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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



8022
Mishnah, Middot, 1.4


שִׁבְעָה שְׁעָרִים הָיוּ בָעֲזָרָה, שְׁלשָׁה בַצָּפוֹן וּשְׁלשָׁה בַדָּרוֹם וְאֶחָד בַּמִּזְרָח. שֶׁבַּדָּרוֹם, שַׁעַר הַדֶּלֶק. שֵׁנִי לוֹ, שַׁעַר הַבְּכוֹרוֹת. שְׁלִישִׁי לוֹ, שַׁעַר הַמָּיִם. שֶׁבַּמִּזְרָח, שַׁעַר נִקָּנוֹר, וּשְׁתֵּי לְשָׁכוֹת הָיוּ לוֹ, אַחַת מִימִינוֹ וְאַחַת מִשְּׂמֹאלוֹ, אַחַת לִשְׁכַּת פִּנְחָס הַמַּלְבִּישׁ, וְאַחַת לִשְׁכַּת עוֹשֵׂי חֲבִתִּין:There were seven gates in the courtyard: three in the north and three in the south and one in the east. In the south: the Gate of Kindling, and next to it the Gate of the First-borns, and then the Water Gate. In the east: the Gate of Nicanor. It had two chambers, one on its right and one on its left. One was the chamber of Pinchas the dresser and one the other the chamber of the griddle cake makers.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

31 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 33.26 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

33.26. אֵין כָּאֵל יְשֻׁרוּן רֹכֵב שָׁמַיִם בְעֶזְרֶךָ וּבְגַאֲוָתוֹ שְׁחָקִים׃ 33.26. There is none like unto God, O Jeshurun, Who rideth upon the heaven as thy help, And in His excellency on the skies."
2. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 15.18 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

15.18. וְאִשָּׁה אֲשֶׁר יִשְׁכַּב אִישׁ אֹתָהּ שִׁכְבַת־זָרַע וְרָחֲצוּ בַמַּיִם וְטָמְאוּ עַד־הָעָרֶב׃ 15.18. The woman also with whom a man shall lie carnally, they shall both bathe themselves in water, and be unclean until the even."
3. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 19 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

4. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 1.22-1.26 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

1.22. וּדְמוּת עַל־רָאשֵׁי הַחַיָּה רָקִיעַ כְּעֵין הַקֶּרַח הַנּוֹרָא נָטוּי עַל־רָאשֵׁיהֶם מִלְמָעְלָה׃ 1.23. וְתַחַת הָרָקִיעַ כַּנְפֵיהֶם יְשָׁרוֹת אִשָּׁה אֶל־אֲחוֹתָהּ לְאִישׁ שְׁתַּיִם מְכַסּוֹת לָהֵנָּה וּלְאִישׁ שְׁתַּיִם מְכַסּוֹת לָהֵנָּה אֵת גְּוִיֹּתֵיהֶם׃ 1.24. וָאֶשְׁמַע אֶת־קוֹל כַּנְפֵיהֶם כְּקוֹל מַיִם רַבִּים כְּקוֹל־שַׁדַּי בְּלֶכְתָּם קוֹל הֲמֻלָּה כְּקוֹל מַחֲנֶה בְּעָמְדָם תְּרַפֶּינָה כַנְפֵיהֶן׃ 1.25. וַיְהִי־קוֹל מֵעַל לָרָקִיעַ אֲשֶׁר עַל־רֹאשָׁם בְּעָמְדָם תְּרַפֶּינָה כַנְפֵיהֶן׃ 1.26. וּמִמַּעַל לָרָקִיעַ אֲשֶׁר עַל־רֹאשָׁם כְּמַרְאֵה אֶבֶן־סַפִּיר דְּמוּת כִּסֵּא וְעַל דְּמוּת הַכִּסֵּא דְּמוּת כְּמַרְאֵה אָדָם עָלָיו מִלְמָעְלָה׃ 1.22. And over the heads of the living creatures there was the likeness of a firmament, like the colour of the terrible ice, stretched forth over their heads above." 1.23. And under the firmament were their wings conformable the one to the other; this one of them had two which covered, and that one of them had two which covered, their bodies." 1.24. And when they went, I heard the noise of their wings like the noise of great waters, like the voice of the Almighty, a noise of tumult like the noise of a host; when they stood, they let down their wings." 1.25. For, when there was a voice above the firmament that was over their heads, as they stood, they let down their wings." 1.26. And above the firmament that was over their heads was the likeness of a throne, as the appearance of a sapphire stone; and upon the likeness of the throne was a likeness as the appearance of a man upon it above."
5. Anon., Jubilees, 50.12 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

50.12. and a holy day: and a day of the holy kingdom for all Israel is this day among their days for ever.
6. Dead Sea Scrolls, Damascus Covenant, 11.16-11.17 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

7. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 15.38, 17.162, 20.17-20.94 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

15.38. So when they had spoken thus to one another, they came to an agreement, and all suspicions, so far as appeared, were vanished away. 15.38. 1. And now Herod, in the eighteenth year of his reign, and after the acts already mentioned, undertook a very great work, that is, to build of himself the temple of God, and make it larger in compass, and to raise it to a most magnificent altitude, as esteeming it to be the most glorious of all his actions, as it really was, to bring it to perfection; and that this would be sufficient for an everlasting memorial of him; 17.162. and his building of the temple, and what a vast charge that was to him; while the Asamoneans, during the hundred and twenty-five years of their government, had not been able to perform any so great a work for the honor of God as that was; 20.17. He said further, that he would show them from hence how, at his command, the walls of Jerusalem would fall down; and he promised them that he would procure them an entrance into the city through those walls, when they were fallen down. 20.17. 1. About this time it was that Helena, queen of Adiabene, and her son Izates, changed their course of life, and embraced the Jewish customs, and this on the occasion following: 20.18. And now arose a sedition between the high priests and the principal men of the multitude of Jerusalem; each of which got them a company of the boldest sort of men, and of those that loved innovations about them, and became leaders to them; and when they struggled together, they did it by casting reproachful words against one another, and by throwing stones also. And there was nobody to reprove them; but these disorders were done after a licentious manner in the city, as if it had no government over it. 20.18. Monobazus, the king of Adiabene, who had also the name of Bazeus, fell in love with his sister Helena, and took her to be his wife, and begat her with child. But as he was in bed with her one night, he laid his hand upon his wife’s belly, and fell asleep, and seemed to hear a voice, which bid him take his hand off his wife’s belly, and not hurt the infant that was therein, which, by God’s providence, would be safely born, and have a happy end. 20.19. Now this palace had been erected of old by the children of Asamoneus and was situate upon an elevation, and afforded a most delightful prospect to those that had a mind to take a view of the city, which prospect was desired by the king; and there he could lie down, and eat, and thence observe what was done in the temple; 20.19. This voice put him into disorder; so he awaked immediately, and told the story to his wife; and when his son was born, he called him Izates. 20.21. which was the origin of that envy which his other brethren, by the same father, bore to him; while on this account they hated him more and more, and were all under great affliction that their father should prefer Izates before them. 20.21. This was the beginning of greater calamities; for the robbers perpetually contrived to catch some of Aias’s servants; and when they had taken them alive, they would not let them go, till they thereby recovered some of their own Sicarii. And as they were again become no small number, they grew bold, and were a great affliction to the whole country. 20.22. Now although their father was very sensible of these their passions, yet did he forgive them, as not indulging those passions out of an ill disposition, but out of a desire each of them had to be beloved by their father. However, he sent Izates, with many presents, to Abennerig, the king of Charax-Spasini, and that out of the great dread he was in about him, lest he should come to some misfortune by the hatred his brethren bore him; and he committed his son’s preservation to him. 20.22. and while they were unwilling to keep by them the treasures that were there deposited, out of fear of [their being carried away by] the Romans; and while they had a regard to the making provision for the workmen; they had a mind to expend these treasures upon them; for if any one of them did but labor for a single hour, he received his pay immediately; so they persuaded him to rebuild the eastern cloisters. 20.23. Upon which Abennerig gladly received the young man, and had a great affection for him, and married him to his own daughter, whose name was Samacha: he also bestowed a country upon him, from which he received large revenues. 20.23. Now the number of years during the rule of these thirteen, from the day when our fathers departed out of Egypt, under Moses their leader, until the building of that temple which king Solomon erected at Jerusalem, were six hundred and twelve. 20.24. 2. But when Monobazus was grown old, and saw that he had but a little time to live, he had a mind to come to the sight of his son before he died. So he sent for him, and embraced him after the most affectionate manner, and bestowed on him the country called Carra; 20.24. and when he was destroyed at a feast by the treachery of his son-in-law, his own son, whose name was Hyrcanus, succeeded him, after he had held the high priesthood one year longer than his brother. This Hyrcanus enjoyed that dignity thirty years, and died an old man, leaving the succession to Judas, who was also called Aristobulus 20.25. it was a soil that bare amomum in great plenty: there are also in it the remains of that ark, wherein it is related that Noah escaped the deluge, and where they are still shown to such as are desirous to see them. 20.25. Accordingly, the number of the high priests, from the days of Herod until the day when Titus took the temple and the City, and burnt them, were in all twenty-eight; the time also that belonged to them was a hundred and seven years. 20.26. Accordingly, Izates abode in that country until his father’s death. But the very day that Monobazus died, queen Helena sent for all the grandees, and governors of the kingdom, and for those that had the armies committed to their command; 20.26. and what we have suffered from the Assyrians and Babylonians, and what afflictions the Persians and Macedonians, and after them the Romans, have brought upon us; for I think I may say that I have composed this history with sufficient accuracy in all things. 20.27. and when they were come, she made the following speech to them: “I believe you are not unacquainted that my husband was desirous Izates should succeed him in the government, and thought him worthy so to do. However, I wait your determination; for happy is he who receives a kingdom, not from a single person only, but from the willing suffrages of a great many.” 20.28. This she said, in order to try those that were invited, and to discover their sentiments. Upon the hearing of which, they first of all paid their homage to the queen, as their custom was, and then they said that they confirmed the king’s determination, and would submit to it; and they rejoiced that Izates’s father had preferred him before the rest of his brethren, as being agreeable to all their wishes: 20.29. but that they were desirous first of all to slay his brethren and kinsmen, that so the government might come securely to Izates; because if they were once destroyed, all that fear would be over which might arise from their hatred and envy to him. 20.31. So since these men had not prevailed with her, when they advised her to slay them, they exhorted her at least to keep them in bonds till he should come, and that for their own security; they also gave her counsel to set up some one whom she could put the greatest trust in, as a governor of the kingdom in the mean time. 20.32. So queen Helena complied with this counsel of theirs, and set up Monobazus, the eldest son, to be king, and put the diadem upon his head, and gave him his father’s ring, with its signet; as also the ornament which they call Sampser, and exhorted him to administer the affairs of the kingdom till his brother should come; 20.33. who came suddenly upon hearing that his father was dead, and succeeded his brother Monobazus, who resigned up the government to him. 20.34. 3. Now, during the time Izates abode at Charax-Spasini, a certain Jewish merchant, whose name was Aias, got among the women that belonged to the king, and taught them to worship God according to the Jewish religion. 20.35. He, moreover, by their means, became known to Izates, and persuaded him, in like manner, to embrace that religion; he also, at the earnest entreaty of Izates, accompanied him when he was sent for by his father to come to Adiabene; it also happened that Helena, about the same time, was instructed by a certain other Jew and went over to them. 20.36. But when Izates had taken the kingdom, and was come to Adiabene, and there saw his brethren and other kinsmen in bonds, he was displeased at it; 20.37. and as he thought it an instance of impiety either to slay or imprison them, but still thought it a hazardous thing for to let them have their liberty, with the remembrance of the injuries that had been offered them, he sent some of them and their children for hostages to Rome, to Claudius Caesar, and sent the others to Artabanus, the king of Parthia, with the like intentions. 20.38. 4. And when he perceived that his mother was highly pleased with the Jewish customs, he made haste to change, and to embrace them entirely; and as he supposed that he could not be thoroughly a Jew unless he were circumcised, he was ready to have it done. 20.39. But when his mother understood what he was about, she endeavored to hinder him from doing it, and said to him that this thing would bring him into danger; and that, as he was a king, he would thereby bring himself into great odium among his subjects, when they should understand that he was so fond of rites that were to them strange and foreign; and that they would never bear to be ruled over by a Jew. 20.41. and said that he was afraid lest such an action being once become public to all, he should himself be in danger of punishment for having been the occasion of it, and having been the king’s instructor in actions that were of ill reputation; and he said that he might worship God without being circumcised, even though he did resolve to follow the Jewish law entirely, which worship of God was of a superior nature to circumcision. 20.42. He added, that God would forgive him, though he did not perform the operation, while it was omitted out of necessity, and for fear of his subjects. So the king at that time complied with these persuasions of Aias. 20.43. But afterwards, as he had not quite left off his desire of doing this thing, a certain other Jew that came out of Galilee, whose name was Eleazar, and who was esteemed very skillful in the learning of his country, persuaded him to do the thing; 20.44. for as he entered into his palace to salute him, and found him reading the law of Moses, he said to him, “Thou dost not consider, O king! that thou unjustly breakest the principal of those laws, and art injurious to God himself, [by omitting to be circumcised]; for thou oughtest not only to read them, but chiefly to practice what they enjoin thee. 20.45. How long wilt thou continue uncircumcised? But if thou hast not yet read the law about circumcision, and dost not know how great impiety thou art guilty of by neglecting it, read it now.” 20.46. When the king had heard what he said, he delayed the thing no longer, but retired to another room, and sent for a surgeon, and did what he was commanded to do. He then sent for his mother, and Aias his tutor, and informed them that he had done the thing; 20.47. upon which they were presently struck with astonishment and fear, and that to a great degree, lest the thing should be openly discovered and censured, and the king should hazard the loss of his kingdom, while his subjects would not bear to be governed by a man who was so zealous in another religion; and lest they should themselves run some hazard, because they would be supposed the occasion of his so doing. 20.48. But it was God himself who hindered what they feared from taking effect; for he preserved both Izates himself and his sons when they fell into many dangers, and procured their deliverance when it seemed to be impossible, and demonstrated thereby that the fruit of piety does not perish as to those that have regard to him, and fix their faith upon him only. But these events we shall relate hereafter. 20.49. 5. But as to Helena, the king’s mother, when she saw that the affairs of Izates’s kingdom were in peace, and that her son was a happy man, and admired among all men, and even among foreigners, by the means of God’s providence over him, she had a mind to go to the city of Jerusalem, in order to worship at that temple of God which was so very famous among all men, and to offer her thank-offerings there. So she desired her son to give her leave to go thither; 20.51. Now her coming was of very great advantage to the people of Jerusalem; for whereas a famine did oppress them at that time, and many people died for want of what was necessary to procure food withal, queen Helena sent some of her servants to Alexandria with money to buy a great quantity of corn, and others of them to Cyprus, to bring a cargo of dried figs. 20.52. And as soon as they were come back, and had brought those provisions, which was done very quickly, she distributed food to those that were in want of it, and left a most excellent memorial behind her of this benefaction, which she bestowed on our whole nation. 20.53. And when her son Izates was informed of this famine, he sent great sums of money to the principal men in Jerusalem. However, what favors this queen and king conferred upon our city Jerusalem shall be further related hereafter. 20.54. 1. But now Artabanus, king of the Parthians perceiving that the governors of the provinces had framed a plot against him, did not think it safe for him to continue among them; but resolved to go to Izates, in hopes of finding some way for his preservation by his means, and, if possible, for his return to his own dominions. 20.55. So he came to Izates, and brought a thousand of his kindred and servants with him, and met him upon the road 20.56. while he well knew Izates, but Izates did not know him. When Artabanus stood near him, and, in the first place, worshipped him, according to the custom, he then said to him, “O king! do not thou overlook me thy servant, nor do thou proudly reject the suit I make thee; for as I am reduced to a low estate, by the change of fortune, and of a king am become a private man, I stand in need of thy assistance. 20.57. Have regard, therefore, unto the uncertainty of fortune, and esteem the care thou shalt take of me to be taken of thyself also; for if I be neglected, and my subjects go off unpunished, many other subjects will become the more insolent towards other kings also.” 20.58. And this speech Artabanus made with tears in his eyes, and with a dejected countece. Now as soon as Izates heard Artabanus’s name, and saw him stand as a supplicant before him, he leaped down from his horse immediately 20.59. and said to him, “Take courage, O king! nor be disturbed at thy present calamity, as if it were incurable; for the change of thy sad condition shall be sudden; for thou shalt find me to be more thy friend and thy assistant than thy hopes can promise thee; for I will either re-establish thee in the kingdom of Parthia, or lose my own.” 20.61. So he complied with his desire, and leaped upon his horse; and when he had brought him to his royal palace, he showed him all sorts of respect when they sat together, and he gave him the upper place at festivals also, as regarding not his present fortune, but his former dignity, and that upon this consideration also, that the changes of fortune are common to all men. 20.62. He also wrote to the Parthians, to persuade them to receive Artabanus again; and gave them his right hand and his faith, that he should forget what was past and done, and that he would undertake for this as a mediator between them. 20.63. Now the Parthians did not themselves refuse to receive him again, but pleaded that it was not now in their power so to do, because they had committed the government to another person, who had accepted of it, and whose name was Cinnamus; and that they were afraid lest a civil war should arise on this account. 20.64. When Cinnamus understood their intentions, he wrote to Artabanus himself, for he had been brought up by him, and was of a nature good and gentle also, and desired him to put confidence in him, and to come and take his own dominions again. 20.65. Accordingly, Artabanus trusted him, and returned home; when Cinnamus met him, worshipped him, and saluted him as a king, and took the diadem off his own head, and put it on the head of Artabanus. 20.66. 3. And thus was Artahanus restored to his kingdom again by the means of Izates, when he had lost it by the means of the grandees of the kingdom. Nor was he unmindful of the benefits he had conferred upon him, but rewarded him with such honors as were of the greatest esteem among them; 20.67. for he gave him leave to wear his tiara upright, and to sleep upon a golden bed, which are privileges and marks of honor peculiar to the kings of Parthia. 20.68. He also cut off a large and fruitful country from the king of Armenia, and bestowed it upon him. The name of the country is Nisibis, wherein the Macedonians had formerly built that city which they called Antioch of Mygodonla. And these were the honors that were paid Izates by the king of the Parthians. 20.69. 4. But in no long time Artabanus died, and left his kingdom to his son Bardanes. Now this Bardanes came to Izates, and would have persuaded him to join him with his army, and to assist him in the war he was preparing to make with the Romans; 20.71. and having besides sent his sons, five in number, and they but young also, to learn accurately the language of our nation, together with our learning, as well as he had sent his mother to worship at our temple, as I have said already, was the more backward to a compliance; and restrained Bardanes, telling him perpetually of the great armies and famous actions of the Romans, and thought thereby to terrify him, and desired thereby to hinder him from that expedition. 20.72. But the Parthian king was provoked at this his behavior, and denounced war immediately against Izates. Yet did he gain no advantage by this war, because God cut off all his hopes therein; 20.73. for the Parthians perceiving Bardanes’s intentions, and how he had determined to make war with the Romans, slew him, and gave his kingdom to his brother Gotarzes. 20.74. He also, in no long time, perished by a plot made against him, and Vologases, his brother, succeeded him, who committed two of his provinces to two of his brothers by the same father; that of the Medes to the elder, Pacorus; and Armenia to the younger, Tiridates. 20.75. 1. Now when the king’s brother, Monobazus, and his other kindred, saw how Izates, by his piety to God, was become greatly esteemed by all men, they also had a desire to leave the religion of their country, and to embrace the customs of the Jews; 20.76. but that act of theirs was discovered by Izates’s subjects. Whereupon the grandees were much displeased, and could not contain their anger at them; but had an intention, when they should find a proper opportunity, to inflict a punishment upon them. 20.77. Accordingly, they wrote to Abia, king of the Arabians, and promised him great sums of money, if he would make an expedition against their king; and they further promised him, that, on the first onset, they would desert their king, because they were desirous to punish him, by reason of the hatred he had to their religious worship; then they obliged themselves, by oaths, to be faithful to each other, and desired that he would make haste in this design. 20.78. The king of Arabia complied with their desires, and brought a great army into the field, and marched against Izates; and, in the beginning of the first onset, and before they came to a close fight, those Handees, as if they had a panic terror upon them, all deserted Izates, as they had agreed to do, and, turning their backs upon their enemies, ran away. 20.79. Yet was not Izates dismayed at this; but when he understood that the grandees had betrayed him, he also retired into his camp, and made inquiry into the matter; and as soon as he knew who they were that had made this conspiracy with the king of Arabia, he cut off those that were found guilty; and renewing the fight on the next day, he slew the greatest part of his enemies 20.81. 2. But although the grandees of Adiabene had failed in their first attempt, as being delivered up by God into their king’s hands, yet would they not even then be quiet, but wrote again to Vologases, who was then king of Parthia, and desired that he would kill Izates, and set over them some other potentate, who should be of a Parthian family; for they said that they hated their own king for abrogating the laws of their forefathers, and embracing foreign customs. 20.82. When the king of Parthia heard this, he boldly made war upon Izates; and as he had no just pretense for this war, he sent to him, and demanded back those honorable privileges which had been bestowed on him by his father, and threatened, on his refusal, to make war upon him. 20.83. Upon hearing of this, Izates was under no small trouble of mind, as thinking it would be a reproach upon him to appear to resign those privileges that had been bestowed upon him out of cowardice; 20.84. yet because he knew, that though the king of Parthia should receive back those honors, yet would he not be quiet, he resolved to commit himself to God, his Protector, in the present danger he was in of his life; 20.85. and as he esteemed him to be his principal assistant, he intrusted his children and his wives to a very strong fortress, and laid up his corn in his citadels, and set the hay and the grass on fire. And when he had thus put things in order, as well as he could, he awaited the coming of the enemy. 20.86. And when the king of Parthia was come, with a great army of footmen and horsemen, which he did sooner than was expected, (for he marched in great haste,) and had cast up a bank at the river that parted Adiabene from Media,—Izates also pitched his camp not far off, having with him six thousand horsemen. 20.87. But there came a messenger to Izates, sent by the king of Parthia, who told him how large his dominions were, as reaching from the river Euphrates to Bactria, and enumerated that king’s subjects; 20.88. he also threatened him that he should be punished, as a person ungrateful to his lords; and said that the God whom he worshipped could not deliver him out of the king’s hands. 20.89. When the messenger had delivered this his message, Izates replied that he knew the king of Parthia’s power was much greater than his own; but that he knew also that God was much more powerful than all men. And when he had returned him this answer, he betook himself to make supplication to God, and threw himself upon the ground, and put ashes upon his head, in testimony of his confusion, and fasted, together with his wives and children. Then he called upon God, and said 20.91. Thus did he lament and bemoan himself, with tears in his eyes; whereupon God heard his prayer. And immediately that very night Vologases received letters, the contents of which were these, that a great band of Dahe and Sacse, despising him, now he was gone so long a journey from home, had made an expedition, and laid Parthia waste; so that he [was forced to] retire back, without doing any thing. And thus it was that Izates escaped the threatenings of the Parthians, by the providence of God. 20.92. 3. It was not long ere Izates died, when he had completed fifty-five years of his life, and had ruled his kingdom twenty-four years. He left behind him twenty-four sons and twenty-four daughters. 20.93. However, he gave order that his brother Monobazus should succeed in the government, thereby requiting him, because, while he was himself absent after their father’s death, he had faithfully preserved the government for him. 20.94. But when Helena, his mother, heard of her son’s death, she was in great heaviness, as was but natural, upon her loss of such a most dutiful son; yet was it a comfort to her that she heard the succession came to her eldest son. Accordingly, she went to him in haste; and when she was come into Adiabene, she did not long outlive her son Izates.
8. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 2.52, 2.388, 5.147, 5.201, 5.205, 5.224, 5.474 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.52. There were also a great many of the king’s party who deserted the Romans, and assisted the Jews; yet did the most warlike body of them all, who were three thousand of the men of Sebaste, go over to the Romans. Rufus also, and Gratus, their captains, did the same (Gratus having the foot of the king’s party under him, and Rufus the horse) each of whom, even without the forces under them, were of great weight, on account of their strength and wisdom, which turn the scales in war. 2.52. of whom the most valiant were the kinsmen of Monobazus, king of Adiabene, and their names were Monobazus and Kenedeus; and next to them were Niger of Perea, and Silas of Babylon, who had deserted from king Agrippa to the Jews; for he had formerly served in his army. 2.388. Where then are those people whom you are to have for your auxiliaries? Must they come from the parts of the world that are uninhabited? for all that are in the habitable earth are [under the] Romans. Unless any of you extend his hopes as far as beyond the Euphrates, and suppose that those of your own nation that dwell in Adiabene will come to your assistance 5.147. The beginning of the third wall was at the tower Hippicus, whence it reached as far as the north quarter of the city, and the tower Psephinus, and then was so far extended till it came over against the monuments of Helena, which Helena was queen of Adiabene, the daughter of Izates; it then extended further to a great length, and passed by the sepulchral caverns of the kings, and bent again at the tower of the corner, at the monument which is called the “Monument of the Fuller,” and joined to the old wall at the valley called the “Valley of Cedron.” 5.201. 3. Now nine of these gates were on every side covered over with gold and silver, as were the jambs of their doors and their lintels; but there was one gate that was without [the inward court of] the holy house, which was of Corinthian brass, and greatly excelled those that were only covered over with silver and gold. 5.205. for its height was fifty cubits; and its doors were forty cubits; and it was adorned after a most costly manner, as having much richer and thicker plates of silver and gold upon them than the other. These nine gates had that silver and gold poured upon them by Alexander, the father of Tiberius. 5.224. On its top it had spikes with sharp points, to prevent any pollution of it by birds sitting upon it. of its stones, some of them were forty-five cubits in length, five in height, and six in breadth. 5.474. And here one Tephtheus, of Garsis, a city of Galilee, and Megassarus, one who was derived from some of queen Mariamne’s servants, and with them one from Adiabene, he was the son of Nabateus, and called by the name of Chagiras, from the ill fortune he had, the word signifying “a lame man,” snatched some torches, and ran suddenly upon the engines.
9. Mishnah, Menachot, 10.3 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

10.3. How would they do it [reap the omer]?The agents of the court used to go out on the day before the festival and tie the unreaped grain in bunches to make it the easier to reap. All the inhabitants of the towns near by assembled there, so that it might be reaped with a great demonstration. As soon as it became dark he says to them: “Has the sun set?” And they answer, “Yes.” “Has the sun set?” And they answer, “Yes.” “With this sickle?” And they answer, “Yes.” “With this sickle?” And they answer, “Yes.” “Into this basket?” And they answer, “Yes.” “Into this basket?” And they answer, “Yes.” On the Sabbath he says to them, “On this Sabbath?” And they answer, “Yes.” “On this Sabbath?” And they answer, “Yes.” “Shall I reap?” And they answer, “Reap.” “Shall I reap?” And they answer, “Reap.” He repeated every matter three times, and they answer, “yes, yes, yes.” And why all of this? Because of the Boethusians who held that the reaping of the omer was not to take place at the conclusion of the [first day of the] festival."
10. Mishnah, Middot, 2.3, 2.6, 4.6 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

2.3. Within it was the Soreg, ten handbreadths high. There were thirteen breaches in it, which had been originally made by the kings of Greece, and when they repaired them they enacted that thirteen prostrations should be made facing them. Within this was the Hel, which was ten cubits [broad]. There were twelve steps there. The height of each step was half a cubit and its tread was half a cubit. All the steps in the Temple were half a cubit high with a tread of half a cubit, except those of the Porch. All the doorways in the Temple were twenty cubits high and ten cubits broad except those of the Porch. All the doorways there had doors in them except those of the Porch. All the gates there had lintels except that of Taddi which had two stones inclined to one another. All the original gates were changed for gates of gold except the gates of Nicanor, because a miracle happened with them. Some say: because their copper gleamed like gold." 2.6. There were chambers underneath the Court of Israel which opened into the Court of Women, where the Levites used to keep lyres and lutes and cymbals and all kinds of musical instruments. The Court of Israel was a hundred and thirty-five cubits in length by eleven in breadth. Similarly the Court of the Priests was a hundred and thirty-five cubits in length by eleven in breadth. And a row of mosaic stones separated the Court of Israel from the Court of the Priests. Rabbi Eliezer ben Jacob says: there was a step a cubit high on which a platform was placed, and it had three steps each of half a cubit in height. In this way the Court of the Priests was made two and a half cubits higher than that of Israel. The whole of the Court was a hundred and eighty-seven cubits in length by a hundred and thirty-five in breadth. And thirteen prostrations were made there. Abba Yose ben Ha says: they were made facing the thirteen gates. On the south beginning from the west there were the upper gate, the gate of burning, the gate of the firstborn, and the water gate. And why was it called the water gate? Because they brought in through it the pitcher of water for libation on the festival. Rabbi Eliezer ben Jacob says: in it the water welled up, and in the time to come from there it will come out from under the threshold of the Temple. Corresponding to them in the north beginning in the west were the gate of Yehoniah, the gate of the offering, the women's gate, the gate of song. Why was it called the gate of Yehoniah? Because Yehoniah went forth into captivity through it. On the east was the gate of Nicanor; it had two doors, one on its right and one on its left (10 +. There were further two gates in the west which had no special name (12 +." 4.6. The Hekhal was a hundred cubits by a hundred with a height of a hundred. The foundation was six cubits, then it rose forty, then a cubit for the ornamentation, two cubits for the guttering, a cubit for the ceiling and a cubit for the plastering. The height of the upper chamber was forty cubits, there was a cubit for its ornamentation, two cubits for the guttering, a cubit for the ceiling, a cubit for the plastering, three cubits for the parapet and a cubit for the spikes. Rabbi Judah says the spikes were not included in the measurement, but the parapet was four cubits."
11. Mishnah, Miqvaot, 8.1, 8.5 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

8.1. The land of Israel is clean and its mikvaot are clean. The mikvaot of the nations outside the land are valid for those who had a seminal emission even though they have been filled by a pump-beam; Those in the land of Israel: when outside the entrance [to the city] are valid even for menstruants, and those within the entrance [to the city] are valid for those who had a seminal emission but invalid for all [others] who are unclean. Rabbi Eliezer says: those which are near to a city or to a road are unclean because of laundering; but those at a distance are clean." 8.5. If a menstruant placed coins in her mouth and went down and immersed herself, she becomes clean from her [former] uncleanness, but she becomes unclean on account of her spittle. If she put her hair in her mouth or closed her hand or pressed her lips tightly, it is as though she had not immersed herself. If a person held on to another man or to vessels and immersed them, they remain unclean; but if he had washed his hand before in the water, they become clean. Rabbi Shimon says: he should hold them loosely that water may enter into them. The hidden or wrinkled parts of the body do not need that water should enter into them."
12. Mishnah, Parah, 3.7 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

3.7. If the cow refused to go out, they may not take out with it a black one lest people say, \"They slaughtered a black cow\" nor another red [cow] lest people say, \"They slaughtered two.\" Rabbi Yose says: it was not for this reason but because it is said \"And he shall bring her out\" by herself. The elders of Israel used to go first by foot to the Mount of Olives, where there was a place of immersion. The priest that was to burn the cow was (deliberately) made unclean on account of the Sadducees so that they should not be able to say, \"It can be done only by those on whom the sun has set.\""
13. Mishnah, Shabbat, 14.3-14.4 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

14.3. They do not eat Greek hyssop on Shabbat, because it is not the food of healthy people. But he may eat yo’ezer and drink abuv ro’eh. A man may eat any kind of food as medicine, and drink any liquid, except water of palm trees and a potion of roots, because they are for jaundice. But he may drink water of palm trees for his thirst and rub himself with oil of roots for a non-medical purpose." 14.4. He who feels pain in his teeth may not sip vinegar through them, but he may dip [his bread in vinegar] in the usual manner, and if he is cured, he is cured. He who feels pain in his hips may not rub them with wine or vinegar, but he may anoint them with oil but not rose oil. The children of royalty may anoint their wounds with rose oil, since it is their practice to anoint themselves thus on weekdays. Rabbi Shimon said: all Israel are royal children."
14. Mishnah, Sukkah, 4.9 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

4.9. How was the water libation [performed]? A golden flask holding three logs was filled from the Shiloah. When they arrived at the water gate, they sounded a teki'ah [long blast], a teru'ah [a staccato note] and again a teki'ah. [The priest then] went up the ascent [of the altar] and turned to his left where there were two silver bowls. Rabbi Judah says: they were of plaster [but they looked silver] because their surfaces were darkened from the wine. They had each a hole like a slender snout, one being wide and the other narrow so that both emptied at the same time. The one on the west was for water and the one on the east for wine. If he poured the flask of water into the bowl for wine, or that of wine into that for water, he has fulfilled his obligation. Rabbi Judah says: with one log he performed the ceremony of the water-libation all eight days. To [the priest] who performed the libation they used to say, “Raise your hand”, for one time, a certain man poured out the water over his feet, and all the people pelted him with their etrogs."
15. Mishnah, Yoma, 3.1, 3.8-3.9 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

3.1. The officer said to them: “Go out and see whether the time for slaughtering [the morning sacrifice] has arrived.” If it had arrived then he who saw it said: “It is daylight!” Matitya ben Shmuel says: “The whole east is light.” Even unto Hebron? And he answered “Yes.”" 3.8. He came to his bull and his bull was standing between the Ulam and the altar, its head to the south and its face to the west. And the priest stands on the eastside facing the west. And he lays both his hands upon it and confesses. And thus he would say: “Please, ‘Hashem’! I have done wrong, I have transgressed, I have sinned before You, I and my house. Please, ‘Hashem’! Forgive the wrongdoings, the transgressions, the sins which I have committed and transgressed and sinned before You, I and my house, as it is written in the torah of Moses Your servant: “For on this day shall atonement be made for you [to cleanse you of all your sins; you shall be clean before the Lord”] (Leviticus 16:30). And they answered after him: “Blessed be the name of His glorious kingdom for ever and ever!”" 3.9. He then went to the east of the Temple court, to the north of the altar, the deputy high priest at his right and the head of the [priestly] family [ministering that week] at his left. There were two goats and an urn was there, and in it were two lots. They were of box-wood and Ben Gamala made them of gold and they would mention his name in praise."
16. Mishnah, Yadayim, 4.7 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

4.7. The Sadducees say: we complain against you, Pharisees, that you declare an uninterrupted flow of a liquid to be clean. The Pharisees say: we complain against you, Sadducees, that you declare a stream of water which flows from a burial-ground to be clean? The Sadducees say: we complain against you, Pharisees, that you say, my ox or donkey which has done injury is liable, yet my male or female slave who has done injury is not liable. Now if in the case of my ox or my donkey for which I am not responsible if they do not fulfill religious duties, yet I am responsible for their damages, in the case of my male or female slave for whom I am responsible to see that they fulfill mitzvot, how much more so that I should be responsible for their damages? They said to them: No, if you argue about my ox or my donkey which have no understanding, can you deduce from there anything concerning a male or female slave who do have understanding? So that if I were to anger either of them and they would go and burn another person's stack, should I be liable to make restitution?"
17. New Testament, John, 7.22 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

7.22. Moses has given you circumcision (not that it is of Moses, but of the fathers), and on the Sabbath you circumcise a boy.
18. New Testament, Luke, 23.54 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

23.54. It was the day of the Preparation, and the Sabbath was drawing near.
19. New Testament, Mark, 3.2 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.2. They watched him, whether he would heal him on the Sabbath day, that they might accuse him.
20. Tosefta, Peah, 4.18 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

21. Tosefta, Kippurim, 2.3-2.4 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

22. Pausanias, Description of Greece, 8.16.4-8.16.5 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

8.16.4. I know many wonderful graves, and will mention two of them, the one at Halicarnassus and one in the land of the Hebrews. The one at Halicarnassus was made for Mausolus, king of the city, and it is of such vast size, and so notable for all its ornament, that the Romans in their great admiration of it call remarkable tombs in their country “Mausolea.” 8.16.5. The Hebrews have a grave, that of Helen, a native woman, in the city of Jerusalem, which the Roman Emperor razed to the ground. There is a contrivance in the grave whereby the door, which like all the grave is of stone, does not open until the year brings back the same day and the same hour. Then the mechanism, unaided, opens the door, which, after a short interval, shuts itself. This happens at that time, but should you at any other try to open the door you cannot do so; force will not open it, but only break it down.
23. Babylonian Talmud, Bava Batra, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

11a. דלא סיימוה קמיה,תניא אמרו עליו על בנימין הצדיק שהיה ממונה על קופה של צדקה פעם אחת באתה אשה לפניו בשני בצורת אמרה לו רבי פרנסני אמר לה העבודה שאין בקופה של צדקה כלום אמרה לו רבי אם אין אתה מפרנסני הרי אשה ושבעה בניה מתים עמד ופרנסה משלו לימים חלה ונטה למות אמרו מלאכי השרת לפני הקב"ה רבש"ע אתה אמרת כל המקיים נפש אחת מישראל כאילו קיים עולם מלא ובנימין הצדיק שהחיה אשה ושבעה בניה ימות בשנים מועטות הללו מיד קרעו לו גזר דינו תנא הוסיפו לו עשרים ושתים שנה על שנותיו,תנו רבנן מעשה במונבז המלך שבזבז אוצרותיו ואוצרות אבותיו בשני בצורת וחברו עליו אחיו ובית אביו ואמרו לו אבותיך גנזו והוסיפו על של אבותם ואתה מבזבזם אמר להם אבותי גנזו למטה ואני גנזתי למעלה שנאמר (תהלים פה, יב) אמת מארץ תצמח וצדק משמים נשקף אבותי גנזו במקום שהיד שולטת בו ואני גנזתי במקום שאין היד שולטת בו שנאמר (תהלים פט, טו) צדק ומשפט מכון כסאך,אבותי גנזו דבר שאין עושה פירות ואני גנזתי דבר שעושה פירות שנאמר (ישעיהו ג, י) אמרו צדיק כי טוב כי פרי מעלליהם יאכלו אבותי גנזו [אוצרות] ממון ואני גנזתי אוצרות נפשות שנאמר (משלי יא, ל) פרי צדיק עץ חיים ולוקח נפשות חכם אבותי גנזו לאחרים ואני גנזתי לעצמי שנאמר (דברים כד, יג) ולך תהיה צדקה אבותי גנזו לעולם הזה ואני גנזתי לעולם הבא שנאמר (ישעיהו נח, ח) והלך לפניך צדקך כבוד ה' יאספך:,ואם קנה בה בית דירה הרי הוא כאנשי העיר: מתניתין דלא כרשב"ג דתניא רבן שמעון ב"ג אומר אם קנה בה קרקע כל שהוא הרי הוא כאנשי העיר,והא תניא רבן שמעון בן גמליאל אומר אם קנה שם קרקע הראויה לבית דירה הרי הוא כאנשי העיר תרי תנאי ואליבא דרבן שמעון בן גמליאל:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big אין חולקין את החצר עד שיהא ארבע אמות לזה וארבע אמות לזה ולא את השדה עד שיהא בה תשעה קבין לזה ותשעה קבין לזה ר' יהודה אומר עד שיהא בה תשעת חציי קבין לזה ותשעת חציי קבין לזה ולא את הגינה עד שיהא בה חצי קב לזה וחצי קב לזה ר' עקיבא אומר בית רובע,ולא את הטרקלין ולא את המורן ולא את השובך ולא את הטלית ולא את המרחץ ולא את בית הבד ולא את בית השלחין עד שיהא בהן כדי לזה וכדי לזה זה הכלל כל שיחלק ושמו עליו חולקין ואם לאו אין חולקין,אימתי בזמן שאין שניהם רוצים אבל בזמן ששניהם רוצים אפי' פחות מכאן יחלוקו וכתבי הקדש אע"פ ששניהם רוצים לא יחלוקו:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big א"ר אסי א"ר יוחנן ארבע אמות שאמרו חוץ משל פתחים תניא נמי הכי אין חולקים את החצר עד שיהא בה שמונה אמות לזה ושמונה אמות לזה והא אנן תנן ארבע אמות לזה וארבע אמות לזה אלא ש"מ כדרבי אסי שמע מינה,ואיכא דרמי להו מירמא תנן אין חולקין את החצר עד שיהא בה ארבע אמות לזה וארבע אמות לזה והתניא שמונה אמות לזה ושמונה אמות לזה א"ר אסי אמר ר' יוחנן ארבע אמות שאמרו חוץ משל פתחים,אמר רב הונא חצר מתחלקת לפי פתחיה ורב חסדא אמר נותנין ארבע אמות לכל פתח ופתח והשאר חולקין בשוה,תניא כוותיה דרב חסדא פתחים שבחצר יש להן ארבע אמות היה לזה פתח אחד ולזה שני פתחים זה שיש לו פתח אחד נוטל ארבע אמות וזה שיש לו שני פתחים נוטל שמונה אמות והשאר חולקין בשוה היה לזה פתח רחב שמונה אמות נוטל שמונה אמות כנגד הפתח וארבע אמות בחצר ארבע אמות בחצר מאי עבידתייהו אמר אביי הכי קאמר נוטל שמונה אמות באורך החצר וארבע אמות ברוחב החצר,אמר אמימר האי פירא דסופלי יש לו ארבע אמות לכל רוח ורוח ולא אמרן אלא דלא מייחד ליה פתחא 11a. those who reported the story to him bdid not conclude it before him;consequently, Rav Ami was not informed that Rava had indeed given the money to the gentile poor.,§ bIt is taughtin a ibaraita /i: The following bwas said about Binyamin the righteous, who was appointedsupervisor bover the charity fund. Once, a woman came before him during years of droughtand bsaid to him: My master, sustain me. He said to her:I swear bby the Temple service that there is nothingleft bin the charity fund. She said to him: My master, if you do not sustain me, a woman and her seven sons will die. He arose and sustained her with his ownfunds. bAfter some time, he fell deathly ill. The ministering angels said to the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe, You saidthat banyone who preserves a single life in Israel isregarded bas if he has preserved an entire world. Shouldthen bBinyamin the righteous, who saved a woman and her seven sons, die after these few years,still in his youth? bThey immediately tore up his sentence.A Sage btaught: They added twenty-two years to his life. /b, bThe Sages taught:There was ban incident involving King Munbaz, who liberally gave away his treasures and the treasures of his ancestors in the years of drought,distributing the money to the poor. bHis brothers and his father’s household joined together against himto protest against his actions, band they said to him: Your ancestors stored upmoney in their treasuries band added tothe treasures bof their ancestors, and you are liberally distributingit all to the poor. King Munbaz bsaid to them:Not so, bmy ancestors stored up below, whereas I am storing above, as it is stated: “Truth will spring out of the earth and righteousness will look down from heaven”(Psalms 85:12), meaning that the righteous deeds that one has performed are stored up in heaven. bMy ancestors stored uptreasures bin a place where thehuman bhand can reach,and so their treasures could have been robbed, bwhereas I am storing uptreasures bin a place where thehuman bhand cannot reach,and so they are secure, bas it is stated: “Righteousness and justice are the foundation of Your throne”(Psalms 89:15)., bMy ancestors stored up something that does not generate profit,as money sitting in a treasury does not increase, bwhereas I am storing up something that generates profit, as it is stated: “Say of the righteous, that it shall be well with them, for they shall eat the fruit of their doings”(Isaiah 3:10). bMy ancestors stored up treasures of money, whereas I am storing up treasures of souls, as it is stated: “The fruit of the righteous is a tree of life, and he that wins souls is wise”(Proverbs 11:30). bMy ancestors stored up for others,for their sons and heirs, when they themselves would pass from this world, bwhereas I am storing up for myself, as it is stated: “And it shall be as righteousness to you”(Deuteronomy 24:13). bMy ancestors stored up for this world, whereas I am storing up for the World-to-Come, as it is stated: “And your righteousness shall go before you, the glory of the Lord shall be your rearguard”(Isaiah 58:8).,§ The Gemara resumes its analysis of the mishna, which taught that one must reside in a place for twelve months in order to be considered a resident for the purposes of issues such as paying taxes. But if he bboughthimself ba residence inthe city, bhe isimmediately considered blikeone of bthe people of the city.The Gemara comments: bThe mishna is not in accordance withthe opinion of bRabban Shimon ben Gamliel, as it is taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: If he bought any amount of land inthe city, and not necessarily a residence, bhe isimmediately considered blikeone of bthe people of the city. /b,The Gemara asks: bBut isn’t it taughtotherwise in a different ibaraita /i: bRabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: Ifone bbought land that is suitable for a residence, he isimmediately considered blikeone of bthe people of the city.This contradicts the first ibaraita /i. The Gemara answers: This is a dispute between btwo itanna’imandthey disagree bwith regard tothe opinion bof Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel. /b, strongMISHNA: /strong The court bdoes not divide a courtyardat the request of one of the joint owners bunless there will bein it four by bfour cubits for this one andfour by bfour cubits for that one,i.e., this minimum area for each of the joint owners. bAndthe court does bnotdivide bajointly owned bfield unless there isspace bin itto plant bnine ikav /iof seed bfor this one and nine ikav /iof seed bfor that one. Rabbi Yehuda says:The court does not divide a field bunless there isspace bin itto plant bnine half- ikav /iof seed bfor this one and nine half- ikav /iof seed bfor that one. Andthe court does bnotdivide a jointly owned bgarden unless there isspace bin itto plant ba half- ikav /iof seed bfor this one and a half- ikav /iof seed bfor that one. Rabbi Akiva saysthat half that amount is sufficient, i.e., the barea required for sowing a quarter- ikavof seed [ ibeit rova /i]. /b,Similarly, the court does bnotdivide ba hall [ ihateraklin /i], a drawing room, a dovecote, a cloak, a bathhouse, an olive press, and an irrigated field unless there is enough for this oneto use the property in the usual manner band enough for that oneto use the property in the usual manner. bThis is the principle: Anythingfor bwhichwhen it bis divided,each of the parts is large enough to bretain the nameof the original item, the court bdividesit. bBut ifthe parts will bnotretain the original name, the court bdoes not divideit., bWhendoes this rule apply? It applies bwhenthe joint owners bdo not both wishto divide the item; when only one of the owners wishes to divide the property, he cannot force the other to do so. bBut when both of them wishto divide the item, bthey may divideit, bevenif each of the owners will receive bless thanthe amounts specified above. bButin the case of bsacred writings,i.e., a scroll of any of the twenty-four books of the Bible, that were inherited by two people, bthey may not dividethem, beven if both of them wishto do so, because it would be a show of disrespect to cut the scroll in half., strongGEMARA: /strong bRabbi Asi saysthat bRabbi Yoḥa says: The four cubitsof the courtyard bwhich they saideach of the joint owners must receive is bin addition tothe space in front of bthe entrancesto each of the houses that is assigned to the owner of the house for loading and unloading. bThatopinion bis also taughtin a ibaraita /i: The court bdoes not divide a courtyard unlessits area is sufficient so that bthere will be in it eight cubits for this one and eight cubits for that one.The Gemara asks: bBut didn’t we learnin the mishna that it suffices that there be bfour cubits for this one and four cubits for that one? Rather, conclude from itthat the ibaraitawas taught bin accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Asi.The Gemara affirms: bConclude from itthat it is so., bAnd there arethose bwho raisethe ibaraitaas a contradiction to what is taught in the mishna and use the previously mentioned point to reconcile the two texts. bWe learnedin the mishna: The court bdoes not divide a courtyardat the request of one of the joint owners bunless there will bein it four by bfour cubits for this one andfour by bfour cubits for that one. But isn’t it taughtin a ibaraita /i: The court does not divide a courtyard unless there are beight cubits for this one and eight cubits for that one?About this bRabbi Asi saidthat bRabbi Yoḥa said: The four cubitsof the courtyard bwhich they saideach of the joint owners must receive is bin addition tothe space in front of bthe entrancesto each of the houses.,Further with regard to the division of a courtyard, bRav Huna says: A courtyard is divided according to its entrances.Each of the owners receives a share of the courtyard in proportion to the number of entrances that his house has opening onto the courtyard. bAnd Rav Ḥisda says: Four cubits are allottedto each of the owners bfor each and every entrance, and the restof the courtyard bisthen bdivided equallybetween them.,The Gemara comments: bIt is taughtin a ibaraita bin accordance withthe opinion bof Rav Ḥisda:Each of bthe entrancesopening bto a courtyardis allotted bfour cubits.If bthis one has one entrance and that one has two entrances, the one who has one entrance takes four cubits, and the one who has two entrances takes eight cubits, and they divide the restof the courtyard bequallybetween them. If bthis one had an entrance eight cubits wide,he btakes eight cubits adjacent to the entrance and four cubits in the courtyard.The Gemara expresses surprise: bWhat arethese bfour cubits in the courtyard doing here?Doesn’t it all depend on the size of the courtyard? bAbaye said: Thisis what the ibaraita bis saying:For the entrance bhe takes eight cubits along the length of the courtyard and four cubits along the width of the courtyard.In other words, he takes a strip four cubits wide along the entire length of his entrance., bAmeimar says: A pit forholding banimal food [ ipeira desuflei /i] has four cubits on each and every sideso that there will be sufficient space for the animals to stand. The Gemara adds: bAnd we saidthis bonly whenthe pit bhas no special entranceto reach it, but rather it is accessed from all sides.
24. Babylonian Talmud, Bava Metzia, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

30b. לא יהיה בך אביון שלך קודם לשל כל אדם,אלא לזקן ואינו לפי כבודו,אמר רבה הכישה חייב בה אביי הוה יתיב קמיה דרבה חזא להנך עיזי דקיימו שקל קלא ושדא בהו א"ל איחייבת בהו קום אהדרינהו,איבעיא להו דרכו להחזיר בשדה ואין דרכו להחזיר בעיר מהו מי אמרינן השבה מעליא בעינן וכיון דלאו דרכיה להחזיר בעיר לא לחייב או דלמא בשדה מיהת הוא דאיחייב ליה וכיון דאיחייב ליה בשדה איחייב ליה בעיר תיקו,אמר רבא כל שבשלו מחזיר בשל חבירו נמי מחזיר וכל שבשלו פורק וטוען בשל חבירו נמי פורק וטוען,רבי ישמעאל ברבי יוסי הוה קאזיל באורחא פגע ביה ההוא גברא הוה דרי פתכא דאופי אותבינהו וקא מיתפח א"ל דלי לי אמר ליה כמה שוין א"ל פלגא דזוזא יהיב ליה פלגא דזוזא ואפקרה,הדר זכה בהו הדר יהיב ליה פלגא דזוזא ואפקרה חזייה דהוה קא בעי למיהדר למזכיה בהו א"ל לכולי עלמא אפקרנהו ולך לא אפקרנהו,ומי הוי הפקר כי האי גוונא והתנן בש"א הפקר לעניים הפקר וב"ה אומרים אינו הפקר עד שיהא הפקר לעניים ולעשירים כשמיטה,אלא רבי ישמעאל ברבי יוסי לכולי עלמא אפקרינהו ובמלתא בעלמא הוא דאוקמיה,והא רבי ישמעאל ברבי יוסי זקן ואינו לפי כבודו הוה ר' ישמעאל ברבי יוסי לפנים משורת הדין הוא דעבד,דתני רב יוסף (שמות יח, כ) והודעת להם זה בית חייהם את הדרך זו גמילות חסדים [(אשר) ילכו זה ביקור חולים בה זו קבורה ואת המעשה זה הדין אשר יעשון זו לפנים משורת הדין:,אמר מר (אשר) ילכו זה ביקור חולים היינו גמילות חסדים לא נצרכה אלא לבן גילו דאמר מר בן גילו נוטל אחד מששים בחליו ואפי' הכי מבעי ליה למיזל לגביה,בה זו קבורה היינו גמילות חסדים לא נצרכה אלא לזקן ואינו לפי כבודו,אשר יעשון זו לפנים משורת הדין דאמר ר' יוחנן לא חרבה ירושלים אלא על שדנו בה דין תורה אלא דיני דמגיזתא לדיינו אלא אימא שהעמידו דיניהם על דין תורה ולא עבדו לפנים משורת הדין:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big אי זו היא אבידה מצא חמור או פרה רועין בדרך אין זו אבידה חמור וכליו הפוכין פרה רצה בין הכרמים הרי זו אבידה החזירה וברחה החזירה וברחה אפי' ארבעה וחמשה פעמים חייב להחזירה שנאמר (דברים כב, א) השב תשיבם,היה בטל מסלע לא יאמר לו תן לי סלע אלא נותן לו שכרו כפועל אם יש שם בית דין מתנה בפני ב"ד אם אין שם ב"ד בפני מי יתנה שלו קודם:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big אטו כל הני דאמרינן לאו אבידה הוו אמר רב יהודה הכי קאמר אי זו היא כלל אבידה שהוא חייב בה מצא חמור ופרה רועין בדרך אין זו אבידה ולא מיחייב בה חמור וכליו הפוכים פרה ורצה בין הכרמים הרי זו אבידה ומיחייב בה,ולעולם אמר רב יהודה אמר רב עד שלשה ימים היכי דמי אי בלילותא אפי' חדא שעתא נמי אי ביממא אפי' טובא נמי לא,לא צריכא דהוה חזי לה בקדמתא ובחשכתא תלתא יומי אמרינן איתרמויי אתרמי לה ונפקא טפי ודאי אבידה היא,תניא נמי הכי מצא טלית וקרדום 30b. bthere shall be no needy among you”(Deuteronomy 15:4). This verse can be understood as a command, indicating that it is incumbent upon each individual to ensure that he will not become needy. Therefore, byourassets btake precedence overthe assets bof anyother bperson. /b,The Gemara concludes: bRather,the verse is necessary btoderive the exemption from returning the lost item in the case where he was ban elderly person and it is not in keeping with his dignityto tend to the item., bRabba says:If there was a lost animal and the elderly person began the process of returning it, e.g., if he bstruck iteven once to guide it in a certain direction, he is bobligatedto tend bto itand return it. The Gemara relates: bAbaye was sitting before Rabbaand bsaw these goats standingnearby. bHe picked up a clod of dirt and threw it at them,causing them to move. Rabba bsaid to him: You havethereby bobligated yourself toreturn bthem. Arise and return themto their owner., bA dilemma was raised beforethe Sages: In a case of a person for whom it bis histypical bmanner to returnan item of that type bin the field,where there are fewer onlookers, bbut it is not histypical bmanner to returnan item of that type bin the city, what isthe ihalakha /i? Do bwe saythat for one to be obligated to return a lost item bwe need an unequivocalobligation to breturnit that applies in all cases, band since it is not histypical bmanner to returnan item of that sort bin the city, let him not be obligatedto return such an item at all? bOr perhaps, he is obligated in any eventto return the item bin the field, and once he is obligatedto return bit in the field, he isalso bobligated in the city.The Gemara concludes: The dilemma bshall standunresolved., bRava says:In banycase bwhere he would recover his ownitem and would consider it to be in keeping with his dignity, he is balsoobligated to breturn another’sitem. bAnd anycase where bhe unloads and loads his ownanimal’s burden, he is balsoobligated to bunload and loadthe burden of banother’sanimal.,The Gemara relates: bRabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yosei, was walking on the road. A certain man encountered him,and that man bwas carrying a burdenthat consisted of sticks bof wood. He set downthe wood band was resting.The man bsaid to him: Liftthem bfor meand place them upon me. Since it was not in keeping with the dignity of Rabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yosei, to lift the wood, Rabbi Yishmael bsaid to him: How much are they worth?The man bsaid to him: A half-dinar.Rabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yosei, bgave him a half-dinar,took possession of the wood, band declaredthe wood bownerless. /b,The man bthen reacquiredthe wood bandagain requested that Rabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yosei, lift the wood for him. Rabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yosei, bagain gave him a half-dinar,again took possession of the wood, bandagain bdeclaredthe wood bownerless. Hethen bsaw thatthe man bdesired to reacquirethe sticks of wood. Rabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yosei, bsaid to him: I declaredthe sticks of wood bownerless with regard to everyoneelse, bbut I did not declare them ownerless with regard to you. /b,The Gemara asks: bBut isproperty brendered ownerless in a case like this? But didn’t we learnin a mishna ( iPe’a6:1) that bBeit Shammai say:Property bdeclared ownerless for the poor isthereby rendered bownerless. And Beit Hillel say: It is not ownerless, untilthe property bwill be ownerless for the poor and for the rich, likeproduce during bthe Sabbatical Year,which is available for all. As the ihalakhais in accordance with the opinion of Beit Hillel, how could Rabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yosei, declare the wood ownerless selectively, excluding the prior owner of the wood?, bRather, Rabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yosei,actually bdeclaredthe wood bownerless to everyonewithout exception, bandit bwas with a mere statement that he prevented himfrom reacquiring the wood, i.e., he told the man not to reacquire the wood even though there was no legal impediment to that reacquisition.,The Gemara asks: bBut wasn’t Rabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yosei, an elderly person and it was not in keeping with his dignityto tend to the item? Why did he purchase the wood and render it ownerless in order to absolve himself of the obligation to lift the burden if he had no obligation to do so in the first place? The Gemara answers: In the case of bRabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yosei, he conductedhimself bbeyond the letter of the law,and he could have simply refused the request for help.,The Gemara cites a source for going beyond the letter of the law in the performance of mitzvot. bAs Rav Yosef taughtin a ibaraitawith regard to the verse: “And you shall teach them the statutes and the laws, and shall show them the path wherein they shall walk and the action that they must perform” (Exodus 18:20). The ibaraitaparses the various directives in the verse. b“And you shall teach them,” thatis referring to bthe structure of their livelihood,i.e., teach the Jewish people trades so that they may earn a living; b“the path,” thatis referring to bacts of kindness; “they shall walk,” thatis referring to bvisiting the ill; “wherein,” thatis referring to bburial; “and the action,” thatis referring to acting in accordance with the letter of the blaw; “that they must perform,” thatis referring to acting bbeyond the letter of the law. /b,The Gemara analyzes the ibaraita /i. bThe Master said:With regard to the phrase b“they shall walk,” thatis referring to bvisiting the ill.The Gemara asks: bThat isa detail of bacts of kindness;why does the ibaraitalist it separately? The Gemara answers: The reference to visiting the ill is bnecessary only for the contemporary ofthe ill person, bas the Master said:When bone who is a contemporaryof an ill person visits him, he btakes one-sixtieth of his illness.Since visiting an ill contemporary involves contracting a bit of his illness, a special derivation is necessary to teach that beven so, he is required to goand visit bhim. /b,It was taught in the ibaraita /i: With regard to the phrase b“wherein,” thatis referring to bburial.The Gemara asks: bThat isa detail of bacts of kindness;why does the ibaraitalist it separately? The Gemara answers: The reference to burial is bnecessary only toteach the ihalakhaof ban elderly person, andit is in a circumstance where bit is not in keeping with his dignityto bury the dead. Therefore, a special derivation is necessary to teach that even so, he is required to participate in the burial.,It was taught in the ibaraita /i: b“That they must perform”; thatis referring to acting bbeyond the letter of the law, as Rabbi Yoḥa says: Jerusalem was destroyed only forthe fact bthat they adjudicatedcases on the basis of bTorah law inthe city. The Gemara asks: bRather,what else should they have done? bShould they rather have adjudicatedcases on the basis of barbitrary decisions [ idemagizeta /i]? Rather, say: That they established their rulings onthe basis of bTorah law and did not go beyond the letter of the law. /b, strongMISHNA: /strong bWhich isthe item that is considered blost property?If bone found a donkey or a cow grazing on the path, that is not lost property,as presumably the owners are nearby and are aware of the animals’ whereabouts. If one found ba donkey with its accoutrements overturned, or a cowthat bran through the vineyards, that is lost property.In a case where bone returnedthe lost animal band it fled,and he again breturned it and it fled, evenif this scenario repeats itself bfour or five times,he is bobligated to return iteach time, as it bis stated:“You shall not see your brother’s ox or his sheep wandering and disregard them; byou shall return themto your brother” (Deuteronomy 22:1).,If in the course of tending to and returning the lost item, the finder bwas idle fromlabor that would have earned him ba isela /i, he shall not say tothe owner of the item: bGive me a isela /ito compensate me for my lost income. bRather,the owner bgives him his wage asif he were ba laborer,a payment that is considerably smaller. bIf there arethree men btherewho can convene as ba court,he bmay stipulate before the courtthat he will undertake to return the item provided that he receives full compensation for lost income. bIf there is no court there before whom can he stipulatehis condition, bhisficial interests btake precedenceand he need not return the lost item., strongGEMARA: /strong With regard to the question in the mishna: Which is the item that is considered lost property, the Gemara asks: bIs that to say that all those othercases bthat we statedin this chapter bare not lost property? Rav Yehuda saidthat bthisis what the itanna bis saying: What is the principleemployed in defining ba lost item that one is obligated toreturn? The mishna cites examples to illustrate the principle: If one bfound a donkey or a cow grazing on the path, that is not lost property, and he is not obligated toreturn bit.But if one found ba donkey with its accoutrements overturned, or a cow that was running through the vineyards, that is lost property, and he is obligated toreturn bit. /b,With regard to the ruling in the mishna that a donkey and cow grazing on the path are not considered lost property, the Gemara asks: bAndis that the case even if they graze there untended bforever? Rav Yehuda saidthat bRav said: Until three dayspass they are not lost. Thereafter, they are considered lost. The Gemara asks: bWhat are the circumstances? Ifthe animal is found grazing bat night, evenif it is untended for beven one hourit can be presumed to be lost, as an owner never grazes his animals untended at night. bIfthe animal is found grazing bduring the day, evenif it is untended for bmorethan three days, it is balso notpresumed to be lost.,The Gemara answers: bNo,the measure of three days bis necessaryonly in a case bwhere one sawthe animal grazing bin the earlyhours in the morning band in the darkof nightfall. For the first bthree days, we say: It happenedthat the animal bwent outa bit earlier or a bit later than usual, but nevertheless, it was with the owner’s knowledge. Once this is observed for bmorethan three days, it is bcertainly a lost item. /b, bThis is also taughtin a ibaraita /i: If bone found a cloak or an ax /b
25. Babylonian Talmud, Gittin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

57a. במאי דפסיק אנפשיה כל יומא מכנשי ליה לקיטמיה ודייני ליה וקלו ליה ומבדרו אשב ימי,אזל אסקיה לבלעם בנגידא אמר ליה מאן חשיב בההוא עלמא א"ל ישראל מהו לאידבוקי בהו א"ל (דברים כג, ז) לא תדרוש שלומם וטובתם כל הימים א"ל דיניה דההוא גברא במאי א"ל בשכבת זרע רותחת,אזל אסקיה [ליש"ו] בנגידא (לפושעי ישראל) א"ל מאן חשיב בההוא עלמא א"ל ישראל מהו לאדבוקי בהו א"ל טובתם דרוש רעתם לא תדרוש כל הנוגע בהן כאילו נוגע בבבת עינו,א"ל דיניה דההוא גברא במאי א"ל בצואה רותחת דאמר מר כל המלעיג על דברי חכמים נידון בצואה רותחת תא חזי מה בין פושעי ישראל לנביאי אומות העולם עובדי ע"ז,תניא אמר רבי אלעזר בא וראה כמה גדולה כחה של בושה שהרי סייע הקב"ה את בר קמצא והחריב את ביתו ושרף את היכלו:,אתרנגולא ואתרנגולתא חריב טור מלכא דהוו נהיגי כי הוו מפקי חתנא וכלתא מפקי קמייהו תרנגולא ותרנגולתא כלומר פרו ורבו כתרנגולים,יומא חד הוה קא חליף גונדא דרומאי שקלינהו מינייהו נפלו עלייהו מחונהו אתו אמרו ליה לקיסר מרדו בך יהודאי אתא עלייהו הוה בהו ההוא בר דרומא דהוה קפיץ מילא וקטיל בהו שקליה קיסר לתאגיה ואותביה אארעא אמר ריבוניה דעלמא כוליה אי ניחא לך לא תמסריה לההוא גברא לדידיה ולמלכותיה בידיה דחד גברא,אכשליה פומיה לבר דרומא ואמר (תהלים ס, יב) הלא אתה אלהים זנחתנו ולא תצא אלהים בצבאותינו דוד נמי אמר הכי דוד אתמוהי קא מתמה,על לבית הכסא אתא דרקונא שמטיה לכרכשיה ונח נפשיה אמר הואיל ואיתרחיש לי ניסא הא זימנא אישבקינהו שבקינהו ואזל איזדקור ואכלו ושתו ואדליקו שרגי עד דאיתחזי בליונא דגושפנקא ברחוק מילא אמר מיחדא קא חדו בי יהודאי הדר אתא עלייהו,א"ר אסי תלת מאה אלפי שליפי סייפא עיילו לטור. מלכא וקטלו בה תלתא יומי ותלתא לילוותא ובהך גיסא הלולי וחנגי ולא הוו ידעי הני בהני,(איכה ב, ב) בלע ה' ולא חמל את כל נאות יעקב כי אתא רבין אמר רבי יוחנן אלו ששים רבוא עיירות שהיו לו לינאי המלך בהר המלך דאמר רב יהודה אמר רב אסי ששים רבוא עיירות היו לו לינאי המלך בהר המלך וכל אחת ואחת היו בה כיוצאי מצרים חוץ משלש שהיו בהן כפלים כיוצאי מצרים,אלו הן כפר ביש כפר שיחליים כפר דכריא כפר ביש דלא יהבי ביתא לאושפיזא כפר שיחליים שהיתה פרנסתן מן שחליים כפר דכריא אמר רבי יוחנן שהיו נשותיהן יולדות זכרים תחלה ויולדות נקבה באחרונה ופוסקות,אמר עולא לדידי חזי לי ההוא אתרא ואפילו שיתין ריבוותא קני לא מחזיק אמר ליה ההוא צדוקי לרבי חנינא שקורי משקריתו אמר ליה (ירמיהו ג, יט) ארץ צבי כתיב בה מה צבי זה אין עורו מחזיק את בשרו אף ארץ ישראל בזמן שיושבין עליה רווחא ובזמן שאין יושבין עליה גמדא,רב מניומי בר חלקיה ורב חלקיה בר טוביה ורב הונא בר חייא הוו יתבי גבי הדדי אמרי אי איכא דשמיע ליה מילתא מכפר סכניא של מצרים לימא,פתח חד מינייהו ואמר מעשה בארוס וארוסתו שנשבו לבין העובדי כוכבים והשיאום זה לזה אמרה לו בבקשה ממך אל תגע בי שאין לי כתובה ממך ולא נגע בה עד יום מותו,וכשמת אמרה להן סיפדו לזה שפטפט ביצרו יותר מיוסף דאילו ביוסף לא הוה אלא חדא שעתא והאי כל יומא ויומא ואילו יוסף לאו בחדא מטה והאי בחדא מטה ואילו יוסף לאו אשתו והא אשתו,פתח אידך ואמר מעשה ועמדו ארבעים מודיות בדינר נחסר השער מודיא אחת ובדקו ומצאו אב ובנו שבאו על נערה מאורסה ביום הכפורים והביאום לבית דין וסקלום וחזר השער למקומו,פתח אידך ואמר מעשה באדם אחד שנתן עיניו באשתו לגרשה והיתה כתובתה מרובה מה עשה הלך וזימן את שושביניו והאכילן והשקן שיכרן והשכיבן על מיטה אחת והביא לובן ביצה והטיל ביניהן והעמיד להן עדים ובא לבית דין,היה שם זקן אחד מתלמידי שמאי הזקן ובבא בן בוטא שמו אמר להן כך מקובלני משמאי הזקן לובן ביצה סולד מן האור ושכבת זרע דוחה מן האור בדקו ומצאו כדבריו והביאוהו לב"ד והלקוהו והגבוהו כתובתה ממנו,א"ל אביי לרב יוסף ומאחר דהוו צדיקים כולי האי מאי טעמא איענוש א"ל משום דלא איאבול על ירושלים דכתיב (ישעיהו סו, י) שמחו את ירושלם וגילו בה כל אוהביה שישו אתה משוש כל המתאבלים עליה:,אשקא דריספק חריב ביתר דהוו נהיגי כי הוה מתיליד ינוקא שתלי ארזא ינוקתא שתלי תורניתא וכי הוו מינסבי קייצי להו ועבדו גננא יומא חד הוה קא חלפא ברתיה דקיסר אתבר שקא דריספק קצו ארזא ועיילו לה אתו נפול עלייהו מחונהו אתו אמרו ליה לקיסר מרדו בך יהודאי אתא עלייהו:,(איכה ב, ג) גדע בחרי אף כל קרן ישראל א"ר זירא א"ר אבהו א"ר יוחנן אלו שמונים [אלף] קרני מלחמה שנכנסו לכרך ביתר בשעה שלכדוה והרגו בה אנשים ונשים וטף עד שהלך דמן ונפל לים הגדול שמא תאמר קרובה היתה רחוקה היתה מיל,תניא רבי אליעזר הגדול אומר שני נחלים יש בבקעת ידים אחד מושך אילך ואחד מושך אילך ושיערו חכמים שני חלקים מים ואחד דם במתניתא תנא שבע שנים בצרו עובדי כוכבים את כרמיהן מדמן של ישראל בלא זבל 57a. bThat which he decreed against himself,as he undergoes the following: bEvery day his ashes are gathered, and they judge him, and they burn him, and they scatter him over the seven seas. /b,Onkelos then bwent and raised Balaamfrom the grave bthrough necromancy. He said to him: Who ismost bimportant in that worldwhere you are now? Balaam bsaid to him: The Jewish people.Onkelos asked him: bShould Ithen battachmyself bto themhere in this world? Balaam bsaid to him: You shall not seek their peace or their welfare all the days(see Deuteronomy 23:7). Onkelos bsaid to him: What is the punishment of that man,a euphemism for Balaam himself, in the next world? Balaam bsaid to him:He is cooked bin boiling semen,as he caused Israel to engage in licentious behavior with the daughters of Moab.,Onkelos then bwentand braised Jesus the Nazarenefrom the grave bthrough necromancy.Onkelos bsaid to him: Who ismost bimportant in that worldwhere you are now? Jesus bsaid to him: The Jewish people.Onkelos asked him: bShould Ithen battachmyself bto themin this world? Jesus bsaid to him: Their welfare you shall seek, their misfortune you shall not seek,for banyone who touches them isregarded bas if he were touching the apple of his eye(see Zechariah 2:12).,Onkelos bsaid to him: What is the punishment of that man,a euphemism for Jesus himself, in the next world? Jesus bsaid to him:He is punished bwith boiling excrement. As the Master said: Anyone who mocks the words of the Sages will be sentenced to boiling excrement.And this was his sin, as he mocked the words of the Sages. The Gemara comments: bComeand bsee the difference between the sinners of Israel and the prophets of the nations of the world.As Balaam, who was a prophet, wished Israel harm, whereas Jesus the Nazarene, who was a Jewish sinner, sought their well-being.,To conclude the story of Kamtza and bar Kamtza and the destruction of Jerusalem, the Gemara cites a ibaraita /i. It bis taught: Rabbi Elazar says: Come and see how great is the power of shame, for the Holy One, Blessed be He, assisted bar Kamtza,who had been humiliated, banddue to this humiliation and shame bHe destroyed His Temple and burned His Sanctuary. /b,§ It was previously mentioned (55b) that the place known as bthe King’s Mountain [ iTur Malka /i] was destroyed on account of a rooster and a hen.The details of what happened are as follows: bIt was customaryin that place bthat when they would lead a bride and groomto their wedding, bthey would take out a rooster and a hen before them,as if bto sayin the manner of a good omen: bBe fruitful and multiply like chickens. /b, bOne day a troop [ igunda /i] of Romansoldiers bpassed bythere while a wedding was taking place band tookthe rooster and hen bfrom them.The residents of the city bfell upon them and beat them.The soldiers bcame and said to the emperor: The Jews have rebelled against you.The emperor then bcame against themin war. Among the residents of the King’s Mountain bthere was a certain mannamed bbar Deroma who could jumpthe distance of ba imil /i, and he killedmany of the Romans, who were powerless to stand up against him. bThe emperorthen btook his crown and set it on the groundas a sign of mourning. bHe said: Master of the Universe, if it is pleasing to You, do not give over that man,a euphemism for himself, band his kingdom into the hands ofonly bone man. /b,In the end it was the words issuing from bhisown bmouththat bcaused bar Deroma to stumble, as he utteredthis verse in complaint against God: b“Have You not rejected us, O God, so that You go not forth, O God, with our hosts?”(Psalms 60:12). The Gemara asks: But did not bDavid also say this?The Gemara answers: bDavid utteredthese words bas a question,wondering whether they were true, whereas bar Deroma pronounced them as a statement of fact.,The Gemara recounts what happened to bar Deroma: bHe entered an outhouse, a snake cameand beviscerated him, and he died.The emperor bsaid: Since a miracle was performed for me,as I had no part in bar Deroma’s death, bI will letthe rest of the people bbe this timeand take no further action against them. bHe let them be and wenton his way. bThey leaptabout, bate, drank, and litso many bcandlesin celebration bthat the image [ ibilyona /i]imprinted bon a seal [ igushpanka /i] was visible from a distance of a imil /i.The emperor then bsaid: The Jews are rejoicing over me.So bhe went backand bcame against them. /b, bRav Asi says: Three hundred thousand men with drawn swords entered the King’s Mountain and massacredits inhabitants bfor three days and three nights. Andat the same time bonthe other bsideof the mountain, bweddings andother bfestivitiescontinued to be celebrated, band they did not know about each other,owing to the enormous size of the place.,§ Concerning the verse: b“The Lord has swallowed up without pity all the habitations of Jacob”(Lamentations 2:2), it is related that bwhen Ravin camefrom Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia bhesaid that bRabbi Yoḥa says: Thisis referring to the bsix hundred thousand citiesthat bKing Yannai had in the King’s Mountain.As bRav Yehuda saysthat bRav Asi says: King Yannai had six hundred thousand cities in the King’s Mountain, and each of themhad a population as great basthe number of bthose who left Egypt, except for threeof those cities, the population of which bwas doublethe number of bthose who left Egypt. /b, bTheseare bthosethree cities: bKefar Bish, Kefar Shiḥalayim, and Kefar Dikhrayya.The Gemara explains the meaning of these place-names. bKefar Bish,Evil Town, was called by that name because its inhabitants bwould not opentheir bhouses to guests. Kefar Shiḥalayimwas referred to by that name because btheir livelihood wasderived bfromthe cultivation of bcress [ ishaḥalayim /i].As for bKefar Dikhrayya,Town of Males, bRabbi Yoḥa says: Their women would first give birth to boys, and afterward give birth to girls, andthen bthey would stophaving children., bUlla said: I myself saw that place, and it could not hold even six hundred thousand reeds,all the more so that number of people. bA certain heretic said to Rabbi Ḥanina: You liewith your exorbitant exaggerations. Rabbi Ḥanina bsaid to him: With regard toEretz Yisrael bit is written: Land of the deer(see Jeremiah 3:19). bJust as the skin of a deer cannot hold its flesh,for after the animal is skinned, its hide shrinks, bso too,with regard to bEretz Yisrael, when it is settled, it expands, but when it is not settled, it contracts.This explains how a place that is so small today could have been so highly populated prior to the Temple’s destruction.,§ The Gemara relates that bRav Minyumi bar Ḥilkiya, Rav Ḥilkiya bar Toviya, and Rav Huna bar Ḥiyya wereonce bsitting together. They said: If there is someone who has heard anything about Kefar Sekhanya of Egypt,which was in that region, blet him relateit., bOne of them beganthe discussion band said:There was ban incident involving a betrothed man and womanfrom there bwho were taken captive by gentiles andthe latter bmarried them off to each other.The woman bsaid tothe man: bPlease do not touch me, as I do not have a marriage contract from you,and it is prohibited for us to live together without one. bAnd untilthe day of bhis deaththe man bdid not touchthe woman., bAnd when he diedwithout having touched her, the woman bsaid tothe Sages: bEulogize thisman bwho conquered [ ishepitpet /i] his passion [ ibeyitzro /i] more than Joseph. Asin the case of bJoseph it was only for a short timethat he had to overpower his inclination and resist Potiphar’s wife (see Genesis, chapter 39), bwhereas thisman struggled with his passion beach and every day.Furthermore, bJosephwas bnot in one bedwith Potiphar’s wife, bwhereas thisman was bin one bedwith his wife. In addition, with bJosephthe woman was bnot his wife, whereaswith bthisman she was bhis wife,as she was already betrothed to him., bAnotherSage bbeganhis remarks band said: It once happened thatthe market price of bforty ise’a /iof grain bstood at one dinar.And then bthe rate went down one ise’a[ imodeya /i],so that only thirty-nine ise’awere sold for a dinar. bAnd they checkedto see what sin had caused this, band they found a father and son who had engaged in sexual intercourse with a betrothed young woman on Yom Kippur. They broughtthe offenders bto court and stoned them, and the rate returned to itsformer blevel. /b,Yet banotherSage bbeganhis remarks band said:There was ban incidentthere binvolving a man who set his eyes upon his wife to divorce her, but her marriage contract was largeand he wished to avoid having to pay it. bWhat did he do? He went and invited his friends, gave them food and drink, made them drunk, and layhis friends and his wife bin one bed. Hethen bbrought the white of an egg,which has the appearance of semen, band placed iton the sheet bbetween them. Hethen bstood witnesses over themso that they could offer testimony, band went to courtclaiming that his wife had committed adultery., bA certain Elder of the disciples of Shammai the Elder was there, and Bava ben Butawas bhis name. He said to them: This isthe tradition that bI received from Shammai the Elder: Egg whiteon a bedsheet bcontractsand hardens when heated bby fire, whereas semen is absorbedinto the sheet bby the fire. They checkedthe matter band found in accordance with his statementthat the substance on the sheet was not semen but egg white. bTheythen bbroughtthe husband bto court, administered lashes to him, and made him payhis wife’s bmarriage contractin full., bAbaye said to Rav Yosef: But sincethose in the city bwere so righteous, what is the reason that they were punishedand destroyed? Rav Yosef bsaid to him:It is bbecause they did not mourn for Jerusalem, as it is written: “Rejoice with Jerusalem, and be glad with her, all you that love her, rejoice with joy with her, all you that did mourn for her”(Isaiah 66:10). The verse teaches that one who mourns for Jerusalem will rejoice in its rebuilding, and one who fails to mourn for Jerusalem is destroyed.,§ It was stated earlier that the city of bBeitar was destroyed on account of a shaft from a carriage.The Gemara explains that bit was customaryin Beitar that bwhen a boy was born they would plant a cedartree and when ba girlwas born they bwould plant a cypress [ itornita /i]. And when they wouldlater bmarryeach other bthey would cutdown these trees band constructa wedding bcanopyfor them with their branches. bOne day the emperor’s daughter passed bythere and bthe shaft of the carriagein which she was riding bbroke.Her attendants bchopped down a cedarfrom among those trees band brought it to her.Owing to the importance that they attached to their custom, the residents of Beitar bcameand bfell upon them and beat them.The attendants bcameand bsaid to the emperor: The Jews have rebelled against you.The emperor then bcame against themin war.,It was in connection with the war that ensued that the Sages expounded the following verse: b“He has cut off in His fierce anger all the horn of Israel”(Lamentations 2:3). bRabbi Zeira saysthat bRabbi Abbahu saysthat bRabbi Yoḥa says: These are the eighty thousandofficers bearing bbattle trumpetsin their hands, bwho entered the city of Beitar whenthe enemy btook it and killed men, women, and children until their blood flowed into the Great Sea. Lest you saythat the city bwas closeto the sea, know that bit was a imilaway. /b, bIt issimilarly btaughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Eliezer the Great says: There are two rivers in the Yadayim Valleyin that region, bone flowing one way and one flowing the other way. And the Sages estimatedthat in the aftermath of this war these rivers were filled with btwo parts water to one part blood.Likewise, bit was taught in a ibaraita /i: For seven years the gentiles harvested their vineyardsthat had been soaked bwith the blood of Israel withoutrequiring any additional bfertilizer. /b
26. Babylonian Talmud, Hagigah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

13b. חיות אש ממללות במתניתא תנא עתים חשות עתים ממללות בשעה שהדיבור יוצא מפי הקב"ה חשות ובשעה שאין הדיבור יוצא מפי הקב"ה ממללות,(יחזקאל א, יד) והחיות רצוא ושוב כמראה הבזק מאי רצוא ושוב אמר רב יהודה כאור היוצא מפי הכבשן מאי כמראה הבזק אמר רבי יוסי בר חנינא כאור היוצא מבין החרסים,(יחזקאל א, ד) וארא והנה רוח סערה באה מן הצפון ענן גדול ואש מתלקחת ונוגה לו סביב ומתוכה כעין החשמל מתוך האש להיכן אזל אמר רב יהודה אמר רב שהלך לכבוש את כל העולם כולו תחת נבוכדנצר הרשע וכל כך למה שלא יאמרו אומות העולם ביד אומה שפלה מסר הקב"ה את בניו אמר הקב"ה מי גרם לי שאהיה שמש לעובדי פסילים עונותיהן של ישראל הן גרמו לי,(יחזקאל א, טו) וארא החיות והנה אופן אחד בארץ אצל החיות אמר ר' אלעזר מלאך אחד שהוא עומד בארץ וראשו מגיע אצל החיות במתניתא תנא סנדלפון שמו הגבוה מחברו מהלך חמש מאות שנה ועומד אחורי המרכבה וקושר כתרים לקונו איני והכתיב (יחזקאל ג, יב) ברוך כבוד ה' ממקומו מכלל דמקומו ליכא דידע ליה דאמר שם אתגא ואזל ויתיב ברישיה,אמר רבא כל שראה יחזקאל ראה ישעיה למה יחזקאל דומה לבן כפר שראה את המלך ולמה ישעיה דומה לבן כרך שראה את המלך אמר ריש לקיש אי דכתיב (שמות טו, א) אשירה לה' כי גאה גאה שירה למי שמתגאה על הגאים דאמר מר מלך שבחיות ארי מלך שבבהמות שור מלך שבעופות נשר ואדם מתגאה עליהן והקב"ה מתגאה על כולן ועל כל העולם כולו,כתוב אחד אומר (יחזקאל א, י) ודמות פניהם פני אדם ופני אריה אל הימין לארבעתם ופני שור מהשמאל לארבעתן וגו' וכתיב (יחזקאל י, יד) וארבעה פנים לאחד פני האחד פני הכרוב ופני השני פני אדם והשלישי פני אריה והרביעי פני נשר ואילו שור לא קא חשיב אמר ר"ל יחזקאל ביקש עליו רחמים והפכו לכרוב אמר לפניו רבש"ע קטיגור יעשה סניגור,מאי כרוב אמר רבי אבהו כרביא שכן בבבל קורין לינוקא רביא א"ל רב פפא לאביי אלא מעתה דכתיב פני האחד פני הכרוב ופני השני פני אדם והשלישי פני אריה והרביעי פני נשר היינו פני כרוב היינו פני אדם אפי רברבי ואפי זוטרי,כתוב אחד אומר (ישעיהו ו, ב) שש כנפים שש כנפים לאחד וכתוב אחד אומר (יחזקאל א, ו) וארבעה פנים לאחת וארבע כנפים לאחת להם לא קשיא כאן בזמן שבהמ"ק קיים כאן בזמן שאין בית המקדש קיים כביכול שנתמעטו כנפי החיות,הי מינייהו אימעוט אמר רב חננאל אמר רב אותן שאומרות שירה בהן כתיב הכא (ישעיהו ו, ב) ובשתים יעופף וקרא זה אל זה ואמר וכתיב (משלי כג, ה) התעיף עיניך בו ואיננו,ורבנן אמרי אותן שמכסות בהן רגליהם שנאמר (יחזקאל א, ז) ורגליהם רגל ישרה ואי לאו דאימעוט מנא הוה ידע דלמא דאיגלאי וחזיא ליה דאי לא תימא הכי ודמות פניהם פני אדם הכי נמי דאימעוט אלא דאיגלאי וחזיא ליה הכא נמי דאיגלאי וחזיא ליה,הכי השתא בשלמא אפיה אורח ארעא לגלויי קמיה רביה כרעיה לאו אורח ארעא לגלויי קמיה רביה,כתוב אחד אומר (דניאל ז, י) אלף אלפין ישמשוניה ורבו רבבן קדמוהי יקומון וכתוב אחד אומר (איוב כה, ג) היש מספר לגדודיו לא קשיא כאן בזמן שבית המקדש קיים כאן בזמן שאין בהמ"ק קיים כביכול שנתמעטה פמליא של מעלה,תניא רבי אומר משום אבא יוסי בן דוסאי אלף אלפין ישמשוניה מספר גדוד אחד ולגדודיו אין מספר ור' ירמיה בר אבא אמר אלף אלפין ישמשוניה לנהר דינור שנאמר (דניאל ז, י) נהר דינור נגד ונפק מן קדמוהי אלף אלפין ישמשוניה ורבו רבבן קדמוהי יקומון,מהיכן נפיק מזיעתן של חיות ולהיכן שפיך אמר רב זוטרא בר טוביה אמר רב על ראש רשעים בגיהנם שנאמר (ירמיהו כג, יט) הנה סערת ה' חמה יצאה וסער מתחולל על ראש רשעים יחול ורב אחא בר יעקב אמר על אשר קומטו שנאמר (איוב כב, טז) אשר קומטו ולא עת נהר יוצק יסודם תניא אמר רבי שמעון החסיד אלו תשע מאות ושבעים וארבע דורות שקומטו להיבראות 13b. It refers to bspeaking animals of fire.Electrum [ iḥashmal /i] is an acrostic of this phrase [iḥayyot esh memallelot/b]. bIt was taught in a ibaraita /i: At times they are silent; at times they speak. When the divine speech emerges from the mouth of the Holy One, Blessed be He, they are silent; and when the divine speech does not emerge from the mouth of the Holy One, Blessed be He, they speak. /b,§ The verse states: b“And the divine creatures ran and returned like the appearance of a flash of lightning [ ibazak /i]”(Ezekiel 1:14). bWhat isthe meaning of b“ran and returned”? Rav Yehuda said: Like fire that is emitted from a furnace,whose flame is continuously bursting out and withdrawing. bWhat isthe meaning of b“like the appearance of a flash of lightning”? Rabbi Yosei bar Ḥanina said: Like the fire that is emittedfrom bbetweenpieces of bearthenwareused for refining gold, as an additional meaning ascribed to the word ibazakis shards of earthenware.,The verse states: b“And I looked and, behold, a stormy wind came out of the north, a great cloud, with a fire flashing up, so that a brightness was round about it; and out of its midst was like the color of electrum, out of the midst of the fire”(Ezekiel 1:4). The Gemara poses a question: bWhere didthat wind bgo? Rav Yehuda saidthat bRav said: It went to conquer the entire world under the wicked Nebuchadnezzar. And why was all of this necessary?Why was it necessary that the entire world be subjected to his dominion? bSo that the nations of the world would not say: The Holy One, Blessed be He, delivered His children into the hands of a lowly nation.Since it was already decreed that the kingdom of Israel would fall into the hands of Nebuchadnezzar, God made him into a great conqueror, so that Israel would not be ashamed of being defeated by him. bThe Holy One, Blessed be He, saidwith regard to this: bWho caused Me to be an attendant to worshippers of molten images,forcing Me to wage their wars? bIt was the sins of Israel that led Meto do so.,Another verse in the same chapter states: b“Now as I beheld the divine creatures, behold, one wheel [ iofan /i] was upon the earth near the divine creatures”(Ezekiel 1:15). bRabbi Elazar said:This wheel is ba certain angel who stands on the earth and its head reaches the divine creatures. It was taught in a ibaraita /i:This angel bis named Sandalfon, who is taller than his colleague by a distance of five hundred years, and he stands behind theDivine bChariot and weaves crowns for his Maker.The Gemara asks: bIs that so?Can crowns be woven for God? bBut isn’t it written: “Blessed be the Lord’s glory from His place”(Ezekiel 3:12), which proves bby inferencethat bno one knows His place?Therefore, how can crowns be woven for Him? Rather, it can be done bby saying a name for the crown, andthen the crown bgoes and sits onGod’s bheadof its own accord.,§ bRava said: All that Ezekiel saw,the prophet bIsaiah sawas well, but the latter did not find it necessary to describe his vision in such detail. bTo what may Ezekiel be compared? To a villager who saw the kingand is excited by all the extravagances of the king’s palace and everything it contains, as he is unaccustomed to them. bAnd to what may Isaiah be compared? To a city dweller who saw the king.Such an individual focuses on the encounter with the king, and is oblivious to all the distractions. bReish Lakish said: What isthe meaning of that bwhich is written: “I will sing to the Lord, for He is highly exalted”(Exodus 15:1)? It is fitting to bsing to He Who is exalted above the exalted. As the Master said: The king of the beastsis bthe lion, the king of the domestic animalsis bthe ox, the king of the birdsis bthe eagle, and man is exaltedand lords bover them, but the Holy One, Blessed be He, is exalted above all of them and above the entire world,as the creatures that appear in the Divine Chariot are the ox, the lion, the eagle, and man.,The Gemara poses a question with regard to the animals of the Divine Chariot: bOne verse states: “As for the likeness of their faces, they had the face of a man; and the four had the face of a lion on the right side; and the four had the face of an ox on the left side”(Ezekiel 1:10). bAnd it isalso bwritten: “And each one had four faces: The first face was the face of the cherub, and the second face was the face of a man, and the third the face of a lion, and the fourth the face of an eagle”(Ezekiel 10:14), bbut it does not includethe face of ban oxin this second list. bReish Lakish said: Ezekiel requested mercywith regard to bit,i.e., the face of the ox, band had it turned into a cherub. He said before Himas follows: bMaster of the Universe.Shall ban accuser [ ikateigor /i] become a defender [ isaneigor /i]?As the face of an ox recalls Israel’s sin of the Golden Calf, it would be preferable for there to be a different face on the Divine Chariot.,The Gemara asks: bWhat isthe meaning of b“cherub”? Rabbi Abbahu said: Like a baby[ikeravya/b], bfor in Babylonia they call a baby iravya /i. Rav Pappa said to Abaye: However, if that is so, what isthe meaning of bthat which is written: “The first face was the face of the cherub, and the second face was the face of a man, and the third the face of a lion, and the fourth the face of an eagle”? The face of a cherub isthe same as bthe face of a man;what is the difference between them? He replied: The difference is that the face of a man is referring to ba large face,whereas the face of a cherub means the bsmall faceof a baby.,The Gemara asks another question: bOne verse states: “Each one had six wings;with two it covered its face and with two it covered its feet, and with two it flew” (Isaiah 6:2), band another verse states: “And every one had four faces, and every one of them had four wings”(Ezekiel 1:6). The Gemara answers: This is bnot difficult,as bhere,when the verse states they each had six wings, it is referring bto the time when the Temple is standing,while bthere,where four wings are described, it is referring bto the time when the Temple is not standing,for bit is as ifthe number of bthe wings of the animals were diminishedso that they now have only four.,The Gemara asks: bWhich ofthe wings bwere diminished? Rav Ḥael saidthat bRav said: Those with which they recite song.The proof is that bit is written here: “And with two it flew[iyeofef /i]. bAnd one called to the other and said”(Isaiah 6:2–3), band it is written: “Will you set[ihata’if] your eyes upon it? It is gone”(Proverbs 23:5), implying that the flight of these wings had ceased., bAnd the Rabbis saythat the wings they lost are bthose with which they cover their feet, for it is stated: “And their feet were straight feet”(Ezekiel 1:7). bNow ifthese wings bhad not been diminished, how would he knowwhat their feet looked like? Clearly their feet were no longer covered. The Gemara rejects this: This is no proof, for bperhaps they weremomentarily brevealed,allowing him to bsee them. Because if you do not say so,that he saw them for a moment, then with regard to the verse: b“And the likeness of their faces, they had the face of a man”(Ezekiel 1:10), bso toowill you say bthat thesethe wings covering their faces bwere diminishedas well? bRather,it must be bthat they were revealed and he saw them. Here too, they were revealed and he saw them. /b,The Gemara refutes this: bHow canthese cases bbe compared? Granted,it is logical that bhis facewas revealed, as bit is proper conductfor an angel bto revealhis face bbefore his Master,and therefore it is possible that they would have revealed their faces at certain times; but with regard to bhis feet,it is bnot proper conduct to revealthem bbefore his Master.Therefore, they must have lacked wings to cover their feet.,§ The Gemara continues to address apparent contradictions between verses concerning similar matters: bOne verse states: “A thousand thousands ministered to Him, and ten thousand times ten thousand stood before him”(Daniel 7:10), band another verse states: “Is there a number to His troops?”(Job 25:3), implying that they are even more numerous than “ten thousand times ten thousand.” The Gemara answers: This is bnot difficult,for bhere,when they are without number, the verse is referring bto the time when the Temple is standing; there,the other verse is referring bto the time when the Temple is not standing,for bit is as though the heavenly entourage [ ipamalya /i] were diminished. /b, bIt is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bRabbiYehuda HaNasi bsays in the name of Abba Yosei ben Dosai: “A thousand thousands ministered to Him”is referring to the bnumberof angels in ba single troop,but with regard to the number of his troops, it can be said: b“And to his troops, there is no number”. And Rabbi Yirmeya bar Abba said:There is no contradiction, since with regard to the phrase b“a thousand thousands ministered to Him,”the pronoun “Him” can be literally translated as: It, referring not to those who serve God Himself, but to those who administer bto the River Dinur, as it is stated: “A fiery [ idinur /i] river issued and came forth from before him; a thousand thousands ministered to it, and a myriad myriads stand before it”(Daniel 7:10). The ministers of God, however, are indeed too numerous to count.,The Gemara asks: bFrom where doesthis river bflow?The Gemara answers: bFrom the perspiration of the divine creatures. And where doesit bflow to? Rav Zutra bar Toviya saidthat bRav said: Upon the heads of the wicked in Gehenna, as it is stated: “Behold, a storm of the Lord has gone forth in fury, a whirling storm; it shall whirl upon the head of the wicked”(Jeremiah 23:19). bAnd Rav Aḥa bar Ya’akov said:The river flows bover those who were snatched away,i.e., the generations that were never created, bas it is stated: “Who were snatched away before their time, whose foundation was poured out as a stream”(Job 22:16), implying that the River Dinur flows over them. bIt is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bRabbi Shimon HeḤasid saidin explanation of this verse: bThesepeople “who were snatched away” are bthose nine hundred and seventy-four generations that were snatched away;they were to have bbeen created /b
27. Babylonian Talmud, Horayot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

12a. ומי הוה שמן המשחה והתניא משנגנז ארון נגנז שמן המשחה וצנצנת המן ומקלו של אהרן שקדיה ופרחיה וארגז ששלחו פלשתים דורון לישראל שנאמר (שמואל א ו, ח) ואת כלי הזהב אשר השבותם לו אשם תשימו בארגז מצדו ושלחתם אותו והלך,ומי גנזו יאשיהו מלך יהודה גנזו שראה שכתוב בתורה (דברים כח, לו) יולך ה' אותך ואת מלכך וגו' צוה וגנזום שנאמר (דברי הימים ב לה, ג) ויאמר ללוים המבינים לכל ישראל הקדושים לה' תנו את ארון הקדש בבית אשר בנה שלמה בן דוד מלך ישראל אין לכם משא בכתף עתה עבדו את ה' אלהיכם ואת עמו ישראל,ואמר רבי אלעזר אתיא שם שם אתיא משמרת משמרת אתיא דורות דורות אמר רב פפא באפרסמא דכיא,ת"ר כיצד מושחין את המלכים כמין נזר ואת הכהנים כמין כי מאי כמין כי אמר רב מנשיא בר גדא כמין כף יוני,תני חדא בתחלה מוצקין שמן על ראשו ואח"כ נותנין לו שמן בין ריסי עיניו ותניא אחריתי בתחלה נותנין לו שמן בין ריסי עיניו ואח"כ מוצקים לו שמן על ראשו תנאי היא איכא דאמרי משיחה עדיפא ואיכא דאמרי יציקה עדיפא,מ"ט דמאן דאמר יציקה עדיפא דכתיב (ויקרא ח, יב) ויצוק משמן המשחה על ראש אהרן וימשח אותו לקדשו ומאן דאמר משיחה עדיפא מ"ט קסבר שכן אתה מוצא אצל כלי שרת והכתיב ויצוק ובסוף וימשח הכי קאמר מאי טעם ויצוק משום דוימשח,ת"ר (תהלים קלג, ב) כשמן הטוב [וגו'] יורד על הזקן זקן אהרן וגו' כמין שני טפי מרגליות היו תלויות לאהרן בזקנו אמר רב פפא תנא כשהוא מספר עולות ויושבות לו בעיקר זקנו ועל דבר זה היה משה דואג אמר שמא חס ושלום מעלתי בשמן המשחה יצתה בת קול ואמרה כשמן הטוב וגו' (תהלים קלג, ג) כטל חרמון מה טל חרמון אין בו מעילה אף שמן המשחה שבזקן אהרן אין בו מעילה,ועדיין היה אהרן דואג אמר שמא משה לא מעל אבל אני מעלתי יצתה בת קול ואמרה לו (תהלים קלג, א) הנה מה טוב ומה נעים שבת אחים גם יחד מה משה לא מעל אף אתה לא מעלת,ת"ר אין מושחים את המלכים אלא על המעיין כדי שתמשך מלכותם שנא' (מלכים א א, לג) ויאמר המלך להם קחו עמכם את עבדי אדוניכם [וגו'] והורדתם אותו אל גחון,אמר רבי אמי האי מאן דבעי לידע אי מסיק שתיה אי לא ניתלי שרגא בעשרה יומי דבין ראש השנה ליום הכפורים בביתא דלא נשיב זיקא אי משיך נהוריה נידע דמסיק שתיה,ומאן דבעי למיעבד בעיסקא ובעי למידע אי מצלח אי לא מצלח לירבי תרנגולא אי שמין ושפר מצלח,האי מאן דבעי למיפק [לאורחא] ובעי למידע אי חזר ואתי לביתא אי לא ניקום בביתא דחברא אי חזי בבואה דבבואה לידע דהדר ואתי לביתא ולאו מלתא היא דלמא חלשא דעתיה ומיתרע מזליה אמר אביי השתא דאמרת סימנא מילתא היא [לעולם] יהא רגיל למיחזי בריש שתא קרא ורוביא כרתי וסילקא ותמרי,אמר להו רב משרשיא לבריה כי בעיתו מיעל ומיגמרי קמי רבייכו גרסו מתניתא ועלו לקמי רבייכו וכי יתביתו קמיה חזו לפומיה דכתיב (ישעיהו ל, כ) והיו עיניך רואות את מוריך וכי גרסיתו גרסו על נהרא דמיא דכי היכי דמשכן מיא משכן שמעתתייכו ותיבו אקילקלי דמתא מחסיא ולא תיבו אפדני דפומבדיתא טב גלדנא סריא [דמתא מחסיא למיכל] מכותחא דרמי כיפי,(שמואל א ב, א) רמה קרני באלהי רמה קרני ולא רמה פכי דוד ושלמה שנמשחו בקרן נמשכה מלכותן שאול ויהוא שנמשחו בפך לא נמשכה מלכותן:,המשוח בשמן המשחה וכו': ת"ר משיח יכול מלך ת"ל כהן אי כהן יכול מרובה בגדים ת"ל משיח אי משיח יכול משוח מלחמה תלמוד לומר והכהן המשיח שאינו משיח על גביו,מאי משמע כדאמר רבא הירך המיומנת שבירך הכא נמי המשיח המיומן שבמשוחים,אמר מר משיח יכול מלך מלך פר הוא דמייתי שעיר הוא דמייתי איצטריך ס"ד אמינא על שגגת מעשה יביא שעיר על העלם דבר יביא פר קמ"ל:,אין בין משוח בשמן המשחה כו': מתניתין דלא כרבי מאיר דאי ר"מ הא תניא מרובה בגדים מביא פר הבא על כל המצות דברי ר"מ ולא הודו לו חכמים,מ"ט דר"מ דתניא (ויקרא ד, ג) משיח אין לי אלא משוח בשמן המשחה מרובה בגדים מנין תלמוד לומר הכהן המשיח,במאי אוקימתיה כרבנן 12a. The Gemara asks with regard to the fact that Jehoahaz was anointed: bAnd was there anointing oilduring the days of Jehoahaz? bBut isn’t it taughtin a ibaraita /i: bWhen the Ark of the Covet was sequestered, the anointing oil, and the jar of imanna /i(see Exodus 16:33), band Aaron’s staffwith bits almonds and blossoms(see Numbers 17:23), band the chest that the Philistines sentas ba gift to Israel,were all bsequesteredwith it, bas it is stated:“And you shall take the Ark of the Lord, and lay it upon the cart, band put the vessels of gold that you return Him as a guilt-offering in a chest by its side and send it away that it may go”(I Samuel 6:8)., bAnd who sequesteredthe Ark? bJosiah, king of Judea, sequestered it, as he saw that it is written in the Torahin the portion of rebuke: b“The Lord will lead you, and your kingwhom you shall establish over you, unto a nation that you have not known” (Deuteronomy 28:36). bHe commanded andthe people bsequestered them, as it is stated: “And he said to the Levites who taught all Israel, and who were sacred unto the Lord: Place the sacred Ark in the room that Solomon, son of David, king of Israel built; there shall be no more burden upon your shoulders. Now serve the Lord your God and His people Israel”(II Chronicles 35:3)., bAnd Rabbi Elazar says: One derivesa verbal analogy between the term: bThere,written with regard to the Ark (see Exodus 29:43), and the term: bThere,written with regard to the jar of imanna(see Exodus 16:33); and between the term: bKeepsake,written with regard to the jar of imanna(see Exodus 16:33), and the term: bKeepsake,written with regard to Aaron’s staff (see Numbers 17:25–26); and between the term: bGenerations,written with regard to the jar of imanna(see Exodus 16:33), and the term: bGenerations,written with regard to the anointing oil (see Exodus 30:31). By means of these verbal analogies it is derived that all of these items were sequestered. bRav Pappa said:They anointed Jehoahaz bwith pure balsamoil, not with anointing oil.,§ bThe Sages taught: How does one anoint the kings?One smears the oil in a manner that is bsimilar tothe form of ba crownaround his head. bAndhow does one anoint bthe priests?One smears the oil in a shape blikethe Greek letter bchi.The Gemara asks: bWhatis the meaning of: bLikethe Greek letter bchi? Rav Menashya bar Gadda said: Likethe bGreekequivalent of the Hebrew letter ikaf /i. /b, bIt is taughtin bone ibaraita /i: bInitially, they pour oil onthe priest’s bhead, and thereafter, they place oil for him between the lashes of his eyes. And it is taughtin ba different ibaraita /i: bInitially, they place oil for him between the lashes of his eyes, and thereafter, they pour oil on his head.The Gemara explains: bIt isa dispute between itanna’im /i. Some say: Anointingwith oil between his eyes bis preferableand takes precedence, band some say: Pouringoil on his head bis preferableand takes precedence., bWhat is the reasonfor the opinion bof the one who saidthat bpouringoil on his head bis preferable?It is bas it is written: “And he poured from the anointing oil upon Aaron’s head and anointed him to sanctify him”(Leviticus 8:12), indicating that pouring precedes anointing. bAnd the one who saidthat banointing is preferableand takes precedence, bwhat is the reasonfor his opinion? bHe holds:Anointing takes precedence basthat is what byou find with regard to service vessels(see Numbers 7:1). They were anointed, but the anointing oil was not poured on them. The Gemara asks: bBut isn’t it writtenwith regard to the priests: b“And he poured,” and ultimately: “And anointed”?The Gemara answers: bThisis what the verse bis saying: What is the reasonthat bhe pouredthe oil? It is bdue tothe fact bthat hehad already banointedthem. Anointing is the primary component of the process., bThe Sages taught: “It is like the precious oil upon the head coming down upon the beard, Aaron’s beard,that comes down upon the collar of his garments” (Psalms 133:2). bTwo dropsof anointing oil, bshaped like pearls, were suspended for Aaron from his beard. Rav Pappa saidthat it is btaught: WhenAaron would bspeakand his beard would move, those drops would miraculously brise and settle on the roots of his beardso that they would not fall. bMoses was concerned about this matter. He said: Perhaps, Heaven forfend, I misusedthe consecrated banointing oiland poured more than necessary, as two additional drops remain? bA Divine Voice emerged and said: “It is like the precious oilupon the head coming down upon the beard, Aaron’s beard, that comes down upon the collar of his garments. bLike the dew of Hermon”(Psalms 133:2–3). This analogy teaches: bJust as there is no misuse of the dew of Hermon,which is not consecrated, bso too,with regard to bthe anointing oil that is on Aaron’s beard, there is no misuseof consecrated property., bAnd still Aaron was concerned. He said: Perhaps Moses did not misuseconsecrated property; bbutperhaps bI misusedconsecrated property, as the additional oil is on my beard and I enjoy it. bA Divine Voice emerged and said: “Behold, how good and how pleasant it is for brothers to dwell together in unity”(Psalms 133:1). bJust asyour brother bMoses did not misuseconsecrated property, bso too, you did not misuseconsecrated property., bThe Sages taught: One anoints the kings only upon a spring,as an omen, bso that their kingdom will continuelike a spring, bas it is statedwith regard to the coronation of Solomon before the death of David: b“And the king said unto them: Take with you the servants of your lord,and let Solomon my son ride upon my own mule, band bring him down to Gihon.And let Tzadok the priest and Nathan the prophet anoint him there king over Israel and sound the shofar and say: Long live King Solomon” (I Kings 1:33–34).,§ Apropos good omens, the Gemara cites a statement that bRabbi Ami said: Thisperson bwho seeks to know if he will complete his year or ifhe will bnot,i.e., whether or not he will remain alive in the coming year, blet him light a lamp, during the ten days that are between Rosh HaShana and Yom Kippur, in a house in which wind does not blow. If its light continuesto burn, bhe knows that hewill bcomplete his year. /b, bAnd one who seeks to conduct a business venture and wishes to know if he will succeedor bifhe will bnot succeed, let him raise a rooster. Ifthe rooster bgrows fat and healthy, he will succeed. /b, bOne who seeks to embark on a journey and wishes to know if hewill breturn and come tohis bhomeor bifhe will bnot, let him go to a dark [ idaḥavara /i] house. If he sees the shadow of a shadow he shall know that hewill breturn and come home.The Sages reject this: This omen bis nota significant bmatter. Perhaps he will be disheartenedif the omen fails to appear, band his fortune will sufferand it is this that causes him to fail. bAbaye said: Now that you saidthat ban omen isa significant bmatter, a person should always be accustomed to seeingthese bon Rosh HaShana: Squash, and fenugreek, leeks, and chard, and dates,as each of these grows quickly and serves as a positive omen for one’s actions during the coming year.,Apropos good omens, bRav Mesharshiyya said to his son: When you seek to enter and study before your teacher, study the ibaraita /ifirst, bandonly then benter before your teacher. And when you are sitting before him, look to his mouth, as it is written: “And your eyes shall see your teacher”(Isaiah 30:20). bAnd when you study, study adjacent to a river of water; just as the water flows, your studies will flowunimpeded. He added: bAndit is preferable for you to bsit on the rubbish heaps [ iakilkelei /i] of Mata Meḥasya, and do not sit in the palaces [ iappadnei /i] of Pumbedita. Better to eat the rotten fish [ igildana /i] of Mata Meḥasya thanto eat ikutḥa /i, which displaces rocks,a metaphor for how potent it is.,Apropos good omens for anointing, it is stated in the prayer of Hannah, Samuel’s mother: b“My horn is exalted in my God”(I Samuel 2:1). The Gemara infers: bMy horn is exalted, and my jug is not exalted. David and Solomon were anointed withoil from ba horn.This was a good omen for them and btheir reign endured. Saul and Jehu were anointed withoil from ba jug and their reign did not endure. /b,§ The mishna teaches: And who is the anointed priest? It is the High Priest bwho is anointed with the anointing oil,not the High Priest consecrated by donning multiple garments. bThe Sages taught: “Anointed”is written in the verse (Leviticus 6:15). One bmighthave thought that the reference is to ba king.Therefore, bthe verse states: “Priest.” Ifthe reference is to ba priest,one bmighthave thought that the reference is to a priest consecrated by donning bmultiple garments.Therefore, bthe verse states: “Anointed.” Ifthe reference is to one who is banointed,one bmighthave thought that the reference is even to a priest banointed for war.Therefore, bthe verse states: “And the anointed priest,”indicating bthat there is no anointedpriest bover him;rather, he is the highest-ranking priest.,The Gemara asks: bFrom whereis this binferred?The Gemara answers: It is bas Rava saidwith regard to the term b“the thigh”in the verse: “The sciatic nerve that is on the hollow of the thigh” (Genesis 32:33); the reference is to bthe stronger of the thighs. Here too,where the verse states: b“The anointed,”the reference is to bthemost bdistinguished ofthose banointed,i.e., the High Priest.,The Gemara analyzes the ibaraita /i: bThe Master said: “Anointed”is written in the verse. One bmighthave thought that the reference is to ba king.The Gemara asks: bIs it a bull that a king bringsfor a sin-offering? bIt is a male goat that he brings,as the Torah states explicitly, later in that passage. The Gemara answers: It bwas necessaryfor the itannato say this, as it may benter your mind to say:It is bfor the unwittingperformance bof an actionfor which all people are liable to bring a sin-offering that a king bshall bringa male goat as his offering; but bfor absenceof awareness bof the matterwith the unwitting performance of an action, a king bshall bring a bull.Therefore, the itanna bteaches usthat it is only the High Priest who brings a bull.,§ The mishna teaches: bThe difference betweena High bPriest anointed with the anointing oiland one consecrated by donning multiple garments is only that the latter does not bring the bull that comes for the transgression of any of the mitzvot. The Gemara comments: bThe mishna is not in accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Meir, as, if it wasin accordance with the opinion of bRabbi Meir, isn’t it taughtin a ibaraita /i: A priest who is consecrated by donning bmultiple garments brings a bull that comes forthe transgression of bany of the mitzvot;this is bthe statement of Rabbi Meir, but the Rabbis did not concedethat point bto him. /b,The Gemara asks: bWhat is the reasonfor the opinion bof Rabbi Meir?It is bas it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: b“Anointed”is written in the verse. bI havederived bonly a priest anointed with the anointing oil. From wheredo I derive the ihalakhaof a priest who is consecrated by donning bmultiple garments? The verse states: “The anointed priest,”from which it is derived that anyone who is appointed as the High Priest is included, even if he was not anointed.,The Gemara asks: bIn accordance with whichopinion bdid you interpretthe mishna? It is bin accordance withthe opinion of bthe Rabbis. /b
28. Babylonian Talmud, Keritot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

5b. וכי נס אחד נעשה בשמן המשחה והלא נסים הרבה נעשו בו מתחלתו ועד סופו תחלתו לא היה אלא י"ב לוג ובו נמשח המשכן וכליו ואהרן ובניו כל שבעת ימי המלואים ובו נמשחו כהנים גדולים ומלכים וכולו קיים לעתיד לבא,שנאמר (שמות ל, לא) שמן משחת קדש יהיה זה לי לדורותיכם זה בגימטריא י"ב לוגין הויין,ת"ר (ויקרא ח, י) ויקח משה את שמן המשחה וימשח את המשכן וגו' רבי יהודה אומר שמן המשחה שעשה משה במדבר הרבה נסים נעשו בו מתחלתו ועד סופו תחלתו לא היה אלא י"ב לוגין כמה יורה בולעת כמה עיקרין בולעין כמה האור שורף ובו נמשח משכן וכליו אהרן ובניו כל ז' ימי המלואים,ובו נמשחו כהנים גדולים ומלכים ואפי' כהן גדול בן כ"ג טעון משיחה ואין מושחין מלך בן מלך ואם תאמר מפני מה משחו את שלמה מפני מחלוקת אדוניה ואת יהואש מפני עתליה ואת יהואחז מפני יהויקים אחיו שהיה גדול מאחיו שתי שנים,אמר מר ואפי' כ"ג בן כ"ג טעון משיחה מנלן דכתיב (ויקרא ו, טו) והכהן המשיח תחתיו מבניו נימא קרא והכהן שתחתיו מבניו מאי המשיח הא קמ"ל דאפי' מבניו ההוא דמשח הוי כ"ג ואי לא משח לא הוי כ"ג,אמר מר אין מושחין מלך בן מלך מנלן אמר רב אחא בר יעקב דכתיב (דברים יז, כ) למען יאריך ימים על ממלכתו הוא ובניו כל הימים ירושה היא,ומפני מה משחו את שלמה מפני מחלוקת אדוניה מנלן דכי אתי מחלוקת בעי משיחה ולא כל דבעי מלכא מורית ליה מלכותא אמר רב פפא אמר קרא (דברים יז, כ) בקרב ישראל בזמן ששלום בישראל,תנא אף יהוא בן נמשי לא נמשח אלא מפני מחלוקת יורם בן אחאב אמאי תיפוק ליה דמלך ראשון הוא חסורי מיחסרא והכי קתני מלכי בית דוד מושחין מלכי ישראל אין מושחין ואם תאמר מפני מה משחו יהוא בן נמשי מפני מחלוקת יורם בן אחאב,אמר מר מלכי בית דוד מושחין ואין מלכי ישראל מושחין מנלן דכתיב (שמואל א טז, יב) קום משחהו כי זה הוא זה טעון משיחה ואין אחר טעון משיחה,אמר מר מפני מחלוקת יורם ומשום מחלוקת יורם בן אחאב נמעל בשמן המשחה כדאמר רב פפא באפרסמא דכיא ה"נ באפרסמא דכיא,ואת יהואחז מפני יהויקים שהיה גדול ממנו שתי שנים ומי קשיש והכתיב (דברי הימים א ג, טו) ובני יאשיה הבכור יוחנן והשני יהויקים והשלישי צדקיהו והרביעי שלום וא"ר יוחנן הוא יהואחז הוא צדקיהו הוא שלום,אלא לעולם יהויקים קשיש ואמאי קרי ליה בכור שהוא בכור למלכות ומי מוקמינן זוטא קמי קשישא והכתיב (דברי הימים ב כא, ג) ואת הממלכה נתן ליהורם כי הוא הבכור ההוא ממלא מקום אבותיו הוה,אמר מר הוא שלום הוא צדקיה והא בדרי קחשיב ומאי קרי ליה שלישי שהוא שלישי לבנים ומאי קרי ליה רביעי שהוא רביעי למלכות משום דמלך יכניה קמיה בתחלה מלך יהואחז וסוף מלך יהויקים וסוף מלך יכניה וסוף מלך צדקיה,ת"ר הוא שלום הוא צדקיה ולמה נקרא שמו שלום שהיה שלם במעשיו דבר אחר שלום ששלם מלכות בית דוד בימיו ומה שמו מתניה שמו שנאמר (מלכים ב כד, יז) וימלך את מתניה דודו תחתיו ויסב שמו צדקיה,דאמר לו יה יצדיק עליך את הדין אם תמרוד בי שנאמר (דברי הימים ב לו, י) ויביאהו בבלה וכתיב (דברי הימים ב לו, יג) וגם במלך נבוכדנאצר מלך בבל מרד אשר השביעו באלהים,ומי הוה שמן המשחה והתניא משנגנז ארון נגנז צנצנת המן וצלוחית שמן המשחה ומקלו של אהרן שקדים ופרחים,וארגז ששגרו פלשתים דורון לאלהי ישראל שנאמר (שמואל א ו, ח) ואת כלי הזהב אשר השיבותם לו אשם תשימו בארגז מצדו ומי גנזו יאשיה מלך יהודה גנזו שנאמר (דברי הימים ב לה, ג) ויאמר המלך אל הכהנים תנו את ארון הקדש,ואמר רבי אלעזר אתיא שם שם,אתיא דורות דורות,אתיא משמרת משמרת אמר רב פפא באפרסמא דכיא,ת"ר מושחין את המלכים כמין נזר ואת הכהנים כמין כי אמר רב מנשיה כמין כי יוני תני חדא בתחלה מציק שמן על ראשו ואחר כך נותן לו שמן בין ריסי עיניו ותני אחריתי בתחלה נותן לו שמן בין ריסי עיניו ואחר כך מציק לו שמן על ראשו,תנאי היא איכא למאן דאמר משיחה עדיפא ואיכא למאן דאמר יציקה עדיפא מאי טעמא דמ"ד יציקה עדיפא שנאמר (ויקרא ח, יב) ויצק משמן המשחה על ראש אהרן ומאן דאמר משיחה עדיפא קסבר שכן נתרבה אצל כלי שרת,והכתיב ויצק ולבסוף וימשח ה"ק מה טעם ויצק משום וימשח אותו לקדשו,ת"ר (תהילים קלג, ב) כשמן הטוב היורד על הראש וגו' כמין שתי טיפין מרגליות היו תלויות לאהרן בזקנו אמר רב כהנא תנא כשהוא מספר עולות ויושבות בעיקרי זקנו ועל דבר זה היה משה רבינו דואג שמא חס ושלום מעלתי בשמן המשחה,יצתה בת קול ואמרה (תהילים קלג, ג) כטל חרמון שיורד על הררי ציון מה טל אין בו מעילה אף שמן שיורד על זקן אהרן אין בו מעילה,ועדיין אהרן היה דואג שמא משה לא מעל ואני מעלתי יצתה בת קול ואמרה לו (תהילים קלג, א) הנה מה טוב ומה נעים שבת אחים גם יחד מה משה לא מעל אף אתה לא מעלת,ת"ר אין מושחין את המלכים אלא על המעיין כדי שתימשך מלכותן שנאמ' (מלכים א א, לג-לד) ויאמר המלך (אל בניהו) וגו' והורדתם אותו על גיחון (וגו') ומשח אותו שם,אמר רב אמי האי מאן דבעי לידע אי משכא שתא אי לא מייתי שרגא בהלין עשרה יומין דבין ריש שתא ליומא דכיפורי וניתלי בביתא דלא נשיב זיקא אי משיך נהוריה נידע דמסיק שתיה,ומאן דבעי נעביד עיסקי ובעי דנידע אי מצלח עיסקי אי לא נירבי תרנגולא אי שמין ושפר נידע דמצלח,האי מאן דבעי ניפוק באורחא ובעי דנידע אי הדר לביתיה ניעול ניקום בביתא דבהתא אם חזי 5b. bAnd wasjust bone miracle performed with the anointing oil? But many miracles were performed with it, from its initialpreparation bto its end.He explains: bIts initialpreparation bwas onlythe measure of btwelve ilog /i, andeven so bthe Tabernacle and its vessels were anointed with it, andlikewise bAaron and his sonswere anointed with it ball the seven days of inauguration, and High Priests and kings were anointed with itthroughout the generations, bandyet despite the reduction in the amount of oil during its preparation process, as well as its multiple uses throughout history, bit allremains bintact forits use in bthe future. /b,Rabbi Yehuda adds that this is bas it is stated: “This [ izeh /i] shall be a sacred anointing oil to Me throughout your generations”(Exodus 30:31). The word izehhas a numerical value [ ibigimatriya /i]of btwelve,which teaches that the original twelve ilog /iof oil that existed at the outset bareextant throughout all the generations. If so, i.e., if such miracles were performed in connection with the oil, it is no wonder that its initial preparation was miraculous., bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: b“And Moses took the anointing oil, and anointed the Tabernacleand all that was in it and sanctified them” (Leviticus 8:10). bRabbi Yehuda says:With regard to bthe anointing oil that Moses prepared in the wilderness, many miracles were performed with it, from its initialpreparation bto its end. Its initialpreparation bwas only twelve ilog /i;consider bhow muchof it ba cauldron absorbsfrom what is cooked inside it, band how muchof it the brootsof the plants babsorb, how muchof it bthe fire burns, andyet bthe Tabernacle, and its vessels,and bAaron, and his sons wereall banointed with it all seven days of the inauguration. /b,The ibaraitaadds: bAnd High Priests and kings were anointed with it, and even a High Priest, the son of a High Priest, requires anointingwith the oil. bBut one does not anoint a king, the son of a king. And if you say:If so, bfor whatreason bdid they anoint King Solomon,who was the son of King David? It was bdue to the disputeover the throne instigated by his older brother bAdonijah,who attempted to usurp the monarchy. bAndsimilarly bJoash,son of Ahaziah, was anointed king (see II Kings 11:12) bdue tothe threat of bAthaliah,his paternal grandmother, who attempted to seize the monarchy for herself (II Kings 11:1–3). bAnd Jehoahaz,son of Josiah, was anointed as king (II Kings 23:30) bdue tothe competition from bJehoiakim, his brother, who was two years older than his brother,i.e., Jehoahaz. Ordinarily the older brother succeeds the father, but Jehoahaz was more worthy of the throne.,The Gemara clarifies several aspects of this ibaraita /i. bThe Master saidearlier: bAnd even a High Priest, the son of a High Priest, requires anointing.The Gemara asks: bFrom where do wederive this ihalakha /i? It is derived from a verse, bas it is written: “And the anointed priest that shall be in his stead from among his sons”(Leviticus 6:15). bLet the verse saymerely: bThe priest that shall be in his stead from among his sons. Whatis taught by the addition of the term b“anointed”? This teaches us that evenwhen the new High Priest is bfrom amongthe bsonsof the previous High Priest, only bthatpriest bwho is anointedwith oil bisthe bHigh Priest, but ifhe is bnot anointedwith oil he bis notthe bHigh Priest. /b, bThe Master saidearlier: bBut one does not anoint a king, the son of a king.The Gemara asks: bFrom where do wederive this ihalakha /i? bRav Aḥa bar Ya’akov saidthat this is bas it is written: In order that he may prolong his days in his kingdom, he and his sons, all the daysin the midst of Israel (see Deuteronomy 17:20). The mention of a king’s sons teaches that the kingdom bis an inheritance,which does not need to be confirmed by anointing.,The ibaraitafurther taught: bAnd for whatreason bdid they anoint King Solomon? Due to the disputeover the throne instigated by his older brother bAdonijah.The Gemara asks: bFrom where do wederive bthatin a situation bwhere there is a disputethe new king brequires anointing, and thecurrent bking cannotsimply bgrant the kingship as an inheritance to whomever he desires? Rav Pappa saidthat bthe verse states:“He and his children bin the midst of Israel”(Deuteronomy 17:20). bAt a time when there is peace in Israelthe monarchy transfers smoothly to the king’s son, but not when there is a dispute.,It was btaughtin a ibaraita /i: bAlso Jehu,son of Jehoshaphat, bson of Nimshi, was anointedby Elisha the prophet bonly due tothe bdisputewith bJoram, son of Ahab,who was the incumbent king, against whose reign Jehu rebelled (see II Kings 9:1–6). The Gemara asks: bWhyis it necessary to state this reason? bLetthe itannaof the ibaraita bderivethat Jehu required anointing due to the fact bthat hewas bthe first kingof his lineage, as Jehu was not the son of a king. The Gemara answers: The ibaraita bis incomplete, and thisis what bit is teaching: One anoints the kings of the house of Davidwith the anointing oil, but bone does not anoint the kingsfrom the kingdom bof Israel. And if you say: For whatreason bdidElisha banoint Jehu,son of Jehoshaphat, bson of Nimshi?This was bdue tothe bdisputewith bJoram, son of Ahab. /b, bThe Master saidearlier: bOne anoints the kings of the house of Davidwith the anointing oil, but bone does not anoint the kings of Israel.The Gemara asks: bFrom where do wederive this ihalakha /i? It is derived from a verse, bas it is writtenwith regard to the anointing of David: b“Arise, anoint him; for this is he”(I Samuel 16:12). bThisking, i.e., any king from the house of David, brequires anointing, but anotherking, i.e., from the kingdom of Israel, whose kings were not descendants of the house of David, bdoes not require anointing. /b, bThe Master saidearlier that Jehu was anointed bdue tothe bdisputewith bJoram.The Gemara asks: bAnd due tothe bdisputewith bJoram, son of Ahab, will we misuseconsecrated property by anointing someone unnecessarily bwith the anointing oil,which is called “a sacred anointing oil” (Exodus 30:31)? After all, kings of the kingdom of Israel do not require anointing. The Gemara answers: This is bas Rav Pappa saidwith regard to Jehoahaz: They anointed him bwith pure balsamoil, rather than with the anointing oil. bHere too,Elisha anointed Jehu bwith pure balsamoil, not the anointing oil.,It was further stated in the ibaraita /i: bAnd Jehoahaz,son of Josiah, was anointed bdue tothe competition from bJehoiakim, his brother, who was two years older than him.The Gemara asks: bAnd wasJehoiakim in fact bolderthan Jehoahaz? bBut isn’t it written: “And the sons of Josiah: The firstborn Joha, the second Jehoiakim, the third Zedekiah, the fourth Shallum”(I Chronicles 3:15); band Rabbi Yoḥa says:The one who is called Joha in that verse bisalso called bJehoahaz,and the one who biscalled bZedekiah isthe same as the one called bShallum.If so, Jehoahaz is the eldest son, not Jehoiakim. Why, then, was it necessary to anoint Jehoahaz?,The Gemara answers: bRather, Jehoiakimwas bactually olderthan Jehoahaz. bAnd whydoes the verse bcallJehoahaz the bfirstborn?This is referring to the fact bthatJehoahaz was the bfirstborn with regard to the monarchy,i.e., he became king first. The Gemara asks: bAnd do we establish the youngerson as king bbefore the olderson? bBut isn’t it writtenwith regard to Jehoshaphat: b“And he gave the kingdom to Jehoram, because he was the firstborn”(II Chronicles 21:3)? The Gemara answers: Jehoram bwasone bwho filled the place of his fathers,i.e., he was fit to serve as king, and therefore as he was firstborn he received the kingship, whereas Jehoiakim was deemed unworthy of the honor, despite being the oldest among his brothers., bThe Master saidearlier: The one who biscalled bShallum isalso called bZedekiah.The Gemara objects: bBut the Torah countsthese individuals bin a row,i.e., one after the other, as I Chronicles 3:15 mentions the first, second, third, and fourth sons. This indicates that they are different people. The Gemara answers: Shallum and Zedekiah are in fact one and the same, band whatis the reason the verse bcallsZedekiah the bthird?The reason is bthat he is third of the sons,i.e., the third in order of birth. bAnd whatis the reason the verse bcallsShallum the bfourth?The reason is bthat he is fourth to the kingship, because Jeconiah reigned before him.How so? bInitially Jehoahaz reigned, and afterward Jehoiakimreigned, band afterward Jeconiahreigned, band afterward Zedekiahreigned. Accordingly, Zedekiah, called Shallum, was fourth to the kingship., bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: The one who biscalled bShallum isalso called bZedekiah, and why was he called Shallum? Because he was perfect [ ishalem /i] in hisgood bdeeds. Alternatively,he was called bShallum because in his days the kingdom of the house of David was completed [ ishalam /i],as he was the last king in the Davidic dynasty. bAnd whatwas bhistrue bname? Mattaniahwas bhis name, as it is stated: “And the king of Babylonia made Mattaniah, his father’s brother, king in his stead, and changed his name to Zedekiah”(II Kings 24:17).,The ibaraitaexplains: Why did the king of Babylonia, Nebuchadnezzar, call him by the name Zedekiah? The reason is bthatNebuchadnezzar bsaid to him: God will justify [ iyatzdik /i] the judgment over you if you rebel against me, as it is statedwith regard to Nebuchadnezzar and Jehoiachin: b“And brought him to Babylon”(II Chronicles 36:10), and with regard to Zedekiah it is stated: b“And he also rebelled against King Nebuchadnezzar, who had made him swear by God”(II Chronicles 36:13).,§ The Gemara raises a difficulty with regard to the statement that Jehoahaz was anointed: bAnd was there anointing oilin the days of Jehoahaz? bBut isn’t it taughtin a ibaraita( iTosefta /i, iYoma2:15) that bfrom whenthe bArk was sequestered,along with it bwas sequestered the jar of mannathat was next to it (see Exodus 16:33), band the flask of the anointing oil, and Aaron’s staffwith its balmonds and blossoms(see Numbers 17:23).,The ibaraitacontinues: bAndalso sequestered with the Ark was the bchest that the Philistines sent as a gift to the God of Israelafter they captured the Ark and were stricken by several plagues, bas it is stated: “And put the jewels of gold that you return to Him for a guilt offering, in a coffer by its side,and send it away that it may go” (I Samuel 6:8). bAnd who sequesteredthe Ark? bJosiah, king of Judah, sequestered it, as it is stated: And the king said to the priests: Put the sacred Arkin the house that Solomon, the son of David, king of Israel, built (see II Chronicles 35:3)., bAnd Rabbi Elazar says:How do we know that all these items needed to be sequestered together with the Ark? The ihalakhathat the jar of manna was to be kept with the Ark is bderivedthrough a verbal analogy between the words b“there”and b“there.”The word “there” is stated with regard to the Ark: “Where I will meet with you there” (Exodus 30:6), and it is also stated with regard to the manna: “And put there” (Exodus 16:33).,The ihalakhathat the anointing oil was to be kept together with the Ark is bderivedthrough a verbal analogy between the words b“generations”and b“generations.”This term is stated with regard to the jar of manna: “To be kept throughout your generations” (Exodus 16:33), and also with regard to the anointing oil: “This shall be a sacred anointing oil to Me throughout your generations” (Exodus 30:31).,Finally, the ihalakhathat Aaron’s staff was to be kept together with the Ark is bderivedthrough a verbal analogy between the terms b“to be kept”and b“to be kept.”This term is stated with regard to the jar of manna, and also with regard to Aaron’s staff: “To be kept there, for a token against the rebellious children” (Numbers 17:25). All these items, which are connected through these verbal analogies, including the anointing oil, were kept by the side of the Ark, and therefore they were sequestered together with the Ark. If so, how was Jehoahaz anointed with the anointing oil? bRav Pappa said:They did not anoint Jehoahaz with the anointing oil, but bwith pure balsam. /b,§ bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: bOne anoints the kingsby placing the oil around the head in a shape bsimilarto ba crown, and one anoints theHigh bPriestsby placing the oil upon the head in the shape bsimilarto bchi.In explanation of this statement, bRav Menashya says:It is placed in a shape bsimilarto the bGreekletter bchi,which looks like the letter Χ. It bis taughtin bone ibaraita /i: bFirst, one pours oil onthe bhead ofthe High Priest, band afterward one places oil between his eyelashes. And it is taughtin banother ibaraita /i: bFirst, one places oil between his eyelashes, and afterward one pours oil on his head.The ibaraitotcontradict each other.,The Gemara explains: This bisa matter of dispute between itanna’im /i,as bthere isa itanna bwho says: Anointingbetween his eyelashes is bpreferableto pouring on the head and therefore comes first, band there isa itanna bwho saysthat bpouringon the head is bpreferableto anointing between his eyelashes, and therefore comes first. bWhat is the reasoning of the one who saysthat bpouringon the head is bpreferable? As it is stated: “And he poured of the anointing oil upon Aaron’s headand anointed him to sanctify him” (Leviticus 8:12), which indicates that pouring is first, followed by anointing. bAndas for bthe one who saysthat banointingbetween his eyelashes is bpreferableto pouring on the head and precedes it, bhe holdsthat anointing is preferable bin thatits use bis increased,i.e., it is performed bon the service vessels,whereas pouring is not mentioned with regard to the service vessels.,The Gemara raises a difficulty: bButaccording to the opinion that anointing is preferable, bisn’t it written: “He poured,” and ultimately: “He anointed”(Leviticus 8:12)? The Gemara explains that bthisis what the verse bis saying: What is the reasonfor b“he poured”?This action was made possible bdue tothe fact that he had already: b“Anointed him to sanctify him.”In other words, the pouring came after the anointing, which is the primary act., bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: The verse states: b“It is like the precious oil upon the headdescending upon the beard; the beard of Aaron, that descends upon the collar of his garments” (Psalms 133:2). bTwo dropsof anointing oil shaped blike pearls hung from Aaron’s beard. Rav Kahana saysit is btaught: WhenAaron bwould speakhis beard would move, and these drops bwouldmiraculously brise and sit on the roots of his beard,so that they would not fall to the ground. bAnd with regard to this matter Moses, our teacher, was concerned,thinking: bPerhaps, God forbid, I misused the anointing oilby pouring too much, which resulted in these two additional drops., bA Divine Voice emerged and said:“It is like the precious oil upon the head, descending upon the beard; the beard of Aaron, that descends upon the collar of his garments, blike the dew of the Hermon that comes down upon the mountains of Zion”(Psalms 133:2–3). This comparison serves to teach: bJust as the Hermon’s dew is not subject to misuseof consecrated property, as it is not consecrated but can be used by all, bso too,the anointing boil that descends upon Aaron’s beard is not subject to misuseof consecrated property., bAnd still Aaron himself was concerned,thinking: bPerhaps Moses did not misuseconsecrated property bbut I misusedthe oil, as the additional oil is on my body and I derive benefit from it. bA Divine Voice emerged and said to him: “Behold how good and how pleasant it is for brothers to dwell together in unity”(Psalms 133:1). bJust asyour brother bMoses did not misuseconsecrated property, bso too, you did not misuseconsecrated property.,§ The Gemara cites a ibaraitawhich discusses the anointing of kings. bThe Sages taught: One may anoint kings only next to a spring.This is done as a fortuitous sign, bso that their kingdom should continueuninterrupted just as the waters of the spring flow uninterrupted throughout the year. bAs it is statedwith regard to the coronation of Solomon in the days of King David: bAnd the king said to Benaiah:Take with you the servants of your lord, and cause Solomon my son to ride upon my own mule, band bring him down to Gihon. Andlet Zadok the priest and Nathan the prophet banoint him thereking over Israel (see I Kings 1:33–34). The Sages derived from here that all kings should be anointed near a spring.,Parenthetical to this matter of performing an act as a fortuitous sign, the Gemara cites that which bRav Ami says: One who desires to know if he willlive bthroughthis current byear or not should bringa lit bcandle during those ten days between Rosh HaShana and Yom Kippur and hang it in a housethrough bwhich wind does not blow,and he should watch it carefully: bIf its light continues he shall know that he will live out his year. /b, bAnd one who desires to conduct business and wants to know ifhis bbusiness will succeed or not should raise a rooster. Ifthe rooster bgets fat and beautiful he shall know thatthe venture bwill succeed. /b, bThis one who wishes to leave on a journey and wants to know whether he will return to his home should enter a dark house. If he sees /b
29. Babylonian Talmud, Sukkah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

48b. כמין שני חוטמין דקין (ואחד) מעובה ואחד דק כדי שיהו שניהם כלין בבת אחת מערבו של מים מזרחו של יין עירה של מים לתוך של יין ושל יין לתוך של מים יצא,ר' יהודה אומר בלוג היה מנסך כל שמונה ולמנסך אומר לו הגבה ידך שפעם אחד נסך אחד על גבי רגליו ורגמוהו כל העם באתרוגיהן,כמעשהו בחול כך מעשהו בשבת אלא שהיה ממלא מערב שבת חבית של זהב שאינה מקודשת מן השילוח ומניחה בלשכה נשפכה נתגלתה היה ממלא מן הכיור שהיין והמים מגולין פסולין לגבי מזבח:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big מנא הנ"מ אמר רב עינא דאמר קרא (ישעיהו יב, ג) ושאבתם מים בששון וגו',הנהו תרי מיני חד שמיה ששון וחד שמיה שמחה א"ל ששון לשמחה אנא עדיפנא מינך דכתיב (ישעיהו לה, י) ששון ושמחה ישיגו וגו' א"ל שמחה לששון אנא עדיפנא מינך דכתיב (אסתר ח, יז) שמחה וששון ליהודים א"ל ששון לשמחה חד יומא שבקוך ושויוך פרוונקא דכתיב (ישעיהו נה, יב) כי בשמחה תצאו א"ל שמחה לששון חד יומא שבקוך ומלו בך מיא דכתיב ושאבתם מים בששון,א"ל ההוא מינא דשמיה ששון לר' אבהו עתידיתו דתמלו לי מים לעלמא דאתי דכתיב ושאבתם מים בששון א"ל אי הוה כתיב לששון כדקאמרת השתא דכתיב בששון משכיה דההוא גברא משוינן ליה גודא ומלינן ביה מיא:,עלה בכבש ופנה לשמאלו כו': ת"ר כל העולים למזבח עולין דרך ימין ומקיפין ויורדין דרך שמאל חוץ מן העולה לשלשה דברים הללו שעולין דרך שמאל וחוזרין על העקב ואלו הן ניסוך המים וניסוך היין ועולת העוף כשרבתה במזרח:,אלא שהיו משחירין: בשלמא דיין משחיר דמיא אמאי משחיר כיון דאמר מר עירה של מים לתוך של יין ושל יין לתוך של מים יצא של מים אתי לאשחורי:,ומנוקבים כמין ב' חוטמין וכו': לימא מתניתין ר' יהודה היא ולא רבנן דתנן רבי יהודה אומר בלוג היה מנסך כל שמונה דאי רבנן כי הדדי נינהו,אפי' תימא רבנן חמרא סמיך מיא קליש,הכי נמי מסתברא דאי רבי יהודה רחב וקצר אית ליה דתניא רבי יהודה אומר שני קשוואות היו שם אחד של מים ואחד של יין של יין פיה רחב של מים פיה קצר כדי שיהו שניהם כלין בבת אחת ש"מ:,מערבו של מים: ת"ר מעשה בצדוקי אחד שניסך על גבי רגליו ורגמוהו כל העם באתרוגיהן ואותו היום נפגמה קרן המזבח והביאו בול של מלח וסתמוהו לא מפני שהוכשר לעבודה אלא מפני שלא יראה מזבח פגום 48b. with btwo thinperforated bnose-likeprotrusions. bOneof the basins, used for the wine libation, had a perforation that was bbroad, and one,used for the water libation, had a perforation that was bthin, so thatthe flow of bboththe water and the wine, which do not have the same viscosity, would bconclude simultaneously.The basin to the bwest ofthe altar was bfor water,and the basin to the beast ofthe altar was bfor wine.However, if bone pouredthe contents of the basin bof water intothe basin bof wine, orthe contents of the basin bof wine intothe basin bof water, he fulfilledhis obligation, as failure to pour the libation from the prescribed location does not disqualify the libation after the fact., bRabbi Yehuda says:The basin for the water libation was not that large; rather, bone would pourthe water bwitha vessel that had a capacity of bone ilog /ion ball eightdays of the Festival and not only seven. bAndthe appointee bsays to the one pouringthe water into the silver basin: bRaise your hand,so that his actions would be visible, bas one timea Sadducee priest intentionally bpouredthe water bon his feet,as the Sadducees did not accept the oral tradition requiring water libation, and in their rage ball the people pelted him with their ietrogim /i. /b,Rabbi Yehuda continues: bAs its performance during the week, so is its performance on Shabbat, exceptthat on Shabbat one would not draw water. Instead, bon Shabbat eve, one would fill a golden barrel that was not consecratedfor exclusive use in the Temple bfrom the Siloampool, band hewould bplace it in theTemple bchamberand draw water from there on Shabbat. If the water in the barrel bspilled,or if it bwas exposedovernight, leading to concern that a snake may have deposited poison in the water, bone would fillthe jug with water bfrom the basinin the Temple courtyard, bas exposed wine or water is unfit for the altar.Just as it is prohibited for people to drink them due to the potential danger, so too, they may not be poured on the altar., strongGEMARA: /strong With regard to the customs accompanying the drawing of the water, the Gemara asks: bFrom where are these mattersderived? bRav Eina saidthat it is bas the verse states: “With joy [ isason /i] you shall draw waterout of the springs of salvation” (Isaiah 12:3), indicating that the water was to be drawn from the spring and the rite performed in extreme joy.,Apropos this verse, the Gemara relates: There were bthese two heretics, one named Sason and one named Simḥa. Sason said to Simḥa: I am superior to you, as it is written: “They shall obtain joy [ isason /i] and happiness [ isimḥa /i],and sorrow and sighing shall flee” (Isaiah 35:10). The verse mentions joy first. bSimḥa said to Sason,On the contrary, bI am superior to you, as it is written: “There was happiness [ isimḥa /i] and joy [ isason /i] for the Jews”(Esther 8:17). bSason said to Simḥa: One day they will dismiss you and render you a messenger [ iparvanka /i], as it is written: “For you shall go out with happiness [ isimḥa /i]”(Isaiah 55:12). bSimḥa said to Sason: One day they will dismiss you and draw water with you, as it is written: “With joy [ isason /i] you shall draw water.” /b,The Gemara relates a similar incident: bA certain heretic named Sason said to Rabbi Abbahu: You areall bdestined to draw water for me in the World-to-Come, as it is written: “With isasonyou shall draw water.”Rabbi Abbahu bsaid to him: If it had been written: For isason /i,it would have been bas you say; now that it is written: With isason /i,it means that bthe skin of that man,you, bwill be rendered a wineskin, and we will draw water with it. /b,§ The mishna continues: The priest bascended the rampof the altar band turned to his left. The Sages taught: All who ascend the altar ascendand turn bviathe bright, and circlethe altar, band descend viathe bleft.This is the case bexcept for one ascendingto perform one of bthese three tasks, asthe ones who perform these tasks bascend viathe bleft, andthen bturn ontheir bheel and returnin the direction that they came. bAndthese tasks bare: The water libation, and the wine libation, and the birdsacrificed as ba burnt-offering when there weretoo bmanypriests engaged in the sacrifice of these burnt-offerings bin thepreferred location beastof the altar. When that was the case, additional priests engaged in sacrificing the same offering would pinch the neck of the bird west of the altar.,The mishna continues: Rabbi Yehuda said that they were limestone, not silver, basins, bbut they would blackendue to the wine. The Gemara asks: bGranted,the basin bfor wine blackeneddue to the wine; however, bwhy did thebasin bfor water blacken?The Gemara answers: bSince the Master saidin the mishna: However, if boneinadvertently bpouredthe contents of the basin bof water intothe basin bof wine orthe contents of the basin bof wine intothe basin bof water, he fulfilledhis obligation. Then even the basin bfor waterwould bcome to blackenover the course of time as well.,§ The mishna continues: bAndthe two basins were bperforatedat the bottom with btwo thin,perforated, bnose-likeprotrusions, one broad and one thin. The Gemara asks: bLet us saythat bthe mishna isin accordance with the opinion of bRabbi Yehuda and notwith that of bthe Rabbis, as we learnedin the mishna that bRabbi Yehuda says: One would pourthe water bwitha vessel that had a capacity of bone ilog /ion ball eightdays of the Festival, unlike the wine libation, for which a three- ilogbasin was used. According to his opinion, there is a difference between the capacity of the wine vessel and that of the water vessel; therefore, it is clear why the opening in the wine vessel was broader. bAs, ifthe mishna is in accordance with the opinion of bthe Rabbis, they are the sameas the capacity of the water basin, three ilog /i. Why, then, were there different sized openings?,The Gemara answers: bEvenif byou saythat the mishna is in accordance with the opinion of bthe Rabbis,the reason for the different-sized openings is that bwine is thickand bwater is thin,and therefore wine flows more slowly than water. In order to ensure that the emptying of both basins would conclude simultaneously, the wine basin required a wider opening., bSo too, it is reasonableto establish that the mishna is in accordance with the opinion of the Rabbis, bas, ifit is in accordance with the opinion of bRabbi Yehuda,unlike the description of the two openings in the mishna as broad and thin, elsewhere he bis ofthe opinion that the openings bas wide and narrow, as it was taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Yehuda says: There were twosmall bpipes there, one for water and one for wine. The mouth ofthe pipe bfor wine was wide and the mouth ofthe pipe bfor water was narrow, so thatthe emptying of both basins bwould conclude simultaneously.The disparity between wide and narrow is greater than the disparity between broad and thin, thereby facilitating the simultaneous emptying of the three- ilogand one- ilogbasins according to Rabbi Yehuda. The Gemara concludes: Indeed, blearn from itthat the mishna is not in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda.,§ The mishna continues: The basin to the bwest ofthe altar was bfor water,and the basin to the east of the altar was for wine, and they would tell the one pouring the water to raise his hand. bThe Sages taught:There was ban incident involving one Sadduceepriest bwho pouredthe water bon his feet,and in anger ball the people pelted him with their ietrogim /i. And that day, the horn of the altar was damagedas a result of the pelting and the ensuing chaos. bThey brought a fistful of salt and sealedthe damaged section, bnot because it renderedthe altar bfit for theTemple bservice, butin deference to the altar, bso that the altar would not be seenin its bdamagedstate.
30. Babylonian Talmud, Yoma, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

38a. בסירוגין,ניקנור נעשו נסים לדלתותיו ת"ר מה נסים נעשו לדלתותיו אמרו כשהלך ניקנור להביא דלתות מאלכסנדריא של מצרים בחזירתו עמד עליו נחשול שבים לטבעו נטלו אחת מהן והטילוה לים ועדיין לא נח הים מזעפו,בקשו להטיל את חברתה עמד הוא וכרכה אמר להם הטילוני עמה מיד נח הים מזעפו והיה מצטער על חברתה כיון שהגיע לנמלה של עכו היתה מבצבצת ויוצאה מתחת דופני הספינה ויש אומרים בריה שבים בלעתה והקיאתה ליבשה,ועליה אמר שלמה (שיר השירים א, יז) קורות בתינו ארזים רהיטנו ברותים אל תיקרי ברותים אלא ברית ים לפיכך כל השערים שהיו במקדש נשתנו להיות של זהב חוץ משערי ניקנור מפני שנעשו בו נסים ויש אומרים מפני שנחושתן מוצהבת היתה ר' אליעזר בן יעקב אומר נחשת קלוניתא היתה והיתה מאירה כשל זהב, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big ואלו לגנאי של בית גרמו לא רצו ללמד על מעשה לחם הפנים של בית אבטינס לא רצו ללמד על מעשה הקטורת,הוגרס בן לוי היה יודע פרק בשיר ולא רצה ללמד בן קמצר לא רצה ללמד על מעשה הכתב על הראשונים נאמר (משלי י, ז) זכר צדיק לברכה ועל אלו נאמר (משלי י, ז) ושם רשעים ירקב, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big ת"ר בית גרמו היו בקיאין במעשה לחם הפנים ולא רצו ללמד שלחו חכמים והביאו אומנין מאלכסנדריא של מצרים והיו יודעין לאפות כמותן ולא היו יודעין לרדות כמותן שהללו מסיקין מבחוץ ואופין מבחוץ והללו מסיקין מבפנים ואופין מבפנים הללו פיתן מתעפשת והללו אין פיתן מתעפשת,כששמעו חכמים בדבר אמרו כל מה שברא הקב"ה לכבודו בראו שנאמר (ישעיהו מג, ז) כל הנקרא בשמי ולכבודי בראתיו וחזרו בית גרמו למקומן שלחו להם חכמים ולא באו כפלו להם שכרן ובאו בכל יום היו נוטלין שנים עשר מנה והיום עשרים וארבעה ר' יהודה אומר בכל יום עשרים וארבעה והיום ארבעים ושמונה,אמרו להם חכמים מה ראיתם שלא ללמד אמרו להם יודעין היו של בית אבא שבית זה עתיד ליחרב שמא ילמוד אדם שאינו מהוגן וילך ויעבוד עבודת כוכבים בכך ועל דבר זה מזכירין אותן לשבח מעולם לא נמצאת פת נקיה ביד בניהם שלא יאמרו ממעשה לחם הפנים זה ניזונין לקיים מה שנאמר (במדבר לב, כב) והייתם נקיים מה' ומישראל,של בית אבטינס לא רצו ללמד על מעשה הקטורת ת"ר בית אבטינס היו בקיאין במעשה הקטורת ולא רצו ללמד שלחו חכמים והביאו אומנין מאלכסנדריא של מצרים והיו יודעין לפטם כמותם ולא היו יודעין להעלות עשן כמותן של הללו מתמר ועולה כמקל של הללו מפציע לכאן ולכאן,וכששמעו חכמים בדבר אמרו כל מה שברא הקב"ה לכבודו בראו שנאמר (משלי טז, ד) כל פעל ה' למענהו וחזרו בית אבטינס למקומן שלחו להם חכמים ולא באו כפלו להם שכרן ובאו בכל יום היו נוטלין שנים עשר מנה והיום עשרים וארבעה ר' יהודה אומר בכל יום עשרים וארבעה והיום ארבעים ושמונה,אמרו להם חכמים מה ראיתם שלא ללמד אמרו יודעין היו של בית אבא שבית זה עתיד ליחרב אמרו שמא ילמוד אדם שאינו מהוגן וילך ויעבוד עבודת כוכבים בכך ועל דבר זה מזכירין אותן לשבח מעולם לא יצאת כלה מבושמת מבתיהן וכשנושאין אשה ממקום אחר מתנין עמה שלא תתבסם שלא יאמרו ממעשה הקטורת מתבסמין לקיים מה שנא' והייתם נקיים מה' ומישראל,תניא אמר ר' ישמעאל פעם אחת הייתי מהלך בדרך ומצאתי אחד מבני בניהם אמרתי לו אבותיך בקשו להרבות כבודן ורצו למעט כבוד המקום עכשיו כבוד מקום במקומו ומיעט כבודם,אמר ר' עקיבא (פעם אחת) סח לי ר' ישמעאל בן לוגא פעם אחת יצאתי אני ואחד מבני בניהם לשדה ללקט עשבים וראיתי (ששחק ובכה) אמרתי לו מפני מה בכית אמר לי כבוד אבותי נזכרתי ומפני מה שחקת אמר לי שעתיד הקב"ה להחזירה לנו ומפני מה נזכרת אמר לי מעלה עשן כנגדי הראהו לי אמר לי שבועה היא בידינו שאין מראין אותו לכל אדם,אמר ר' יוחנן בן נורי פעם אחת מצאתי זקן א' ומגילת סממנין בידו אמרתי לו מאין אתה אמר לי מבית אבטינס אני ומה בידך אמר לי מגילת סממנין הראהו לי אמר לי כל זמן שבית אבא היו קיימין לא היו מוסרין אותו לכל אדם ועכשיו הרי הוא לך והזהר בה וכשבאתי וסחתי דברי לפני ר"ע אמר לי מעתה אסור לספר בגנותן של אלו,מכאן אמר בן עזאי בשמך יקראוך ובמקומך יושיבוך 38a. with balternatingcomplete words and initials. The first words of each verse were written there, but the rest of the words in the verse were represented by initials. Therefore, this contribution of Queen Helene does not resolve the question of whether writing a scroll for a child is permitted.,§ The mishna related: For bNicanor, miracles were performed to his doors. The Sages taughtin the iTosefta /i: bWhat miracles occurred for his doors? They said: When Nicanor went to bringcopper bdoorsfor the eastern gate of the Temple bfrom Alexandria in Egypt,famous for its craftsmanship, bon his returnvoyage by ship, ba storm arose in the seaand threatened bto drown him.The ship’s passengers btook oneof the doors, which were exceedingly heavy, band cast it into the sea,fearing that the weight of the doors would sink the ship. bAnd still the sea did not rest from its rage. /b, bThey sought to cast the otherdoor into the sea, at which point Nicanor bstood and embraced itand bsaid to them: Cast me intothe sea bwith it. Immediately, the sea rested from its rage,and it was necessary to cast neither the door nor Nicanor into the sea. The ship continued its journey with one door bandfor the entire voyage, bhe regrettedthe fate bof the otherdoor that he allowed them to cast into the sea. bWhen they arrived at the port of Akkoand prepared to disembark, despite the fact that it was made of copper, the door that was thrown into the sea bwas poking out under the sides of the ship. And some say a sea creature swallowed it and spewed it onto the land. /b, bAnd with regard to this, Solomon said: “The beams of our houses are cedars, and our doors are cypresses [ iberotim /i]”(Song of Songs 1:17), and the Sages interpreted it homiletically: bDo not readit as iberotimbutas iberit yam /i,covet of the sea, meaning that the door forged a covet with the sea for the sea to deliver it to its place. bTherefore,when the nation prospered and the people replaced the doors made of various metals, the doors in ball the gates in the Temple were altered to becomedoors of bgold exceptthe doors in bthe Gates of Nicanor because miracles were performed to them. And some sayit was bbecause their copper was brightly-coloredand high quality. bRabbi Eliezer ben Ya’akov says it was refined [ ikelonita /i] copper, and it illuminatedits surroundings blike gold. /b, strongMISHNA: /strong Apropos the mention in the mishna of people who took action in the Temple and were mentioned favorably, the mishna lists bthosewho took action in the Temple and were mentioned bunfavorably.The craftsmen bof the House of Garmu did not want to teachthe secret bof the preparation of the shewbreadand sought to keep the secret within their family. The craftsmen bof the House of Avtinas did not want to teachthe secret bof the preparation of the incense. /b,Also, bHugras ben Levi knew a chapterin the art of bmusic,as will be explained, band he did not want to teachit to others. And the scribe bben Kamtzar did not want to teacha special bact of writing.He was expert at writing all four letters of a four-letter name simultaneously. bAbout the firstones, who were mentioned favorably, bit is stated: “The memory of the righteous shall be for a blessing”(Proverbs 10:7); band about thesewho were concerned only for themselves bit is stated: “But the name of the wicked shall rot”(Proverbs 10:7)., strongGEMARA: /strong bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: The craftsmen of the bHouse of Garmu were expert inthe bpreparationof bthe shewbread, and they did not want to teachothers the secret of its production. bThe Sagesdismissed them and bsent for and brought craftsmen from Alexandria in Egypt,a large city with many experts. bAndthose craftsmen bknewhow bto bake likethe members of the House of Garmu did, bbut they did not knowhow bto removethe bread from the oven blike theydid. The shewbread was baked in a complex shape, and it was difficult to place it in the oven and remove it without breaking it. The difference was bthat theseAlexandrians blightthe fire boutsidethe oven band bake it outsidethe oven; band thesemembers of the House of Garmu blightthe fire binsidethe oven band bakeit binside.In the case of btheseAlexandrians, btheir bread becomes moldyover the course of the week, bandin the case of bthesemembers of the House of Garmu, btheir bread does not become moldy. /b, bWhen the Sages heard of the matterthat the bread of the imported craftsmen was of lower quality than before, bthey said: Whatever the Holy One, Blessed be He, created, He created in His honor, as it is stated: “Everyone who is called by My name, I have created for My glory”(Isaiah 43:7). In deference to God, the Sages should diminish their honor for the greater glory of God bandlet bthe House of Garmu return to theiroriginal bstation. The Sages sent for themto reassume their previous position, band they did not come. They doubled their wages and they came. Each dayuntil then bthey would takewages of btwelve imaneh /i, and todaythey take wages of btwenty-four imaneh /i. Rabbi Yehuda says: Each daythey took btwenty-four imaneh /i, band todaythey take bforty-eight. /b, bThe Sages said to them: What did you see thatled byou not to teachothers this craft? bThey said:The members of our bfather’s house knew that this house,the Temple, bis destined to be destroyed,and they were concerned blest an unworthy man learnour skill of baking band go and engage in idol worship withthat skill. Therefore, they attempted to prevent this skill from spreading beyond their family. The Gemara comments: bAnd for this matter they are mentioned favorably: Never was refined breadof fine flour bfound in the hands of their descendants, so thatpeople bwould not saythat bthey are sustained from thattechnique of bpreparing the shewbread.They ate only bread made of coarse flour mixed with bran, bto fulfill that which is stated: “And you shall be clear before the Lord and before Israel”(Numbers 32:22). Not only must one’s behavior be beyond reproach, he should also make certain to be beyond suspicion.,§ Similarly, the mishna related: The craftsmen bof the House of Avtinas did not want to teach about thesecret of the bpreparation of the incense,at which they were particularly adept. bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: bThemembers of the bHouse of Avtinas were expert in thetechnique of bpreparing the incense, and they did not want to teachothers. bThe Sagesdismissed them and bsent for and brought craftsmen from Alexandria in Egypt. Andthe Alexandrian craftsmen bknewhow bto blendthe spices blike theydid, bbut they did not knowhow bto cause the smoke to rise likethe House of Avtinas bdid.The smoke bofthe incense blended by bthesemembers of the House of Avtinas brises in a column like a stick;the smoke bofthe incense blended by btheseAlexandrians bbranched out to here and to thereand did not rise in a straight line., bWhen the Sages heard of the matter, they said: Whatever the Holy One, Blessed be He, created, He created in His honor, as it is stated: “God made everything for His sake”(Proverbs 16:4), bandthey let bthe House of Avtinas return to theiroriginal bstation. The Sages sent forthe members of the House of Avtinas to reassume their previous position, band they did not come. They doubled their wages and they came. Each dayuntil then bthey would takewages of btwelve imaneh /i, and todaythey take wages of btwenty-four imaneh /i. Rabbi Yehuda says: Each daythey took btwenty-four imaneh /i, band todaythey take bforty-eight. /b, bThe Sages said to them: What did you see thatled you bnot to teachothers this craft? bThey said:The members of our bfather’s house knew that this house,the Temple, bis destined to be destroyed,and they were concerned blest an unworthy man learnour skill of preparing incense band go and engage in idol worship withthat skill. Therefore, they attempted to prevent this skill from spreading beyond their family. The Gemara comments: bAnd for this matter they are mentioned favorably: Never did a perfumed bride emerge from their homes. And when they marry a woman from a different place, they stipulate with her that she will not perfume herself, so thatcynics bwould not saythat bit is with the work of the incensethat bthey perfume themselves, to fulfill that which is stated: “And you shall be clear before the Lord and before Israel”(Numbers 32:22)., bIt was taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Yishmael said: One time I was walking along the road and I found one ofthe bdescendantsof the House of Avtinas. bI said to him: Your fathers sought to enhance their honor and sought to diminish God’s honorby not revealing their secret to others. bNow,although the Temple was destroyed, bthe honor of God remains as it was,and bHe diminished their honor,as their significance stemmed from their Temple service., bRabbi Akiva said: One time Rabbi Yishmael ben Loga related to me: One time I and one of the descendantsof the House of Avtinas bwent out to the field to collect herbs, and I saw that he laughed and he cried. I said to him: Why did you cry? He said to me: I was reminded of the honor of my forefathers,how important they were in the Temple. I said to him: bAnd why did you laugh? He said to me: The Holy One, Blessed be He, is going to restore it to us in the futureand we will be honored again. I said to him: bAnd why are you remindedof this now? bHe said to me: The smoke-raisingherb bis before me,here in the field, reminding me of the past. I said to him: bShow it to me;which one is it? bHe said to me: We are bound by oath not to show it to any personother than the members of our family., bRabbi Yoḥa ben Nuri said: One time I found an old man who had in his hand a scrollwith the location and formula for blending bof spices. I said to him: Where are you from?What is your ancestry? bHe said to me: I am from the House of Avtinas.I asked him: bAnd what is in your hand? He said to me: A scroll of spices.I said to him: bShow it to me. He said to me: As long as the Houseof Avtinas, bmy forefathers, was extant, they would not pass it on to anyone. And now, here it is; and be careful with itnot to give it to anyone. bAnd when I came and related my statement before Rabbi Akiva, he said to me: And nowthat they have surrendered the scroll to worthy recipients since they are unable to maintain its sanctity, bit is prohibited to mention them unfavorably,as even their earlier reticence was apparently for the glory of God., bFrom here,with regard to the cases of the Temple’s craftsmen whom the Sages restored to their posts, bben Azzai said:One should not be concerned that others might usurp his livelihood and success, since at the appropriate moment, bby your name they shall call youto return to your previous position, band in your place, they shall seat you, /b
31. Babylonian Talmud, Zevahim, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

62a. ולא על גבי מחילות,אמר רב יוסף לאו היינו דתניא (עזרא ג, ג) ויכינו (את) המזבח על מכונותיו שהגיעו לסוף מדותיו והכתיב (דברי הימים א כח, יט) הכל בכתב מיד ה' עלי השכיל,אלא אמר רב יוסף קרא אשכח ודרש (דברי הימים א כב, א) ויאמר דויד זה הוא בית ה' האלהים וזה מזבח לעולה לישראל כי בית מה בית ששים אמה אף מזבח ששים אמה,בשלמא בית מינכרא צורתו אלא מזבח מנא ידעי,אמר רבי אלעזר ראו מזבח בנוי ומיכאל השר הגדול עומד ומקריב עליו ור' יצחק נפחא אמר אפרו של יצחק ראו שמונח באותו מקום ור' שמואל בר נחמני אמר מכל הבית כולו הריחו ריח קטרת משם הריחו ריח אברים,אמר רבה בר בר חנה א"ר יוחנן שלשה נביאים עלו עמהם מן הגולה אחד שהעיד להם על המזבח ואחד שהעיד להם על מקום המזבח ואחד שהעיד להם שמקריבין אף על פי שאין בית,במתניתא תנא ר"א בן יעקב אומר שלשה נביאים עלו עמהן מן הגולה אחד שהעיד להם על המזבח ועל מקום המזבח ואחד שהעיד להם שמקריבין אף על פי שאין בית ואחד שהעיד להם על התורה שתכתב אשורית,ת"ר קרן וכבש ויסוד וריבוע מעכבין מדת ארכו ומדת רחבו ומדת קומתו אין מעכבין מנה"מ אמר רב הונא אמר קרא (שמות כז, א) המזבח כל מקום שנאמר המזבח לעכב,אלא מעתה כיור לרבי וסובב לרבי יוסי ברבי יהודה הכי נמי דמעכב דכתי' (שמות כז, ה) ונתתה אותה תחת כרכוב המזבח מלמטה ותניא איזהו כרכוב רבי אומר זה כיור רבי יוסי ברבי יהודה אומר זה הסובב,אין דתניא אותו היום נפגמה קרן מזבח והביאו בול של מלח וסתמוהו ולא מפני שכשר לעבודה אלא שלא יראה מזבח פגום שכל מזבח שאין לו קרן וכבש ויסוד וריבוע פסול רבי יוסי ברבי יהודה אומר אף הסובב,ת"ר איזהו כרכוב בין קרן לקרן מקום הילוך רגלי הכהנים אמה אטו הכהנים בין קרן לקרן הוו אזלי אלא אימא ומקום הילוך רגלי הכהנים אמה,והכתיב (שמות לח, ד) תחת כרכובו מלמטה עד חציו אמר רב נחמן בר יצחק תרי הוו חד לנוי וחד לכהנים דלא נשתרקו,מדת ארכו ומדת רחבו ומדת קומתו אין מעכבין א"ר מני ובלבד שלא יפחתנו ממזבח שעשה משה וכמה אמר רב יוסף אמה מחכו עליה (שמות כז, א) חמש אמות ארך וחמש אמות רוחב רבוע יהיה המזבח,אמר ליה אביי דלמא מקום מערכה קאמר מר א"ל מר דגברא רבה הוא ידע מאי קאמינא קרי עלייהו 62a. bandone may bnotbuild it bon top of tunnels. /b,The Gemara relates that after reconsidering the reason for the expansion of the altar, bRav Yosef said: Is this not as it is taughtin a ibaraitawith regard to the verse: b“And they set the altar upon its bases”(Ezra 3:3), which teaches bthatin the Second Temple the size of the altar breached its full measure,i.e., that it was the ideal size, whereas in the First Temple it was not the ideal size? The Gemara asks: bBut isn’t it writtenwith regard to the instructions David gave Solomon about how to build the Temple: b“All this in writing, as the Lord has made me wise by His hand upon me,even all the works of this pattern” (I Chronicles 28:19), indicating that the design of the First Temple was dictated by God?, bRather, Rav Yosef said:The size of the altar in the First Temple was ideal, but in the Second Temple era there was a need to expand the altar, and they bfound a verse and interpretedit as follows. The verse states: b“Then David said: This is the House of the Lord God, and this is the altar of burnt offering for Israel”(I Chronicles 22:1). The verse juxtaposes the House, i.e., the Temple, with the altar, which indicates that the altar is blikethe bTemple: Just asthe bHousewas bsixty cubits(see I Kings 6:2), bso too,the baltarmay be extended up to a length of bsixty cubits. /b,§ The Gemara discusses the construction of the altar in the Second Temple. The Gemara asks: bGranted,with regard to the location of the bHouse, its shapewas bdiscernablefrom the vestiges of its foundations; bbut how did they knowthe proper location of the baltar? /b,The Gemara answers that bRabbi Elazar says: They sawa vision of the baltaralready bbuilt and Michael the archangel standing and sacrificingofferings bupon it. And Rabbi Yitzḥak Nappaḥa says: They sawa vision of bthe ashes of Isaacthat were bplaced in that location. And Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani says: From the entire House they smelled the scent of incense,yet bfrom there,the location of the altar, bthey smelled a scent ofburned animal blimbs. /b, bRabba bar bar Ḥana saysthat bRabbi Yoḥa says: Three prophets ascended with them from the exile: One who testified to them aboutthe size and shape of bthe altar, and one who testified to them about theproper blocation of the altar, and one who testified to them that one sacrificesofferings beven if there is no Temple,provided that there is a proper altar.,It bwas taught in a ibaraita /ithat bRabbi Eliezer ben Yaakov says: Three prophets ascended withthe Jewish people bfrom the exile: One who testified to them aboutthe size and shape of bthe altar and about theproper blocation of the altar, and one who testified to them that one sacrificesofferings beven if there is no Temple, and one who testified to them about the Torahand instructed bthat it be writtenin bAssyrian script [ iAshurit /i]rather than the ancient Hebrew script used in the times of Moses.,§ bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: The bcornerbuilt at each point where the edges of the altar meet, the brampupon which the priests ascended the altar, the bbaseof the altar, bandthe requirement that the altar must be exactly bsquare, areall bindispensablein order for the altar to be fit for use. But bthe measurement of its length, and the measurement of its width, and the measurement of its height are not indispensable.The Gemara asks: bFrom where are these mattersderived? bRav Huna says:In reference to each of these characteristics bthe verse statesthe term b“the altar,”and there is a principle that bwhereverthe term b“the altar” is stated,it serves btoindicate that the halakhic detail mentioned is bindispensable. /b,The Gemara asks: bIf that is so,then the bengraving [ ikiyyur /i]that was on the altar baccording to RabbiYehuda HaNasi, borthe bsurrounding ledgeof the altar baccording to Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Yehuda,should balso be indispensable, as it is written: “And you shall put it under the ikarkovof the altar beneath”(Exodus 27:5). bAnd it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bWhat isthe ikarkov /i? RabbiYehuda HaNasi bsays: This isthe bengravingon the altar. bRabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Yehuda, says: This is the surrounding ledge. /b,The Gemara answers: bYes,the ikarkovis also indispensable, bas it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: On bthat daywhen ietrogimwere pelted at a Sadducee priest who poured the water libation of iSukkoton his feet rather than on the altar (see iSukka48b), bthe corner of the altar was damagedas a result of the pelting and the ensuing chaos. bThey brought a fistful of salt and sealedthe damaged section. They did this bnot becauseit rendered the altar bfit for theTemple bservice, butin deference to the altar, bso that the altar would not be seenin its bdamagedstate. The reason the altar is disqualified is bbecause any altar that does not have a corner, a ramp, and a base, andany altar that is not bsquare,is bdisqualified. Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Yehuda, says: Even the surrounding ledgeis indispensable.,§ bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: bWhat isthe ikarkov /iof the altar? It is the area bbetweenone bcorner andthe next bcorner,which is the bcubit- /bwide bplaceon top of the altar where bthe priestswould bwalk.The Gemara asks: bIs that to saythat bthe priests would walk betweenone bcorner andthe next bcorner?The Gemara answers: bRather, say:The ikarkovis the cubit-wide area between one corner and the other, bandthere was an additional bcubitthat was bthe placewhere bthe priestswould bwalk. /b,The Gemara asks: bBut isn’t it written:“And he made for the altar a grating of network of brass, bunder the ikarkovbeneath, reaching halfway up”(Exodus 38:4), which indicates that the ikarkovwas on the side of the altar and not on top of it? The Gemara answers: bRav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said: There were twoentities called ikarkov /i. bOnewas a slight protrusion above the midway point of the altar bfor aestheticpurposes, band onewas an indentation on top of the altar bforthe benefit of bthe priests,to ensure bthat theywould bnot slipoff the top of the altar.,It was taught in a ibaraitacited above that bthe measurement ofthe altar’s blength, and the measurement of its width, and the measurement of its height are not indispensable. Rabbi Mani says:This is the ihalakha bprovided that one does not decrease itssize so that it is smaller bthanthe baltar constructed by Moses.The Gemara asks: bAnd howlarge was the altar constructed by Moses? bRav Yosef says:One bcubit.Those in the study hall bmockedRav Yosef, as it is written explicitly: b“Five cubits long and five cubits wide; the altar shall be square”(Exodus 27:1)., bAbaye said toRav Yosef: bPerhaps the Master is speakingabout bthe area of the arrangementof wood? Since the corners took up one cubit on each side and there was an additional cubit on each side for the priests to walk, only one cubit was left for the arrangement of wood. Rav Yosef bsaid toAbaye: bThe Master,i.e., Abaye, bwho is a great man, knows what Imean to bsay.Rav Yosef bread,i.e., applied, the following verse bto thosewho mocked him:


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
anderson, gary a. Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 307
andronicus Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 345
ark of the covenant Simon-Shushan, Stories of the Law: Narrative Discourse and the Construction of Authority in the Mishna (2012) 262
avigad, nahman Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 307
bavli, discourse Simon-Shushan, Stories of the Law: Narrative Discourse and the Construction of Authority in the Mishna (2012) 262
bu¨chler, adolph Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 307
change, ritual, lulav ritual Simon-Shushan, Stories of the Law: Narrative Discourse and the Construction of Authority in the Mishna (2012) 262
change, ritual Simon-Shushan, Stories of the Law: Narrative Discourse and the Construction of Authority in the Mishna (2012) 262
cohen, shaye j. d. Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 307
discourse, in talmuds Simon-Shushan, Stories of the Law: Narrative Discourse and the Construction of Authority in the Mishna (2012) 262
elites, and burial Keddie, Class and Power in Roman Palestine: The Socioeconomic Setting of Judaism and Christian Origins (2019) 235
ezekiel Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 556
fraenkel, jonah Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 307
hayes, christine Simon-Shushan, Stories of the Law: Narrative Discourse and the Construction of Authority in the Mishna (2012) 262
hayes, christine e. Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 307
hekhalot Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 556
helena of adiabene Keddie, Class and Power in Roman Palestine: The Socioeconomic Setting of Judaism and Christian Origins (2019) 235
herodium Keddie, Class and Power in Roman Palestine: The Socioeconomic Setting of Judaism and Christian Origins (2019) 235
image xvi Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 556
isaiah, ascension of Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 556
janneus, alexander, passover riots Simon-Shushan, Stories of the Law: Narrative Discourse and the Construction of Authority in the Mishna (2012) 262
janneus, alexander, temple gates Simon-Shushan, Stories of the Law: Narrative Discourse and the Construction of Authority in the Mishna (2012) 262
jason (high priest) Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 345
jerusalem Keddie, Class and Power in Roman Palestine: The Socioeconomic Setting of Judaism and Christian Origins (2019) 235
knowledge Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 556
lieberman, saul Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 307
loculi tombs Keddie, Class and Power in Roman Palestine: The Socioeconomic Setting of Judaism and Christian Origins (2019) 235
lulav ritual, taqqanah Simon-Shushan, Stories of the Law: Narrative Discourse and the Construction of Authority in the Mishna (2012) 262
menelaus Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 345
merkava xiii–xvi, xix Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 556
moses Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 556
motifs (thematic), tit for tat Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 345
mount scopus Keddie, Class and Power in Roman Palestine: The Socioeconomic Setting of Judaism and Christian Origins (2019) 235
mysticism Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 556
ossuaries Keddie, Class and Power in Roman Palestine: The Socioeconomic Setting of Judaism and Christian Origins (2019) 235
priestly elites, at the jerusalem temple' Keddie, Class and Power in Roman Palestine: The Socioeconomic Setting of Judaism and Christian Origins (2019) 162
priestly messiah Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 556
rashi Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 556
rubenstein, jeffrey l. Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 307
shiur koma Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 556
taqqanot, lulav ritual Simon-Shushan, Stories of the Law: Narrative Discourse and the Construction of Authority in the Mishna (2012) 262
temple, gates Simon-Shushan, Stories of the Law: Narrative Discourse and the Construction of Authority in the Mishna (2012) 262
temple, prostrations, ritual Simon-Shushan, Stories of the Law: Narrative Discourse and the Construction of Authority in the Mishna (2012) 262
temple Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 556
temple mount, jerusalem temple Keddie, Class and Power in Roman Palestine: The Socioeconomic Setting of Judaism and Christian Origins (2019) 162, 235
temple of bel (palmyra) Keddie, Class and Power in Roman Palestine: The Socioeconomic Setting of Judaism and Christian Origins (2019) 162
temple scroll Fonrobert and Jaffee, The Cambridge Companion to the Talmud and Rabbinic Literature Cambridge Companions to Religion (2007) 142
throne, enthroned Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 556
tractate middot Ganzel and Holtz, Contextualizing Jewish Temples (2020) 153
vision Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 556
wiesenberg, e. Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 307
womens court Ganzel and Holtz, Contextualizing Jewish Temples (2020) 153
yerushalmi, discourse Simon-Shushan, Stories of the Law: Narrative Discourse and the Construction of Authority in the Mishna (2012) 262