they are entitled to reckon as clean the seventh day alone."
8. Mishnah, Oholot, 16.1 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

16.1. All movable things convey uncleanness when they are of the thickness of an ox-goad. Rabbi Tarfon said: May I [see the] demise of my sons if this is [not] a demised halakhah which someone heard and misunderstood. For a farmer was passing by and over his shoulder was an ox-goad, and one end overshadowed a grave. He was declared unclean on account of vessels that were overshadowing a corpse. Rabbi Akiva said: I can fix [the halakhah] so that the words of the sages can exist [as they are]: All movable things convey uncleanness to come upon a person carrying them, when they are of the thickness of an ox-goad; Upon themselves when they are of whatever thickness; And upon other men or vessels [which they overshadow] when they are one handbreadth wide."
9. Mishnah, Yoma, 1.5 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

1.5. The elders of the court handed him over to the elders of the priesthood and they took him up to the upper chamber of the house of Avtinas. They adjured him and then left. And they said to him [when leaving]: “Sir, high priest, we are messengers of the court and you are our messenger and the messenger of the court. We adjure you by the one that caused His name dwell in this house that you do not change anything of what we said to you.” He turned aside and wept and they turned aside and wept."
10. Mishnah, Toharot, 5.9 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

5.9. If one witness says, \"You have become unclean,\" but he says, \"I have not become unclean,\" he is regarded as clean. If two witnesses say, \"You have become unclean,\" and he says, \"I have not become unclean,\" Rabbi Meir says: he is unclean. But the sages say: he may be believed on his own evidence. If one witness says, \"You have become unclean,\" and two witnesses say, \"He has not become unclean,\" whether in a private domain or in a public domain, he is regarded as clean. If two witnesses say, \"He has become unclean’, and one witness says, ‘\"He has not become unclean,\" whether in a private domain or in a public domain, he is regarded as unclean. If one witness says, \"He has become unclean,\" and another says, \"He has not become unclean,\" or if one woman says, \"He has become unclean’, and another woman says, \"He has not become unclean,\" he is regarded as unclean if in the private domain, but if in a public domain he is regarded as clean."
11. Mishnah, Yadayim, 4.4 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

4.4. On that day Judah, an Ammonite convert, came and stood before them in the house of study. He said to them: Do I have the right to enter into the assembly? Rabban Gamaliel said to him: you are forbidden. Rabbi Joshua said to him: you are permitted. Rabban Gamaliel said to him: the verse says, \"An Ammonite or a Moabite shall not enter into the assembly of the Lord: even to the tenth generation\" (Deuteronomy 23:4). R. Joshua said to him: But are the Ammonites and Moabites still in their own territory? Sanheriv, the king of Assyria, has long since come up and mingled all the nations, as it is said: \"In that I have removed the bounds of the peoples, and have robbed their treasures, and have brought down as one mighty the inhabitants\" (Isaiah 10:1. Rabban Gamaliel said to him: the verse says, \"But afterward I will bring back the captivity of the children of Ammon,\" (Jeremiah 49:6) they have already returned. Rabbi Joshua said to him: [another] verse says, \"I will return the captivity of my people Israel and Judah\" (Amos 9:14). Yet they have not yet returned. So they permitted him to enter the assembly."
12. Mishnah, Zavim, 2.1-2.3 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

2.1. All persons become unclean through zivah, even converts, even slaves whether freed or not, a deaf-mute, a person of unsound senses, and a minor, a eunuch whether [he had been castrated] by man, or was a eunuch from [the time of seeing] the sun. With regard to a tumtum and an androgynous [person], they place upon him the stringencies for a man and the stringencies for a woman: they defile through blood like a woman, and through eggy [substance] like a man. Their uncleanness still remains in doubt." 2.2. There are seven ways in which a zav is examined as long as he had not become subject to zivah: With regard to food, drink, as [to what] he had carried, whether he had jumped, whether he had been ill, what he had seen, or what he had thought. [It doesn't matter] whether he had thoughts before seeing [a woman], or whether he had seen [a woman] before his thoughts. Rabbi Judah says: even if he had watched beasts, wild animals or birds having intercourse with each other, and even when he had seen a woman's dyed garments. Rabbi Akiva says: even if he had eaten any kind of food, be it good or bad, or had drunk any kind of liquid. They said to him: Then there will be no zavim in the world!’ He replied to them: you are not held responsible for the existence of zavim!’ Once he had become subject to zivah, no further examination takes place. [Zov] resulting from an accident, or that was at all doubtful, or an issue of semen, these are unclean, since there are grounds for the assumption [that it is zivah]. If he had at a first [issue] they examine him; On the second [issue] they examine him, but on the third [issue] they don't examine him. Rabbi Eliezer says: even on the third [issue] they examine him because of the sacrifice." 2.3. One who had [a discharge of] semen does not defile due to zivah for a period of twenty-four hours. Rabbi Yose says: [only] that day. A non-Jew who had a discharge of semen and then converted, he immediately becomes unclean due to zivah. [A woman] who had [an issue] of blood, or had experienced difficulty [in childbirth], [the time prescribed] is twenty-four hours. One who strikes his slave, the \"day or two\" is twenty-four hours. A dog that eats a corpse's flesh, for three days from one time of day to the same time of day, it is considered to be in its natural state.
13. Tosefta, Berachot, 2.12 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

2.12. Zavim, Zavot, Niddot, and women who gave birth are permitted to read the Torah and to learn Mishna, Midrash, laws, and Aggadot. And men who had a seminal emission (Baalei Keraim) are forbidden in all of them. Rebbi Yossi says, “He can learn the laws that he is familiar with, as long as he does not arrange the Mishna.”"
14. Tosefta, Niddah, 4.3-4.4, 4.6, 5.5 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

15. Tosefta, Oholot, 15.13 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

16. Tosefta, Zavim, 2.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

17. Anon., Sifra, None (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

18. Palestinian Talmud, Berachot, None (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

19. Babylonian Talmud, Berachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

31a. אייתי כסא דמוקרא בת ארבע מאה זוזי ותבר קמייהו ואעציבו,רב אשי עבד הלולא לבריה חזנהו לרבנן דהוו קא בדחי טובא אייתי כסא דזוגיתא חיורתא ותבר קמייהו ואעציבו,אמרו ליה רבנן לרב המנונא זוטי בהלולא דמר בריה דרבינא לישרי לן מר אמר להו ווי לן דמיתנן ווי לן דמיתנן אמרי ליה אנן מה נעני בתרך א"ל הי תורה והי מצוה דמגנו עלן,א"ר יוחנן משום רשב"י אסור לאדם שימלא שחוק פיו בעולם הזה שנאמר (תהלים קכו, ב) אז ימלא שחוק פינו ולשוננו רנה אימתי בזמן שיאמרו בגוים הגדיל ה' לעשות עם אלה אמרו עליו על ר"ל שמימיו לא מלא שחוק פיו בעוה"ז מכי שמעה מר' יוחנן רביה:,ת"ר אין עומדין להתפלל לא מתוך דין ולא מתוך דבר הלכה אלא מתוך הלכה פסוקה,והיכי דמי הלכה פסוקה,אמר אביי כי הא דר' זירא דאמר ר' זירא בנות ישראל החמירו על עצמן שאפילו רואות טיפת דם כחרדל יושבת עליה שבעה נקיים,רבא אמר כי הא דרב הושעיא דאמר רב הושעיא מערים אדם על תבואתו ומכניסה במוץ שלה כדי שתהא בהמתו אוכלת ופטורה מן המעשר,ואב"א כי הא דרב הונא דא"ר הונא א"ר זעירא המקיז דם בבהמת קדשים אסור בהנאה ומועלין בו,רבנן עבדי כמתניתין רב אשי עביד כברייתא.,ת"ר אין עומדין להתפלל לא מתוך עצבות ולא מתוך עצלות ולא מתוך שחוק ולא מתוך שיחה ולא מתוך קלות ראש ולא מתוך דברים בטלים אלא מתוך שמחה של מצוה,וכן לא יפטר אדם מחברו לא מתוך שיחה ולא מתוך שחוק ולא מתוך קלות ראש ולא מתוך דברים בטלים אלא מתוך דבר הלכה שכן מצינו בנביאים הראשונים שסיימו דבריהם בדברי שבח ותנחומים,וכן תנא מרי בר בריה דרב הונא בריה דר' ירמיה בר אבא אל יפטר אדם מחבירו אלא מתוך דבר הלכה שמתוך כך זוכרהו,כי הא דרב כהנא אלוייה לרב שימי בר אשי מפום נהרא עד בי צניתא דבבל כי מטא להתם א"ל מר ודאי דאמרי אינשי הני צניתא דבבל איתנהו מאדם הראשון ועד השתא,א"ל אדכרתן מילתא דרבי יוסי ברבי חנינא דאמר ר' יוסי ברבי חנינא מאי דכתיב (ירמיהו ב, ו) בארץ אשר לא עבר בה איש ולא ישב אדם שם וכי מאחר דלא עבר היאך ישב אלא לומר לך כל ארץ שגזר עליה אדם הראשון לישוב נתישבה וכל ארץ שלא גזר עליה אדם הראשון לישוב לא נתישבה,רב מרדכי אלוייה לרב שימי בר אשי מהגרוניא ועד בי כיפי ואמרי לה עד בי דורא:,ת"ר המתפלל צריך שיכוין את לבו לשמים אבא שאול אומר סימן לדבר (תהלים י, יז) תכין לבם תקשיב אזנך,תניא א"ר יהודה כך היה מנהגו של ר"ע כשהיה מתפלל עם הצבור היה מקצר ועולה מפני טורח צבור וכשהיה מתפלל בינו לבין עצמו אדם מניחו בזוית זו ומוצאו בזוית אחרת וכל כך למה מפני כריעות והשתחויות:,א"ר חייא בר אבא לעולם יתפלל אדם בבית שיש בו חלונות שנאמר (דניאל ו, יא) וכוין פתיחן ליה וגו',יכול יתפלל אדם כל היום כלו כבר מפורש על ידי דניאל (דניאל ו, יא) וזמנין תלתא וגו',יכול משבא לגולה הוחלה כבר נאמר (דניאל ו, יא) די הוא עבד מן קדמת דנא,יכול יתפלל אדם לכל רוח שירצה ת"ל (דניאל ו, יא) (לקבל) [נגד] ירושלם,יכול יהא כוללן בבת אחת כבר מפורש ע"י דוד דכתיב (תהלים נה, יח) ערב ובקר וצהרים וגו',יכול ישמיע קולו בתפלתו כבר מפורש על ידי חנה שנאמר (שמואל א א, יג) וקולה לא ישמע,יכול ישאל אדם צרכיו ואח"כ יתפלל כבר מפורש על ידי שלמה שנאמר (מלכים א ח, כח) לשמוע אל הרנה ואל התפלה רנה זו תפלה תפלה זו בקשה אין אומר דבר (בקשה) אחר אמת ויציב אבל אחר התפלה אפי' כסדר וידוי של יה"כ אומר איתמר,נמי אמר רב חייא בר אשי אמר רב אע"פ שאמרו שואל אדם צרכיו בשומע תפלה אם בא לומר אחר תפלתו אפילו כסדר יום הכפורים אומר:, אמר רב המנונא כמה הלכתא גברוותא איכא למשמע מהני קראי דחנה (שמואל א א, יג) וחנה היא מדברת על לבה מכאן למתפלל צריך שיכוין לבו רק שפתיה נעות מכאן למתפלל שיחתוך בשפתיו וקולה לא ישמע מכאן שאסור להגביה קולו בתפלתו ויחשבה עלי לשכורה מכאן ששכור אסור להתפלל,ויאמר אליה עלי עד מתי תשתכרין וגו' א"ר אלעזר מכאן לרואה בחברו 31a. bHe brought a valuable cup worth four hundred izuzand broke it before them and they became sad. /b,The Gemara also relates: bRav Ashi made a weddingfeast bfor his sonand bhe saw the Sages, who were excessively joyous. He brought a cup ofextremely valuable bwhite glass and broke it before them, and they became sad. /b,Similarly, the Gemara relates: bThe Sages said to Rav Hamnuna Zuti at the weddingfeast bof Mar, son of Ravina: Let the Master sing for us.Since he believed that the merriment had become excessive, bhe said to them,singing: bWoe unto us, for we shall die, woe unto us, for we shall die. They said to him: What shall we respond after you?What is the chorus of the song? bHe said to them,you should respond: bWhere is Torah and where is mitzva that protect us? /b,In a similar vein, bRabbi Yoḥa said in the name of Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai: One is forbidden to fill his mouth with mirth in this world,as long as we are in exile ( ige’onim /i), bas it is stated:“When the Lord returns the captivity of Zion we will be as dreamers” (Psalms 126:1). Only b“then will our mouths fill with laughter and our lips with song”(Psalms 126:2). bWhenwill that joyous era arrive? When b“they will say among nations, the Lord has done great things with these”(Psalms 126:2). bThey said about Reish Lakish that throughout his life he did not fill his mouth with laughter in this world once he heard thisstatement bfrom his teacher, Rabbi Yoḥa. /b,We learned in the mishna that it is appropriate to stand and begin to pray from an atmosphere of gravity. Regarding this, bthe Sages taught: Onemay bneither standand begin to pray, directly bfrominvolvement in bjudgment nordirectly bfromdeliberation over the ruling in a bmatter of ihalakha /i,as his preoccupation with the judgment or the halakhic ruling will distract him from prayer. bRatherit is appropriate to pray directly bfrominvolvement in the study of bauniversally accepted bconclusive ihalakha /ithat leaves no room for further deliberation and will not distract him during prayer., bAndthe Gemara asks: bWhat is an exampleof a bconclusive ihalakha /i? /b,The Gemara offers several examples: bAbaye said:One blike this ihalakha bof Rabbi Zeira,as bRabbi Zeira said: The daughters of Israel were stringent with themselves;to the extent bthat even if they see a drop of blood corresponding tothe size of ba mustardseed bshe sits seven cleandays bfor it.By Torah law, a woman who witnesses the emission of blood during the eleven days following her fixed menstrual period is not considered a menstruating woman; rather she immerses herself and is purified the next day. However, the women of Israel accepted the stringency upon themselves that if they see any blood whatsoever, they act as it if were the blood of a izava /i, which obligates her to count seven more clean days before becoming ritually pure (see Leviticus 15:25).,Citing an additional example of a conclusive ihalakha /i, bRava said:One blike this ihalakha bof Rav Hoshaya, as Rav Hoshaya said: A person may employ artificeto circumvent obligations incumbent buponhim in dealing with bhis grain and bring it intothe courtyard bin its chaff so that his animal will eatfrom it, bandthe grain bis exemptfrom btithes. iHalakhadictates that one is obligated to tithe grain that has been threshed and piled, regardless of the ultimate purpose for which the grain was intended. By Torah law, one is exempt from tithing grain that was not threshed and is therefore still in its chaff. By rabbinic law, one is prohibited from eating this grain in the framework of a meal. Feeding animals is permitted without first tithing that grain., bAnd if you wish, sayinstead yet another example of a conclusive ihalakha /i, which is the recommended prelude to prayer. One blike this ihalakha bof Rav Huna,as bRav Huna saidthat bRabbi Zeira said: One who lets blood from a consecrated animalthat was consecrated as a sacrifice; deriving bbenefitfrom that blood bis prohibited.Although blood of an offering that was sprinkled on the altar is not considered Temple property, nevertheless, deriving benefit from the blood of a living, consecrated animal is considered prohibited use of Temple property. In so doing, bone misusesproperty consecrated to the Temple, and as in any other case of misusing Temple property, if he did so unwittingly, he is liable to bring a guilt-offering.,It is related that bthe Sages acted in accordance withthe opinion of bour mishnaand rose to pray from an atmosphere of gravity; bRav Ashi acted in accordance withthe opinion of bthe ibaraita /iand preceded his prayer with a conclusive ihalakha /i.,On the topic of proper preparation for prayer, bthe Sages taught: One may neither stand to pray froman atmosphere of bsorrow nor froman atmosphere of blaziness, nor froman atmosphere of blaughter, nor froman atmosphere of bconversation, nor froman atmosphere of bfrivolity, nor froman atmosphere of bpurposeless matters. Rather,one should approach prayer bfroman atmosphere imbued with bthe joy of a mitzva. /b, bSimilarly, a person should neither take leave of another froman atmosphere of bconversation, nor froman atmosphere of blaughter, nor froman atmosphere of bfrivolity, nor froman atmosphere of bpurposeless matters. Rather,one should take leave of another bfrominvolvement in a bmatter of ihalakha /i. As we found inthe books of the Bible dealing with bthe early prophets, that they would conclude their talks with words of praise and consolation. /b, bAnd so Mari, the grandson of Rav Huna, son of Rabbi Yirmeya bar Abba, taught in a ibaraita /i: One should only take leave of another frominvolvement in a bmatter of ihalakha /i, so that, consequently, he will remember him;whenever he recalls the one from whom he took leave, he will think well of him because of the new ihalakhathat he taught him ( iEliyahu Zuta /i)., bAsin the incident related by the Gemara bthat Rav Kahana accompanied Rav Shimi bar Ashi fromthe town of bPum Nahara to the palm grovein bBabylonia. When he arrived there,Rav Kahana bsaid toRav Shimi bar Ashi: bMaster, what is meant by that which people say: These palm treesof bBabylonia have beenin this place from the time of bAdam the firstman buntil now? /b,Rav Shimi bar Ashi bsaid to him: You reminded me of something that Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Ḥanina,said, bas Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, said: What isthe meaning of bthat which is written: “In a land through which no man has passed and where no person [ iadam /i] has settled”(Jeremiah 2:6)? This verse is difficult; bsince it isa land through which bnoperson bhas passed, howcould anyone bhave settledthere permanently? The statement that “no person has settled there” is redundant. bRather,this verse comes bto teachthat bevery landthrough bwhich Adam the firstman passed and bdecreed that it would be settled was settled, and every landthrough bwhichAdam passed and bdecreed that it would not be settled was not settled.Based on this, what people say is true, and the palm trees of Babylonia are from the time of Adam, meaning that from the time of Adam this land was decreed to be suitable for growing palm trees ( iMe’iri /i). The Gemara cited an example of how one who parts from another with Torah learns something new.,Having mentioned the mitzva for a student to accompany his Rabbi, the Gemara relates that bRav Mordekhai accompaniedhis mentor, bRav Shimi bar Ashi,a great distance, bfromthe city of bHagronya to Bei Keifei; and some saythat he accompanied from Hagronya bto Bei Dura. /b,Returning to the topic of preparation for prayer, bthe Sages taughtin the iTosefta /i: bOne who prays must focus his heart toward Heaven. Abba Shaul says: An indication ofthe importance of this bmatteris stated in the verse: “The desire of the humble You have heard, Lord; bdirect their hearts, Your ear will listen”(Psalms 10:17). In other words, if one focuses his heart in prayer as a result of God directing his heart, his prayer will be accepted as God’s ear will listen.,With regard to one’s intent during prayer, bit was taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Yehuda said: This was the custom of Rabbi Akiva, when he would pray with the congregation he would shortenhis prayer band go up, due tohis desire to avoid being an bencumbrance on the congregationby making them wait for him to finish his prayer. bBut when he prayed by himselfhe would extend his prayers to an extent that ba person would leaveRabbi Akiva alone bin one cornerof the study hall bandlater bfind himstill praying bin another corner. And whywould Rabbi Akiva move about bso much? Because of his bows and prostrations.Rabbi Akiva’s enthusiasm in prayer was so great, that as a result of his bows and prostrations, he would unwittingly move from one corner to the other (Rav Hai Gaon).,Many ihalakhotare derived from evoking the prayers of biblical characters. bRabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba said: One should always pray in a house with windows, as it is statedregarding Daniel: “And when Daniel knew that the writing was signed, he went to his house. In his attic bthere were open windowsfacing Jerusalem, and three times a day he knelt upon his knees and prayed and gave thanks before his God, just as he had done before” (Daniel 6:11).,In the iTosefta /i, additional ihalakhotwere derived from Daniel’s prayer. I bmight havethought bthat one could prayas many times as he wishes bthroughout the entire day; it has already been articulated by Daniel,with regard to whom it is stated: b“And three timesa day he knelt upon his knees and prayed.” This teaches that there are fixed prayers., bI might have thought that thispractice of fixed prayer bbeganonly bwhen he came tothe Babylonian bexile; it was stated:“Just bas he had done before.” /b,Further, I bmight havethought bthat one may prayfacing bany direction he wishes; the verse states:The appropriate direction for prayer is b“facing Jerusalem.” /b,Daniel does not describe how these three prayers are distributed during the day. I bmight havethought bthat one may include allthree prayers bat one time; it has already been articulated by Davidthat one may not do so, bas it is written: “Evening and morning and noon,I pray and cry aloud and He hears my voice” (Psalms 55:18).,Furthermore, bI might havethought bthat one may make his voice heard in his iAmida bprayer; it has already been articulated by Hannahin her prayer, bas it is stated:“And Hannah spoke in her heart, only her lips moved band her voice could not be heard”(I Samuel 1:13)., iHalakhotregarding the order of the prayers were also learned from the prayers of biblical characters. I bmight havethought bthat one should request his own needs first, and afterwards recite prayersof thanksgiving and praise; bit has already been articulated by Solomonthat this is not so, as in Solomon’s prayer at the dedication of the Holy Temple bit is stated: “To hear the song and the prayerthat Your servant prays before You today” (I Kings 8:28). In this verse, bsong is prayerin the sense of thanks and praise, and bprayer isone’s brequestof his personal needs. Therefore, one who is praying bdoes not speak matters of request afterhe began to recite iemet veyatziv /iprior to the iAmidaprayer, which is the essence of prayer. Rather, he begins with praise in the first three blessings of the iAmidaprayer, and only thereafter does he include requests for his needs. bBut after the iAmida bprayerthere is no limit. If he desires to recite beven the equivalent of the order of the confession of Yom Kippur,he may breciteit.,This bwas also statedby an iamora /i; bRav Ḥiyya bar Ashi saidthat bRav said: Althoughthe Sages bsaidthat bone requests hispersonal bneeds inthe blessing: bWho listens to prayer,that is with regard to one who wishes to do so as part of the iAmidaprayer. bIf he comesto add band reciteadditional requests baftercompleting bhis iAmida bprayer, evenif his personal requests are bthe equivalent of the order of the confession of Yom Kippur,he may brecitethem., bRav Hamnuna said: How many significant ihalakhot bcan be derived from these versesof the prayer bof Hannah?As it says: “And Hannah spoke in her heart, only her lips moved and her voice could not be heard, so Eli thought her to be drunk” (I Samuel 1:13). The Gemara elaborates: bFromthat which is stated bhere: “And Hannah spoke in her heart,”the ihalakhathat bone who prays must focus his hearton his prayer is derived. And bfromthat which is stated bhere: “Only her lips moved,”the ihalakhathat bone who prays must enunciatethe words bwith his lips,not only contemplate them in his heart, is derived. bFromthat which is written bhere: “And her voice could not be heard,”the ihalakhathat bone is forbidden to raise his voice in his iAmida bprayeras it must be recited silently. bFromthe continuation of the verse bhere: “So Eli thought her to be drunk,”the ihalakhathat ba drunk person is forbidden to pray.That is why he rebuked her.,On the subject of Eli’s rebuke of Hannah, as it is stated: b“And Eli said to her: How long will you remain drunk?Remove your wine from yourself” (I Samuel 1:14); bRabbi Elazar said: From herethe ihalakhathat bone who sees in another /b
20. Babylonian Talmud, Megillah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

28b. ואין ניאותין בהם ואין מטיילין בהם ואין נכנסין בהן בחמה מפני החמה ובגשמים מפני הגשמים ואין מספידין בהן הספד של יחיד אבל קורין בהן ושונין בהן ומספידין בהן הספד של רבים,א"ר יהודה אימתי בישובן אבל בחורבנן מניחין אותן ועולין בהן עשבים ולא יתלוש מפני עגמת נפש,עשבים מאן דכר שמייהו חסורי מיחסרא והכי קתני ומכבדין אותן ומרביצין אותן כדי שלא יעלו בהן עשבים א"ר יהודה אימתי בישובן אבל בחורבנן מניחין אותן לעלות עלו בהם עשבים לא יתלוש מפני עגמת נפש,א"ר אסי בתי כנסיות שבבבל על תנאי הן עשויין ואעפ"כ אין נוהגין בהן קלות ראש ומאי ניהו חשבונות,אמר רב אסי בהכ"נ שמחשבין בו חשבונות מלינין בו את המת מלינין סלקא דעתך לא סגי דלאו הכי אלא לסוף שילינו בו מת מצוה:,ואין ניאותין בהן: אמר רבא חכמים ותלמידיהם מותרין דאמר ריב"ל מאי בי רבנן ביתא דרבנן:,ואין נכנסין בהן בחמה מפני החמה ובגשמים מפני הגשמים: כי הא דרבינא ורב אדא בר מתנה הוו קיימי ושאלי שאילתא מרבא אתא זילחא דמיטרא עיילי לבי כנישתא אמרי האי דעיילינן לבי כנישתא לאו משום מיטרא אלא משום דשמעתא בעא צילותא כיומא דאסתנא,א"ל רב אחא בריה דרבא לרב אשי אי אצטריך ליה לאיניש למיקרי גברא מבי כנישתא מאי א"ל אי צורבא מרבנן הוא לימא הלכתא ואי תנא הוא לימא מתני' ואי קרא הוא לימא פסוקא ואי לא לימא ליה לינוקא אימא לי פסוקיך א"נ נישהי פורתא וניקום:,ומספידין בהן הספד של רבים: ה"ד הספידא דרבים מחוי רב חסדא כגון הספידא דקאי ביה רב ששת מחוי רב ששת כגון הספידא דקאי ביה רב חסדא,רפרם אספדה לכלתיה בבי כנישתא אמר משום יקרא דידי ודמיתא אתו כוליה עלמא ר' זירא ספדיה לההוא מרבנן בבי כנישתא אמר אי משום יקרא דידי אי משום יקרא דידיה דמיתא אתו כולי עלמא,ריש לקיש ספדיה לההוא צורבא מרבנן דשכיח בארעא דישראל דהוי תני הלכתא בכ"ד שורתא אמר ווי חסרא ארעא דישראל גברא רבה,ההוא דהוי תני הלכתא סיפרא וסיפרי ותוספתא ושכיב אתו ואמרו ליה לרב נחמן ליספדיה מר אמר היכי נספדיה הי צנא דמלי סיפרי דחסר,תא חזי מה בין תקיפי דארעא דישראל לחסידי דבבל,תנן התם ודאשתמש בתגא חלף תני ריש לקיש זה המשתמש במי ששונה הלכות כתרה של תורה,ואמר עולא לשתמש איניש במאן דתני ארבעה ולא לשתמש במאן דמתני ארבעה כי הא דריש לקיש הוה אזיל באורחא מטא עורקמא דמיא אתא ההוא גברא ארכביה אכתפיה וקא מעבר ליה א"ל קרית אמר ליה קרינא תנית תנינא ארבעה סידרי משנה א"ל פסלת לך ארבעה טורי וטענת בר לקיש אכתפך שדי בר לקישא במיא,אמר ליה ניחא לי דאשמעינן למר אי הכי גמור מיני הא מלתא דאמר ר' זירא בנות ישראל הן החמירו על עצמן שאפילו רואות טיפת דם כחרדל יושבות עליו שבעה נקיים,תנא דבי אליהו כל השונה הלכות מובטח לו שהוא בן עולם הבא שנאמר (חבקוק ג, ו) הליכות עולם לו אל תקרי הליכות אלא הלכות,ת"ר 28b. band one may not adorn oneself inside them; nor may one wander about inside them; nor may one enter them in the sunfor protection bfrom the sun, or in the rainto find shelter bfrom the rain; nor may one offer a eulogy inside them for an individual,which is a private event. bHowever, one may readthe Bible binside them, and one may study ihalakhot binside them, and one may offer a eulogy inside them fora Torah scholar, if bthe publicattends the eulogy., bRabbi Yehuda said: Whendoes this apply? bWhenthe synagogues are boccupiedby the people using them. bBut when they are ina state of bruin, they should be left aloneso that bgrass will sprout up inside them. Andthat grass bshould not be pickedand removed, bdue tothe banguishthat it will bring to those who see it. It will remind them of the disrepair of the synagogue and the need to rebuild it.,The Gemara asks: Why did Rabbi Yehuda discuss the ihalakhaabout bgrass? Who mentionedanything babout it?The Gemara explains: The text of the ibaraita bis incomplete and is teaching the following: Andamong the other things that may be done in synagogues, bthey shouldalso be sure to bsweep them andto bsprinkletheir floors with water, bin order that grass not sprout up in them. Rabbi Yehuda said: Whendoes this apply? bWhenthe synagogues are boccupiedby the people using them, bbut when they are ina state of bruin, they should be left aloneso that grass bwill sprout up inside them.If bgrass did sprout up, it should not be removed, due tothe banguishthat this will bring to those who see it., bRav Asi said: Synagogues in Babylonia are builtfrom the outset bwith a stipulationthat they not have the full sanctity of a synagogue, in order that it be permitted to use them for the community’s general needs. bBut nevertheless,one bshould not act inside them with frivolity.The Gemara explains: bWhat ismeant by bthis?One should not make business bcalculationsin a synagogue., bRav Asi said:With regard to ba synagogue in whichpeople bmakebusiness bcalculations, they willeventually bkeep a corpse inside it overnight.The Gemara questions the wording of this dictum: bCan itreally benter your mindto say that bthey willever actually bkeep a corpse inside it overnight?Could it really be that bthere will not be any other alternative? Rather,Rav Asi means that as a punishment for acting with frivolity people in the community will die, including those who have no family, and so bultimately they willhave to bkeep a corpse with no one to bury it [ imet mitzva /i] overnightin the synagogue.,§ The ibaraitataught: bAnd one may not adorn oneself inside them. Rava said:The prohibition applies only to laypeople, but bTorah scholars and their disciples are permittedto do so, bas Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: Whatis the meaning of the term: iBeiof the Sages,which is used to describe a study hall? It is a shortened form of bhouse [ ibeita /i] of the Sages.In order to facilitate the constant presence of the Torah scholars in the study hall, it is permitted for them to use the hall as though it were their home.,The ibaraitacontinued: bAnd nor may one enter them in the sunfor protection bfrom the sun, or in the rainto find shelter bfrom the rain.The Gemara explains: This bis similar to thatcase of bRavina and Rav Adda bar Mattana. They were standing and asking a question of Rava,when ba shower [ izilḥa /i] of rain beganto fall upon them. bTheyall bentered the synagogue, saying: Our having entered the synagogue is not due to the rain,that we stay dry; brather, it is due tothe fact that bthe ihalakha /iwe were discussing brequires clarity like the day the north wind [ iistena /i]blows and the sky is perfectly clear. Therefore, we are entering the synagogue for the sake of studying Torah, which is certainly permitted., bRav Aḥa, son of Rava, said to Rav Ashi: If a person needs to summon an individual frominside ba synagogue, whatshould he do, since it is not permitted to enter a synagogue just for that purpose? Rav Ashi bsaid to him: If he is a young Torah scholar, let him recite a ihalakha /iupon entering the synagogue; band if he is a itanna /iwho memorizes large numbers of imishnayot /i, blet him recitevarious imishnayot /i; and if he is an expert inthe bBible, let him recite a verse; and ifhe is bnotable to do even this, blet him say to a child: Recite for me a versethat you have learned today. bAlternatively, he should remainin the synagogue bfor a shorttime bandonly afterward bstand upand leave.,The ibaraitacontinues: bAnd one may offer a eulogy inside them fora Torah scholar if bthe publicattends the eulogy. The Gemara asks: bWhat are the circumstances of a eulogy for the public? Rav Ḥisda depicteda case: bFor example, a eulogyfor a Torah scholar bat which Rav Sheshet is present.Owing to his presence, many people will come. bRav Sheshethimself bdepictedanother case: bFor example, a eulogy at which Rav Ḥisda is present. /b,The Gemara offers another example: bRaframonce beulogized his daughter-in-law inside a synagogue. He said: Due to my honor andthe honor bof the deceased, everyone will cometo the eulogy. It will consequently be a public event, and it is therefore permitted to hold it in a synagogue. Similarly, bRabbi Zeiraonce beulogized a certain Sage inside a synagogue. He said: Whether due to my honor, or whether due to the honor of the deceased, everyone will cometo the eulogy., bReish Lakishonce beulogized a certain young Torah scholar who was frequentlypresent bin Eretz Yisrael and who used to study ihalakhain the twenty-fourth rowof the study hall. He sat so far back because he was not one of the principal scholars. Nevertheless, when he died, Reish Lakish bsaid: Alas, Eretz Yisrael has lost a great man. /b,In contrast, there was ba certain man who used to study ihalakha /i, the iSifra /i, and the iSifrei /i, and the iTosefta /i, and he died.People bcame and said to Rav Naḥman: Let the Master eulogize him. He saidto them: bHow can I eulogize him?Should I say: bAlas, a basket filled with books is lost?This would not be true. Although the man studied many areas of Torah, he was not proficient in them.,The Gemara compares the conduct of Reish Lakish in Eretz Yisrael to that of Rav Naḥman in Babylonia. bComeand bsee whatthe difference is bbetween the harshscholars bof Eretz Yisrael and the saintly ones of Babylonia.Although Reish Lakish was known for his harsh nature, he was still more respectful than Rav Naḥman, who was known for his saintliness., bWe learnedin a mishna bthere( iAvot1:13): bAnd one who makes use of the crown [ itaga /i]of Torah learning bwill perishfrom the world. bReish Lakish taught: Thisis referring to bone whoallows himself to be bserved by one who studies ihalakhot /i,which is bthe crown of the Torah. /b, bAnd Ulla said:It is better that ba person should be served by one who studies fourorders of the Mishna, band he should notallow himself to bbe served by one who teachesto others bfourorders of the Mishna, bas in thatcase bof Reish Lakish. He was traveling along the roadwhen bhe reacheda deep bpuddle of water. A certain man cameand bplaced him upon his shoulders andbegan btransferring himto the other side. Reish Lakish bsaid to him: Have you readthe Bible? bHe said to him: I have readit. He then asked: bHave you studiedthe Mishna? He answered him: bI have studied four orders of the Mishna.Reish Lakish then bsaid to him: You have hewnthese bfour mountains andyet byou bear the weight of the son of Lakish upon your shoulders?It is inappropriate for you to carry me; bthrow the son of Lakish into the water. /b,The man bsaid toReish Lakish: bIt is pleasing for me to serve the Masterin this way. Reish Lakish said to him: bIf so, learn from me this matter that Rabbi Zeira said.In this way you will be considered my disciple, and it will then be appropriate for you to serve me. bJewish women were strict upon themselves in that even if they see a spot ofmenstrual bbloodthat is only the size bof a mustard seed they wait on its account seven cleandays before immersing themselves in a ritual bath to purify themselves., bThe school of Eliyahu taught: Anyone who studies ihalakhot /ievery day, bhe is guaranteed that he is destined for the World-to-Come, as it is stated: “His ways [ ihalikhot /i] are eternal”(Habakkuk 3:6): bDo not readthe verse as ihalikhot[ways]; rather,read it as ihalakhot /i.Consequently, the verse indicates that the study of the ihalakhotbrings one to eternal life., bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i:
21. Babylonian Talmud, Niddah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

13a. מתני׳ big strongכל /strong /big היד המרבה לבדוק בנשים משובחת ובאנשים תקצץ, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big מ"ש נשים ומאי שנא אנשים נשים לאו בנות הרגשה נינהו משובחות אנשים דבני הרגשה נינהו תקצץ,אי הכי מאי איריא מרבה כי לא מרבה נמי כי קתני מרבה אנשים,תנא בד"א לענין שכבת זרע אבל לענין זוב אף הוא משובח כנשים,ואפי' לענין שכבת זרע אם בא לבדוק בצרור או בחרס בודק,ובמטלית לא והתניא בודק עצמו במטלית ובכל דבר שרוצה כדאמר אביי במטלית עבה הכא נמי במטלית עבה,והיכא איתמר דאביי אהא דתנן היה אוכל בתרומה והרגיש שנזדעזעו איבריו אוחז באמתו ובולע את התרומה,אוחז והתניא רבי אליעזר אומר כל האוחז באמתו ומשתין כאילו מביא מבול לעולם אמר אביי במטלית עבה,רבא אמר אפילו תימא במטלית רכה כיון דעקר עקר ואביי חייש דלמא אתי לאוסופי ורבא לא חייש דלמא אתי לאוסופי, ולא והתניא הא למה זה דומה לנותן אצבע בעין שכל זמן שאצבע בעין עין מדמעת וחוזרת ומדמעת,ורבא כל אחמומי והדר אחמומי בשעתיה לא שכיח,גופא ר"א אומר כל האוחז באמה ומשתין כאילו מביא מבול לעולם אמרו לו לרבי אליעזר והלא נצוצות נתזין על רגליו ונראה ככרות שפכה ונמצא מוציא לעז על בניו שהן ממזרים,אמר להן מוטב שיוציא לעז על בניו שהן ממזרים ואל יעשה עצמו רשע שעה אחת לפני המקום,תניא אידך אמר להן רבי אליעזר לחכמים אפשר יעמוד אדם במקום גבוה וישתין או ישתין בעפר תיחוח ואל יעשה עצמו רשע שעה אחת לפני המקום,הי אמר להו ברישא אילימא קמייתא אמר להו ברישא בתר דאמר להו איסורא הדר אמר להו תקנתא,אלא הא אמר להו ברישא ואמרו ליה אין לו מקום גבוה ועפר תיחוח מאי אמר להן מוטב שיוציא לעז על בניו ואל יעשה עצמו רשע שעה אחת לפני המקום,וכל כך למה מפני שמוציא שכבת זרע לבטלה דא"ר יוחנן כל המוציא שכבת זרע לבטלה חייב מיתה שנאמר (בראשית לח, י) וירע בעיני ה' (את) אשר עשה וימת גם אותו,רבי יצחק ורבי אמי אמרי כאילו שופך דמים שנאמר (ישעיהו נז, ה) הנחמים באלים תחת כל עץ רענן שוחטי הילדים בנחלים תחת סעיפי הסלעים אל תקרי שוחטי אלא סוחטי,רב אסי אמר כאילו עובד עבודת כוכבים כתיב הכא תחת כל עץ רענן וכתיב התם (דברים יב, ב) על ההרים הרמים ותחת כל עץ רענן,רב יהודה ושמואל הוו קיימי אאיגרא דבי כנישתא דשף ויתיב בנהרדעא אמר ליה רב יהודה לשמואל צריך אני להשתין א"ל שיננא אחוז באמתך והשתן לחוץ,היכי עביד הכי והתניא ר"א אומר כל האוחז באמתו ומשתין כאילו מביא מבול לעולם,אמר אביי עשאו כבולשת דתנן בולשת שנכנס לעיר בשעת שלום חביות פתוחות אסורות סתומות מותרות בשעת מלחמה אלו ואלו מותרות לפי שאין להן פנאי לנסך אלמא דכיון דבעיתי לא אתי לנסוכי הכא נמי כיון דבעיתי לא אתי להרהורי,והכא מאי ביעתותא איכא איבעית אימא ביעתותא דליליא ודאיגרא ואיבעית אימא ביעתותא דרביה ואב"א ביעתותא דשכינה ואיבעית אימא אימתא דמריה עליה דקרי שמואל עליה אין זה ילוד אשה,ואיבעית אימא נשוי הוה דאמר רב נחמן אם היה נשוי מותר,ואיבעית אימא כי הא אורי ליה דתני אבא בריה דרבי בנימין בר חייא אבל מסייע בביצים מלמטה ואיבעית אימא כי הא אורי ליה דאמר רבי אבהו אמר רבי יוחנן גבול יש לו מעטרה ולמטה מותר 13a. strongMISHNA: /strong With regard to bany hand that is diligent to examinebodily emissions to ascertain ritual impurity, bamong womensuch a hand bis praiseworthy. But among mensuch a hand bshould be severed,as this action is apt to lead to a seminal emission for naught., strongGEMARA: /strong The Gemara asks: bWhat is differentabout bwomen and what is differentabout bmen,that women are praised for examining for bodily emissions while men are castigated for the same? The Gemara answers: bWomen are not susceptible tosexual barousalby this action, and therefore when a woman is diligent to examine herself she is considered bpraiseworthy;whereas bmen, who are susceptible tosexual barousaland may experience a seminal emission as a result of this contact, may not do so, and the hand of a man who conducts frequent examinations for emissions bshould be severed. /b,The Gemara asks: bIf so, whydoes the mishna state bspecificallyamong men that only the hand that is bdiligentto examine, i.e., that does so often, should be severed? Even bwhena man bis not diligentto examine, but does so occasionally, this action is balsoapt to cause a seminal emission. The Gemara answers: bWhenthe mishna bteaches:Any hand that is bdiligentto examine, it states this only bwith regard to women,as men should not examine even occasionally.,The Gemara continues to discuss the examination of men for seminal emissions. It is btaughtin a ibaraita /i: bIn whatcase bis this statement,that men should not examine themselves, bsaid?It is said bwith regard toan examination for bsemen. But with regard toa man who examines himself for gonorrhea-like bdischarge [ izov /i], he too is praiseworthyfor examining diligently, bas womenare. The reason is that a man who experiences two such discharges is ritually impure but is not obligated to bring an offering, whereas one who experiences three such emissions must bring an offering as a izav /i. Therefore, it is important for a man who experiences a gonorrhea-like discharge to examine and count his emissions carefully.,The ibaraitaadds: bAnd even with regard to semen, if one wants to examinehimself bwith a rock or witha piece of bearthenware,which are hard and will not warm the body, bhe may examinehimself in this manner.,The Gemara asks: bAndmay a man bnotexamine himself bwitha linen bcloth? But isn’t it taughtin a ibaraita /i: A man bmay examine himself with a cloth,to see if he has emitted semen, bor with anysimilar bitem that he wants?The Gemara answers: Just bas Abaye said,with regard to a different issue, that it is referring bto a coarse cloth,which will not warm one’s body, bhere too,the ibaraitais referring bto a coarse cloth,which will not lead to a seminal emission.,The Gemara asks: bAnd where wasthis statement bof Abaye stated?It was stated bwith regard to that which we learnedin a mishna (40a): If a priest bwas eating iterumaand he sensed that his limbs quaked,indicating that a seminal emission was imminent, he should firmly bhold his penisto prevent the emission from leaving his body, band swallow the iteruma /iwhile ritually pure.,A difficulty was raised with regard to this mishna: May he actually bholdhis penis? bBut isn’t it taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Eliezer says:With regard to banyone who holds his penis and urinates,it is considered bas though he is bringing a flood to the world,as masturbation was one of the sins that led to the flood ( iSanhedrin108b)? bAbaye saysin resolution of this difficulty that the mishna is referring to one who holds his penis bwith a coarse cloth. /b, bRava sayswith regard to that mishna: bYoumay beven saythat it is referring to a priest who holds his penis bwith a soft cloth,and the reason it is permitted is that boncethe semen bhasalready been buprootedfrom his body, it is buprooted,and his subsequent holding of the penis, even with a soft cloth, does not increase the emission of semen. bAnd Abayeprohibits the use of a soft cloth even here, as he is bconcernedthat bperhapsdue to the contact of this cloth one might bcome to increasethe emission of semen. bBut Rava is not concernedthat bperhapsone might bcome to increasethe emission.,The Gemara asks: bAndis Rava bnotconcerned for this possibility? bBut isn’t it taughtin a ibaraita /i: bTo what is thisrepeated examination of a man bcomparable? Toone who bplaces a finger inhis beye, for as long asthe bfingeris bin the eye,the beye will tear and continue to tear.Here too, the priest’s action will lead to an increased emission of semen.,The Gemara answers: bAnd Ravawould claim that if the priest’s limbs were not quaking and the semen was coming out in drops, there is indeed a concern that an examination might increase the emission. But when he feels his limbs quaking, this concern does not apply. The reason is that with regard to bany warmingof the body that leads to a seminal emission bandthat is bthenfollowed by another bwarming at the timewhen the semen is being uprooted, it is buncommonfor the latter warming to increase the emission. Consequently, in this case the priest may hold his penis even with a soft cloth.,The Gemara discusses bthematter bitself. Rabbi Eliezer says:With regard to banyone who holdshis bpenis and urinates,it is considered bas though he is bringing a flood to the world.The Rabbis bsaid to Rabbi Eliezer: Butif one does not hold his penis, bsmall drops are sprayed on his legs, and he appears as one whose penis has been severed.A man with that affliction is incapable of fathering children. People who see urine on his legs might suspect that he is suffering from that condition band as a resultthey will bcast aspersions about his childrenand say bthat they are children born from a forbidden relationship [ imamzerim /i]. /b,Rabbi Eliezer bsaid to them: It is preferable thatpeople bcast aspersions about his children that they are imamzerim /i, and he should not render himself wickedeven bone moment before the Omnipresent. /b,With regard to the same issue, it bis taughtin banother ibaraitathat bRabbi Eliezer said tothe other bRabbisin response: It is bpossiblefor one to avoid spraying urine on his legs. How so? bLet a person stand on an elevated place and urinatedownward, bor urinate intoan area where there is bloose soil,which absorbs the urine, so that it does not ricochet upward, band he should not render himself wickedeven bone moment before the Omnipresent. /b,The Gemara asks: bWhichof these replies bdidRabbi Eliezer bsay tothe Rabbis bfirst? If we saythat it was the bfirststatement, i.e., that one should not hold his penis even if people might cast aspersions about his children, that he bsaid tothe Rabbis bfirst,and subsequently he told them that there was a way to avoid urine being sprayed on his legs, this is difficult; bafter saying to themthat it is ba prohibition, would he then say to thema practical bremedy?By saying that one can avoid urine being sprayed on his legs, Rabbi Eliezer indicated that if one cannot do so he may hold his penis, which contradicts his other statement., bRather,clearly bhe said thispractical solution btothe Rabbis bfirst, and theythen bsaid to him:If bone does not have an elevated place or loose earthupon which he can urinate, bwhatshould he do? In response to this question, bhe said to them: It is preferablethat people bcast aspersions about his children that they are imamzerim /i, and he should not render himself wickedeven bone moment before the Omnipresent. /b,The Gemara asks: bAndwhy must one refrain bto that extentfrom holding his penis? bBecauseas the result of holding his penis bhemight bemit semen for naught. As Rabbi Yoḥa says: Anyone who emits semen for naught is liableto receive the punishment of bdeathat the hand of Heaven, bas it is statedwith regard to O, son of Judah: “And it came to pass, when he engaged in intercourse with his brother’s wife, that he spilled it on the ground, lest he should give seed to his brother. bAnd the thing that he did was evil in the eyes of the Lord, and He slew him also”(Genesis 38:9–10)., bRabbi Yitzḥak and Rabbi Ami say:One who emits semen for naught is considered bas though he sheds blood, as it is stated:“But draw near here, you sons of the sorceress, the seed of the adulterer and the harlot…Are you not children of transgression, a seed of falsehood, byou that inflame yourselves among the terebinths, under every leafy tree, that slay [ ishoḥatei /i] the children in the valleys, under the clefts of the rocks?”(Isaiah 57:3–5). bDo not readthis word as ishoḥatei /i; rather,read it as isoḥatei /i,i.e., one who squeezes out [ isoḥet /i] semen is considered to have shed the blood of the children who could have been born from that seed., bRav Asi says:It is considered bas though he worships idols,as bit is written here: “Under every leafy tree,” and it is written there,with regard to the mitzva of eradicating idols from Eretz Yisrael: “You shall destroy all the places, where the nations that you are to dispossess worshipped their gods, bupon the high mountains,and upon the hills, band under every leafy tree”(Deuteronomy 12:2).,§ With regard to the issue of holding one’s penis for the purpose of urinating, the Gemara relates that bRav Yehuda and Shmuel were standing on the roof of the synagogue that was destroyed and rebuilt in Neharde’a. Rav Yehuda said to Shmuel:What can I do? bI need to urinate.Shmuel bsaid to him: iShina /i, hold your penis,so that the water does not fall onto the synagogue roof, band urinate outward,away from the synagogue.,The Gemara asks: bHow couldRav Yehuda bdo so? But isn’t it taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Eliezer says:With regard to banyone who holds his penis and urinates,it is considered bas though he is bringing a flood to the world? /b, bAbaye says:The Sages brenderedthe halakhic status of this situation blikethat of ba troop of marauders, as we learnedin a mishna ( iAvoda Zara70b): With regard to ba troop of marauders that entered a town,if they did so bin a time of peace, open casksof wine bare forbidden,in case the marauders used the wine for libations in idol worship, whereas bsealedcasks bare permitted. In a time of war,both bthese and those are permitted, becausethe marauders bdo not have leisure to pour libations. Evidently, sincethese marauders bare afraid, they will not come to pour libations. Here too,in this incident involving Rav Yehuda, bsince he is afraid he will not come to havesexual bthoughts. /b,The Gemara asks: bAnd what fear is there here,in the case of Rav Yehuda? The Gemara explains: bIf you wish, saythat there is bthe fear of the night and of the roof,i.e., that he might fall. bAnd if you wish, saythat bthe awe of his teacher,Shmuel, is upon him. bAnd if you wish, saythat bthe awe of the Divine Presencethat dwells in the synagogue is upon Rav Yehuda. bAnd if you wish, saythat bthe awe of his Master,God, is upon him. Rav Yehuda was renowned for his fear of Heaven, bas Shmuel declared abouthim: bThis one is not born of a woman,but is like an angel., bAnd if you wish, saya different answer, that Rav Yehuda was allowed to hold his penis while urinating because he bwas married; as Rav Naḥman said: If one is married,it is bpermittedfor him to hold his penis while urinating, as his improper sexual urges are not as strong., bAnd if you wish, saythat Shmuel bruled forRav Yehuda bin accordance with this ibaraita /i, bwhich Abba, son of Rabbi Binyamin bar Ḥiyya, teaches:One may not hold the penis itself while urinating, bbuta man who wishes to urinate bmay assistthe process bbyholding the btesticles from below.Shmuel instructed Rav Yehuda to act in this manner. bAnd if you wish, saythat bShmuel ruledfor Rav Yehuda bin accordance with that which Rabbi Abbahu saidthat bRabbi Yoḥa says: There isa clear bdemarcationin the prohibition against holding one’s penis while urinating: bFrom the corona and below,toward the tip of the penis, it is bpermittedto hold, as this will not lead to arousal.
22. Babylonian Talmud, Shabbat, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

83a. ורבי עקיבא למאי הלכתא איתקש לנדה למשא לוקשיה לנבלה אין הכי נמי אלא מה נדה אינה לאברין אף ע"ז אינה לאברין אלא הא דבעי רב חמא בר גוריא ע"ז ישנה לאברים או אינה לאברים תיפשוט ליה מהא בין לרבנן בין לרבי עקיבא דאינה לאברים רב חמא בר גוריא כרבה מתני ובעי לה אליבא דרבי עקיבא,מיתיבי ע"ז כשרץ ומשמשיה כשרץ רבי עקיבא אומר ע"ז כנדה ומשמשיה כשרץ בשלמא לרבי אלעזר ניחא אלא לרבה קשיא אמר לך רבה מי אלימא ממתני' דקתני עציו ואבניו ועפריו מטמאין כשרץ ואוקימנא מאי כשרץ דלא מטמא באבן מסמא ה"נ דלא מטמא באבן מסמא,מיתיבי נכרי ונכרית ע"ז ומשמשיה הן ולא היסטן רבי עקיבא אומר הן והיסטן בשלמא לרבי אלעזר ניחא אלא לרבה קשיא אמר לך רבה וליטעמיך נכרי ונכרית נמי הן ולא היסטן והתניא (ויקרא טו, ב) דבר אל בני ישראל וגו' בני ישראל מטמאין בזיבה ואין נכרים מטמאין בזיבה אבל גזרו עליהן שיהו כזבין לכל דבריהן,אלא רבה מתרץ לטעמיה נכרי ונכרית הן והיסטן ואבן מסמא שלהן ע"ז היא והיסטה אבל לא אבן מסמא שלה רבי עקיבא אומר ע"ז היא והיסטה ואבן מסמא שלה ורבי אלעזר מתרץ לטעמיה נכרי ונכרית הן והיסטן ואבן מסמא שלהן ע"ז היא ולא היסטה ורבי עקיבא אומר ע"ז היא והיסטה,מתקיף לה רב אשי מאי הן אלא אמר רב אשי הכי קאמר נכרי ונכרית בין הן שהסיטו את אחרים ובין אחרים שהסיטו אותן טמאים ע"ז שהסיטה אחרים טהורין אחרים שהסיטו אותה טמאים משמשיה בין הן שהסיטו את אחרים ובין אחרים שהסיטו אותן טהורים רבי עקיבא אומר נכרי ונכרית וע"ז בין הן שהסיטו את אחרים ובין אחרים שהסיטו אותן טמאים משמשיה בין הן שהסיטו אחרים ובין אחרים שהסיטו אותן טהורין,ע"ז בשלמא אחרים שהסיטו אותה משכחת לה אלא היא שהסיטה את אחרים היכי משכחת לה אמר רמי בריה דרב ייבא כדתנן הזב בכף מאזנים ואוכלין ומשקין בכף שנייה כרע הזב טמאין 83a. bAndaccording to the opinion of bRabbi Akiva,with regard bto what ihalakhawasidolatry bjuxtaposed to a menstruating woman?If it was to teach the ihalakhaof impurity imparted by bcarrying, let it be juxtaposed to ananimal bcarcassand not to a menstruating woman and creeping animals. The Gemara answers: bYes, it is indeed so. However,the juxtaposition to a menstruating woman teaches: bJust as a menstruating woman does nottransmit impurity bthroughher blimbs,as a menstruating woman who leans on an object by a single limb does not transmit impurity imparted by carrying (Ra’avad), bso too, an idol does nottransmit impurity bthroughits blimbs,and a section of an idol does not transmit impurity. The Gemara asks: bBut that which Rav Ḥama bar Guria raised as a dilemma: Does idolatry havethe capacity to transmit impurity through blimbs or does it nothave the capacity to transmit impurity bthrough its limbs; resolvethe dilemma bfrom this, as according to both the Rabbis and Rabbi Akiva, it does nottransmit impurity bthrough limbs.According to this explanation, Rabbi Akiva agrees with the Rabbis. The Gemara rejects this: bRav Ḥama bar Guria taught in accordance withthe explanation of bRabba and raised the dilemma in accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Akiva. /b,The Gemara now clarifies the explanations of Rabba and Rabbi Elazar in light of other sources. The Gemara braises an objectionfrom that which was taught in a ibaraita /i: The ritual impurity of bidolatryis blikethat of ba creeping animal, andthe ritual impurity of bits accessoriesis blikethat of ba creeping animal. Rabbi Akiva says:The ritual impurity of bidolatryis blikethat of ba menstruating woman, andthe ritual impurity of bits accessoriesis blikethat of ba creeping animal. Granted,according btothe opinion of bRabbi Elazar,it works out bwell. However,according btothe opinion of bRabba, it is difficult.The dispute between Rabbi Akiva and the Rabbis in this ibaraitais whether idolatry is likened to a creeping animal and does not transmit impurity imparted by carrying or whether it is likened to a menstruating woman and it does transmit impurity imparted by carrying. According to Rabba, the Rabbis agree that it does transmit impurity imparted by carrying. bRabbacould have bsaid to you: Isthe proof from this ibaraita bstronger thanthe bmishnain tractate iAvoda Zara /i, bwhich taught: Its wood and stones and dirt transmit impurity like a creeping animal?With regard to that mishna bwe established: Whatis the meaning of blike a creeping animal?It means that it is like a creeping animal in the sense bthat it does not transmit impurity by means of a very heavy stone. Here too,the analogy to a creeping animal in the ibaraitais in the sense that bit does not transmit impurity via a very heavy stone. /b,The Gemara braises an objectionfrom what we learned: bA gentile man and a gentile woman,with regard to whom the Rabbis issued a decree that they transmit impurity like a izav /i, bidolatry and its accessories,all transmit impurity. bTheytransmit impurity, band not their movement,i.e., they do not transmit impurity to one who moves them. bRabbi Akiva says:Both bthey and their movementtransmit impurity. bGranted,according btothe explanation of bRabbi Elazar,this works out bwell; however,according btothe explanation of bRabba, it is difficult. Rabbacould have bsaid to you: And according to your reasoning,with regard to ba gentile man and a gentile woman as well,do btheytransmit impurity band their movementdoes bnottransmit impurity? bWasn’t it taughtin a ibaraitawith regard to the verse: b“Speak to the children of Israeland say to them, when any man has an emission from his body, his emission is impure” (Leviticus 15:2), by Torah law, only bthe children of Israel become impure throughthe bemission of a izav /i, and gentiles do not become impure throughthe bemission of a izav /i? Butthe Sages bdecreed that they should beconsidered blike a izavfor all theirhalakhic bmatters.Since gentiles have the legal status of a izav /i, they should transmit impurity through carrying. Therefore, the ibaraitathat states that gentiles do not transmit impurity through carrying is corrupted and must be emended., bRather, Rabba explainsand adds to the ibaraita bin accordance with his reasoning: A gentile man and a gentile womantransmit impurity, bthey and their movement and their very heavy stone.And bidolatrytransmits impurity, bit and its movement but not its very heavy stone. Rabbi Akiva says: Idolatrytransmits impurity, bit and its movement and its very heavy stone. And Rabbi Elazar explainsand adds to the ibaraita bin accordance with his reasoningas follows: bA gentile man and a gentile womantransmit impurity, bthey and their movement and their very heavy stone. Idolatrytransmits impurity, bit and not its movement. And Rabbi Akiva says: Idolatrytransmits impurity, bit and its movement. /b, bRav Ashi strongly objects tothis explanation: According to this explanation, bwhatis the meaning of the word btheyin the context of this ibaraita /i? It would have been sufficient to say that their movement transmits impurity. The fact that the gentiles themselves are ritually impure is obvious. Apparently, the word they is emphasized in order to teach an additional ihalakha /i. bRather, Rav Ashi said, this is whatthe ibaraita bis saying:With regard to ba gentile man and a gentile woman, whether they moved others or others moved them,the others bare ritually impure.The impurity of a gentile is like that of a izav /i, which is unique in that anything that a izavmoves becomes impure even if he did not touch it directly. bIdolatry that moved others,the others remain britually pure;however, bothers who moved it are ritually impure.With regard to bits accessories, whether they moved others or others moved them,the others remain britually pure. Rabbi Akiva says: A gentile man and a gentile woman and idolatry, whether they moved others or others moved them,the others bare ritually impure. Its accessories, whether they moved others or others moved them,the others remain britually pure.According to this explanation, both the word they and the word movement, both of which appear in the ibaraita /i, are significant.,Rav Ashi’s explanation explains the ibaraita /i, but the Gemara questions the matter itself. With regard to bidolatry, granted,a case bwhere others moved itcan be easily bfound. However,a case where the idolatry bmoved others,under what circumstances bcan it be found?How can an idol move another object? bRami, son of Rav Yeiva, said,a case like that is possible, bas we learnedin a mishna: In a case where bthe izav /isat bonone bpan of abalance bscale, and food and drinkswere bonthe bsecond pan,if bthe izavtippedthe scales, the food and drinks on the other pan bare ritually impurebecause the izavmoved them.
23. Babylonian Talmud, Yoma, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

29a. הרהורי עבירה קשו מעבירה וסימניך ריחא דבישרא שילהי דקייטא קשיא מקייטא וסימניך תנורא שגירא,אישתא דסיתוא קשיא מדקייטא וסימניך תנורא קרירא מיגמר בעתיקתא קשיא מחדתא וסימניך טינא בר טינא,א"ר אבהו מ"ט דרבי דכתיב (תהלים כב, א) למנצח על אילת השחר מה אילה זו קרניה מפצילות לכאן ולכאן אף שחר זה מפציע לכאן ולכאן,א"ר זירא למה נמשלה אסתר לאילה לומר לך מה אילה רחמה צר וחביבה על בעלה כל שעה ושעה כשעה ראשונה אף אסתר היתה חביבה על אחשורוש כל שעה ושעה כשעה ראשונה א"ר אסי למה נמשלה אסתר לשחר לומר לך מה שחר סוף כל הלילה אף אסתר סוף כל הנסים,והא איכא חנוכה ניתנה לכתוב קא אמרינן הניחא למאן דאמר אסתר ניתנה לכתוב אלא למאן דאמר אסתר לא ניתנה לכתוב מאי איכא למימר,מוקים לה כר' בנימין בר יפת אמר ר' אלעזר דאמר רבי בנימין בר יפת אמר רבי אלעזר למה נמשלו תפלתן של צדיקים כאילת לומר לך מה אילה זו כל זמן שמגדלת קרניה מפצילות אף צדיקים כל זמן שמרבין בתפלה תפלתן נשמעת,שחטו את התמיד אימת אילימא בשאר ימות השנה לא סגיא דלאו כהן גדול אלא ביום הכפורים מאור הלבנה מי איכא,הכי קאמר וביום הכפורים כי אמר ברק ברקאי הורידו כ"ג לבית הטבילה,תני אבוה דרבי אבין לא זו בלבד אמרו אלא אף מליקת העוף וקמיצת מנחה בלילה תשרף בשלמא עולת העוף מאי דהוה הוה אלא קומץ 29a. bThoughts of transgression are worse than transgressionitself, band your mnemonic is the odor of meat.The smell of roasting meat is more appetizing than actually eating the meat. The heat of bthe end of summer is more oppressive than theheat of the bsummeritself, band your mnemonic is a heated oven.After an oven has been heated several times in the course of a day, lighting it again, even slightly, will produce powerful heat. So too, at the end of the summer, since everything is hot, the heat is more oppressive., bA fever inthe bwinter is more powerful thana fever binthe bsummer, and your mnemonic is a cold oven.Heating a cold oven requires greater heat than heating a hot oven. A fever that succeeds in raising the body temperature in the winter must be more powerful than a fever that raises the body temperature in the summer. bRelearning oldmaterial that was known and forgotten bis more difficult than learning from newmaterial. bAnd your mnemonic ismixing bmortar from mortar.It is harder to take hardened mortar, crush it, and mix new mortar than it is to simply mix new mortar.,Apropos moonlight and sunlight discussed previously, bRabbi Abbahu said: What is the rationalefor the statement of bRabbiYehuda HaNasi that sunlight diffuses and in that sense is dissimilar to moonlight? It is bas it is written: “For the leader, about the morning hind”(Psalms 22:1); bjust as the antlers of a hind branch out to here and to there, so too,the light of bdawn diffuses to here and to there. /b,In tractate iMegilla /i, the Gemara states that Queen Esther prophetically recited this Psalm in reference to her situation as she was about to come before King Ahasuerus without being summoned. bRabbi Zeira said: Why is Esther likened to a hind?It is bto tell you: Just asin the case of ba hind its womb is narrow and it is desirable to its mate at each and every hour likeit is at bthe first hour, so too, Esther was desirable to Ahasuerus at each and every hour likeshe was at bthe first hour. Rabbi Asi said: Why was Esther likened to the dawn?It is bto tell you: Just as the dawn is the conclusion of the entire night, so too, Esther was the conclusion of all miraclesperformed for the entire Jewish people.,The Gemara asks: bBut isn’t therethe miracle of bHanukkah,which was performed many years later? The Gemara answers: It is true that additional miracles were performed after the miracle of Purim; however, it is with regard to miracles for which permission bwas granted to writethem in the Bible that bwe are sayingthat the miracle of Purim was the last one. The Gemara asks: bThatworks out bwell according to the one who said:Permission bwas granted to writethe Scroll of bEstherin the Bible as a book whose sanctity equals that of the other books of the Bible. bHowever, according to the one who said:Permission bwas not granted to writethe Scroll of bEstherin the Bible, and its sanctity does not reach the level of the other books of the Bible, bwhat can be said? /b,The Gemara answers: Actually, Purim was not the conclusion of all miracles performed for the entire Jewish people, and the one who holds that permission was not granted for the Scroll of Esther to be written bestablishesthe analogy between Esther and the hind bin accordance withthe statement that bRabbi Binyamin bar Yefetsaid bthat Rabbi Elazar said; as Rabbi Binyamin bar Yefet saidthat bRabbi Elazar said: Why are the prayers of the righteous likened to a hind?It is bto tell you: Just aswith regard to ba hind, as long as it grows its antlers theycontinue to bbranch out; so too,with regard to bthe righteous, as long as theyengage bmore in prayer their prayer is heard. /b,§ The mishna relates that as a result of the confusion, bthey slaughtered the daily offeringbefore dawn. The Gemara asks: bWhendid this incident occur? bIf we sayit occurred bduring the rest of the days of the year, is there no alternativeto having the service performed by bthe High Priest?The mishna states that after slaughtering the daily offering, they led the High Priest down to the Hall of Immersion. On all the other days of the year, the High Priest need not perform the service and it may be performed by a common priest. bRather,it must be that this incident occurred bon Yom Kippur,when the service is performed exclusively by the High Priest. However, in that case, bis there moonlight?According to the lunar cycle, the moon never rises in the east adjacent to dawn on Yom Kippur.,The Gemara answers that bthis is whatthe mishna bis saying:The incident occurred during the rest of the year, at which point they instituted that the appointed priest announce the arrival of dawn in the Temple. bAnd on Yom Kippur, whenthe appointed priest bsaid: The light flashed, theyimmediately bled the High Priest down to the Hall of Immersion. /b,Apropos this fundamental ihalakha /i, bthe father of Rabbi Avin taughta ibaraita /i: bNot only this,that a daily offering slaughtered before dawn is disqualified and burned, bdid they say; rather, evenin the case of bthe pinching of theneck of ba bird and the taking of the handful of a meal-offeringthat are performed bat night,these items must bbe burned.The Gemara analyzes the ibaraita /i: bGranted, a birdsacrificed as ba burnt-offeringis disqualified if pinched before dawn; bwhat was, was.The situation can no longer be remedied, and the bird must be burned. bHowever,why should bthe handfulof a meal-offering be burned?


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
ammonites Porton (1988), Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta, 65
blood Libson (2018), Law and self-knowledge in the Talmud, 87; Porton (1988), Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta, 65
bones Balberg (2014), Purity, Body, and Self in Early Rabbinic Literature, 227, 232
carrying Porton (1988), Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta, 65
clothes/garments Porton (1988), Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta, 65
crops Porton (1988), Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta, 65
experts Libson (2018), Law and self-knowledge in the Talmud, 70
hermeneutics/hermeneutical—see also,interpretation Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 187
impurity Libson (2018), Law and self-knowledge in the Talmud, 70, 87
interpretation—see also midrash Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 187
menstrual impurity Libson (2018), Law and self-knowledge in the Talmud, 87
menstrual purity Libson (2018), Law and self-knowledge in the Talmud, 87
midrash/midrashim Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 187
moses Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 187
prayer Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 187
public domain,impurity in Balberg (2014), Purity, Body, and Self in Early Rabbinic Literature, 227
purity (impurity),gentile Fonrobert and Jaffee (2007), The Cambridge Companion to the Talmud and Rabbinic Literature Cambridge Companions to Religion, 249
qeri Libson (2018), Law and self-knowledge in the Talmud, 70
qumran/qumran community Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 187
rewritten bible Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 187
seminal emissions Balberg (2014), Purity, Body, and Self in Early Rabbinic Literature, 227, 232
sensation Libson (2018), Law and self-knowledge in the Talmud, 87
sinai,mount Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 187
thought (mahshava),role of in purity system Balberg (2014), Purity, Body, and Self in Early Rabbinic Literature, 227, 232
thoughts,prohibition of,in dead dea scrolls Jassen (2014), Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls, 167
thoughts,prohibition of,in philo Jassen (2014), Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls, 167
thoughts,prohibition of,in rabbinic literature Jassen (2014), Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls, 167
torah Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 187
visibility,implications of for im/purity' Balberg (2014), Purity, Body, and Self in Early Rabbinic Literature, 232
visibility,implications of for im/purity Balberg (2014), Purity, Body, and Self in Early Rabbinic Literature, 227
zav Libson (2018), Law and self-knowledge in the Talmud, 77