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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



8020
Mishnah, Megillah, 4.10


nanThe incident of Reuven is read but not translated. The story of Tamar is read and translated. The first part of the incident of the golden calf is both read and translated, but the second is read but not translated. The blessing of the priests, the stories of David and Amnon are not read or translated. They do not conclude with the portion of the chariot as a haftarah. But Rabbi Judah permits this. R. Eliezar says: they do not conclude with “Proclaim Jerusalem’s [abominations]” (Ezekiel as a haftarah.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

14 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 23.1, 27.20 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

23.1. לֹא־יִקַּח אִישׁ אֶת־אֵשֶׁת אָבִיו וְלֹא יְגַלֶּה כְּנַף אָבִיו׃ 23.1. כִּי־תֵצֵא מַחֲנֶה עַל־אֹיְבֶיךָ וְנִשְׁמַרְתָּ מִכֹּל דָּבָר רָע׃ 23.1. A man shall not take his father’s wife, and shall not uncover his father’s skirt." 27.20. Cursed be he that lieth with his father’s wife; because he hath uncovered his father’s skirt. And all the people shall say: Amen. ."
2. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 28.12, 49.3-49.4 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

28.12. וַיַּחֲלֹם וְהִנֵּה סֻלָּם מֻצָּב אַרְצָה וְרֹאשׁוֹ מַגִּיעַ הַשָּׁמָיְמָה וְהִנֵּה מַלְאֲכֵי אֱלֹהִים עֹלִים וְיֹרְדִים בּוֹ׃ 49.3. בַּמְּעָרָה אֲשֶׁר בִּשְׂדֵה הַמַּכְפֵּלָה אֲשֶׁר עַל־פְּנֵי־מַמְרֵא בְּאֶרֶץ כְּנָעַן אֲשֶׁר קָנָה אַבְרָהָם אֶת־הַשָּׂדֶה מֵאֵת עֶפְרֹן הַחִתִּי לַאֲחֻזַּת־קָבֶר׃ 49.3. רְאוּבֵן בְּכֹרִי אַתָּה כֹּחִי וְרֵאשִׁית אוֹנִי יֶתֶר שְׂאֵת וְיֶתֶר עָז׃ 49.4. פַּחַז כַּמַּיִם אַל־תּוֹתַר כִּי עָלִיתָ מִשְׁכְּבֵי אָבִיךָ אָז חִלַּלְתָּ יְצוּעִי עָלָה׃ 28.12. And he dreamed, and behold a ladder set up on the earth, and the top of it reached to heaven; and behold the angels of God ascending and descending on it." 49.3. Reuben, thou art my first-born, My might, and the first-fruits of my strength; The excellency of dignity, and the excellency of power." 49.4. Unstable as water, have not thou the excellency; Because thou wentest up to thy father’s bed; Then defiledst thou it—he went up to my couch."
3. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 18.8, 20.11 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

18.8. עֶרְוַת אֵשֶׁת־אָבִיךָ לֹא תְגַלֵּה עֶרְוַת אָבִיךָ הִוא׃ 20.11. וְאִישׁ אֲשֶׁר יִשְׁכַּב אֶת־אֵשֶׁת אָבִיו עֶרְוַת אָבִיו גִּלָּה מוֹת־יוּמְתוּ שְׁנֵיהֶם דְּמֵיהֶם בָּם׃ 18.8. The nakedness of thy father’s wife shalt thou not uncover: it is thy father’s nakedness." 20.11. And the man that lieth with his father’s wife—he hath uncovered his father’s nakedness—both of them shall surely be put to death; their blood shall be upon them."
4. Anon., 1 Enoch, 14.8-14.9 (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

14.8. written. And the vision was shown to me thus: Behold, in the vision clouds invited me and a mist summoned me, and the course of the stars and the lightnings sped and hastened me, and the winds in 14.9. the vision caused me to fly and lifted me upward, and bore me into heaven. And I went in till I drew nigh to a wall which is built of crystals and surrounded by tongues of fire: and it began to affright
5. Anon., Jubilees, 2.2 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

2.2. Write the complete history of the creation, how in six days the Lord God finished all His works and all that He created, and kept Sabbath on the seventh day and hallowed it for all ages, and appointed it as a sign for all His works.
6. Dead Sea Scrolls, Songs of The Sabbath Sacrificef, 0 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

7. Hebrew Bible, Daniel, 7.9 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

7.9. חָזֵה הֲוֵית עַד דִּי כָרְסָוָן רְמִיו וְעַתִּיק יוֹמִין יְתִב לְבוּשֵׁהּ כִּתְלַג חִוָּר וּשְׂעַר רֵאשֵׁהּ כַּעֲמַר נְקֵא כָּרְסְיֵהּ שְׁבִיבִין דִּי־נוּר גַּלְגִּלּוֹהִי נוּר דָּלִק׃ 7.9. I beheld Till thrones were placed, And one that was ancient of days did sit: His raiment was as white snow, And the hair of his head like pure wool; His throne was fiery flames, and the wheels thereof burning fire."
8. New Testament, Apocalypse, 4.1-4.2 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4.1. After these things I looked and saw a door opened in heaven, and the first voice that I heard, like a trumpet speaking with me, was one saying, "Come up here, and I will show you the things which must happen after this. 4.2. Immediately I was in the Spirit. Behold, there was a throne set in heaven, and one sitting on the throne
9. Ps.-Philo, Biblical Antiquities, 28 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

10. Babylonian Talmud, Hagigah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

14b. הא בדברי תורה הא במשא ומתן בדברי תורה הוו במשא ומתן לא הוו.,ת"ר מעשה ברבן יוחנן בן זכאי שהיה רוכב על החמור והיה מהלך בדרך ור' אלעזר בן ערך מחמר אחריו אמר לו רבי שנה לי פרק אחד במעשה מרכבה אמר לו לא כך שניתי לכם ולא במרכבה ביחיד אלא א"כ היה חכם מבין מדעתו אמר לו רבי תרשיני לומר לפניך דבר אחד שלמדתני אמר לו אמור,מיד ירד רבן יוחנן בן זכאי מעל החמור ונתעטף וישב על האבן תחת הזית אמר לו רבי מפני מה ירדת מעל החמור אמר אפשר אתה דורש במעשה מרכבה ושכינה עמנו ומלאכי השרת מלוין אותנו ואני ארכב על החמור מיד פתח ר"א בן ערך במעשה המרכבה ודרש וירדה אש מן השמים וסיבבה כל האילנות שבשדה פתחו כולן ואמרו שירה,מה שירה אמרו (תהלים קמח, ז) הללו את ה' מן הארץ תנינים וכל תהומות עץ פרי וכל ארזים הללויה נענה מלאך מן האש ואמר הן הן מעשה המרכבה עמד רבן יוחנן ב"ז ונשקו על ראשו ואמר ברוך ה' אלהי ישראל שנתן בן לאברהם אבינו שיודע להבין ולחקור ולדרוש במעשה מרכבה יש נאה דורש ואין נאה מקיים נאה מקיים ואין נאה דורש אתה נאה דורש ונאה מקיים אשריך אברהם אבינו שאלעזר בן ערך יצא מחלציך,וכשנאמרו הדברים לפני ר' יהושע היה הוא ורבי יוסי הכהן מהלכים בדרך אמרו אף אנו נדרוש במעשה מרכבה פתח רבי יהושע ודרש ואותו היום תקופת תמוז היה נתקשרו שמים בעבים ונראה כמין קשת בענן והיו מלאכי השרת מתקבצין ובאין לשמוע כבני אדם שמתקבצין ובאין לראות במזמוטי חתן וכלה,הלך רבי יוסי הכהן וסיפר דברים לפני רבן יוחנן בן זכאי ואמר אשריכם ואשרי יולדתכם אשרי עיני שכך ראו ואף אני ואתם בחלומי מסובין היינו על הר סיני ונתנה עלינו בת קול מן השמים עלו לכאן עלו לכאן טרקלין גדולים ומצעות נאות מוצעות לכם אתם ותלמידיכם ותלמידי תלמידיכם מזומנין לכת שלישית,איני והתניא ר' יוסי בר' יהודה אומר שלשה הרצאות הן ר' יהושע הרצה דברים לפני רבן יוחנן בן זכאי ר"ע הרצה לפני ר' יהושע חנניא בן חכינאי הרצה לפני ר"ע ואילו ר"א בן ערך לא קא חשיב דארצי וארצו קמיה קחשיב דארצי ולא ארצו קמיה לא קא חשיב והא חנניא בן חכינאי דלא ארצו קמיה וקא חשיב דארצי מיהא קמיה מאן דארצי.,ת"ר ארבעה נכנסו בפרדס ואלו הן בן עזאי ובן זומא אחר ורבי עקיבא אמר להם ר"ע כשאתם מגיעין אצל אבני שיש טהור אל תאמרו מים מים משום שנאמר (תהלים קא, ז) דובר שקרים לא יכון לנגד עיני,בן עזאי הציץ ומת עליו הכתוב אומר (תהלים קטז, טו) יקר בעיני ה' המותה לחסידיו בן זומא הציץ ונפגע ועליו הכתוב אומר (משלי כה, טז) דבש מצאת אכול דייך פן תשבענו והקאתו אחר קיצץ בנטיעות רבי עקיבא יצא בשלום,שאלו את בן זומא מהו לסרוסי כלבא אמר להם (ויקרא כב, כד) ובארצכם לא תעשו כל שבארצכם לא תעשו שאלו את בן זומא בתולה שעיברה מהו לכ"ג מי חיישינן לדשמואל דאמר שמואל 14b. bThiscase is referring bto words of Torah,while bthatcase is referring bto commerce. With regard to words of Torah, they weretrustworthy; bwith regard to commerce, they were not. /b,§ The Gemara returns to the topic of the Design of the Divine Chariot. bThe Sages taught: An incidentoccurred binvolving Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai, who was riding on a donkey and was traveling along the way, andhis student, bRabbi Elazar ben Arakh, was riding a donkey behind him.Rabbi Elazar bsaid to him: My teacher, teach me one chapter in the Design of theDivine bChariot. He said to him:Have bI not taught you: And one may notexpound the Design of the Divine Chariot bto an individual, unless he is a Sage who understands on his own accord?Rabbi Elazar bsaid to him: My teacher, allow me to say before you one thing that you taught me.In other words, he humbly requested to recite before him his own understanding of this issue. bHe said to him: Speak. /b, bImmediately, Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai alighted from the donkey, and wrappedhis head in his cloak in a manner of reverence, band sat on a stone under an olive tree.Rabbi Elazar bsaid to him: My teacher, for what reason did you alight from the donkey? He said:Is it bpossible thatwhile byou are expounding the Design of theDivine bChariot, and the Divine Presence is with us, and the ministering angels are accompanying us, that I should ride on a donkey? Immediately, Rabbi Elazar ben Arakh beganto discuss bthe Design of theDivine bChariot and expounded, and fire descended from heaven and encircled all the trees in the field, and allthe trees bbegan reciting song. /b, bWhat song did they recite? “Praise the Lord from the earth, sea monsters and all depths…fruit trees and all cedars…praise the Lord”(Psalms 148:7–14). bAn angel responded from the fire, saying: This is the very Design of theDivine bChariot,just as you expounded. bRabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai stood and kissedRabbi Elazar ben Arakh bon his head, and said: Blessed be God, Lord of Israel, who gave our father Abraham a sonlike you, bwho knowshow bto understand, investigate, and expound the Design of theDivine bChariot. There are some who expoundthe Torah’s verses bwell but do not fulfillits imperatives bwell,and there are some bwho fulfillits imperatives bwell but do not expoundits verses bwell,whereas byou expoundits verses bwell and fulfillits imperatives bwell. Happy are you, our father Abraham, that Elazar ben Arakh came from your loins. /b,The Gemara relates: bAnd whenthese bmatters,this story involving his colleague Rabbi Elazar ben Arakh, bwere recounted before Rabbi Yehoshua, he was walking along the way with Rabbi Yosei the Priest. They said: We too shall expound the Design of theDivine bChariot. Rabbi Yehoshua began expounding. And that was the day of the summer solstice,when there are no clouds in the sky. Yet the bheavens became filled with clouds, and there was the appearance of a kind of rainbow in a cloud. And ministering angels gathered and came to listen, like people gathering and coming to see the rejoicing of a bridegroom and bride. /b, bRabbi Yosei the Priest went and recitedthese bmatters before Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai,who bsaidto him: bHappy areall of byou, and happy arethe mothers bwho gave birth to you; happy are my eyes that saw this,students such as these. bAs for you and I,I saw bin my dreamthat bwe were seated at Mount Sinai, and a Divine Voice came to us from heaven: Ascend here, ascend here,for blarge halls[iteraklin/b] band pleasant couches are made up for you. You, your students, and the students of your students are invited tothe bthird group,those who will merit to welcome the Divine Presence.,The Gemara poses a question: bIs that so? But isn’t it taughtin a ibaraita /i: bRabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Yehuda, says: There are three lectures.In other words, there are three Sages with regard to whom it states that they delivered lectures on the mystical tradition: bRabbi Yehoshua lecturedon these bmatters before Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai; Rabbi Akiva lectured before Rabbi Yehoshua;and bḤaya ben Ḥakhinai lectured before Rabbi Akiva. However, Rabbi Elazar ben Arakh was not includedin the list, despite the testimony that he lectured before Rabban Yoḥa. The Gemara explains: Those bwho lectured and werealso blectured to were included;but those bwho lectured and were not lectured to were not included.The Gemara asks: bBut wasn’tthere bḤaya ben Ḥakhinai, who was not lectured to, andyet bhe is included?The Gemara answers: Ḥaya ben Ḥakhinai bactually lectured before one who lecturedin front of his own rabbi, so he was also included in this list.,§ bThe Sages taught: Four entered the orchard [ ipardes /i],i.e., dealt with the loftiest secrets of Torah, band they are as follows: Ben Azzai; and ben Zoma; iAḥer /i,the other, a name for Elisha ben Avuya; band Rabbi Akiva. Rabbi Akiva,the senior among them, bsaid to them: When,upon your arrival in the upper worlds, byou reach pure marble stones, do not say: Water, water,although they appear to be water, bbecause it is stated: “He who speaks falsehood shall not be established before My eyes”(Psalms 101:7).,The Gemara proceeds to relate what happened to each of them: bBen Azzai glimpsedat the Divine Presence band died. And with regard to him the verse states: “Precious in the eyes of the Lord is the death of His pious ones”(Psalms 116:15). bBen Zoma glimpsedat the Divine Presence band was harmed,i.e., he lost his mind. bAnd with regard to him the verse states: “Have you found honey? Eat as much as is sufficient for you, lest you become full from it and vomit it”(Proverbs 25:16). iAḥerchopped down the shootsof saplings. In other words, he became a heretic. bRabbi Akiva came out safely. /b,The Gemara recounts the greatness of ben Zoma, who was an expert interpreter of the Torah and could find obscure proofs: bThey asked ben Zoma: What isthe ihalakhawith regard to bcastrating a dog?The prohibition against castration appears alongside the sacrificial blemishes, which may imply that it is permitted to castrate an animal that cannot be sacrificed as an offering. bHe said to them:The verse states “That which has its testicles bruised, or crushed, or torn, or cut, you shall not offer to God, nor bshall you do so in your land”(Leviticus 22:24), from which we learn: With regard to banyanimal bthat is in your land, you shall not dosuch a thing. bTheyalso basked ben Zoma:A woman considered bto be a virgin who became pregt, what isthe ihalakha /i? bA High Priestmay marry only a virgin; is he permitted to marry her? The answer depends on the following: bAre we concerned forthe opinion of bShmuel? Shmuel says: /b
11. Babylonian Talmud, Megillah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

24b. הכא נמי איכא נצויי אביו ונצויי רבו:,פוחח פורס על שמע וכו': בעא מיניה עולא בר רב מאביי קטן פוחח מהו שיקרא בתורה,אמר ליה ותיבעי לך ערום ערום מאי טעמא לא משום כבוד צבור הכא נמי משום כבוד צבור:,סומא פורס על שמע וכו': תניא אמרו לו לרבי יהודה הרבה צפו לדרוש במרכבה ולא ראו אותה מימיהם,ור' יהודה התם באבנתא דליבא תליא מילתא והא קא מיכוין וידע הכא משום הנאה הוא והא לית ליה הנאה,ורבנן אית ליה הנאה כרבי יוסי דתניא א"ר יוסי כל ימי הייתי מצטער על מקרא זה (דברים כח, כט) והיית ממשש בצהרים כאשר ימשש העור באפלה וכי מה אכפת ליה לעור בין אפילה לאורה,עד שבא מעשה לידי פעם אחת הייתי מהלך באישון לילה ואפלה וראיתי סומא שהיה מהלך בדרך ואבוקה בידו אמרתי לו בני אבוקה זו למה לך אמר לי כל זמן שאבוקה בידי בני אדם רואין אותי ומצילין אותי מן הפחתין ומן הקוצין ומן הברקנין:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big כהן שיש בידיו מומין לא ישא את כפיו ר' יהודה אומר אף מי שהיו ידיו צבועות סטיס לא ישא את כפיו מפני שהעם מסתכלין בו:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big תנא מומין שאמרו בפניו ידיו ורגליו אמר ר' יהושע בן לוי ידיו בוהקניות לא ישא את כפיו תניא נמי הכי ידיו בוהקניות לא ישא את כפיו עקומות עקושות לא ישא את כפיו,אמר רב אסי חיפני (ובשיני) לא ישא את כפיו תניא נמי הכי אין מורידין לפני התיבה לא אנשי בית שאן ולא אנשי בית חיפה ולא אנשי טבעונין מפני שקורין לאלפין עיינין ולעיינין אלפין,אמר ליה רבי חייא לר' שמעון בר רבי אלמלי אתה לוי פסול אתה מן הדוכן משום דעבי קלך אתא אמר ליה לאבוה אמר ליה זיל אימא ליה כשאתה מגיע אצל (ישעיהו ח, יז) וחכיתי לה' לא נמצאת מחרף ומגדף,אמר רב הונא זבלגן לא ישא את כפיו והא ההוא דהוה בשיבבותיה דרב הונא והוה פריס ידיה ההוא דש בעירו הוה תניא נמי הכי זבלגן לא ישא את כפיו ואם היה דש בעירו מותר,א"ר יוחנן סומא באחת מעיניו לא ישא את כפיו והא ההוא דהוה בשיבבותיה דרבי יוחנן דהוה פריס ידיה ההוא דש בעירו הוה תניא נמי הכי סומא באחת מעיניו לא ישא את כפיו ואם היה דש בעירו מותר:,ר"י אומר מי שהיו ידיו צבועות לא ישא את כפיו: תנא אם רוב אנשי העיר מלאכתן בכך מותר:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big האומר איני עובר לפני התיבה בצבועין אף בלבנים לא יעבור בסנדל איני עובר אף יחף לא יעבור,העושה תפלתו עגולה סכנה ואין בה מצוה נתנה על מצחו או על פס ידו הרי זו דרך המינות ציפן זהב ונתנה על בית אונקלי שלו ה"ז דרך החיצונים:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big מ"ט חיישינן שמא מינות נזרקה בו:,העושה תפלתו עגולה סכנה ואין בה מצוה: לימא תנינא להא דתנו רבנן תפלין מרובעות הלכה למשה מסיני ואמר רבא בתפרן ובאלכסונן,אמר רב פפא מתניתין דעבידא כי אמגוזא:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big האומר 24b. bHere, also,according to Rabba bar Shimi, bit isto prevent bhis father or teacherfrom bquarreling. /b,§ We learned in the mishna: bOne whose limbs are exposed [ ipoḥe’aḥ /i] may recite theintroductory prayers and bblessingbefore iShema /iand translate the Torah reading into Aramaic, but he may not read from the Torah. bUlla bar Rav raised a dilemma before Abaye: What isthe ihalakhawith regard to whether ba minor whose limbs are exposedmay bread from the Torah?Can it be argued that a minor’s bare limbs do not fall under the category of nakedness, and therefore it is permitted for him to read the Torah despite the fact that parts of his body are exposed?,Abaye bsaid to him: Andaccording to this reasoning, braise the dilemmawith regard to a minor who is totally bnaked. What is the reason thata minor who is bnaked may notread the Torah? It is bdue to respect for the public. Here, too,a ipoḥe’aḥmay not read from the Torah bdue to respect for the public. /b,The mishna continues: One who is bblind may recite theintroductory prayers and bblessingbefore iShema /i,and he may also translate the Torah reading into Aramaic. Rabbi Yehuda says: Anyone who has not seen the luminaries in his life may not recite the first of the blessings before iShema /i, which is the blessing over the luminaries. bIt is taughtin a ibaraitathat bthey said to Rabbi Yehuda: Many have seenenough with their mind bto expound upon theDivine bChariot, although they have neveractually bseen it.Similarly, even one who has never seen the luminaries may recite the blessing., bAndhow does bRabbi Yehudacounter this argument? He can say that bthere,with regard to the Chariot, bthe matter depends upon the heart’s comprehension, and one can concentratehis mind band understandthe Chariot even if he has never actually seen it. But bhere,with regard to the luminaries, the blessing is recited bdue to the benefitone derives from them, bandone who is blind bdoes not deriveany bbenefitfrom them, and therefore he may not recite a blessing over them., bAnd the Rabbismaintain that even a blind man bderives benefitfrom the luminaries, bin accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Yosei, as it is taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Yosei said: All of my life I was troubled by this verse,which I did not understand: b“And you shall grope at noon as the blind man gropes in the darkness”(Deuteronomy 28:29). I was perplexed: bWhatdoes it bmatter to a blindperson bwhetherit is bdark or light?He cannot see in any event, so why does the verse speak about a blind man in the darkness?,I continued to ponder the matter buntilthe following bincident occurred to me. I was once walking in the absolute darkness of the night, and I saw a blind man who was walking onhis bway with a torch in his hands. I said to him: My son, why do youneed bthis torchif you are blind? bHe said to me: As long as I have a torch in my hand, people see me and save me from the pits and the thorns and the thistles.Even a blind man derives at least indirect benefit from the light, and therefore he may recite the blessing over the heavenly luminaries., strongMISHNA: /strong bA priest who has blemishes on his hands may not lift his handsto recite the Priestly Benediction. Because of his blemish, people will look at his hands, and it is prohibited to look at the hands of the priests during the Priestly Benediction. bRabbi Yehuda says: Even one whose hands were colored with isatis /i,a blue dye, bmay not lift his handsto recite the Priestly Benediction bbecause the congregation will look at him. /b, strongGEMARA: /strong It is btaughtin a ibaraita /i: bThe blemishes thatthe Sages bsaiddisqualify a priest from reciting the Priestly Benediction include any blemishes found bon his face, hands, and feet,but not blemishes that are not visible to others. bRabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said:If bhis hands are spottedwith white blotches, bhe may not lift his handsto recite the Priestly Benediction. The Gemara notes that bthis is also taughtin a ibaraita /i: If a priest’s bhands are spotted, he may not lift his handsto recite the Priestly Benediction. Similarly, if his hands are bcurvedinward bor bentsideways, bhe may not lift his handsto recite the Priestly Benediction.,Apropos the previous discussion, bRav Asi said:A priest bfrom Haifa or Beit She’an may not lift his handsto recite the Priestly Benediction, as he does not know how to properly pronounce the guttural letters. bThis is also taughtin a ibaraita /i: bOne may not allow the people of Beit She’an, nor the people of Beit Haifa, nor the people of Tivonin to pass before the arkin order to lead the service bbecause they pronounce ialefas iayinand iayinas ialef /i,and they thereby distort the meaning of the prayers.,The Gemara relates that bRabbi Ḥiyyaonce bsaid to Rabbi Shimon, son of RabbiYehuda HaNasi: bIf you were a Levite, you would be disqualified fromsinging on bthe platformin the Temple courtyard bbecause your voice is thick.offended by this remark, Rabbi Shimon bwent and told his father,Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi, what Rabbi Ḥiyya had said. Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi bsaid to him: Goand bsay to him: When youstudy and breachthe verse: b“And I will wait upon [ iveḥikkiti /i] the Lord”(Isaiah 8:17), bwill you not be a maligner and a blasphemer?Rabbi Ḥiyya, who was from Babylonia, was unable to differentiate between the letters iḥetand iheh /i, and he would therefore pronounce the word iveḥikkitias ivehikkiti /i, which means: And I will strike., bRav Huna said:A priest bwhose eyesconstantly brunwith tears bmay not lift his handsto recite the Priestly Benediction. The Gemara asks: bWasn’t there a certainpriest with this condition bin the neighborhood of Rav Huna, and he would spread his handsand recite the Priestly Benediction? The Gemara answers: bThatpriest bwas a familiarfigure bin his town.Since the other residents were accustomed to seeing him, he would not draw their attention during the Priestly Benediction. bThis is also taughtin a ibaraita /i: bOne whose eyes run should not lift his handsto recite the Priestly Benediction, bbut if he is a familiarfigure bin his town, he is permittedto do so., bRabbi Yoḥa said: One who is blind in one eye may not lift his handsto recite the Priestly Benediction because people will gaze at him. The Gemara asks: bWasn’t there a certainpriest who was blind in one eye bin the neighborhood of Rabbi Yoḥa, and he would lift his handsand recite the Priestly Benediction? The Gemara answers: bThatpriest bwas a familiarfigure bin his town,and therefore he would not attract attention during the Priestly Benediction. bThis is also taughtin a ibaraita /i: bOne who is blind in one eye may not lift his handsand recite the Priestly Benediction, bbut if he is a familiarfigure bin his town, he is permittedto do so.,We learned in the mishna that bRabbi Yehuda said: One whose hands are colored should not lift his handsto recite the Priestly Benediction. It was btaughtin a ibaraita /i: bIf most of the townspeople are engaged in this occupation,dyeing, bhe is permittedto recite the Priestly Benediction, as the congregation will not pay attention to his stained hands., strongMISHNA: /strong bOne who says: I will not pass before the arkto lead the prayer service bin coloredgarments, bmay not passbefore the ark to lead the prayer service beven in whitegarments. There is concern that one who insists on wearing clothing of a specific color during his prayers is a heretic and therefore unfit to lead the service. Similarly, if one says: bI will not passbefore the ark bwearing sandals, he may not passbefore it beven barefoot,as he is not acting in accordance with the teachings of the Sages., bOne who constructs his phylacteriesin ba roundshape exposes himself to bdangerduring times of persecution, when foreign governments impose a ban on the mitzva of phylacteries, bandyet he does bnotfulfill the bmitzvato don phylacteries, as phylacteries must be square. bIf one placedthe phylacteries worn on the head bon his forehead,and not in its proper place above his hairline, borif he placed the phylacteries worn on the arm bon his palm,and not on his biceps, bthis is the way of the heretics,i.e., those who reject the tradition of the Sages with regard to the proper placement of the phylacteries. If bone platedhis phylacteries bwith gold or placedthe phylacteries worn on the arm bonthe outside of bhis sleeve [ iunkeli /i], this is the way of the outsiders,i.e., those who do not take part in the traditions of the Jewish people., strongGEMARA: /strong bWhat is the reasonthat one who wishes to pray only with white clothes or barefoot is not permitted to lead the prayer? bWe are concerned that perhaps he has been imbued with heresy,as these are the practices of idolaters. He is therefore barred from leading the service.,We learned in the mishna: bOne who constructs his phylacteriesin ba roundshape exposes himself to bdanger anddoes bnotfulfill the bmitzvato don phylacteries. The Gemara comments: bLet us saythat bwealready blearnedin this mishna bthat which the Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: The requirement that bphylacteriesmust be bsquare is a ihalakha /itransmitted bto Moses from Sinai. And Rava saidabout this: Square means balong their seams and their diagonals [ ialakhso /i],i.e., they must be perfectly square. It would seem that all this was already stated in the mishna, which says that round phylacteries are disqualified., bRav Pappa said:It is possible to understand that bthe mishnais referring to phylacteries bthat one constructedto be round blike a nut,i.e., in the shape of a ball. However, the mishna does not indicate that the phylacteries must be square, as it does not address the case of phylacteries that are rounded but not a true sphere., strongMISHNA: /strong If bone saysin his prayers:
12. Babylonian Talmud, Shabbat, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

55b. מיתיבי אמרו מלאכי השרת לפני הקב"ה רבונו של עולם מפני מה קנסת מיתה על אדם הראשון אמר להם מצוה קלה צויתיו ועבר עליה א"ל והלא משה ואהרן שקיימו כל התורה כולה ומתו א"ל (קהלת ט, ב) מקרה אחד לצדיק ולרשע לטוב וגו',הוא דאמר כי האי תנא דתניא ר"ש בן אלעזר אומר אף משה ואהרן בחטאם מתו שנא' (במדבר כ, יב) יען לא האמנתם בי הא האמנתם בי עדיין לא הגיע זמנכם ליפטר מן העולם,מיתיבי ארבעה מתו בעטיו של נחש ואלו הן בנימין בן יעקב ועמרם אבי משה וישי אבי דוד וכלאב בן דוד וכולהו גמרא לבר מישי אבי דוד דמפרש ביה קרא דכתיב (שמואל ב יז, כה) ואת עמשא שם אבשלום תחת יואב (שר) הצבא ועמשא בן איש ושמו יתרא הישראלי אשר בא אל אביגיל בת נחש אחות צרויה אם יואב,וכי בת נחש הואי והלא בת ישי הואי דכתיב (דברי הימים א ב, טז) ואחיותיהן צרויה ואביגיל אלא בת מי שמת בעטיו של נחש,מני אילימא תנא דמלאכי השרת והא איכא משה ואהרן אלא לאו ר"ש בן אלעזר היא וש"מ יש מיתה בלא חטא ויש יסורין בלא עון ותיובתא דרב אמי תיובתא:,א"ר שמואל בר נחמני א"ר יונתן כל האומר ראובן חטא אינו אלא טועה שנאמר (בראשית לה, כב) ויהיו בני יעקב שנים עשר מלמד שכולן שקולים כאחת אלא מה אני מקיים (בראשית לה, כב) וישכב את בלהה פילגש אביו מלמד שבלבל מצעו של אביו ומעלה עליו הכתוב כאילו שכב עמה,תניא ר"ש בן אלעזר אומר מוצל אותו צדיק מאותו עון ולא בא מעשה זה לידו אפשר עתיד זרעו לעמוד על הר עיבל ולומר (דברים כז, כ) ארור שוכב עם אשת אביו ויבא חטא זה לידו אלא מה אני מקיים וישכב את בלהה פילגש אביו עלבון אמו תבע אמר אם אחות אמי היתה צרה לאמי שפחת אחות אמי תהא צרה לאמי עמד ובלבל את מצעה,אחרים אומרים שתי מצעות בלבל אחת של שכינה ואחת של אביו והיינו דכתיב (בראשית מט, ד) אז חללת יצועי עלה (אל תקרי יצועי אלא יצועיי),כתנאי פחז כמים אל תותר ר' אליעזר אומר פזתה חבתה זלתה ר' יהושע אומר פסעתה על דת חטאת זנית ר"ג אומר פיללתה חלתה זרחה תפלתך,אמר ר"ג עדיין צריכין אנו למודעי ר' אלעזר המודעי אומר הפוך את התיבה ודורשה זעזעתה הרתעתה פרחה חטא ממך רבא אמר ואמרי לה ר' ירמיה בר אבא זכרת עונשו של דבר חלית עצמך חולי גדול פירשת מלחטוא:,ראובן בני עלי בני שמואל דוד ושלמה ויואש סימן:,אמר ר' שמואל בר נחמני א"ר יונתן כל האומר בני עלי חטאו אינו אלא טועה שנאמר (שמואל א א, ג) ושם שני בני עלי (עם ארון ברית האלהים) חפני ופנחס כהנים לה',סבר לה כרב דאמר רב פנחס לא חטא מקיש חפני לפנחס מה פנחס לא חטא אף חפני לא חטא אלא מה אני מקיים אשר ישכבון את הנשים מתוך ששהו את קיניהן שלא הלכו אצל בעליהן מעלה עליהן הכתוב כאילו שכבום,גופא אמר רב פנחס לא חטא שנאמר (שמואל א יד, ג) ואחיה בן אחיטוב אחי אי כבוד בן פנחס בן עלי כהן ה' וגו' אפשר חטא בא לידו והכתוב מייחסו,והלא כבר נאמר (מלאכי ב, יב) יכרת ה' לאיש אשר יעשנה ער ועונה מאהלי יעקב ומגיש מנחה לה' צבאות אם ישראל הוא לא יהיה לו ער בחכמים ולא עונה בתלמידים ואם כהן הוא לא יהיה לו בן מגיש מנחה אלא לאו שמע מינה פנחס לא חטא,אלא הא כתיב (שמואל א ב, כב) אשר ישכבון ישכבן כתיב,והכתיב (שמואל א ב, כד) אל בני כי לא טובה השמועה א"ר נחמן בר יצחק בני כתיב,והכתיב מעבירים א"ר הונא בריה דרב יהושע מעבירם כתיב,והכתיב בני בליעל מתוך שהיה לו לפנחס למחות לחפני ולא מיחה מעלה עליו הכתוב כאילו חטא,א"ר שמואל בר נחמני א"ר יונתן כל האומר 55b. The Gemara braises an objectionfrom the following ibaraita /i: bThe ministering angels said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe, why did You penalize Adam, the first man, withthe bdeathpenalty? bHe said to them: I gave him a simple mitzva, and he violated it. They said to Him: Didn’t Moses and Aaron, who observed the whole Torah in its entirety,nevertheless bdie?The Holy One, Blessed be He, bsaid to them,citing the verse: “All things come alike to all; bthere is one event to the righteous and to the wicked; to the goodand to the clean, and to the unclean; to him who sacrifices, and to him who does not sacrifice; as is the good, so is the sinner; and he who swears, as he who fears an oath” (Ecclesiastes 9:2). Apparently, death is not dependent upon one’s actions. Everyone dies.,The Gemara answers: Rav Ami bstatedhis position bin accordance with this itanna /i, as it was taughtin a ibaraita /i: bRabbi Shimon ben Elazar said: Even Moses and Aaron died due to their sin, as it is stated:“And the Lord spoke to Moses and Aaron: bBecause you did not believe in Me /b, to sanctify Me in the eyes of the children of Israel, therefore you shall not bring this congregation in to the land which I have given them” (Numbers 20:12). bHad you believed in Meand spoken to the rock as commanded, byour time would notyet bhave come to leave the world.Apparently, even Moses and Aaron died due to their sins.,The Gemara braises an objectionfrom what was taught in the following ibaraita /i: bFourpeople bdied due toAdam’s sin with bthe serpent,in the wake of which death was decreed upon all of mankind, although they themselves were free of sin. bAnd they are: Benjamin, son of Jacob; Amram, father of Moses; Yishai, father of David; and Kilab, son of David. And all of themwere learned through btradition, except for Yishai, father of David, with regard to whom there is an explicit verseinterpreted homiletically, bas it is written: “And Absalom placed Amasa in charge of the army in place of Joab, and Amasa was the son of a man named Ithra the Israelite, who had taken to himself Abigail the daughter of Nahash, sister of Zeruiah, the mother of Joab”(II Samuel 17:25).,The Gemara asks: bAnd wasAbigail bthe daughter of Nahash? Wasn’t she the daughter of Yishai, as it is written:“And Yishai begot his firstborn Eliab, and Abinadab the second, and Shimea the third, Nethanel the fourth, Raddai the fifth, Ozem the sixth, David the seventh: band their sisters were Zeruiah and Abigail.And the sons of Zeruiah: Abishai, and Joab, and Asahel, three. And Abigail bore Amasa; and the father of Amasa was Jether the Ishmaelite” (I Chronicles 2:13–17)? Apparently, Abigail was the daughter of Yishai. bRather,the verse states that Abigail was the daughter of Nahash in order to teach us that she was bthe daughter of one who died on account ofAdam’s sin with bthe serpent [ inaḥash /i],though he himself was free of sin.,The Gemara now clarifies the matter: bWhois the itannaof the ibaraitathat states that four people did not die due to their own sins? bIf you saythat it is the itanna /iwho taught the conversation between bthe ministering angelsand God, it is difficult, bas weren’t therealso bMoses and Aaronwho did not die due to their own sins? bRather, it must be Rabbi Shimon ben Elazar,who holds that even Moses and Aaron died because of their own sins. bLearn from itthen that, in principle, he agrees that bthere is death without sin and there is suffering without iniquity, andthis is a bconclusive refutationof the opinion bof Rav Ami.The Gemara concludes: Indeed, it is a bconclusive refutation. /b,Having mentioned the sins of some of the significant ancestors of the Jewish people, the Gemara now addresses several additional ancestors. bRabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani saidthat bRabbi Yonatan said: Anyone who says that Reuben sinnedwith Bilhah bis nothing other than mistaken, as it is stated:“And it came to pass, when Israel dwelt in that land, that Reuben went and lay with Bilhah his father’s concubine; and Israel heard of it. bNow the sons of Jacob were twelve”(Genesis 35:22). The fact that the Torah stated the number of Jacob’s sons at that point in the narrative bteaches that,even after the incident involving Bilhah, ballof the brothers bwere equalin righteousness. Apparently, Reuben did not sin. bHowthen bdo I establishthe meaning of the verse: b“And he lay with Bilhah his father’s concubine”?The plain understanding of the verse indicates sin. bThisverse bteaches thatReuben brearranged his father’s bedin protest of Jacob’s placement of his bed in the tent of Bilhah and not in the tent of his mother Leah after the death of Rachel. bAnd the verse ascribes to himliability for his action bas if he hadactually blain withBilhah., bIt was taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Shimon ben Elazar says: This righteous person,Reuben, bwas saved from that sinof adultery, band that action did not come tobe performed by bhim? Is it possiblethat bhis descendants are destined to stand on Mount Eival and say: “Cursed be he that lies with his father’s wife;because he uncovers his father’s skirt. And all the people shall say, amen” (Deuteronomy 27:20), band this sin will come tobe performed by bhim?Is it conceivable that the members of a tribe would curse their ancestor? bHowthen bdo I establishthe meaning of the verse: b“And he lay with Bilhah his father’s concubine”?It is understood as follows: bHe protested the affront to his mother. He said: If my mother’s sisterRachel bwas a rival to my mother, will my mother’s sister’s concubine be a rival to my mother? Heimmediately bstood and rearranged her bedso that Jacob would enter Leah’s tent.,iAḥerimsay: He rearranged two beds, one of the Divine Presence and one of his father. And that isthe meaning of bthat which is written:“Unstable as water, you shall not excel; because you went up to your father’s bed; bthen you did defile it; he went up to my bed [ iyetzu /i’ ii /i]”(Genesis 49:4). bDo not read it as iyetzu’i /i,in the singular; brather, read it as iyetzu /i’ iai /i, my beds,in the plural, referring to both the bed of his father and to the bed of the Divine Presence, which rests in the tents of the righteous.,The Gemara notes that the matter of Reuben’s innocence is bparallel toa dispute between itanna’im /i.As it was taught in a ibaraita /i: The verse states: b“Unstable [ ipaḥaz /i] as water, you shall not excel.”The Sages understood ipaḥazas an acronym. bRabbi Eliezer saysthat it means: bYou were impulsive [ ipazta /i], you were liable [ iḥavta /i], and you acted contemptuously [ izalta /i]. Rabbi Yehoshua saysthat it means: bYou trampled the law [ ipasata al dat /i], you sinned [ iḥatata /i],and byou were promiscuous [ izanita /i]. Rabban Gamliel says:The acronym does not refer to Reuben’s sin. It refers to his repentance: bYou prayed [ ipilalta /i], you trembledin fear b[ iḥalta /i],and byour prayer shone forth [ izarḥa /i]. /b, bRabban Gamliel said: We still needthe explanation of bthe Modaite,as bRabbi Elazar HaModa’i said: Reversethe order of the letters in bthe word ipaḥaz bandthen binterpret it homiletically: You shook [ izizata /i], you recoiled[ihirtata /i];the iḥetin ipaḥazis interchanged with the letter iheh /i, so that you would not sin, and bthe sin flew [ iparḥa /i] from you.Rabban Gamliel and Rabbi Elazar HaModa’i are of the opinion that Reuben did not sin. Rabbi Eliezer and Rabbi Yehoshua held that he did. bRava said, and some saythat bRabbi Yirmeya bar Abba said:Reverse the letters in ipaḥazand interpret: bYou remembered [ izakharta /i] the punishmentfor that offense, byou made yourself gravely ill [ iḥalita /i]in order to refrain from sinning, and byousuccessfully bwithdrew [ ipeirashta /i] from sinning. /b,The Gemara prefaces the following statements of Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani with a bmnemonic: Reuben, the sons of Eli, the sons of Samuel, David, Solomon, and Josiah. /b, bRabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani saidthat bRabbi Yonatan said: Anyone who says that the sons of Eli sinned is nothing other than mistaken, as it is written: “And the two sons of Eli, Hophni and Pinehas, were there priests of the Lord”(I Samuel 1:3).,The Gemara explains: Rabbi Yonatan bholds in accordance withthe opinion of bRav, as Rav said: Pinehas did not sin.And the verse bjuxtaposes Hophni to Pinehas; just as Pinehas did not sin, so too Hophni did not sin.The Gemara asks: bHow,then, bdo I establishthe meaning of the verse: “Now Eli was very old, and heard all that his sons did to all Israel; and bhow they lay with the womenthat assembled at the door of the Tent of Meeting” (I Samuel 2:22), which indicates otherwise? The Gemara answers: bSincethe sons of Eli bdelayedsacrificing bthe bird-offeringsof women who had given birth, a pair of doves brought as part of the purification process, and this delay caused the women bnot to go to their husbandsin timely fashion, bthe verse ascribes toHophni and Pinehas liability bas if they had lain with them.They were guilty of nothing more than negligence and carelessness.,The Gemara now examines bthe matter itselfof Rav’s statement cited in the course of the previous discussion. bRav said: Pinehas did not sin, as it is stated: “And Ahijah, the son of Ahitub, Ichabod’s brother, the son of Pinehas, the son of Eli, was the Lord’s priestin Shiloh, wearing an ephod” (I Samuel 14:3). bIs it possible that sin came toPinehas’ bhand and,nevertheless, bthe verse traces the lineageof his grandson, Ahijah, back bto him? /b, bWasn’t it was already statedwith regard to those who engage in promiscuous relations: b“The Lord will cut off from the man that does this, him that is awake and him that answers from the tents of Jacob, or any to present an offering to the Lord of hosts”(Malachi 2:12). The Sages interpreted the verse homiletically: bIfthe sinner is ban Israelite, he will not haveamong his descendants bone who issharp and bawake among the Sages, oreven bone amongtheir bdisciples who can answerquestions. bAnd if he is a priest, he will not have a son who will present a meal-offering.If Pinehas had sons and grandsons serving as priests, bconclude from it that Pinehas did not sin. /b,The Gemara asks: bHowever, isn’t it written: “And how they lay [ iyishkevun /i]with the women.” The verb iyishkevunis in the plural, indicating that both sons were guilty. The Gemara answers: It bis writtenwithout a ivavso that it can be read as iyishkeven /iin the singular, i.e., how he lay, indicating that only one of them sinned.,The Gemara asks further: bIsn’t it writtenthat Eli said: b“No, my sons [ ibanai /i]; for it is not a good reportthat I hear; you make the Lord’s people to transgress” (I Samuel 2:24). The fact that Eli referred to his sons in the plural indicates that they both sinned. bRav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said: It is writtenin a manner that can be read as bmy son [ ibeni /i]in the singular.,The Gemara raises another question: bIsn’t it written: “You makethe Lord’s people bto transgress [ ima’avirim /i]in the plural, indicating that both sons were guilty. bRav Huna, son of Rav Yehoshua, said:Here too, the word bis writtenwithout a iyodso that it can be read as: bYou causethe Lord’s people bto transgress [ ima’aviram /i]in the singular, indicating that only one of them sinned.,The Gemara raises one last challenge: bIsn’t it written:“Now the sons of Eli were bscoundrels;they knew not the Lord” (I Samuel 2:12), indicating that they were both sinners. The Gemara answers: bSince Pinehas should have protested Hophni’sconduct, bbut he did not protest, the verse ascribes to himliability bas if hetoo bhad sinned. /b, bRabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani saidthat bRabbi Yonatan said: Anyone who says /b
13. Anon., 2 Enoch, 22

14. Anon., Apocalypse of Abraham, 17



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
akiva Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 28
amnon Rosen-Zvi, The Mishnaic Sotah Ritual: Temple, Gender and Midrash (2012) 61
angels Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 545
apocalypticism, apocalypse Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 28
aqedah Samely, Rabbinic Interpretation of Scripture in the Mishnah (2002) 99
aramaic targums, purpose and audience Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 236
aramaic targums Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 236
babylonian rabbis, sages, attitude to king david Kalmin, The Sage in Jewish Society of Late Antiquity (1998) 90
babylonian rabbis, sages, relations with exilarchate Kalmin, The Sage in Jewish Society of Late Antiquity (1998) 90
ben azzai, shimon Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 28
ben zoma, shimon Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 28
david, king, diverse approaches of babylonian rabbis, palestinian rabbis Kalmin, The Sage in Jewish Society of Late Antiquity (1998) 90
elisha ben avuya (aher) Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 28
eschatology Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 28
exilarchate, exilarchs, relationship with babylonian rabbis Kalmin, The Sage in Jewish Society of Late Antiquity (1998) 90
ezekiel Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 28, 545
hagigah, tractate in mishna, tosefta and talmud Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 28
hayyot Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 545
hebrew bible Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 415
image xvi Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 545
jacob Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 415; Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 545
joseph and the brothers Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 415
jubilees Fonrobert and Jaffee, The Cambridge Companion to the Talmud and Rabbinic Literature Cambridge Companions to Religion (2007) 120
knowledge Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 28
masoretic text Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 415
merkava xiii–xvi, xix Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 28, 545
midrash/midrashim Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 415
mishnah, innovations in Rosen-Zvi, The Mishnaic Sotah Ritual: Temple, Gender and Midrash (2012) 61
moses Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 415
prayer Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 415
reuben/reuben and bilhah Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 415
reuben (of genesis) Rosen-Zvi, The Mishnaic Sotah Ritual: Temple, Gender and Midrash (2012) 61
revelation, the apocalypse of jesus christ Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 28
scripture, literal meaning of' Rosen-Zvi, The Mishnaic Sotah Ritual: Temple, Gender and Midrash (2012) 61
shiur koma Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 545
targumim Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 545
throne, enthroned Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 28, 545
torah Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 415
vision of merkava Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 28
yohanan ben zakkai Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 28