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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



8022
Mishnah, Middot, 2.5


עֶזְרַת הַנָּשִׁים הָיְתָה אֹרֶךְ מֵאָה וּשְׁלשִׁים וְחָמֵשׁ עַל רֹחַב מֵאָה וּשְׁלֹשִׁים וְחָמֵשׁ. וְאַרְבַּע לְשָׁכוֹת הָיוּ בְאַרְבַּע מִקְצוֹעוֹתֶיהָ, שֶׁל אַרְבָּעִים אַרְבָּעִים אַמָּה. וְלֹא הָיוּ מְקוֹרוֹת. וְכָךְ הֵם עֲתִידִים לִהְיוֹת, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (יחזקאל מו), וַיּוֹצִיאֵנִי אֶל הֶחָצֵר הַחִיצוֹנָה וַיַּעֲבִירֵנִי אֶל אַרְבַּעַת מִקְצוֹעֵי הֶחָצֵר וְהִנֵּה חָצֵר בְּמִקְצֹעַ הֶחָצֵר, חָצֵר בְּמִקְצֹעַ הֶחָצֵר, בְּאַרְבַּעַת מִקְצֹעוֹת הֶחָצֵר חֲצֵרוֹת קְטֻרוֹת. וְאֵין קְטֻרוֹת אֶלָּא שֶׁאֵינָן מְקוֹרוֹת. וּמֶה הָיוּ מְשַׁמְּשׁוֹת. דְּרוֹמִית מִזְרָחִית, הִיא הָיְתָה לִשְׁכַּת הַנְּזִירִים, שֶׁשָּׁם הַנְּזִירִים מְבַשְּׁלִין אֶת שַׁלְמֵיהֶן, וּמְגַלְּחִין אֶת שְׂעָרָן, וּמְשַׁלְּחִים תַּחַת הַדּוּד. מִזְרָחִית צְפוֹנִית, הִיא הָיְתָה לִשְׁכַּת הָעֵצִים, שֶׁשָּׁם הַכֹּהֲנִים בַּעֲלֵי מוּמִין מַתְלִיעִין הָעֵצִים. וְכָל עֵץ שֶׁנִּמְצָא בוֹ תוֹלַעַת, פָּסוּל מֵעַל גַּבֵּי הַמִּזְבֵּחַ. צְפוֹנִית מַעֲרָבִית, הִיא הָיְתָה לִשְׁכַּת מְצֹרָעִים. מַעֲרָבִית דְּרוֹמִית, אָמַר רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר בֶּן יַעֲקֹב, שָׁכַחְתִּי מֶה הָיְתָה מְשַׁמֶּשֶׁת. אַבָּא שָׁאוּל אוֹמֵר, שָׁם הָיוּ נוֹתְנִין יַיִן וָשֶׁמֶן, הִיא הָיְתָה נִקְרֵאת לִשְׁכַּת בֵּית שְׁמַנְיָה. וַחֲלָקָה הָיְתָה בָּרִאשׁוֹנָה, וְהִקִּיפוּהָ כְצוֹצְרָה, שֶׁהַנָּשִׁים רוֹאוֹת מִלְמַעְלָן, וְהָאֲנָשִׁים מִלְּמַטָּן, כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יְהוּ מְעֹרָבִין. וַחֲמֵשׁ עֶשְׂרֵה מַעֲלוֹת עוֹלוֹת מִתּוֹכָהּ לְעֶזְרַת יִשְׂרָאֵל, כְּנֶגֶד חֲמֵשׁ עֶשְׂרֵה מַעֲלוֹת שֶׁבַּתְּהִלִּים, שֶׁעֲלֵיהֶן הַלְוִיִּם אוֹמְרִים בַּשִּׁיר. לֹא הָיוּ טְרוּטוֹת, אֶלָּא מֻקָּפוֹת כַּחֲצִי גֹרֶן עֲגֻלָּה:The courtyard of the women was a hundred and thirty-five cubits long by a hundred and thirty-five wide. It had four chambers in its four corners, each of which was forty cubits. They were not roofed, and so they will be in the time to come, as it says, “Then he brought me forth into the outer court, and caused me to pass by the four corners of the court, and behold in every corner of the court there was a court. In the four corners of the court there were keturot courts” (Ezekiel 46:21-22) and keturot means that they were not roofed. For what were they used? The southeastern one was the chamber of the Nazirites where the Nazirites used to boil their shelamim and shave their hair and throw it under the pot. The northeastern one was the wood chamber where priests with physical defects used to pick out the wood which had worms, every piece with a worm in it being unfit for use on the altar. The northwestern one was the chamber of those with skin disease. The southwestern one: Rabbi Eliezer ben Jacob said: I forget what it was used for. Abba Shaul says: they used to store there wine and oil, and it was called the chamber of oil. It [the courtyard of the women] had originally been smooth [without protrusions in the walls] but subsequently they surrounded it with a balcony so that the women could look on from above while the men were below, and they should not mix together. Fifteen steps led up from it to the courtyard of Israel, corresponding to the fifteen [songs of] ascents mentioned in the Book of Psalms, and upon which the Levites used to sing. They were not rectangular but circular like the half of a threshing floor.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

37 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 26.13 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

26.13. וְאָמַרְתָּ לִפְנֵי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ בִּעַרְתִּי הַקֹּדֶשׁ מִן־הַבַּיִת וְגַם נְתַתִּיו לַלֵּוִי וְלַגֵּר לַיָּתוֹם וְלָאַלְמָנָה כְּכָל־מִצְוָתְךָ אֲשֶׁר צִוִּיתָנִי לֹא־עָבַרְתִּי מִמִּצְוֺתֶיךָ וְלֹא שָׁכָחְתִּי׃ 26.13. then thou shalt say before the LORD thy God: ‘I have put away the hallowed things out of my house, and also have given them unto the Levite, and unto the stranger, to the fatherless, and to the widow, according to all Thy commandment which Thou hast commanded me; I have not transgressed any of Thy commandments, neither have I forgotten them."
2. Hebrew Bible, Esther, 4.1 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

4.1. וַתֹּאמֶר אֶסְתֵּר לַהֲתָךְ וַתְּצַוֵּהוּ אֶל־מָרְדֳּכָי׃ 4.1. וּמָרְדֳּכַי יָדַע אֶת־כָּל־אֲשֶׁר נַעֲשָׂה וַיִּקְרַע מָרְדֳּכַי אֶת־בְּגָדָיו וַיִּלְבַּשׁ שַׂק וָאֵפֶר וַיֵּצֵא בְּתוֹךְ הָעִיר וַיִּזְעַק זְעָקָה גְדֹלָה וּמָרָה׃ 4.1. Now when Mordecai knew all that was done, Mordecai rent his clothes, and put on sackcloth with ashes, and went out into the midst of the city, and cried with a loud and a bitter cry;"
3. Hebrew Bible, 2 Kings, 2.12, 6.21 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

2.12. וֶאֱלִישָׁע רֹאֶה וְהוּא מְצַעֵק אָבִי אָבִי רֶכֶב יִשְׂרָאֵל וּפָרָשָׁיו וְלֹא רָאָהוּ עוֹד וַיַּחֲזֵק בִּבְגָדָיו וַיִּקְרָעֵם לִשְׁנַיִם קְרָעִים׃ 6.21. וַיֹּאמֶר מֶלֶךְ־יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶל־אֱלִישָׁע כִּרְאֹתוֹ אוֹתָם הַאַכֶּה אַכֶּה אָבִי׃ 2.12. And Elisha saw it, and he cried: ‘My father, my father, the chariots of Israel and the horsemen thereof! ’ And he saw him no more; and he took hold of his own clothes, and rent them in two pieces." 6.21. And the king of Israel said unto Elisha, when he saw them: ‘My father, shall I smite them? shall I smite them?’"
4. Hebrew Bible, Joshua, 7.6 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

7.6. וַיִּקְרַע יְהוֹשֻׁעַ שִׂמְלֹתָיו וַיִּפֹּל עַל־פָּנָיו אַרְצָה לִפְנֵי אֲרוֹן יְהוָה עַד־הָעֶרֶב הוּא וְזִקְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיַּעֲלוּ עָפָר עַל־רֹאשָׁם׃ 7.6. And Joshua rent his clothes, and fell to the earth upon his face before the ark of the LORD until the evening, he and the elders of Israel; and they put dust upon their heads."
5. Hebrew Bible, 2 Chronicles, 20.18 (5th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

20.18. וַיִּקֹּד יְהוֹשָׁפָט אַפַּיִם אָרְצָה וְכָל־יְהוּדָה וְיֹשְׁבֵי יְרוּשָׁלִַם נָפְלוּ לִפְנֵי יְהוָה לְהִשְׁתַּחֲוֺת לַיהוָה׃ 20.18. And Jehoshaphat bowed his head with his face to the ground; and all Judah and the inhabitants of Jerusalem fell down before the LORD, worshipping the LORD."
6. Hebrew Bible, Nehemiah, 13.10-13.14 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

13.11. וָאָרִיבָה אֶת־הַסְּגָנִים וָאֹמְרָה מַדּוּעַ נֶעֱזַב בֵּית־הָאֱלֹהִים וָאֶקְבְּצֵם וָאַעֲמִדֵם עַל־עָמְדָם׃ 13.12. וְכָל־יְהוּדָה הֵבִיאוּ מַעְשַׂר הַדָּגָן וְהַתִּירוֹשׁ וְהַיִּצְהָר לָאוֹצָרוֹת׃ 13.13. וָאוֹצְרָה עַל־אוֹצָרוֹת שֶׁלֶמְיָה הַכֹּהֵן וְצָדוֹק הַסּוֹפֵר וּפְדָיָה מִן־הַלְוִיִּם וְעַל־יָדָם חָנָן בֶּן־זַכּוּר בֶּן־מַתַּנְיָה כִּי נֶאֱמָנִים נֶחְשָׁבוּ וַעֲלֵיהֶם לַחֲלֹק לַאֲחֵיהֶם׃ 13.14. זָכְרָה־לִּי אֱלֹהַי עַל־זֹאת וְאַל־תֶּמַח חֲסָדַי אֲשֶׁר עָשִׂיתִי בְּבֵית אֱלֹהַי וּבְמִשְׁמָרָיו׃ 13.10. And I perceived that the portions of the Levites had not been given them; so that the Levites and the singers, that did the work, were fled every one to his field." 13.11. Then contended I with the rulers, and said: ‘Why is the house of God forsaken?’ And I gathered them together, and set them in their place." 13.12. Then brought all Judah the tithe of the corn and the wine and the oil unto the treasuries." 13.13. And I made treasurers over the treasuries, Shelemiah the priest, and Zadok the scribe, and of the Levites, Pedaiah; and next to them was Ha the son of Zaccur, the son of Mattaniah; for they were counted faithful, and their office was to distribute unto their brethren." 13.14. Remember me, O my God, concerning this, and wipe not out my good deeds that I have done for the house of my God, and for the wards thereof."
7. Anon., 1 Enoch, 38-71, 37 (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

37. The second vision which he saw, the vision of wisdom -which Enoch the son of Jared, the son,of Mahalalel, the son of Cai, the son of Enos, the son of Seth, the son of Adam, saw. And this is the beginning of the words of wisdom which I lifted up my voice to speak and say to those which dwell on earth: Hear, ye men of old time, and see, ye that come after, the words of the Holy,One which I will speak before the Lord of Spirits. It were better to declare (them only) to the men of old time, but even from those that come after we will not withhold the beginning of wisdom.,Till the present day such wisdom has never been given by the Lord of Spirits as I have received according to my insight, according to the good pleasure of the Lord of Spirits by whom the lot of,eternal life has been given to me. Now three Parables were imparted to me, and I lifted up my voice and recounted them to those that dwell on the earth.
8. Hebrew Bible, Daniel, 9.3 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

9.3. וָאֶתְּנָה אֶת־פָּנַי אֶל־אֲדֹנָי הָאֱלֹהִים לְבַקֵּשׁ תְּפִלָּה וְתַחֲנוּנִים בְּצוֹם וְשַׂק וָאֵפֶר׃ 9.3. And I set my face unto the Lord God, to seek by prayer and supplications, with fasting, and sackcloth, and ashes."
9. Septuagint, 1 Maccabees, 5.6-5.8, 11.71 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

5.6. Then he crossed over to attack the Ammonites, where he found a strong band and many people with Timothy as their leader. 5.7. He engaged in many battles with them and they were crushed before him; he struck them down. 5.8. He also took Jazer and its villages; then he returned to Judea. 11.71. Jonathan rent his garments and put dust on his head, and prayed.
10. Septuagint, 2 Maccabees, 3.21, 13.12, 14.15, 14.37 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

3.21. There was something pitiable in the prostration of the whole populace and the anxiety of the high priest in his great anguish. 13.12. When they had all joined in the same petition and had besought the merciful Lord with weeping and fasting and lying prostrate for three days without ceasing, Judas exhorted them and ordered them to stand ready.' 14.15. When the Jews heard of Nicanor's coming and the gathering of the Gentiles, they sprinkled dust upon their heads and prayed to him who established his own people for ever and always upholds his own heritage by manifesting himself.' 14.37. A certain Razis, one of the elders of Jerusalem, was denounced to Nicanor as a man who loved his fellow citizens and was very well thought of and for his good will was called father of the Jews.'
11. Septuagint, Judith, 4.11-4.12 (2nd cent. BCE - 0th cent. CE)

4.11. And all the men and women of Israel, and their children, living at Jerusalem, prostrated themselves before the temple and put ashes on their heads and spread out their sackcloth before the Lord. 4.12. They even surrounded the altar with sackcloth and cried out in unison, praying earnestly to the God of Israel not to give up their infants as prey and their wives as booty, and the cities they had inherited to be destroyed, and the sanctuary to be profaned and desecrated to the malicious joy of the Gentiles.
12. Philo of Alexandria, On The Embassy To Gaius, 228 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

228. and when Petronius appeared at a distance all the ranks, as they had been appointed, fell to the ground, uttering a most doleful; howling and lamentation, mingled with supplications. But when he commanded them to rise up, and to come nearer to him, they would for a long time hardly consent to rise, and scattering abundance of dust upon their heads, and shedding abundance of tears, they put both their hands behind them like captives who are fettered in this way, and thus they approached him.
13. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 3.252, 15.418-15.419, 20.216-20.218 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.252. 6. When a week of weeks has passed over after this sacrifice, (which weeks contain forty and nine days,) on the fiftieth day, which is Pentecost, but is called by the Hebrews Asartha, which signifies Pentecost, they bring to God a loaf, made of wheat flour, of two tenth deals, with leaven; and for sacrifices they bring two lambs; 15.418. Now this inner enclosure had on its southern and northern quarters three gates [equally] distant one from another; but on the east quarter, towards the sun-rising, there was one large gate, through which such as were pure came in, together with their wives; 15.419. but the temple further inward in that gate was not allowed to the women; but still more inward was there a third [court of the] temple, whereinto it was not lawful for any but the priests alone to enter. The temple itself was within this; and before that temple was the altar, upon which we offer our sacrifices and burnt-offerings to God. 20.216. 6. Now as many of the Levites, which is a tribe of ours, as were singers of hymns, persuaded the king to assemble a sanhedrim, and to give them leave to wear linen garments, as well as the priests for they said that this would be a work worthy the times of his government, that he might have a memorial of such a novelty, as being his doing. 20.217. Nor did they fail of obtaining their desire; for the king, with the suffrages of those that came into the sanhedrim, granted the singers of hymns this privilege, that they might lay aside their former garments, and wear such a linen one as they desired; 20.218. and as a part of this tribe ministered in the temple, he also permitted them to learn those hymns as they had besought him for. Now all this was contrary to the laws of our country, which, whenever they have been transgressed, we have never been able to avoid the punishment of such transgressions.
14. Josephus Flavius, Against Apion, 2.103-2.104 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.103. for it had four several courts, encompassed with cloisters round about, every one of which had by our law a peculiar degree of separation from the rest. Into the first court every body was allowed to go, even foreigners; and none but women, during their courses, were prohibited to pass through it; 2.104. all the Jews went into the second court, as well as their wives, when they were free from all uncleanness; into the third went the Jewish men when they were clean and purified; into the fourth went the priests, having on their sacerdotal garments;
15. Mishnah, Arakhin, 2.6 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

2.6. There were never less than twelve levites standing on the platform and their number could be increased into infinity. No minor could enter the court of the sanctuary to take part in the service except when the Levites stood up to sing. Nor did they join in the singing with harp and lyre, but with the mouth alone, to add flavor to the music. Rabbi Eliezer ben Jacob said: they did not count in the required number, nor did they stand on the platform. Rather they would stand on the ground, so that their heads were between the feet of the levites. And they were called the youth of the Levites."
16. Mishnah, Avot, 2.8 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

2.8. Rabban Yoha ben Zakkai received [the oral tradition] from Hillel and Shammai.He used to say: if you have learned much torah, do not claim credit for yourself, because for such a purpose were you created. Rabban Yoha ben Zakkai had five disciples and they were these: Rabbi Eliezer ben Hyrcanus, Rabbi Joshua ben Haiah, Rabbi Yose, the priest, Rabbi Shimon ben Nethaneel and Rabbi Eleazar ben Arach. He [Rabbi Joha] used to list their outstanding virtues: Rabbi Eliezer ben Hyrcanus is a plastered cistern which loses not a drop; Rabbi Joshua ben Haiah happy is the woman that gave birth to him; Rabbi Yose, the priest, is a pious man; Rabbi Simeon ben Nethaneel is one that fears sin, And Rabbi Eleazar ben Arach is like a spring that [ever] gathers force. He [Rabbi Yoha] used to say: if all the sages of Israel were on one scale of the balance and Rabbi Eliezer ben Hyrcanus on the other scale, he would outweigh them all. Abba Shaul said in his name: if all the sages of Israel were on one scale of the balance, and Rabbi Eliezer ben Hyrcanus also with them, and Rabbi Eleazar ben Arach on the other scale, he would outweigh them all."
17. Mishnah, Berachot, 5.5 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

5.5. One who is praying and makes a mistake, it is a bad sign for him. And if he is the messenger of the congregation (the prayer leader) it is a bad sign for those who have sent him, because one’s messenger is equivalent to one’s self. They said about Rabbi Hanina ben Dosa that he used to pray for the sick and say, “This one will die, this one will live.” They said to him: “How do you know?” He replied: “If my prayer comes out fluently, I know that he is accepted, but if not, then I know that he is rejected.”"
18. Mishnah, Kiddushin, 4.14 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

4.14. Rabbi Judah said: an unmarried man must not tend cattle, nor may two unmarried men sleep together under the same cover. But the sages permit it. One whose business is with women must not be alone with women. And one should not teach his son a woman’s trade. Rabbi Meir says: one should always teach his son a clean and easy profession, and pray to Him to whom wealth and property belong. For a profession does not contain [the potential for] poverty and wealth, for poverty is not due to one’s profession nor is wealth due to the profession, but all depends on merit. Rabbi Shimon ben Elazar says: have you ever seen a wild beast or a bird with a profession? Yet they are sustained without trouble. Now, were they not were created only to serve me, while I was created to serve my master: surely then I should make a living without trouble! But my evil acts have done me in and withheld my livelihood. Abba Gurion a man of Sidon says in the name of Abba Guria: one should not teach his son [to be] a donkey-driver, camel-driver, wagon-driver, sailor, shepherd, or shopkeeper, because their profession is the profession of robbers. Rabbi Judah says in his name: most donkey-drivers are wicked, while most camel-drivers are worthy men; and most sailors are pious. The best of doctors are destined for Gehenna, and the worthiest of butchers is Amalek’s partner. Rabbi Nehorai says: I will abandon every profession in the world and I will not teach my son anything but Torah, for a person enjoys its reward in this world while the principal remains for him in the world to come. But all other professions are not so; for when a man comes to sickness or old age or suffering and cannot engage in his profession, he must die of starvation, whereas the Torah is not so, for it guards him from all evil in his youth and gives him a future and hope in his old age. of his youth what is said? “But they that wait upon the Lord shall renew their strength” (Isaiah 40:31). of his old age what is said? “They shall still bring forth fruit in old age” (Psalms 92:15). And it is also said of our father Abraham, “And Abraham was old … And the Lord blessed Abraham with everything” (Genesis 24:1). We find that Abraham our father observed the whole Torah before it was given, for it is said, “Because Abraham obeyed My voice, and kept My charge, My commandments, My statutes, and My laws” (Genesis 26:5)."
19. Mishnah, Maaser Sheni, 5.15 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

5.15. Yoha the high priest stopped [the recitation] of the confession of the tithes. He also abolished the “wakers” and the “strikers.” Until his days the hammer used to beat in Jerusalem. And in his days one did not have to ask about demai."
20. Mishnah, Menachot, 10.1-10.3 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

10.1. Rabbi Ishmael says: On Shabbat the omer was taken out of three seahs [of barley] and on a weekday out of five. But the sages say: whether on Shabbat or on a weekday it was taken out of three seahs. Rabbi Hanina the vice-high priest says: on Shabbat it was reaped by one man with one sickle into one basket, and on a weekday it was reaped by three men into three baskets and with three sickles. But the sages say: whether on Shabbat or on a weekday it was reaped by three men into three baskets and with three sickles." 10.2. The mitzvah of the omer is that it should be brought from [what grows] near by. If [the crop] near Jerusalem was not yet ripe, it could be brought from any place. It once happened that the omer was brought from Gagot Zerifin and the two loaves from the plain of En Soker." 10.3. How would they do it [reap the omer]?The agents of the court used to go out on the day before the festival and tie the unreaped grain in bunches to make it the easier to reap. All the inhabitants of the towns near by assembled there, so that it might be reaped with a great demonstration. As soon as it became dark he says to them: “Has the sun set?” And they answer, “Yes.” “Has the sun set?” And they answer, “Yes.” “With this sickle?” And they answer, “Yes.” “With this sickle?” And they answer, “Yes.” “Into this basket?” And they answer, “Yes.” “Into this basket?” And they answer, “Yes.” On the Sabbath he says to them, “On this Sabbath?” And they answer, “Yes.” “On this Sabbath?” And they answer, “Yes.” “Shall I reap?” And they answer, “Reap.” “Shall I reap?” And they answer, “Reap.” He repeated every matter three times, and they answer, “yes, yes, yes.” And why all of this? Because of the Boethusians who held that the reaping of the omer was not to take place at the conclusion of the [first day of the] festival."
21. Mishnah, Middot, 1.1-1.2, 1.7, 2.3-2.4, 2.6, 5.4 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

1.1. In three places the priests keep watch in the Temple: in the chamber of Avtinas, in the chamber of the spark, and in the fire chamber. And the Levites in twenty-one places: Five at the five gates of the Temple Mount; Four at its four corners on the inside; Five at five of the gates of the courtyard; Four at its four corners on the outside; One at the offering chamber; One at the chamber of the curtain, And one behind the place of the kapporet." 1.2. The officer of the Temple Mount used to go round to every watch, with lighted torches before him, and if any watcher did not rise [at his approach] and say to him, “Shalom to you, officer of the Temple Mount, it was obvious that he was asleep. Then he used to beat him with his rod. And he had permission to burn his clothes. And the others would say: What is the noise in the courtyard? It is the cry of a Levite who is being beaten and whose clothes are being burned, because he was asleep at his watch. Rabbi Eliezer ben Jacob said: once they found my mother's brother asleep, and they burnt his clothes." 1.7. The fire chamber had two gates, one opening on to the Hel and one on to the courtyard. Rabbi Judah says: the one that opened on to the courtyard had a small opening through which they went in to search the courtyard." 2.3. Within it was the Soreg, ten handbreadths high. There were thirteen breaches in it, which had been originally made by the kings of Greece, and when they repaired them they enacted that thirteen prostrations should be made facing them. Within this was the Hel, which was ten cubits [broad]. There were twelve steps there. The height of each step was half a cubit and its tread was half a cubit. All the steps in the Temple were half a cubit high with a tread of half a cubit, except those of the Porch. All the doorways in the Temple were twenty cubits high and ten cubits broad except those of the Porch. All the doorways there had doors in them except those of the Porch. All the gates there had lintels except that of Taddi which had two stones inclined to one another. All the original gates were changed for gates of gold except the gates of Nicanor, because a miracle happened with them. Some say: because their copper gleamed like gold." 2.4. All the walls that were there [in the Temple] were high except the eastern wall, for the priest who burned the red heifer would stand on the top of the Mount of Olives and direct his gaze carefully see the opening of the Sanctuary at the time of the sprinkling of the blood. 2.6. There were chambers underneath the Court of Israel which opened into the Court of Women, where the Levites used to keep lyres and lutes and cymbals and all kinds of musical instruments. The Court of Israel was a hundred and thirty-five cubits in length by eleven in breadth. Similarly the Court of the Priests was a hundred and thirty-five cubits in length by eleven in breadth. And a row of mosaic stones separated the Court of Israel from the Court of the Priests. Rabbi Eliezer ben Jacob says: there was a step a cubit high on which a platform was placed, and it had three steps each of half a cubit in height. In this way the Court of the Priests was made two and a half cubits higher than that of Israel. The whole of the Court was a hundred and eighty-seven cubits in length by a hundred and thirty-five in breadth. And thirteen prostrations were made there. Abba Yose ben Ha says: they were made facing the thirteen gates. On the south beginning from the west there were the upper gate, the gate of burning, the gate of the firstborn, and the water gate. And why was it called the water gate? Because they brought in through it the pitcher of water for libation on the festival. Rabbi Eliezer ben Jacob says: in it the water welled up, and in the time to come from there it will come out from under the threshold of the Temple. Corresponding to them in the north beginning in the west were the gate of Yehoniah, the gate of the offering, the women's gate, the gate of song. Why was it called the gate of Yehoniah? Because Yehoniah went forth into captivity through it. On the east was the gate of Nicanor; it had two doors, one on its right and one on its left (10 +. There were further two gates in the west which had no special name (12 +." 5.4. On the south were the wood chamber, the chamber of the exile and the chamber of hewn stones. The wood chamber: Rabbi Eliezer ben Jacob says: I forget what it was used for. Abba Shaul says: It was the chamber of the high priest, and it was behind the two of them, and one roof covered all three. In the chamber of the exile there was a fixed cistern, with a wheel over it, and from there water was provided for all of the courtyard. In the chamber of hewn stone the great Sanhedrin of Israel used to sit and judge the priesthood. A priest in whom was found a disqualification used to put on black garments and wrap himself in black and go away. One in whom no disqualification was found used to put on white garments and wrap himself in white and go in and serve along with his brother priests. They used to make a feast because no blemish had been found in the seed of Aaron the priest, and they used to say: Blessed is the Omnipresent, blessed is He, for no blemish has been found in the seed of Aaron. Blessed is He who chose Aaron and his sons to stand to minister before the Lord in the Holy of Holies."
22. Mishnah, Miqvaot, 2.10 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

2.10. A mikveh which contains forty seahs of water and mud [combined]: Rabbi Eliezer says: one may immerse objects in the water but one may not immerse them in the mud. But Rabbi Joshua says: in the water and also in the mud. In what kind of mud may objects be immersed? Mud over which water floats. If the water was on one side only, Rabbi Joshua agrees that objects may be immersed in the water but may not be immersed in the mud. of what kind of mud have they spoken? Mud into which a reed will sink of itself, the words of Rabbi Meir. Rabbi Judah says: [mud] in which a measuring-rod will not stand upright. Abba Elazar ben Dulai says: [mud] into which a plummet will sink. Rabbi Eliezer says: such as will go down into the mouth of a jar. Rabbi Shimon says: such as will enter into the tube of a water- skin. Rabbi Elazar bar Zadok says: such as can be measured in a log measure."
23. Mishnah, Oholot, 16.4 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

16.4. One who searches, must search over a square cubit and then leave a cubit, [digging down] until he reaches rock or virgin soil. [A priest] carrying out earth from a place of uncleanness may eat his terumah mixed with hullin. But one who is clearing away a heap of stones, may not eat his terumah mixed with hullin."
24. Mishnah, Sotah, 9.10, 9.15 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

9.10. Yoha the high priest brought to an end the confession made at the presentation of the tithe. He also discontinued the wakers and the knockers Up to his days the hammer used to strike in Jerusalem, And in his days there was no need to inquire about doubtfully tithed produce." 9.15. When Rabbi Meir died, the composers of fables ceased. When Ben Azzai died, the diligent students [of Torah] ceased. When Ben Zoma died, the expounders ceased. When Rabbi Joshua died, goodness ceased from the world. When Rabban Shimon ben Gamaliel died, locusts come and troubles multiplied. When Rabbi Elazar ben Azaryah died, the sages ceased to be wealthy. When Rabbi Akiba died, the glory of the Torah ceased. When Rabbi Hanina ben Dosa died, men of wondrous deeds ceased. When Rabbi Yose Katnuta died, the pious men (hasidim) ceased and why was his name called Katnuta? Because he was the youngest of the pious men. When Rabban Yoha ben Zakkai died, the splendor of wisdom ceased. When Rabban Gamaliel the elder died, the glory of the torah ceased, and purity and separateness perished. When Rabbi Ishmael ben Fabi died, the splendor of the priesthood ceased. When Rabbi died, humility and fear of sin ceased. Rabbi Phineas ben Yair says: when Temple was destroyed, scholars and freemen were ashamed and covered their head, men of wondrous deeds were disregarded, and violent men and big talkers grew powerful. And nobody expounds, nobody seeks, and nobody asks. Upon whom shall we depend? Upon our father who is in heaven. Rabbi Eliezer the Great says: from the day the Temple was destroyed, the sages began to be like scribes, scribes like synagogue-attendants, synagogue-attendants like common people, and the common people became more and more debased. And nobody seeks. Upon whom shall we depend? Upon our father who is in heaven. In the footsteps of the messiah insolence (hutzpah) will increase and the cost of living will go up greatly; the vine will yield its fruit, but wine will be expensive; the government will turn to heresy, and there will be no one to rebuke; the meeting-place [of scholars] will be used for licentiousness; the Galilee will be destroyed, the Gablan will be desolated, and the dwellers on the frontier will go about [begging] from place to place without anyone to take pity on them; the wisdom of the learned will rot, fearers of sin will be despised, and the truth will be lacking; youths will put old men to shame, the old will stand up in the presence of the young, “For son spurns father, daughter rises up against mother, daughter-in-law against mother-in-law a man’s own household are his enemies” (Micah 7:6). The face of the generation will be like the face of a dog, a son will not feel ashamed before his father. Upon whom shall we depend? Upon our father who is in heaven. Rabbi Pinchas ben Yair says, “Heedfulness leads to cleanliness, cleanliness leads to purity, purity leads to separation, separation leads to holiness, holiness leads to modesty, modesty leads to fear of sin, fear of sin leads to piety, piety leads to the Holy Spirit, The Holy Spirit leads to the resurrection of the dead, and the resurrection of the dead comes from Elijah, blessed be his memory, Amen.”"
25. Mishnah, Sukkah, 5.1-5.4 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

5.1. The flute was for five or six days. This refers to the flute at the Bet Hashoevah [the place of the water-drawing] which does not override Shabbat or the festival day. They said: he who has not seen the Simchat Bet Hashoevah has never seen rejoicing in his life." 5.2. At the conclusion of the first festival day of Sukkot they descended to the Women’s Court (Ezrat Nashim) and they would make there a great enactment. And golden candlesticks were there, and four golden bowls on the top of each of them and four ladders to each, and four youths drawn from the young priests, and in their hands there were jars of oil containing one hundred and twenty logs which they poured into the bowls." 5.3. From the worn-out pants and belts of the priests they made wicks and with them they kindled the lamps. And there was not a courtyard in Jerusalem that was not illuminated by the light of the Bet Hashoevah." 5.4. Men of piety and good deeds used to dance before them with lighted torches in their hands, and they would sing songs and praises. And Levites with innumerable harps, lyres, cymbals and trumpets and other musical instruments stood upon the fifteen steps leading down from the Court of the Israelites to the Court of the Women, corresponding to the fifteen songs of ascents in the Psalms, and it was on these [steps] that the Levites stood with their musical instruments and sang their songs. Two priests stood by the upper gate which leads down from the Court of the Israelites to the Court of the Women, with two trumpets in their hands. When the cock crowed they sounded a teki'ah [drawn-out blast], a teru'ah [staccato note] and again a teki'ah. When they reached the tenth step they sounded a teki'ah, a teru'ah and again a teki'ah. When they reached the Court [of the Women] they sounded a teki'ah, a teru'ah and again a teki'ah. They would sound their trumpets and proceed until they reached the gate which leads out to the east. When they reached the gate which leads out to the east, they turned their faces from east to west and said, “Our fathers who were in this place ‘their backs were toward the Temple of the Lord, and their faces toward the east, and they worshipped the sun toward the east’, but as for us, our eyes are turned to the Lord.” Rabbi Judah said: they used to repeat [the last words] and say “We are the Lord’s and our eyes are turned to the Lord.”"
26. Mishnah, Tamid, 7.3-7.4 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

7.3. If the high priest wished to burn the offerings [himself], he would go up the ascent with the deputy high priest at his right. When he reached the middle of the ascent the deputy took hold of his right hand and helped him up. The first [of the other priests] then handed to him the head and the foot and he laid his hands on them and threw them [onto the altar]. The second then handed to the first the two fore legs. And he handed them to the high priest who laid his hands on them and threw them [onto the altar]. The second then went away. In the same way all the other limbs were handed to him and he laid his hands on them and threw them [on to the altar fire]. If he wanted, he could lay his hands and let others throw [them] on the fire. He then went around the altar. From where did he begin? From the southeastern corner; from there he went to the northeastern, then to the northwestern and then to the southwestern. They there handed him the wine for libation. The deputy high priest stood on the corner/horn of the altar with the flags in his hand, and two priests on the table of the fats with two trumpets in their hands. They blew a teki’ah, a teru’ah and a teki’ah. They then went and stood by Ben Arza, one on his right hand and one on his left. When he bent down to make the libation the deputy high priest waved the flags and Ben Arza struck the cymbals and the Levites sang the psalm. When they came to a pause they blew a teki’ah, and the public bowed down. At every pause there was a teki’ah and at every teki’ah a bowing down. This was the order of the regular daily sacrifice for the service of our Lord. May it be His will that it be rebuilt speedily in our days, Amen." 7.4. The following are the psalms that were chanted in the Temple.On the first day they used to say, “The earth is the Lord's and the fullness thereof, the world and they that dwell therein” (Psalms. On the second day they used to say: “Great is the Lord and highly to be praised, in the city of our God. His holy mountain” (Psalms. On the third day they used to say: “God stands in the congregation of God, in the midst of the judges he judges” (Psalms. On the fourth day they used to say: “O Lord, God to whom vengeance belongs. God to whom vengeance belongs, shine forth” (Psalms. On the fifth day they used to say: “Sing aloud unto God our strength, shout unto the God of Jacob” (Psalms. On the sixth day they used to say: “The lord reigns, he is clothed in majesty, the Lord is clothed, He has girded himself with strength” (Psalms. On Shabbat they used to say: “A psalm, a song for the Sabbath day” (Psalms. A psalm, a song for the time to come, for the day that will be all Shabbat and rest for everlasting life. Congratulations! We have finished Tractate Tamid! It is a tradition at this point to thank God for helping us finish learning the tractate and to commit ourselves to going back and relearning it, so that we may not forget it and so that its lessons will stay with us for all of our lives. Tamid may have been one of the more unusual tractates that we have ever learned. Instead of disputes between sages, heaps of logic and laws, we get an intricate description of the Temple service. Indeed, although the language is clearly rabbinic Hebrew, its descriptive style is more characteristic of the Bible than of rabbinic literature. It is likely that these descriptions, or at least parts thereof, come from Temple times. They were preserved because the rabbis fervently hoped that the Temple would be rebuilt during their own lifetimes. While we may or may not share in this wish, I think we can all appreciate the respect in which they held this ceremony. Despite the fact that it was performed each and every day, twice every day, they don’t seem to have lost their sense of wonder at the intimate connection that they received with God through the sacrificial process. I hope you have enjoyed Tamid. Tomorrow we begin Tractate Middot (the last tractate in Seder Kodashim!)."
27. Mishnah, Shekalim, 5.1 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

5.1. These were the officers in the Temple:Yoha the son of Pinchas was over the seals. Ahiyah over the libations. Mattityah the son of Shmuel over the lots. Petahiah over the bird-offering. (Petahiah was Mordecai. Why was his name called Petahiah? Because he ‘opened’ matters and expounded them, and he understood the seventy tongues). The son of Ahijah over the sickness of the bowels. Nehuniah, the digger of ditches. Gevini, the crier. The son of Gever over the locking of the gates. The son of Bevai over the strips [for lighting the menorah]. The son of Arza over the cymbal. Hugras the son of Levi over the song. The house of Garmu over the making of the showbread. The house of Avtinas over the preparing of the frankincense. Elazar over the curtains. And Pinchas over the priestly vestments."
28. New Testament, Matthew, 23.7-23.10 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

23.7. the salutations in the marketplaces, and to be called 'Rabbi, Rabbi' by men. 23.8. But don't you be called 'Rabbi,' for one is your teacher, the Christ, and all of you are brothers. 23.9. Call no man on the earth your father, for one is your Father, he who is in heaven. 23.10. Neither be called masters, for one is your master, the Christ.
29. Tosefta, Oholot, 16.8 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

30. Tosefta, Sotah, 13.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

31. Tosefta, Sukkah, 4.1, 4.3-4.4 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

4.1. Formerly when they were beholding the joy at the ceremony of the water drawing, the men were beholding it from within the Temple precincts and the women from without. But when the supreme court saw that they behaved in a frivolous manner they erected three balconies in the court, facing the three sides, that from them the women might behold the rejoicing at the ceremony. So when they were beholding the rejoicing at the ceremony the sexes were not mixed up together." 4.3. There is a story of Rabbi Shim’on ben Gamliel: he was dancing with eight lighted torches, and as he did so none of them fell to the ground. And when he prostrated himself he put his finger on the pavement, bending himself and kissing it, and then stood upright again. Rabbi Yehoshua ben Haiah said: All the days of the rejoicing at the water-drawing our eyes had no sleep, for we rose early in the morning for the morning sacrifice. We went to the synagogue, then to the college, then to do additional prayers, then to eat and drink, then to afternoon prayer, then to the evening sacrifice, then to the rejoicing of the water-drawing." 4.4. Rabbi Yehudah said: Whoever has not seen the basilica-synagogue of Alexandria has never seen the great glory of Israel. It is something like a large colonnade, with porches within porches, and accommodating sometimes double the number of those that followed Moses from Egypt. There were seventy-one golden chairs there, corresponding to the seventy-one elders, and each of the chairs was worth twenty-five myriad talents of gold. In the center was a wooden dais, and the sexton stood upon it with a scarf (as a flag) in his hand. At the close of each benediction he waved the scarf, and all the people answered “Amen”. The people were not seated together, but the goldsmiths were by themselves, the blacksmiths by themselves, the embroiderers by themselves, so that when a poor man came in he joined his fellow tradesmen, and in this way was enabled to obtain a means of livelihood."
32. Anon., Sifre Numbers, 123 (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

33. Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

99b. זמר בכל יום זמר בכל יום אמר רב יצחק בר אבודימי מאי קרא שנאמר (משלי טז, כו) נפש עמל עמלה לו כי אכף עליו פיהו הוא עמל במקום זה ותורתו עומלת לו במקום אחר,אמר רבי אלעזר כל אדם לעמל נברא שנאמר (איוב ה, ז) כי אדם לעמל יולד איני יודע אם לעמל פה נברא אם לעמל מלאכה נברא כשהוא אומר כי אכף עליו פיהו הוי אומר לעמל פה נברא ועדיין איני יודע אם לעמל תורה אם לעמל שיחה כשהוא אומר (יהושע א, ח) לא ימוש ספר התורה הזה מפיך הוי אומר לעמל תורה נברא והיינו דאמר רבא כולהו גופי דרופתקי נינהו טובי לדזכי דהוי דרופתקי דאורייתא,(משלי ו, לב) ונואף אשה חסר לב אמר ריש לקיש זה הלומד תורה לפרקים שנאמר (משלי כב, יח) כי נעים כי תשמרם בבטנך יכונו יחדיו על שפתיך,ת"ר (במדבר טו, ל) והנפש אשר תעשה ביד רמה זה מנשה בן חזקיה שהיה יושב ודורש בהגדות של דופי,אמר וכי לא היה לו למשה לכתוב אלא (בראשית לו, כב) ואחות לוטן תמנע ותמנע היתה פלגש לאליפז (בראשית ל, יד) וילך ראובן בימי קציר חטים וימצא דודאים בשדה יצאה ב"ק ואמרה לו (תהלים נ, כ-כא) תשב באחיך תדבר בבן אמך תתן דופי אלה עשית והחרשתי דמית היות אהיה כמוך אוכיחך ואערכה לעיניך,ועליו מפורש בקבלה (ישעיהו ה, יח) הוי מושכי העון בחבלי השוא וכעבות העגלה חטאה מאי כעבות העגלה א"ר אסי יצר הרע בתחלה דומה לחוט של כוביא ולבסוף דומה לעבות העגלה,דאתן עלה מיהת אחות לוטן תמנע מאי היא תמנע בת מלכים הואי דכתיב (בראשית לו, כט) אלוף לוטן אלוף תמנע וכל אלוף מלכותא בלא תאגא היא,בעיא לאיגיורי באתה אצל אברהם יצחק ויעקב ולא קבלוה הלכה והיתה פילגש לאליפז בן עשו אמרה מוטב תהא שפחה לאומה זו ולא תהא גבירה לאומה אחרת נפק מינה עמלק דצערינהו לישראל מאי טעמא דלא איבעי להו לרחקה,וילך ראובן בימי קציר חטים אמר רבא בר' יצחק אמר רב מכאן לצדיקים שאין פושטין ידיהן בגזל וימצא דודאים בשדה מאי דודאים אמר רב יברוחי לוי אמר סיגלי ר' יונתן אמר (סיבסוך) [סביסקי]:,א"ר אלכסנדרי כל העוסק בתורה לשמה משים שלום בפמליא של מעלה ובפמליא של מטה שנאמר (ישעיהו כז, ה) או יחזק במעוזי יעשה שלום לי שלום יעשה לי:,רב אמר כאילו בנה פלטרין של מעלה ושל מטה שנאמר (ישעיהו נא, טז) ואשים דברי בפיך ובצל ידי כסיתיך לנטוע שמים וליסד ארץ (אמר ריש לקיש) [רבי יוחנן אמר] אף מגין על כל העולם כולו שנאמר ובצל ידי כסיתיך ולוי אמר אף מקרב את הגאולה שנאמר (ישעיהו נא, טז) ולאמר לציון עמי אתה,אמר ריש לקיש כל המלמד את בן חבירו תורה מעלה עליו הכתוב כאילו עשאו שנאמר (בראשית יב, ה) ואת הנפש אשר עשו בחרן ר' (אליעזר) אומר כאילו עשאן לדברי תורה שנאמר (דברים כט, ח) ושמרתם את דברי הברית הזאת ועשיתם אותם רבא אמר כאילו עשאו לעצמו שנאמר ועשיתם אותם אל תקרי אותם אלא אתם,אמר רבי אבהו כל המעשה את חבירו לדבר מצוה מעלה עליו הכתוב כאילו עשאה שנאמר (שמות יז, ה) ומטך אשר הכית בו את היאר וכי משה הכהו והלא אהרן הכהו אלא לומר לך כל המעשה את חבירו לדבר מצוה מעלה עליו הכתוב כאילו עשאה:,אפיקורוס: רב ור' חנינא אמרי תרוייהו זה המבזה ת"ח רבי יוחנן ור' יהושע בן לוי אמרי זה המבזה חבירו בפני ת"ח,בשלמא למ"ד המבזה חבירו בפני ת"ח אפיקורוס הוי מבזה תלמיד חכם עצמו מגלה פנים בתורה שלא כהלכה הוי אלא למ"ד מבזה תלמיד חכם עצמו אפיקורוס הוי מגלה פנים בתורה כגון מאי כגון מנשה בן חזקיה,ואיכא דמתני לה אסיפא מגלה פנים בתורה רב ור' חנינא אמרי זה המבזה ת"ח רבי יוחנן וריב"ל אמרי זה המבזה את חבירו בפני תלמיד חכם,בשלמא למ"ד המבזה תלמיד חכם עצמו מגלה פנים בתורה הוי מבזה חבירו בפני ת"ח אפיקורוס הוי אלא למ"ד מבזה חבירו בפני תלמיד חכם מגלה פנים בתורה הוי אפיקורוס כגון מאן אמר רב יוסף כגון הני דאמרי מאי אהנו לן רבנן לדידהו קרו לדידהו תנו,אמר ליה אביי האי מגלה פנים בתורה נמי הוא דכתיב (ירמיהו לג, כה) אם לא בריתי יומם ולילה חקות שמים וארץ לא שמתי אמר רב נחמן בר יצחק מהכא נמי שמע מינה שנאמר (בראשית יח, כו) ונשאתי לכל המקום בעבורם,אלא כגון דיתיב קמיה רביה ונפלה ליה שמעתא בדוכתא אחריתי ואמר הכי אמרינן התם ולא אמר הכי אמר מר רבא אמר כגון הני דבי בנימין אסיא דאמרי מאי אהני לן רבנן מעולם 99b. bSing every day, sing every day,i.e., review your studies like a song that one sings over and over. bRav Yitzḥak bar Avudimi says:From bwhat verseis this derived? It is bas it is stated: “The hunger of the laborer labors for him; for his mouth presses upon him”(Proverbs 16:26), i.e., he exhausts his mouth through constant review and study. bHe laborsin Torah bin this place,this world, band his Torah labors for him in another place,the World-to-Come., bRabbi Elazar says: Every man was created for labor, as it is stated: “Man is born for toil”(Job 5:7). Based on this verse, bI do not know whether he was created for toil of the mouth,speech, or bwhether he was created for the toil of labor. Whenthe verse bstates: “For his mouth presses upon him”(Proverbs 16:26), byou must saythat bhe was created for toil of the mouth. And still I do not knowwith regard to the toil of the mouth bwhether it is for the toil of Torah or for the toil of conversation. Whenthe verse bstates: “This Torah scroll shall not depart from your mouth”(Joshua 1:8), byou must saythat bhe was created for the toil of Torah. And that isthe meaning of bwhat Rava said: All bodies are like receptaclesto store items until use. bHappy is one who is privileged, who is a receptacle for Torah. /b,The verse states: b“He who commits adultery with a woman lacks understanding”(Proverbs 6:32). bReish Lakish says: This isa reference to bone who studies Torah intermittently,who is like an adulterer, who sins with the other woman intermittently, bas it is statedabout words of Torah: b“For it is a pleasant thing if you keep them within your belly; let them be established on your lips”(Proverbs 22:18) and keep the Torah always available.,§ bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraitathat with regard to the verse: b“But the person who acts high-handedly,whether he is born in the land, or a stranger, that person blasphemes the Lord” (Numbers 15:30), bthisis a reference to bManasseh ben Hezekiah,king of Israel, bwho would sit and teach flawedinterpretations of Torah bnarratives. /b,Manasseh bsaid: But did Moses need to write onlyinsignificant matters that teach nothing, for example: b“And Lotan’s sister was Timna”(Genesis 36:22), or: b“And Timna was concubine to Eliphaz,son of Esau” (Genesis 36:12), or: b“And Reuben went in the days of the wheat harvest and found iduda’imin the field”(Genesis 30:14)? bA Divine Voice emerged and said to him: “You sit and speak against your brother; you slander your own mother’s son. These things you have done, and should I have kept silence, you would imagine that I was like you, but I will reprove you, and set the matter before your eyes”(Psalms 50:20–21). The verses in the Torah are not empty matters, with regard to which you can decide their import., bAnd aboutManasseh ben Hezekiah bit is stated explicitly in thetexts of btradition,the Prophets: b“Woe unto them who draw iniquity with cords of vanity, and sin as with a cart rope”(Isaiah 5:18). bWhatis the meaning of the phrase b“as with a cart rope”? Rabbi Asi says:This is a reference to bthe evil inclination. Initially, it seems likea flimsy bspinning [ ikuveya /i] thread and ultimately it seems likea sturdy bcart rope. /b,Manasseh began by mocking a few verses and ultimately violated the entire Torah. The Gemara asks: With regard to that verse bthat we came todiscuss, bin any event, what isthe significance of the phrase in the verse b“And Lotan’s sister was Timna”?The Gemara explains: bTimna was the daughter of kings, as it is written: “The chief of Lotan”(Genesis 36:29), and: b“The chief of Timna”(Genesis 36:40), band each chief isa member of ba monarchy,albeit bwithout a crown.That is why they are called chief and not king.,Timna bsought to convert. She came before Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, and they did not accept her. She went and became a concubine of Eliphaz, son of Esau, and said,referring to herself: bIt is preferable that she will be a maidservant for this nation, and she will not be a noblewoman for another nation.Ultimately, bAmalek,son of Eliphaz, bemerged from her,and that tribe bafflicted the Jewish people. What is the reasonthat the Jewish people were punished by suffering at the hand of Amalek? It is due to the fact bthat they should not have rejected herwhen she sought to convert. Therefore, the verse is significant., b“And Reuben went in the days of the wheat harvest”(Genesis 30:14). bRava, son of Rabbi Yitzḥak, saysthat bRav says: From hereit can be seen bthat the righteous do not extend their handsto engage bin robberyeven of small items, as rather than taking wheat, Reuben took only the ownerless iduda’im /i. The verse continues: b“And he found iduda’imin the field.”The Gemara asks: bWhat are iduda’im /i? Rav says:They are a plant called iyavruḥei /i. Levi says:They are bviolets. Rabbi Yonatan says:They are iseviskei /i. /b,§ Apropos the significance of Torah study, bRabbi Alexandri says: Anyone who engages inthe study of bTorah for its own sake introduces peace into theheavenly bentourage above and into theearthly bentourage below, as it is stated: “Or let him take hold of My stronghold [ ima’uzi /i], that he may make peace with Me; and he shall make peace with Me”(Isaiah 27:5). One who observes the Torah, which is called ioz /i, introduces peace, even before the presence of God, as it were., bRav says:It is bas though he built a palace ofheaven babove and ofearth bbelow, as it is stated: “And I have placed My words in your mouth, and I have covered you in the shadow of My hand, to plant the heavens and lay the foundations of the earth,and say to Zion, you are My people” (Isaiah 51:16). One who has the word of God placed in his mouth through Torah study has established heaven and earth. bRabbi Yoḥa says:One who engages in Torah study balso protects the entire world, as it is stated: “And I have covered you in the shadow of My hand.” And Levi says: He also advancesthe coming of bthe redemption, as it is stated: “And say to Zion, you are My people.” /b, bReish Lakish said:With regard to banyone who teaches Torah to the son of another, the verse ascribes himcredit bas though he formedthat student, bas it is stated:“And Abram took Sarai his wife… band the souls that they formed in Haran”(Genesis 12:5). They are given credit for forming the students to whom they taught Torah. bRabbi Elazar says:It is bas though he fashioned [ iasa’an /i] the words of Torahthemselves, bas it is stated: “Observe the words of this covet, iva’asitem otam /i”(Deuteronomy 29:8), indicating that studying the Torah is like fashioning it. bRava says:It is bas though he fashioned himself, as it is stated: “ iVa’asitem otam /i.” Do not read“ iva’asitem botam/i b”as: And you shall fashion them; brather,read it as iva’asitem batem/i b,meaning: You shall fashion yourself., bRabbi Abbahu says:With regard to banyone who causes another toengage in ba matter of a mitzva, the verse ascribes himcredit bas though he performed ithimself, bas it is stated:“And the Lord said to Moses… band your rod, with which you struck the river,take in your hand and go” (Exodus 17:5). bAndwas it bMoseswho bstruckthe river? bBut isn’tit written explicitly (see Exodus 7:19–20) that bAaron struckthe river? bRather,that verse serves bto say to you: Anyone who causes another toengage in ba matter of a mitzva, the verse ascribes himcredit bas though he performed ithimself.,§ The mishna teaches that those who have no share in the World-to-Come include ban iepikoros /i. Rav and Rabbi Ḥanina both say: Thisis bone who treats a Torah scholar with contempt. Rabbi Yoḥa and Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi say: Thisis bone who treats another with contempt before a Torah scholar. /b,The Gemara asks: bGranted, according to the one who saysthat bone who treats another with contempt before a Torah scholar isthe iepikoros /imentioned in the mishna, bone who treats a Torah scholar with contempt ischaracterized as one bwho interprets the Torah inappropriately,due to his lowering of the status of a Torah scholar. bBut according to the one who saysthat bone who treats a Torah scholar himself with contempt isthe iepikoros /imentioned in the mishna, how would he characterize one bwho interprets the Torah inappropriately? Like whatindividual does such a person conduct himself? He is blike Manasseh, son of Hezekiah,who would teach flawed interpretations of Torah narratives., bAnd there are those who teachthis dispute bwith regard to the latter clauseof the ibaraita /i: From here Rabbi Elazar HaModa’i said: bOne who interprets the Torahinappropriately has no share in the World-to-Come. bRav and Rabbi Ḥanina say: Thisis bone who treats a Torah scholar with contempt. Rabbi Yoḥa and Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi say: Thisis bone who treats another with contempt before a Torah scholar. /b,The Gemara asks: bGranted, according to the one who saysthat bone who treats a Torah scholar himself with contempt isthe one mentioned in the ibaraitawho binterprets the Torahinappropriately, bone who treats another with contempt before a Torah scholar ischaracterized as the iepikoros /imentioned in the mishna. bBut according to the one who saysthat bone who treats another with contempt before a Torah scholar isthe one mentioned in the ibaraitawho binterprets the Torahinappropriately, how would he characterize the iepikoros /imentioned in the mishna? bLike whomdoes he conduct himself? bRav Yosef says:It is referring to one who conducts himself blike those who say:In bwhatmanner bhave the Sages benefited uswith all their Torah study? bThey readthe Bible bfor theirown benefit and bthey studythe Mishna bfor theirown benefit., bAbaye said to him: Thatperson who questions the benefit provided by Sages is balsoin the category of one bwho interprets the Torahinappropriately, since with that statement he repudiates the Torah itself, bas it is written: “If not for My covet, I would not have appointed day and night, the laws of heaven and earth”(Jeremiah 33:25). The eternal covet of the Torah is responsible for maintaining the existence of the entire world. bRav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak says: From here too concludethe same concept bfrom it, as it is stated:“If I find in Sodom fifty just men within the city, bthen I will spare the entire place for their sakes”(Genesis 18:26). The righteous protect the place where they reside., bRather,the iepikorosmentioned in the mishna is referring to one who conducts himself blike one who sits before his teacher and a ihalakha /ithat he learned bfrom another place happens to fallinto his consciousness bandthe student bsays: This is what we say there, and he does not saydeferentially: bThis is what the Master said,even if he did not learn that matter from his teacher. bRava said:The term iepikorosis referring to one who conducts himself blike those from the house of Binyamin the doctor, who say:In bwhatmanner bhave the Sages benefited uswith all their Torah study? bNever /b
34. Babylonian Talmud, Shabbat, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

147b. דלהשתטף כל גופו אפי' לכתחילה שפיר דמי מני ר"ש היא דתניא לא ישתטף אדם בין בחמין בין בצונן דברי ר"מ ר"ש מתיר ר' יהודה אומר בחמין אסור בצונן מותר:,ונסתפג אפילו בעשר אלונטיות: רישא רבותא קמ"ל וסיפא רבותא קמ"ל רישא רבותא קמ"ל דאפילו הני דלא נפישי בהו מיא כיון דחד הוא אתי לידי סחיטה וסיפא רבותא קמ"ל אפילו הני דנפישי בהו מיא כיון דרבים נינהו מדכרי אהדדי:,תנו רבנן מסתפג אדם באלונטית ומניחה בחלון ולא ימסרנה לאוליירין מפני שחשודים על אותו דבר רבי שמעון אומר מסתפג באלונטית אחת ומביאה בידו לתוך ביתו,אמר ליה אביי לרב יוסף הלכתא מאי אמר ליה הא ר' שמעון הא רבי הא שמואל הא ר' יוחנן,ר' שמעון הא דאמרן רבי דתניא אמר רבי כשהיינו למדין תורה אצל ר' שמעון בתקוע היינו מעלין שמן ואלונטית מחצר לגג ומגג לקרפף עד שהיינו מגיעין אצל מעין שהיינו רוחצין בו שמואל דאמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל מסתפג אדם באלונטית ומביאה בידו לתוך ביתו ר' יוחנן דאמר ר' חייא בר אבא א"ר יוחנן הלכה מסתפג אדם באלונטית ומביאה בידו לתוך ביתו,ומי א"ר יוחנן הכי והא"ר יוחנן הלכה כסתם משנה ותנן ונסתפג אפילו בעשר אלונטיות לא יביאם בידו ההוא כבן חכינאי מתני לה,א"ר חייא בר אבא אר"י האוליירין מביאין בלרי נשים לבי בני ובלבד שיתכסה בהן ראשן ורובן סכניתא צריך לקשר ב' ראשיה למטה א"ר חייא בר אבא א"ר יוחנן למטה מכתפיים אמר להו רבא לבני מחוזא כי מעבריתו מאני לבני חילא שרביבו בהו למטה מכתפיים:,סכין וממשמשין: ת"ר סכין וממשמשין בבני מעיים בשבת ובלבד שלא יעשה כדרך שהוא עושה בחול היכי עביד ר' חמא בר חנינא אמר סך ואח"כ ממשמש ר' יוחנן אמר סך וממשמש בבת אחת:,אבל לא מתעמלין: א"ר חייא בר אבא א"ר יוחנן אסור לעמוד בקרקעיתה של דיומסת מפני שמעמלת ומרפא אמר ר' יהודה אמר רב כל ימיה של דיומסת עשרים ואחד יום ועצרת מן המנין איבעיא להו עצרת (בתחלה) להאי גיסא או להאי גיסא ת"ש דאמר שמואל כולהו שקייני מדיבחא ועד עצרתא מעלו דילמא התם הוא דכמה דקריר עלמא מעלי אבל הכא משום הבלא הוא כיון דחמים עלמא טפי מעלי,אמר רבי חלבו חמרא דפרוגייתא ומיא דדיומסת קיפחו עשרת השבטים מישראל,רבי אלעזר בן ערך איקלע להתם אימשיך בתרייהו איעקר תלמודיה כי הדר אתא קם למיקרי בספרא בעא למיקרא (שמות יב, ב) החדש הזה לכם אמר החרש היה לבם בעו רבנן רחמי עליה והדר תלמודיה,והיינו דתנן ר' נהוראי אומר הוי גולה למקום תורה ואל תאמר שהיא תבא אחריך שחבריך יקיימוה בידך ואל בינתך אל תשען תנא לא ר' נהוראי שמו אלא ר' נחמיה שמו ואמרי לה ר' אלעזר בן ערך שמו ולמה נקרא שמו ר' נהוראי שמנהיר עיני חכמים בהלכה:,אבל לא מתגררין: ת"ר אין גוררין במגררת בשבת רשב"ג אומר אם היו רגליו מלוכלכות בטיט ובצואה גורר כדרכו ואינו חושש רב שמואל בר יהודה עבדא ליה אימיה מגררתא דכספא:,אין יורדין לקורדימא וכו': מאי טעמא משום פיקא:,ואין עושין אפיקטויזין בשבת: אמר רבה בר בר חנה אמר רבי יוחנן לא שנו אלא בסם אבל ביד מותר תניא רבי נחמיה אומר אף בחול אסור מפני הפסד אוכלין:,ואין מעצבין את הקטן: אמר רבה בר בר חנה אמר ר' יוחנן לפופי ינוקא בשבת שפיר דמי והאנן תנן אין מעצבין התם בחומרי שדרה דמיחזי כבונה:,ואין מחזירין את השבר: אמר רבי חנא בגדתאה אמר שמואל 147b. that brinsing one’s entire bodyby pouring water on it rather than bathing in the standard fashion may bwellbe done beven iab initio/b. The Gemara asks: According to bwhoseopinion is our mishna? The Gemara answers: bIt isin accordance with the opinion of bRabbi Shimon, as it was taughtin a ibaraita /i: bOne may not rinse himselfon Shabbat, bneither with hotwater bnor with coldwater; this is bthe statement of Rabbi Meir. Rabbi Shimon permitsrinsing one’s body even with hot water. bRabbi Yehuda saysthat there is a distinction: bWith hotwater bit is prohibitedand bwith coldwater bit is permitted. /b,The mishna addressed the permissibility of drying oneself with a towel after bathing on Shabbat, and added the phrase: bAnd dried himself off even with ten towels.The Gemara comments on the formulation of the mishna: bThe first clause teaches us a novelconcept, band the latter clause teaches us a novelconcept. The Gemara explains: bThe first clause:One who…dried himself even with ten towels may not carry them, bteaches us a novelconcept, bthatthe prohibition applies bevento bthesetowels, bwhich do not have much waterabsorbed bin them.The reason for this is that bsince he is oneperson, bhemay bcome to squeezethem. bAnd the latter clause teaches us a novelconcept, that beven theseten people may carry the towel that they have all used, despite the fact bthat they haveabsorbed bmuch waterand the towel is very wet. The reason for this is that bsince they are manypeople, bthey remind each othernot to wring the towel., bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: bOne may dry himself with a towelon Shabbat band leave it in the windowof the bathhouse; band one may not give it to the bath attendants, because they are suspect in this matterof wringing out towels. bRabbi Shimon says: One may dry himself with a single towel and carry it in his hand into his home,and there is no concern lest he wring out the water., bAbaye said to Rav Yosef: What is the ihalakha /iwith regard to carrying a towel home after using it to dry himself? Rav Yosef bsaid to him: There is Rabbi Shimon, there is RabbiYehuda HaNasi, bthere is Shmuel,and bthere is Rabbi Yoḥa,all of whom permit it.,The Gemara elaborates: bRabbi Shimonrules leniently, bas we havealready bstatedthat he permits bathing and drying oneself with a towel and then bringing it home. bRabbiYehuda HaNasi agrees, bas it was taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbiYehuda HaNasi bsaid: When we would study Torah with Rabbi Shimon in Tekoa, we would carry oil and towels from the courtyard to the roof and from the roof into an enclosuresimilar to a courtyard buntil we reached the spring in which we would bathe,without passing through a public domain. In Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi’s opinion, it is permitted to carry a towel both before and after using it to dry oneself. bShmuelis also lenient, as bRav Yehuda saidthat bShmuel saidexplicitly: bOne may dry himself with a towel and carry it in his hand into his home. Rabbi Yoḥais also lenient, as bRabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba saidthat bRabbi Yoḥa said:The ihalakha /iis that bone may dry himself with a towel and carry it in his hand into his house. /b,The Gemara challenges this last point: bAnd did Rabbi Yoḥareally bsay that? Didn’t Rabbi Yoḥa statea principle that bthe ihalakhais in accordance with an unattributed mishna,in which the name of the itannawho issued the rulings does not appear? bAnd we learnedexplicitly in our mishna, which is unattributed, that if one bathed band dried himself even with ten towels, he may not carry them in his hand.The Gemara answers: Rabbi Yoḥa’s version of the mishna does not teach this ihalakhaunattributed; rather, it bteaches it in accordance withthe opinion of bben Ḥakhinai,which is the opinion of an individual Sage that is not the accepted ihalakha /i., bRabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba saidthat bRabbi Yoḥa said: Bath attendants may bring women’s bathing garments [ ibalarei /i] to the bathhouseon Shabbat bas long as they cover their heads and the majority of their bodies with them,so that they are being worn rather than carried. With regard to the blarge scarfthat is worn draped over one’s shoulders, bone must tie its two endstogether bbelowso that it will not fall. bRabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba saidthat bRabbi Yoḥa said:This means that one must tie it bbelow the shoulders.In a similar vein, bRava said to the inhabitants ofhis city, bMeḥoza: When you transport clothing for the soldierswho are staying in the city, bextend them beneath your shouldersso that you will wear them like a garment and not simply carry them.,We learned in the mishna: bOne may smear oil and ruba person’s body by hand on Shabbat. bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: bOne may smear oilon band rubhis bintestinalarea bon Shabbat,and it is not a prohibited form of healing, bprovided he does not do so in the manner in which he does during the week.The Gemara asks: bHowthen bdoes one dothis on Shabbat? bRabbi Ḥama bar Ḥanina said: Onefirst bsmears oil and afterward rubsthe body. And bRabbi Yoḥa said: One smears oil and rubs simultaneously. /b,The mishna taught: bHowever, one may not exert himselfon Shabbat. bRabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba saidthat bRabbi Yoḥa said: It is prohibited to stand on the floor ofthe therapeutic bathhouse of bDeyomseton Shabbat, bbecause it warms and healseven if one is not bathing or exerting himself. bRav Yehuda saidthat bRav said: The entire periodthat bathing in bDeyomsetis therapeutic bis twenty-one days; and iShavuotis included.The Gemara braises a dilemma: Is iShavuoton this side,at the beginning, of the twenty-one-day period, bor on this side,at the end, of the twenty-one days? bComeand bheara resolution to this dilemma from that which bShmuel said: Allmedicinal bdrinks are effective from Passover to iShavuot /i;apparently, the waters of the Deyomset are therapeutic in the time period leading up to iShavuot /i. The Gemara rejects this proof: bPerhaps there,with regard to medicinal drinks, bit isso, because bthe cooler the world, the betterthese drinks heal; bhowever, here,with regard to bathing, the therapeutic effect is bdue to the heat,and therefore bthe warmer the world, the better.The time period during which bathing is effective would only begin with iShavuot /i.,Apropos Deyomset, the Gemara cites that bRabbi Ḥelbo said: The wine of Phrygia [ iPerugaita /i] and the waterof bthe Deyomset deprived Israelof the btenlost btribes.Because the members of these tribes were attracted to the pleasures of wine and bathing and did not occupy themselves with Torah, they were lost to the Jewish people.,The Gemara relates that once bRabbi Elazar ben Arakh happenedto come bthere,to Phrygia and Deyomset, and bhe was drawn after them,and bhisTorah blearning was forgotten. When he returned, he stood to read from aTorah bscrolland bwas supposed to readthe verse: b“This month shall be for you [ ihaḥodesh hazeh lakhem /i]”(Exodus 12:2), but he had forgotten so much that he could barely remember how to read the Hebrew letters, and instead he read: bHave their hearts become deaf[ihaḥeresh haya libbam /i],interchanging the similar letters ireishfor idalet /i, iyodfor izayin /i, and ibeitfor ikhaf /i. bThe Sagesprayed and basked forGod to have bmercy on him, and his learning was restored. /b, bAnd that iswhat bwe learnedin a mishna that bRabbi Nehorai says: Exile yourself to a place of Torah and do not say that it will follow you, asif you are in a place of Torah, byour colleagues will establish it in your hands, and do not rely on your understandingalone. bIt was taught: Rabbi Nehorai was not his name, but rather Rabbi Neḥemya was his name; and some saythat bRabbi Elazar ben Arakh was his nameand his statement was based on the personal experience of forgetting his Torah due to his failure to exile himself to a place of Torah. bAnd why was he called Rabbi Nehorai?It was bbecause he would illuminate [ imanhir /i] the eyes of the Sages in ihalakha /i. /b,The mishna taught: bHowever, one may not scrapeoff the oil on Shabbat. bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: bOne may not scrapehis body bwith a scraper on Shabbat. Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: If one’s feet were dirty with mortar and excrement he may scrapethem bin the usual mannerwith a scraper band need not be concernedabout violating a prohibition. bRav Shmuel bar Yehuda’s mother made him a silver scraperto use on Shabbat to distinguish it from a weekday.,The mishna also taught that bone may not enter a swampy riverfull of mud on Shabbat. The Gemara explains: bWhat is the reasonfor this? bDue to the mud,as it is likely that one will slip and fall and come to violate the prohibitions of bathing and wringing out his clothes.,We also learned in the mishna that bone may not make a drug to induce vomitingon Shabbat. bRabba bar bar Ḥana saidthat bRabbi Yoḥa said: They only taughtthat this is prohibited bwith a drug,which is considered a medicine; bhowever,inducing vomiting bby hand is permitted. It was taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Neḥemya says: Even during the week,if one need not vomit for medical reasons, bit is prohibitedto induce vomiting bbecauseit causes bloss of food. /b, bAndwe learned in the mishna that bone may not align a younginfant’s bones in order to straighten them on Shabbat. bRabba bar bar Ḥana saidthat bRabbi Yoḥa said:With regard to bswaddling an infanton Shabbat, one may bwelldo so. The Gemara challenges this statement: bDidn’t we learnin the mishna that bone may not alignan infant’s bones? The Gemara answers: bThere,the mishna is referring to bthe bones,vertebrae, bof the spine, becausestraightening them bappears likethe prohibited labor of bbuilding. /b,We also learned in the mishna that bone may not reset a breakin a bone on Shabbat. bRav Ḥana of Baghdad saidthat bShmuel said: /b
35. Babylonian Talmud, Sukkah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

51a. כתנאי (דתניא) עבדי כהנים היו דברי ר' מאיר רבי יוסי אומר משפחת בית הפגרים ומשפחת בית ציפריא ומאמאום היו שהיו משיאין לכהונה,ר' חנינא בן אנטיגנוס אומר לוים היו מאי לאו בהא קא מיפלגי דמאן דאמר עבדים היו קסבר עיקר שירה בפה ומאן דאמר לוים היו קסבר עיקר שירה בכלי,ותסברא רבי יוסי מאי קסבר אי קסבר עיקר שירה בפה אפילו עבדים נמי אי קסבר עיקר שירה בכלי לוים אין ישראלים לא,אלא דכולי עלמא עיקר שירה בפה ובהא קא מיפלגי דמר סבר הכי הוה מעשה ומר סבר הכי הוה מעשה,למאי נפקא מינה למעלין מדוכן ליוחסין ולמעשר קא מיפלגי,מאן דאמר עבדים היו קסבר אין מעלין מדוכן ליוחסין ולא למעשר ומאן דאמר ישראל היו קסבר מעלין מדוכן ליוחסין אבל לא למעשר ומאן דאמר לוים היו קסבר מעלין מדוכן בין ליוחסין בין למעשר,ורבי ירמיה בר אבא אמר מחלוקת בשיר של שואבה דרבי יוסי בר יהודה סבר שמחה יתירה נמי דוחה את השבת ורבנן סברי שמחה יתירה אינה דוחה את השבת אבל בשיר של קרבן דברי הכל עבודה היא ודוחה את השבת,מיתיבי שיר של שואבה דוחה את השבת דברי רבי יוסי בר יהודה וחכמים אומרים אף יום טוב אינו דוחה תיובתא דרב יוסף תיובתא,לימא בשיר של שואבה הוא דפליגי אבל בשיר של קרבן דברי הכל דוחה את השבת לימא תיהוי תיובתא דרב יוסף בתרתי,אמר לך רב יוסף פליגי בשיר של שואבה והוא הדין לקרבן והאי דקמיפלגי בשיר של שואבה להודיעך כחו דרבי יוסי בר יהודה דאפילו דשואבה נמי דחי,והא קתני זהו חליל של בית השואבה שאינו דוחה לא את השבת ולא את יום טוב זהו דאינו דוחה אבל דקרבן דוחה מני אי נימא רבי יוסי בר יהודה האמר שיר של שואבה נמי דוחה אלא לאו רבנן ותיובתא דרב יוסף בתרתי תיובתא,מאי טעמא דמאן דאמר עיקר שירה בכלי דכתיב (דברי הימים ב כט, כז) ויאמר חזקיהו להעלות העולה להמזבח ובעת החל העולה החל שיר ה' והחצוצרות ועל ידי כלי דויד מלך ישראל,מ"ט דמאן דאמר עיקר שירה בפה דכתיב (דברי הימים ב ה, יג) ויהי כאחד למחצצרים ולמשוררים להשמיע קול אחד,ואידך נמי הא כתיב ויאמר חזקיהו הכי קאמר החל שיר ה' בפה על ידי כלי דויד מלך ישראל לבסומי קלא,ואידך נמי הא כתיב ויהי כאחד למחצצרים ולמשוררים הכי קאמר משוררים דומיא דמחצצרים מה מחצצרים בכלי אף משוררים בכלי:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big מי שלא ראה שמחת בית השואבה לא ראה שמחה מימיו במוצאי יום טוב הראשון של חג ירדו לעזרת נשים ומתקנין שם תיקון גדול מנורות של זהב היו שם וארבעה ספלים של זהב בראשיהם וארבעה סולמות לכל אחד ואחד וארבעה ילדים מפירחי כהונה ובידיהם כדים של מאה ועשרים לוג שהן מטילין לכל ספל וספל מבלאי מכנסי כהנים ומהמייניהן מהן היו מפקיעין ובהן היו מדליקין ולא היה חצר בירושלים שאינה מאירה מאור בית השואבה,חסידים ואנשי מעשה היו מרקדין בפניהם 51a. This dispute is bparallelto another dispute between itanna’im /i, as it is taughtin a mishna in tractate iArakhin /i: The Temple musicians bwere slaves of priests;this is bthe statement of Rabbi Meir. Rabbi Yosei says:The musicians were not slaves; they were Israelites from bthe family of the House of Happegarim and the family of the House of Tzipperaya. And they were fromthe city of bEmma’um,and their lineage was sufficiently distinguished bthat they would marrytheir daughters btomembers of bthe priesthood. /b, bRabbi Ḥanina ben Antigonus says: They were Levites. What, is it not that they disagree with regard to this; that the one who saidthat the musicians bwere slaves holdsthat the bprimaryessence of bsongis singing bwith the mouth.Since the instrumental music is mere accompaniment, it could be performed by slaves. bAnd the one who said thatthe musicians bwere Levites holdsthat the bprimaryessence of bsongis accompaniment bbymusical binstruments.Therefore, the musicians were Levites, who were tasked with the song that was part of the Temple service.,The Gemara asks: bAndhow can byou understandthe mishna that way? According to that explanation, bwhat does Rabbi Yosei hold? If he holdsthat the bprimaryessence of bsongis singing bwith the mouth,then beven slavescan balsoplay the instruments. Why then does he require that the musicians be from Israelite families of distinguished lineage? bIf he holdsthat the bprimaryessence of bsongis accompaniment bbymusical binstruments,he should have said: bLevites, yes,they may play the instruments, but bIsraelites, no,they may not., bRather,the explanation of the dispute is bthat everyone agreesthat the bprimaryessence of bsongis singing bwith the mouthand the musical instruments are merely for accompaniment. bAndit is bwith regard to this that they disagree:It is bthatone bSage holdsthat the beventtook place in bthismanner, i.e., slaves played the instruments, bandone bSage holdsthat the beventtook place in bthismanner, i.e., Israelite families of distinguished lineage played the instruments.,The Gemara asks: bWhatpractical halakhic bdifference is therewhether one group or another played the instruments? The Gemara answers: It is with regard btowhether bone elevatesa Levite bfrom the platform tothe presumptive status of distinguished blineage andeligibility btoreceive btithes that they disagree.Is it possible to draw the conclusion that a family is of distinguished lineage or eligible to receive tithes based on the fact that a member or ancestor of that family played a musical instrument on the Temple platform?, bThe one who said thatthe musicians bwere slaves holdsthat bone does not elevate from the platform tothe presumptive status of distinguished blineage andeligibility btoreceive btithes. And the one who said thatthe musicians bwere Israelites holdsthat bone elevatesa Levite bfrom the platformto the presumptive status of distinguished blineage but noteligibility btoreceive btithes. And the one who said thatthe musicians bwere Levites holdsthat bone elevatesa Levite bfrom the platform tothe presumptive status of distinguished blineageand eligibility btoreceive btithes. /b,§ The Gemara cites an opinion that disagrees with that of Rav Yosef. bAnd Rabbi Yirmeya bar Abba said: The disputebetween Rabbi Yosei bar Yehuda and the Rabbis bis with regard to the song ofthe bDrawingof the Water. bRabbi Yosei bar Yehuda holdsthat bextra rejoicing also overrides Shabbat, and the Rabbis holdthat bextra rejoicing does not override Shabbat. However, with regard tothe bsong thatthe Levites sang accompanying ban offering, everyone agreesthat it is part of the Temple bservice, and overrides Shabbat. /b,The Gemara braises an objectionto the opinion of Rav Yosef that the dispute is with regard to the song that the Levites sang accompanying the daily offering: bThe song ofthe bDrawingof the Water boverrides Shabbat;this is bthe statement of Rabbi Yosei bar Yehuda. And the Rabbis say: It does not override even the Festival.Apparently, their dispute is with regard to the song of the Drawing of the Water. Say that this is ba conclusive refutationof the opinion bof Rav Yosef.The Gemara concludes: Indeed, it is ba conclusive refutation. /b,The Gemara suggests: bLet us say,based on this ibaraita /i, that bit is with regard to the song ofthe bDrawingof the Water alone bthat they disagree; however, with regard to the song thatthe Levites sang accompanying bthedaily boffering, everyone saysthat bit overrides Shabbat.If so, blet us saythat bthis will be a conclusive refutation ofthe opinion bof Rav Yosef on twocounts. According to Rav Yosef, the dispute is with regard to the song of the Drawing of the Water, and not with regard to the song the Levites sang accompanying the daily offering. The above suggestion refutes both aspects of his opinion., bRav Yosefcould have bsaid to you: They disagree with regard to the song ofthe bDrawingof the Water band the same is true forthe song that the Levites sang accompanying ban offering. Andthe fact bthat they disagreespecifically bwith regard to the song ofthe bDrawingof the Water and do not specifically mention the song that the Levites sang accompanying the daily offering bis to convey to you the far-reachingnature of the opinion bof Rabbi Yosei bar Yehuda, that even thesong bofthe bDrawingof the Water balso overridesShabbat.,The Gemara asks: bBut isn’t it taughtin the mishna: bThis isthe bflute of the Place of the Drawingof the Water, bwhich overrides neither Shabbat northe bFestival.By inference, bthis isthe flute bthat does not overrideShabbat; bhowever,the flute that accompanies bthedaily boffering overridesShabbat. The Gemara asks: bWho isthe itannaof the mishna? bIf we sayit is bRabbi Yosei bar Yehuda, didn’t he say that the song ofthe bDrawingof the Water balso overridesShabbat? bRather, is it not the Rabbis, andsay that this is ba conclusive refutationof bRav Yosef on twocounts. The Gemara concludes: Indeed, it is ba conclusive refutation. /b,The Gemara asks: bWhat is the rationalefor the opinion bof the one who said:The bprimaryessence of bsongis singing accompanied bbymusical binstruments?The Gemara answers: It is bas it is written: “And Hezekiah commanded to sacrifice the burnt-offering upon the altar. And when the burnt-offering began, the song of the Lord began also, and the trumpets, together with the instruments of David, king of Israel”(II Chronicles 29:27), indicating that the song of God that accompanies the offering is played by trumpets and other instruments.,The Gemara asks: bWhat is the rationalefor the opinion bof the one who said:The bprimaryessence of bsongis singing bwith the mouth?The Gemara answers: It is bas it is written: “And it came to pass, when the trumpeters and the singers were as one to make one sound”(II Chronicles 5:13). Since the verse does not mention any musical instrument played with the singing other than the trumpets, and the trumpets were not sounded as accompaniment for the singers, apparently the primary essence of song is singing with the mouth. The trumpets were sounded in order to accompany the sacrifice of the daily and additional offerings with the requisite sounds of itekiaand iterua /i.,The Gemara asks: bAndaccording to bthe other itanna btoo,who holds that the primary essence of song is singing with the mouth, bisn’t it written: “And Hezekiah commanded /b…the song of the Lord began also, and the trumpets, together with the instruments,” indicating that the instruments are the primary essence? The Gemara answers: bThis is whatthe verse bis saying: “The song of the Lord began,”indicates that the primary essence is bwith the mouth; “with the instruments of David, King of Israel,”is bto sweeten the sound,as the instruments are merely to accompany and enhance the singing.,The Gemara asks: bAndaccording to bthe other itanna btoo,who holds that the primary essence of song is singing accompanied by musical instruments, bisn’t it written: “And it came to pass, when the trumpeters and the singers were as one,”indicating that the primary essence is with the mouth? The Gemara answers: bThis is whatthe verse bis saying:Through their juxtaposition, one derives that the bsingersare bsimilar to the trumpeters; just as trumpetersproduce their sound bwith an instrument, so toothe bsingersproduce their song bwith an instrument. /b, strongMISHNA: /strong bOne who did not see the Celebration of the Place of the Drawingof the Water bnever saw celebration in his days.This was the sequence of events: bAt the conclusion of the first Festivalday the priests and the Levites bdescendedfrom the Israelites’ courtyard bto the Women’s Courtyard, where they would introduce a significant repair,as the Gemara will explain. bThere were golden candelabraatop poles btherein the courtyard. bAndthere were bfour basinsmade bof gold at the topof each candelabrum. bAndthere were bfour ladders for each and everypole bandthere were bfour children from the priesthood trainees, and in their handswere bpitcherswith a capacity bof 120 ilog /iof oil bthat they would pour into each and every basin. From the worn trousers of the priests and their belts they would loosenand tear strips to use as wicks, band with them they would lightthe candelabra. bAndthe light from the candelabra was so bright that bthere was not a courtyard in Jerusalem that was not illuminated from the light of the Place of the Drawingof the Water.,The bpious andthe bmen of action would dance beforethe people who attended the celebration
36. Babylonian Talmud, Yoma, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

16a. דרומית מזרחית היא לשכה שהיו עושין בה לחם הפנים מזרחית צפונית בה גנזו בית חשמונאי אבני מזבח ששקצום מלכי עובדי כוכבים צפונית מערבית בה יורדין לבית הטבילה אמר רב הונא מאן תנא מדות ר"א בן יעקב היא,דתנן עזרת נשים היתה אורך מאה ושלשים וחמש על רוחב מאה ושלשים וחמש וארבע לשכות היו בד' מקצועותיה ומה היו משמשות דרומית מזרחית היא היתה לשכת הנזירים ששם נזירים מבשלים את שלמיהן ומגלחין שערן ומשלחין תחת הדוד מזרחית צפונית היא היתה לשכת דיר העצים ששם כהנים בעלי מומין עומדין ומתליעין בעצים שכל עץ שיש בו תולעת פסול לגבי מזבח,צפונית מערבית היא היתה לשכת המצורעין מערבית דרומית אמר ר"א בן יעקב שכחתי מה היתה משמשת אבא שאול אומר בה היו נותנין יין ושמן והיא היתה נקראת לשכת בית שמניא,ה"נ מסתברא דר"א בן יעקב היא דתנן כל הכתלים שהיו שם היו גבוהין חוץ מכותל מזרחי שהכהן השורף את הפרה עומד בהר המשחה ומכוון ורואה כנגד פתחו של היכל בשעת הזאת הדם,ותנן כל הפתחים שהיו שם גובהן עשרים אמה ורוחבן עשר אמות) ותנן לפנים ממנו סורג ותנן לפנים ממנו החיל עשר אמות ושתים עשרה מעלות היו שם רום מעלה חצי אמה ושילחה חצי אמה,ט"ו מעלות עולות מתוכה היורדות מעזרת ישראל לעזרת נשים רום מעלה חצי אמה ושילחה חצי אמה ותנן בין האולם ולמזבח כ"ב אמה ושתים עשרה מעלות היו שם רום מעלה חצי אמה ושילחה חצי אמה,ותנן ר"א בן יעקב אומר מעלה היתה שם וגבוה אמה ודוכן נתון עליה ובו שלש מעלות של חצי חצי אמה,אי אמרת בשלמא ר"א בן יעקב היא היינו דאיכסי ליה פיתחא,אלא אי אמרת רבנן הא איכא פלגא דאמתא דמתחזי ליה פיתחא בגוויה,אלא לאו שמע מינה רבי אליעזר בן יעקב היא רב אדא בר אהבה אמר הא מני רבי יהודה היא דתניא רבי יהודה אומר המזבח ממוצע ועומד באמצע עזרה ושלשים ושתים אמות היו לו 16a. the bsoutheastchamber in the Hall of the Hearth bwas the chamber in which the shewbread was prepared.The bnortheastchamber was the chamber bin which the Hasmoneans sequestered the altar stones that were desecrated by the gentile kingswhen they sacrificed idolatrous offerings. The bnorthwestchamber was the chamber bin whichthe priests bdescendedthrough tunnels bto the Hall of Immersion.There is a contradiction between the sources with regard to the location of the Chamber of the Lambs. bRav Huna said: Whois the itannawho btaughtthe imishnayotin tractate iMiddot/b? It is bRabbi Eliezer ben Ya’akov,who has a different opinion with regard to this matter., bAs we learnedin a mishna in tractate iMiddot /i: The dimensions of the bwomen’s courtyard were a length of 135cubits bby a width of 135cubits, band there were four chambers in its four corners. And whatpurpose did these chambers bserve?The bsoutheastchamber bwas the Chamber of the Nazirites, as there the nazirites cook their peace-offerings and shave their hair and castit in the fire to burn bbeneath the potin which the peace-offering was cooked, as the Torah instructs (see Numbers 6:18). The bnortheastchamber bwas the Chamber of the Woodshed, where blemished priests,who are disqualified for any other service, bstand and examine the logsto determine if they were infested bby worms, as any log in which there are worms is disqualified foruse bon the altar. /b,The bnorthwestchamber bwas the Chamber of the Lepers,where lepers would immerse for purification. With regard to the bsouthwestchamber, bRabbi Eliezer ben Ya’akov said: I forgot whatpurpose it bwould serve. Abba Shaul says: They would place wine and oil therefor the meal-offerings and libations, band it was called the Chamber of the House of Oils.From this mishna it may be inferred that the itannawho taught the imishnayotin tractate iMiddotis Rabbi Eliezer ben Ya’akov, as that is why the mishna finds it necessary to mention that he forgot the purpose of one of the chambers., bSo too, it is reasonableto conclude that the imishnayotin tractate iMiddotare in accordance with the opinion of bRabbi Eliezer ben Ya’akov, as we learnedin a mishna there: bAll the walls that were theresurrounding the Temple Mount bwere high except for the Eastern Wall, as the priest who burns thered bheifer stands on the Mount of Olives,where the red heifer was slaughtered and burned, band directshis attention band looks toward the entrance of the Sanctuary whenhe bsprinkles the blood. /b,The Gemara seeks the opinion according to which this would be feasible. bAnd we learnedin a mishna: bAll the entrances that were therein the Temple were btwenty cubits high and ten cubits wide. And we learnedin a different mishna describing the layout of the Temple: bInsidethe eastern wall of the Temple Mount was ba latticed gate. And we learnedin a different mishna: bInsidethe latticed gate was bthe rampart,which was an elevated area bten cubitswide. In that area bthere were twelve stairs;each bstairwas bhalf a cubit high and half a cubit deep,for a total ascent of six cubits.,In addition, bfifteen stairs ascend from withinthe women’s courtyard and bdescend from the Israelite courtyard to the women’s courtyard.Each bstairwas bhalf a cubit high and half a cubit deep,for an additional ascent of seven and a half cubits. The total height of both staircases together was thirteen and a half cubits. bAnd we learnedin that mishna: The area bbetween the Entrance Hall and the altarwas btwenty-two cubitswide, band there were twelve stairsin that area. Each bstairwas bhalf a cubit high and half a cubit deep,for an additional ascent of six cubits and a total height of nineteen and a half cubits., bAnd we learnedin that mishna that bRabbi Eliezer ben Ya’akov says: There wasan additional bstair therebetween the Israelite courtyard and the priests’ courtyard. That stair was bone cubit high, and the platformon which the Levites stood bwas placed upon it and on itwere bthree stairs, eachwith a height and depth of bhalf a cubit,for a total of twenty-two cubits., bGranted, if you saythat the imishnayotin tractate iMiddotare in accordance with the opinion of bRabbi Eliezer ben Ya’akov, that ishow it can be understood that bthe entrance was concealed.The threshold of the entrance to the Sanctuary was more than twenty cubits higher than the threshold of the eastern gate of the Temple Mount. One looking through the Eastern Gate would be unable to see the entrance of the Sanctuary, because the gate was only twenty cubits high. In order to provide the priest performing the red heifer ritual on the Mount of Olives with a view of the entrance to the Sanctuary, the eastern wall had to be lowered., bHowever, if you saythat the imishnayotin tractate iMiddotare in accordance with the opinion of bthe Rabbis,who do not add the two and a half cubits of the stair and the platform added by Rabbi Eliezer ben Ya’akov, bisn’t there half a cubit through which the entrance can be seen?Since the threshold of the Sanctuary is only nineteen and a half cubits higher than the threshold of the gate, the priest on the Mount of Olives could look through the eastern gate of the Temple Mount and see the bottom of the Temple entrance. There would be no need to lower the eastern wall., bRather,must one bnot conclude from itthat that the imishnayotin tractate iMiddotare taught by bRabbi Eliezer ben Ya’akov? Rav Adda bar Ahava said:This is not a definitive proof, and it is still possible to interpret ihalakhotof this tractate in a different manner. bRather, whose is thatopinion that the Eastern Wall was lowered? bIt isthe opinion of bRabbi Yehuda, as it was taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Yehuda says: The altar is centered and stands in the middle ofthe Temple bcourtyard,directly aligned with the entrances of the courtyards and the Sanctuary, and bit was thirty-two cubitslong and thirty-two cubits wide.
37. Anon., Avot Derabbi Nathan A, 12 (6th cent. CE - 8th cent. CE)



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
ab bēt dîn" "239.0_67.0@'abbā'" "239.0_260.0@'arôn" Brooten, Women Leaders in the Ancient Synagogue (1982) 67
abba guria' "239.0_67.0@abba sha'ul" '239.0_67.0@abraham Brooten, Women Leaders in the Ancient Synagogue (1982) 67
abba shaul Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 49
abba shaul (rabbi) Balberg, Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture (2023) 192, 193
akiva (rabbi) Balberg, Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture (2023) 194
albeck, h. Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 132, 136
albeck, hanoch Simon-Shushan, Stories of the Law: Narrative Discourse and the Construction of Authority in the Mishna (2012) 217
alexandria Taylor and Hay, Philo of Alexandria: On the Contemplative Life: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2020) 199
alexandrian diplostoon Brooten, Women Leaders in the Ancient Synagogue (1982) 260
allegory, allegorical Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 133
aramaic Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 49
archisynagogue, pater synagoges Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 429
ark of the covenant Simon-Shushan, Stories of the Law: Narrative Discourse and the Construction of Authority in the Mishna (2012) 217
av bet din Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 429
body Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 133
boethus (dynasty of) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 49
calendar (lunar, solar) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 49
case stories, stories, etiological Simon-Shushan, Stories of the Law: Narrative Discourse and the Construction of Authority in the Mishna (2012) 217
chronicles, books of Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 159
dance Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 132
demiurge Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 133
diasporan historiography Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 386
dura europos Brooten, Women Leaders in the Ancient Synagogue (1982) 259
elders Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 429
eleazar ben arakh (rabbi) Balberg, Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture (2023) 192
eliezer ben yaakov, r. Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 49
eliezer ben yaakov (rabbi) Balberg, Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture (2023) 192, 193
flute Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 132
fox, h. Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 132, 136
hanina, r. Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 49
hasmonean temple Ganzel and Holtz, Contextualizing Jewish Temples (2020) 152
heave-offering (terumah) Balberg, Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture (2023) 194
huna (rabbi) Balberg, Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture (2023) 193
impure, impurity Balberg, Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture (2023) 194
isaiah Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 133
james Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 133
jerusalem, ark of the covenant Simon-Shushan, Stories of the Law: Narrative Discourse and the Construction of Authority in the Mishna (2012) 217
jerusalem Balberg, Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture (2023) 192
josiah, king Simon-Shushan, Stories of the Law: Narrative Discourse and the Construction of Authority in the Mishna (2012) 217
joy, rejoicing Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 132
leadership, synagogue, leadership, town, communal Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 429
leadership, synagogue Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 429
lieberman, s. Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 136
lulav Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 136
maimonides Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 136
mantinea Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 429
mauretania, pater synagoges Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 429
meir (rabbi) Balberg, Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture (2023) 193
memorization Balberg, Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture (2023) 192, 193, 194
mercenaries Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 386
metaphor Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 133
mixed/separate, of men and women Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 504
moses Balberg, Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture (2023) 192
motifs (thematic), jews are victims even when on the offensive Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 386
neusner, j. Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 136
new moon witnesses, temple Simon-Shushan, Stories of the Law: Narrative Discourse and the Construction of Authority in the Mishna (2012) 217
ono Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 429
pagan, pagans, leadership Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 429
pater synagoges Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 429
pharisees Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 136
priest, priests Balberg, Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture (2023) 193, 194
priests, ark of the covenant Simon-Shushan, Stories of the Law: Narrative Discourse and the Construction of Authority in the Mishna (2012) 217
prophecy, prophets Balberg, Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture (2023) 192
prostrations, ritual Simon-Shushan, Stories of the Law: Narrative Discourse and the Construction of Authority in the Mishna (2012) 217
psalms, book of Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 159
psalms, musical directions Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 159
psalms, the psalm titles Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 159
psalms Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 132
purification Balberg, Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture (2023) 194
qumran community Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 49
razis Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 429
revelation Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 133
roman synagogues, leadership titles Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 429
rome, women Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 504
sabbath Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 132; Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 49
safrai, s. Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 132, 136
schwartz, seth Flatto, The Crown and the Courts (2021) 320
separation of men and women, synagogue Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 504
separation of men and women, therapeutae sanctuary Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 504
shavuot (pentecost, festival of weeks) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 49
simhat beit hashoeva Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 132, 136
skin disease Balberg, Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture (2023) 192
smyrna, pater Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 429
stobi synagogue, inscription Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 429
stories, didactic, crisis narratives Simon-Shushan, Stories of the Law: Narrative Discourse and the Construction of Authority in the Mishna (2012) 217
structure, violence narratives Simon-Shushan, Stories of the Law: Narrative Discourse and the Construction of Authority in the Mishna (2012) 217
sunday (festival day) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 49
synagogue Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 136
synagogue architecture, balcony Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 504
system, halakhic ~ Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 49
taqqanot, stories, etiological Simon-Shushan, Stories of the Law: Narrative Discourse and the Construction of Authority in the Mishna (2012) 217
taqqanot, wood storeroom Simon-Shushan, Stories of the Law: Narrative Discourse and the Construction of Authority in the Mishna (2012) 217
temple, ark of the covenant Simon-Shushan, Stories of the Law: Narrative Discourse and the Construction of Authority in the Mishna (2012) 217
temple, prostrations, ritual Simon-Shushan, Stories of the Law: Narrative Discourse and the Construction of Authority in the Mishna (2012) 217
temple, sudden death Simon-Shushan, Stories of the Law: Narrative Discourse and the Construction of Authority in the Mishna (2012) 217
temple Balberg, Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture (2023) 192, 193; Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 132, 136
temple (second), steps' Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 386
temple ~ Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 49
theodosian code, synagogue officials Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 429
tosefta Simon-Shushan, Stories of the Law: Narrative Discourse and the Construction of Authority in the Mishna (2012) 217
tractate middot, as pre-herodian temple Ganzel and Holtz, Contextualizing Jewish Temples (2020) 152
tractate middot Ganzel and Holtz, Contextualizing Jewish Temples (2020) 152, 153
violence, narrative Simon-Shushan, Stories of the Law: Narrative Discourse and the Construction of Authority in the Mishna (2012) 217
wine Balberg, Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture (2023) 192
women, seating, synagogue Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 504
womens court Ganzel and Holtz, Contextualizing Jewish Temples (2020) 152, 153; Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 504
womens gallery Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 504
wood storeroom Simon-Shushan, Stories of the Law: Narrative Discourse and the Construction of Authority in the Mishna (2012) 217
yehoshua (rabbi) Balberg, Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture (2023) 194
yishmael, r. Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 49
yohanan ben zakkai (rabban) Balberg, Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture (2023) 194
āb" "239.0_67.0@'ābî" '239.0_67.0@abba gorion Brooten, Women Leaders in the Ancient Synagogue (1982) 67