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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



8020
Mishnah, Megillah, 1.3


אֵיזוֹ הִיא עִיר גְּדוֹלָה, כֹּל שֶׁיֵּשׁ בָּהּ עֲשָׂרָה בַטְלָנִים. פָּחוֹת מִכָּאן, הֲרֵי זֶה כְפָר. בָּאֵלּוּ אָמְרוּ מַקְדִּימִין וְלֹא מְאַחֲרִין. אֲבָל זְמַן עֲצֵי כֹהֲנִים וְתִשְׁעָה בְאָב, חֲגִיגָה וְהַקְהֵל, מְאַחֲרִין וְלֹא מַקְדִּימִין. אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאָמְרוּ מַקְדִּימִין וְלֹא מְאַחֲרִין, מֻתָּרִין בְּהֶסְפֵּד וּבְתַעֲנִיּוֹת וּמַתָּנוֹת לָאֶבְיוֹנִים. אָמַר רַבִּי יְהוּדָה, אֵימָתַי, מְקוֹם שֶׁנִּכְנָסִין בְּשֵׁנִי וּבַחֲמִישִׁי. אֲבָל מְקוֹם שֶׁאֵין נִכְנָסִין לֹא בְּשֵׁנִי וְלֹא בַחֲמִישִׁי, אֵין קוֹרִין אוֹתָהּ אֶלָּא בִזְמַנָּהּ:What is considered a large town? One which has in it ten idle men. One that has fewer is considered a village. In respect of these they said that they should be moved up but not postponed. But with regard to the bringing the wood for the priests, the [fast of] Tisha B’Av, the hagigah, and assembling the people they postpone [until after Shabbat] and they do not move them up. Although they said that they should be moved up but not postponed, it is permissible to mourn, to fast, and to distribute gifts to the poor [on these earlier days]. Rabbi Judah said: When is this so? In a place where people gather on Mondays and Thursdays, but in places where people do not gather on Mondays and Thursdays, the Megillah is read only on its proper day.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

25 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 31.10 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

31.10. And Moses commanded them, saying: ‘At the end of every seven years, in the set time of the year of release, in the feast of tabernacles,"
2. Hebrew Bible, Malachi, 2.7 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

2.7. כִּי־שִׂפְתֵי כֹהֵן יִשְׁמְרוּ־דַעַת וְתוֹרָה יְבַקְשׁוּ מִפִּיהוּ כִּי מַלְאַךְ יְהוָה־צְבָאוֹת הוּא׃ 2.7. For the priest’s lips should keep knowledge, And they should seek the law at his mouth; For he is the messenger of the LORD of hosts."
3. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 55.18 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

55.18. עֶרֶב וָבֹקֶר וְצָהֳרַיִם אָשִׂיחָה וְאֶהֱמֶה וַיִּשְׁמַע קוֹלִי׃ 55.18. Evening, and morning, and at noon, will I complain, and moan; And He hath heard my voice."
4. Hebrew Bible, 2 Kings, 23.2 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

23.2. וַיִּזְבַּח אֶת־כָּל־כֹּהֲנֵי הַבָּמוֹת אֲשֶׁר־שָׁם עַל־הַמִּזְבְּחוֹת וַיִּשְׂרֹף אֶת־עַצְמוֹת אָדָם עֲלֵיהֶם וַיָּשָׁב יְרוּשָׁלִָם׃ 23.2. וַיַּעַל הַמֶּלֶךְ בֵּית־יְהוָה וְכָל־אִישׁ יְהוּדָה וְכָל־יֹשְׁבֵי יְרוּשָׁלִַם אִתּוֹ וְהַכֹּהֲנִים וְהַנְּבִיאִים וְכָל־הָעָם לְמִקָּטֹן וְעַד־גָּדוֹל וַיִּקְרָא בְאָזְנֵיהֶם אֶת־כָּל־דִּבְרֵי סֵפֶר הַבְּרִית הַנִּמְצָא בְּבֵית יְהוָה׃ 23.2. And the king went up to the house of the LORD, and all the men of Judah and all the inhabitants of Jerusalem with him, and the priests, and the prophets, and all the people, both small and great; and he read in their ears all the words of the book of the covet which was found in the house of the LORD."
5. Hebrew Bible, Haggai, 2.11 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

2.11. כֹּה אָמַר יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת שְׁאַל־נָא אֶת־הַכֹּהֲנִים תּוֹרָה לֵאמֹר׃ 2.11. ’Thus saith the LORD of hosts: Ask now the priests for instruction, saying:"
6. Hebrew Bible, Nehemiah, 8.1-8.8, 8.12, 8.17 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

8.1. וַיֹּאמֶר לָהֶם לְכוּ אִכְלוּ מַשְׁמַנִּים וּשְׁתוּ מַמְתַקִּים וְשִׁלְחוּ מָנוֹת לְאֵין נָכוֹן לוֹ כִּי־קָדוֹשׁ הַיּוֹם לַאֲדֹנֵינוּ וְאַל־תֵּעָצֵבוּ כִּי־חֶדְוַת יְהוָה הִיא מָעֻזְּכֶם׃ 8.1. וַיֵּאָסְפוּ כָל־הָעָם כְּאִישׁ אֶחָד אֶל־הָרְחוֹב אֲשֶׁר לִפְנֵי שַׁעַר־הַמָּיִם וַיֹּאמְרוּ לְעֶזְרָא הַסֹּפֵר לְהָבִיא אֶת־סֵפֶר תּוֹרַת מֹשֶׁה אֲשֶׁר־צִוָּה יְהוָה אֶת־יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 8.2. וַיָּבִיא עֶזְרָא הַכֹּהֵן אֶת־הַתּוֹרָה לִפְנֵי הַקָּהָל מֵאִישׁ וְעַד־אִשָּׁה וְכֹל מֵבִין לִשְׁמֹעַ בְּיוֹם אֶחָד לַחֹדֶשׁ הַשְּׁבִיעִי׃ 8.3. וַיִּקְרָא־בוֹ לִפְנֵי הָרְחוֹב אֲשֶׁר לִפְנֵי שַׁעַר־הַמַּיִם מִן־הָאוֹר עַד־מַחֲצִית הַיּוֹם נֶגֶד הָאֲנָשִׁים וְהַנָּשִׁים וְהַמְּבִינִים וְאָזְנֵי כָל־הָעָם אֶל־סֵפֶר הַתּוֹרָה׃ 8.4. וַיַּעֲמֹד עֶזְרָא הַסֹּפֵר עַל־מִגְדַּל־עֵץ אֲשֶׁר עָשׂוּ לַדָּבָר וַיַּעֲמֹד אֶצְלוֹ מַתִּתְיָה וְשֶׁמַע וַעֲנָיָה וְאוּרִיָּה וְחִלְקִיָּה וּמַעֲשֵׂיָה עַל־יְמִינוֹ וּמִשְּׂמֹאלוֹ פְּדָיָה וּמִישָׁאֵל וּמַלְכִּיָּה וְחָשֻׁם וְחַשְׁבַּדָּנָה זְכַרְיָה מְשֻׁלָּם׃ 8.5. וַיִּפְתַּח עֶזְרָא הַסֵּפֶר לְעֵינֵי כָל־הָעָם כִּי־מֵעַל כָּל־הָעָם הָיָה וּכְפִתְחוֹ עָמְדוּ כָל־הָעָם׃ 8.6. וַיְבָרֶךְ עֶזְרָא אֶת־יְהוָה הָאֱלֹהִים הַגָּדוֹל וַיַּעֲנוּ כָל־הָעָם אָמֵן אָמֵן בְּמֹעַל יְדֵיהֶם וַיִּקְּדוּ וַיִּשְׁתַּחֲוֻּ לַיהוָה אַפַּיִם אָרְצָה׃ 8.7. וְיֵשׁוּעַ וּבָנִי וְשֵׁרֵבְיָה יָמִין עַקּוּב שַׁבְּתַי הוֹדִיָּה מַעֲשֵׂיָה קְלִיטָא עֲזַרְיָה יוֹזָבָד חָנָן פְּלָאיָה וְהַלְוִיִּם מְבִינִים אֶת־הָעָם לַתּוֹרָה וְהָעָם עַל־עָמְדָם׃ 8.8. וַיִּקְרְאוּ בַסֵּפֶר בְּתוֹרַת הָאֱלֹהִים מְפֹרָשׁ וְשׂוֹם שֶׂכֶל וַיָּבִינוּ בַּמִּקְרָא׃ 8.12. וַיֵּלְכוּ כָל־הָעָם לֶאֱכֹל וְלִשְׁתּוֹת וּלְשַׁלַּח מָנוֹת וְלַעֲשׂוֹת שִׂמְחָה גְדוֹלָה כִּי הֵבִינוּ בַּדְּבָרִים אֲשֶׁר הוֹדִיעוּ לָהֶם׃ 8.17. וַיַּעֲשׂוּ כָל־הַקָּהָל הַשָּׁבִים מִן־הַשְּׁבִי סֻכּוֹת וַיֵּשְׁבוּ בַסֻּכּוֹת כִּי לֹא־עָשׂוּ מִימֵי יֵשׁוּעַ בִּן־נוּן כֵּן בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל עַד הַיּוֹם הַהוּא וַתְּהִי שִׂמְחָה גְּדוֹלָה מְאֹד׃ 8.1. all the people gathered themselves together as one man into the broad place that was before the water gate; and they spoke unto Ezra the scribe to bring the book of the Law of Moses, which the LORD had commanded to Israel." 8.2. And Ezra the priest brought the Law before the congregation, both men and women, and all that could hear with understanding, upon the first day of the seventh month." 8.3. And he read therein before the broad place that was before the water gate from early morning until midday, in the presence of the men and the women, and of those that could understand; and the ears of all the people were attentive unto the book of the Law." 8.4. And Ezra the scribe stood upon a pulpit of wood, which they had made for the purpose; and beside him stood Mattithiah, and Shema, and Anaiah, and Uriah, and Hilkiah, and Maaseiah, on his right hand; and on his left hand, Pedaiah, and Mishael, and Malchijah, and Hashum, and Hashbaddanah, Zechariah, and Meshullam." 8.5. And Ezra opened the book in the sight of all the people—for he was above all the people—and when he opened it, all the people stood up." 8.6. And Ezra blessed the LORD, the great God. And all the people answered: ‘Amen, Amen’, with the lifting up of their hands; and they bowed their heads, and fell down before the LORD with their faces to the ground." 8.7. Also Jeshua, and Bani, and Sherebiah, Jamin, Akkub, Shabbethai, Hodiah, Maaseiah, Kelita, Azariah, Jozabad, Ha, Pelaiah, even the Levites, caused the people to understand the Law; and the people stood in their place." 8.8. And they read in the book, in the Law of God, distinctly; and they gave the sense, and caused them to understand the reading." 8.12. And all the people went their way to eat, and to drink, and to send portions, and to make great mirth, because they had understood the words that were declared unto them." 8.17. And all the congregation of them that were come back out of the captivity made booths, and dwelt in the booths; for since the days of Joshua the son of Nun unto that day had not the children of Israel done so. And there was very great gladness."
7. Anon., Jubilees, 6.23-6.38 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

6.23. He set His bow in the cloud for a sign of the eternal covet that there should not again be a flood on the earth to destroy it all the days of the earth. 6.24. For this reason it is ordained and written on the heavenly tables, that they should celebrate the feast of weeks in this month once a year, to renew the covet every year. 6.25. And this whole festival was celebrated in heaven from the day of creation till the days of Noah-twenty-six jubilees and five weeks of years:... 6.26. and Noah and his sons observed it for seven jubilees and one week of years, till the day of Noah's death, and from the day of Noah's death his sons did away with (it) until the days of Abraham, and they ate blood. 6.27. But Abraham observed it, and Isaac and Jacob and his children observed it up to thy days 6.28. and in thy days the children of Israel forgot it until ye celebrated it anew on this mountain. 6.29. And do thou command the children of Israel to observe this festival in all their generations for a commandment unto them: 6.30. one day in the year in this month they shall celebrate the festival. 6.31. For it is the feast of weeks and the feast of first-fruits: 6.32. this feast is twofold and of a double nature: according to what is written and engraven concerning it celebrate it. 6.33. For I have written in the book of the first law, in that which I have written for thee, that thou shouldst celebrate it in its season, one day in the year 6.34. and I explained to thee its sacrifices that the children of Israel should remember and should celebrate it throughout their generations in this month, one day in every year. 6.35. And on the new moon of the first month, and on the new moon of the fourth month, and on the new moon of the seventh month, and on the new moon of the tenth month are the days of remembrance, and the days of the seasons in the four divisions of the year. 6.36. These are written and ordained as a testimony for ever. 6.37. And Noah ordained them for himself as feasts for the generations for ever, so that they have become thereby a memorial unto him. 6.38. And on the new moon of the first month he was bidden to make for himself an ark, and on that (day) the earth became dry and he opened (the ark) and saw the earth.
8. Dead Sea Scrolls, Pesher On Habakkuk, 11.4-11.7 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

9. Hebrew Bible, Daniel, 6.11 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

6.11. וְדָנִיֵּאל כְּדִי יְדַע דִּי־רְשִׁים כְּתָבָא עַל לְבַיְתֵהּ וְכַוִּין פְּתִיחָן לֵהּ בְּעִלִּיתֵהּ נֶגֶד יְרוּשְׁלֶם וְזִמְנִין תְּלָתָה בְיוֹמָא הוּא בָּרֵךְ עַל־בִּרְכוֹהִי וּמְצַלֵּא וּמוֹדֵא קֳדָם אֱלָהֵהּ כָּל־קֳבֵל דִּי־הֲוָא עָבֵד מִן־קַדְמַת דְּנָה׃ 6.11. And when Daniel knew that the writing was signed, he went into his house—now his windows were open in his upper chamber toward Jerusalem—and he kneeled upon his knees three times a day, and prayed, and gave thanks before his God, as he did aforetime."
10. Anon., Didache, 7.1, 7.4, 8.1, 9.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

11. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 18.12-18.17 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

18.12. 3. Now, for the Pharisees, they live meanly, and despise delicacies in diet; and they follow the conduct of reason; and what that prescribes to them as good for them they do; and they think they ought earnestly to strive to observe reason’s dictates for practice. They also pay a respect to such as are in years; nor are they so bold as to contradict them in any thing which they have introduced; 18.12. 3. So Vitellius prepared to make war with Aretas, having with him two legions of armed men; he also took with him all those of light armature, and of the horsemen which belonged to them, and were drawn out of those kingdoms which were under the Romans, and made haste for Petra, and came to Ptolemais. 18.13. and when they determine that all things are done by fate, they do not take away the freedom from men of acting as they think fit; since their notion is, that it hath pleased God to make a temperament, whereby what he wills is done, but so that the will of man can act virtuously or viciously. 18.13. 4. Herod the Great had two daughters by Mariamne, the [grand] daughter of Hyrcanus; the one was Salampsio, who was married to Phasaelus, her first cousin, who was himself the son of Phasaelus, Herod’s brother, her father making the match; the other was Cypros, who was herself married also to her first cousin Antipater, the son of Salome, Herod’s sister. 18.14. They also believe that souls have an immortal rigor in them, and that under the earth there will be rewards or punishments, according as they have lived virtuously or viciously in this life; and the latter are to be detained in an everlasting prison, but that the former shall have power to revive and live again; 18.14. Alexander had a son of the same name with his brother Tigranes, and was sent to take possession of the kingdom of Armenia by Nero; he had a son, Alexander, who married Jotape, the daughter of Antiochus, the king of Commagena; Vespasian made him king of an island in Cilicia. 18.15. on account of which doctrines they are able greatly to persuade the body of the people; and whatsoever they do about divine worship, prayers, and sacrifices, they perform them according to their direction; insomuch that the cities give great attestations to them on account of their entire virtuous conduct, both in the actions of their lives and their discourses also. 18.15. Yet did not Herod long continue in that resolution of supporting him, though even that support was not sufficient for him; for as once they were at a feast at Tyre, and in their cups, and reproaches were cast upon one another, Agrippa thought that was not to be borne, while Herod hit him in the teeth with his poverty, and with his owing his necessary food to him. So he went to Flaccus, one that had been consul, and had been a very great friend to him at Rome formerly, and was now president of Syria. 18.16. 4. But the doctrine of the Sadducees is this: That souls die with the bodies; nor do they regard the observation of any thing besides what the law enjoins them; for they think it an instance of virtue to dispute with those teachers of philosophy whom they frequent: 18.16. o she undertook to repay it. Accordingly, Alexander paid them five talents at Alexandria, and promised to pay them the rest of that sum at Dicearchia [Puteoli]; and this he did out of the fear he was in that Agrippa would soon spend it. So this Cypros set her husband free, and dismissed him to go on with his navigation to Italy, while she and her children departed for Judea. 18.17. but this doctrine is received but by a few, yet by those still of the greatest dignity. But they are able to do almost nothing of themselves; for when they become magistrates, as they are unwillingly and by force sometimes obliged to be, they addict themselves to the notions of the Pharisees, because the multitude would not otherwise bear them. 18.17. for he did not admit ambassadors quickly, and no successors were despatched away to governors or procurators of the provinces that had been formerly sent, unless they were dead; whence it was that he was so negligent in hearing the causes of prisoners;
12. Mishnah, Bikkurim, 3.2 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

3.2. How were the bikkurim taken up [to Jerusalem]? All [the inhabitants of] the cities of the maamad would assemble in the city of the maamad, and they would spend the night in the open street and they would not entering any of the houses. Early in the morning the officer would say: “Let us arise and go up to Zion, into the house of the Lord our God” (Jeremiah 31:5)."
13. Mishnah, Berachot, 4.1, 4.3-4.4 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

4.1. The morning Tefillah (Shacharit) is until midday. Rabbi Judah says until the fourth hour. The afternoon Tefillah (Minhah) until evening. Rabbi Judah says: until the middle of the afternoon. The evening prayer has no fixed time. The time for the additional prayers (musaf) is the whole day. Rabbi Judah says: until the seventh hour." 4.3. Rabban Gamaliel says: every day a man should pray the eighteen [blessings]. Rabbi Joshua says: an abstract of the eighteen. Rabbi Akiva says: if he knows it fluently he prays the eighteen, and if not an abstract of the eighteen." 4.4. Rabbi Eliezer says: if a man makes his prayers fixed, it is not [true] supplication. Rabbi Joshua says: if one is traveling in a dangerous place, he says a short prayer, saying: Save, O Lord, Your people the remt of Israel. In every time of crisis may their needs be before You. Blessed are You, O Lord, who hears prayer."
14. Mishnah, Megillah, 3.5-3.6, 4.1 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

3.5. On Pesah we read from the portion of the festivals in Leviticus (Torat Kohanim) (Leviticus 23:4). On Shavuot, “Seven weeks” (Deuteronomy 16:9). On Rosh Hashanah “On the seventh day on the first of the month” (Leviticus 23:2. On Yom Hakippurim, “After the death” (Leviticus. On the first day of the Festival [of Sukkot] they read from the portion of the festivals in Leviticus, and on the other days of the Festival [of Sukkot] the [sections] on the offerings of the Festival." 3.6. On Hanukkah they read the section of the princes (Numbers. On Purim, “And Amalek came” (Exodus 17:8). On Rosh Hodesh, “And on the first of your months” (Numbers 28:11). On Maamadot, the account of the creation (Genesis 1:1-2:3). On fast days, the blessings and curses (Leviticus 26:3 ff and Deuteronomy. They do not interrupt while reading the curses, but rather one reads them all. On Monday and Thursday and on Shabbat at minhah they read according to the regular order and this does not count as part of the reading [for the succeeding Shabbat]. As it says, “And Moshe declared to the children of Israel the appointed seasons of the Lord” (Leviticus 23:44) it is their mitzvah that each should be read in its appropriate time." 4.1. He who reads the Megillah may either stand or sit. Whether one read it or two read it [together] they [those listening] have fulfilled their obligation. In places where it is the custom to say a blessing, they say the blessing, and where it is not the custom they do not say the blessing. On Mondays and Thursdays and on Shabbat at minhah, three read from the torah, they do not add [to this number] nor decrease [from it], nor do they conclude with [a haftarah] from the Prophets. The one who begins the Torah reading and the one who concludes the Torah reading blesses before it and after it."
15. Mishnah, Menachot, 10.1-10.3 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

10.1. Rabbi Ishmael says: On Shabbat the omer was taken out of three seahs [of barley] and on a weekday out of five. But the sages say: whether on Shabbat or on a weekday it was taken out of three seahs. Rabbi Hanina the vice-high priest says: on Shabbat it was reaped by one man with one sickle into one basket, and on a weekday it was reaped by three men into three baskets and with three sickles. But the sages say: whether on Shabbat or on a weekday it was reaped by three men into three baskets and with three sickles." 10.2. The mitzvah of the omer is that it should be brought from [what grows] near by. If [the crop] near Jerusalem was not yet ripe, it could be brought from any place. It once happened that the omer was brought from Gagot Zerifin and the two loaves from the plain of En Soker." 10.3. How would they do it [reap the omer]?The agents of the court used to go out on the day before the festival and tie the unreaped grain in bunches to make it the easier to reap. All the inhabitants of the towns near by assembled there, so that it might be reaped with a great demonstration. As soon as it became dark he says to them: “Has the sun set?” And they answer, “Yes.” “Has the sun set?” And they answer, “Yes.” “With this sickle?” And they answer, “Yes.” “With this sickle?” And they answer, “Yes.” “Into this basket?” And they answer, “Yes.” “Into this basket?” And they answer, “Yes.” On the Sabbath he says to them, “On this Sabbath?” And they answer, “Yes.” “On this Sabbath?” And they answer, “Yes.” “Shall I reap?” And they answer, “Reap.” “Shall I reap?” And they answer, “Reap.” He repeated every matter three times, and they answer, “yes, yes, yes.” And why all of this? Because of the Boethusians who held that the reaping of the omer was not to take place at the conclusion of the [first day of the] festival."
16. Mishnah, Taanit, 1.6, 2.9, 3.1, 4.1-4.5 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

1.6. If these passed and there was no answer, the court decrees three more fasts on the community. They may eat and drink [only] while it is still day; they may not work, bathe, anoint themselves with oil, wear shoes, or have marital, relations. And the bathhouses are closed. If these passed and there was no answer the court decrees upon the community a further seven, making a total of thirteen. These are greater than the first, for on these they blast the shofar and they lock the shops. On Mondays the shutters [of the shops] are opened a little when it gets dark, but on Thursdays they are permitted [the whole day] because of the Shabbat." 2.9. They do not decree upon the community a fast to begin on a Thursday in order not to cause a rise in the market prices. Rather the first three fasts are held [in this order], Monday, Thursday, and Monday; the second three, Thursday, Monday, and Thursday. Rabbi Yose says: just as the first three [fasts] should not begin on a Thursday so too neither the second [three] nor the last [seven]." 3.1. The order of public fasts mentioned above is enacted because of [lack of] the first rain, but if the crops have undergone [an unusual] change they sound a blast immediately. Similarly, if the rain has stopped for forty days between one rainfall and the next, they sound a blast immediately, because it is a plague of drought." 4.1. On three occasions during the year, on fast days, on ma’amadot, and on Yom Kippur the priests lift up their hands to bless [the people] four times during the day--at Shaharit, at Mussaf, at Minhah and at Neilah." 4.2. What are the ma’amadot? Since it is said, “Command the children of Israel and say to them: My offering, My food” (Numbers 28:2). Now how can a man’s offering be offered and he is not present? [Therefore] the former prophets instituted twenty-four mishmarot (guards). For each mishmar there was a ma’amad [at the Temple] in Jerusalem consisting of priests, Levites and Israelites. When the time came for the mishmar to go up [to Jerusalem] the priests and Levites went up to Jerusalem and the Israelites of that mishmar assembled in their cities and read the story of creation." 4.3. The men of the maamad fasted on four days of that week, from Monday to Thursday; they did not fast on Friday out of respect for Shabbat or on Sunday in order not to switch from the rest and delight [of Shabbat] to weariness and fasting and [thereby] die. On Sunday [they read], “In the beginning,” and, “Let there be a firmament;” On Monday, “Let there be a firmament,” and, “Let the waters be gathered together;” On Tuesday, “Let the waters be gathered together,” and, “Let there be lights;” On Wednesday, “Let there be lights,” and, “Let the waters swarm;” On Thursday, “Let the waters swarm,” and, “Let the earth bring forth;” On Friday, “Let the earth bring forth,” and, “And the heavens [and the earth] were completed.” For a long section two people read and for a short section one person. [This is how they would read] at Shacharit and Mussaf. And at minhah they assemble and read the section by heart, as they recite the Shema. On Friday at minhah they did not assemble out of respect for Shabbat." 4.4. On any day when there is Hallel there was no maamad at Shaharit; [On the day when] there is a Musaf-offering, there was no [maamad] at Ne'ilah. [On the day of] the wood-offering, there was no [maamad] at Minhah, the words of Rabbi Akiva. Ben Azzai said to him: Thus did Rabbi Joshua learn: [On the day when] there is a Musaf-offering, there was no [maamad] at Minhah; [On the day of] the wood-offering, there was no [maamad] at Ne’ilah. Rabbi Akiva retracted and learned like Ben Azzai." 4.5. The times of the wood of the priests and the people was nine:On the first of Nisan the family Arah of Yehudah. On the twentieth of Tammuz the family of David of Yehudah. On the fifth of Av the family of Parosh of Yehudah. On the seventh of the same month, the family of Yonadav of Rechav. On the tenth of the same month, the family of Snaah of Benjamin. On the fifteenth of the same month, the family of Zattu of Yehudah, and with them were the priests and Levites and all those who were not certain of their tribe and the family of Gonve Eli and the family of Kotze Ketizot. On the twentieth of the same month the family of Pahat Moav of Yehudah. On the twentieth of Elul the family of Adin of Yehudah. On the first of Tevet the family of Parosh of Yehudah [offered] a second time. On the first of Tevet there was no maamad for there was Hallel, Musaf and the wood-festival."
17. Mishnah, Yoma, 6.2 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

6.2. He then came to the scapegoat and laid his two hands upon it and he made confession. And thus he would say: “Please, ‘Hashem’! They have done wrong, they have transgressed, they have sinned before You, Your people the House of Israel. Please, in the name of Hashem (Bashem)! Forgive the wrongdoings, the transgressions, the sins which your people, the House of Israel, have committed and transgressed and sinned before You, as it is written in the torah of Moses Your servant: “For on this day shall atonement be made for you [to cleanse you of all your sins; you shall be clean before the Lord”] (Leviticus 16:30). And the priests and the people standing in the courtyard, when they would hear God’s name explicated coming out of the high priest’s mouth, would bend their knees, bow down and fall on their faces and say “Blessed be the name of His glorious kingdom for ever and ever!”"
18. New Testament, Acts, 6.9, 24.12 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

6.9. But some of those who were of the synagogue called "The Libertines," and of the Cyrenians, of the Alexandrians, and of those of Cilicia and Asia arose, disputing with Stephen. 24.12. In the temple they didn't find me disputing with anyone or stirring up a crowd, either in the synagogues, or in the city.
19. New Testament, Luke, 18.12 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

18.12. I fast twice a week. I give tithes of all that I get.'
20. New Testament, Mark, 9.5 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

9.5. Peter answered Jesus, "Rabbi, it is good for us to be here. Let's make three tents: one for you, one for Moses, and one for Elijah.
21. Tosefta, Berachot, 2.1, 3.1-3.2 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

2.1. One who says the Shema must remember the exodus from Egypt when saying \"Emet V'Yatziv\". Rabbi [Yehuda] says that one must remember the [Davidic] kingship. Aherim say that one must remember the slaying of the first born and the dividing of the Red Sea. " 3.2. ...The evening prayer [of Shmoneh Esreh] does not have a set time. Rebbi Elazar Bar Yossi says, “[A person should pray the evening Shmoneh Esreh] with the closing of the gates [of the Bet Hamikdash (Temple)].” Rebbi Elazar Bar Yossi said, “My father [always] prayed [the evening Shmoneh Esreh] with the closing of the gates [of the Bet Hamikdash].” [A person] who prays the Mussaf prayer [of Shmoneh Esreh] either after the morning Tamid [sacrifice] has been brought or before the morning Tamid [sacrifice] has been brought, has fulfilled his obligation [of praying the morning Shmoneh Esreh on time.]"
22. Tosefta, Menachot, 10.23 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

23. Tosefta, Sukkah, 3.1, 3.16 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

3.1. The lulav suspends the Sabbath in the beginning of its duty, and the willow in the end of its duty. There is a story that some Boethusians once hid the willows under some great stones on the Sabbath eve; but when this had become known to the common people they came and dragged them out from under the stones on the Sabbath, for the Boethusians do not acknowledge that the beating of the willow suspends the Sabbath."
24. Babylonian Talmud, Berachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

6b. וכולהו כתיבי באדרעיה:,אמר רבין בר רב אדא אמר רבי יצחק כל הרגיל לבא לבית הכנסת ולא בא יום אחד הקב"ה משאיל בו שנאמר (ישעיהו נ, י) מי בכם ירא ה' שומע בקול עבדו אשר הלך חשכים ואין נוגה לו,אם לדבר מצוה הלך נוגה לו ואם לדבר הרשות הלך אין נוגה לו,יבטח בשם ה' מאי טעמא משום דהוה ליה לבטוח בשם ה' ולא בטח:,אמר ר' יוחנן בשעה שהקב"ה בא בבית הכנסת ולא מצא בה עשרה מיד הוא כועס שנא' (ישעיהו נ, ב) מדוע באתי ואין איש קראתי ואין עונה.,א"ר חלבו אמר רב הונא כל הקובע מקום לתפלתו אלהי אברהם בעזרו,וכשמת אומרים לו אי עניו אי חסיד מתלמידיו של אברהם אבינו,ואברהם אבינו מנא לן דקבע מקום דכתיב (בראשית יט, כז) וישכם אברהם בבקר אל המקום אשר עמד שם ואין עמידה אלא תפלה שנאמר (תהלים קו, ל) ויעמוד פינחס ויפלל:,אמר רבי חלבו אמר רב הונא היוצא מבית הכנסת אל יפסיע פסיעה גסה אמר אביי לא אמרן אלא למיפק אבל למיעל מצוה למרהט שנא' (הושע ו, ג) נרדפה לדעת את ה',אמר רבי זירא מריש כי הוה חזינא להו לרבנן דקא רהטי לפרקא בשבתא אמינא קא מחליין רבנן שבתא כיון דשמענא להא דרבי תנחום א"ר יהושע בן לוי לעולם ירוץ אדם לדבר הלכה ואפילו בשבת שנא' (הושע יא, י) אחרי ה' ילכו כאריה ישאג וגו' אנא נמי רהיטנא:,אמר ר' זירא אגרא דפרקא רהטא,אמר אביי אגרא דכלה דוחקא,אמר רבא אגרא דשמעתא סברא,אמר רב פפא אגרא דבי טמיא שתיקותא,אמר מר זוטרא אגרא דתעניתא צדקתא,אמר רב ששת אגרא דהספדא דלויי,אמר רב אשי אגרא דבי הלולי מילי:,אמר רב הונא כל המתפלל אחורי בית הכנסת נקרא רשע שנאמר (תהלים יב, ט) סביב רשעים יתהלכון,אמר אביי לא אמרן אלא דלא מהדר אפיה לבי כנישתא אבל מהדר אפיה לבי כנישתא לית לן בה,ההוא גברא דקא מצלי אחורי בי כנישתא ולא מהדר אפיה לבי כנישתא חלף אליהו חזייה אידמי ליה כטייעא א"ל כדו בר קיימת קמי מרך שלף ספסרא וקטליה,א"ל ההוא מרבנן לרב ביבי בר אביי ואמרי לה רב ביבי לרב נחמן בר יצחק מאי (תהלים יב, ט) כרום זלות לבני אדם,אמר ליה אלו דברים שעומדים ברומו של עולם ובני אדם מזלזלין בהן,ר' יוחנן ור' אלעזר דאמרי תרוייהו כיון שנצטרך אדם לבריות פניו משתנות ככרום שנאמר כרום זלות לבני אדם,מאי כרום כי אתא רב דימי אמר עוף אחד יש בכרכי הים וכרום שמו וכיון שחמה זורחת מתהפך לכמה גוונין,ר' אמי ור' אסי דאמרי תרוייהו כאילו נדון בשני דינים אש ומים שנאמר (תהלים סו, יב) הרכבת אנוש לראשנו באנו באש ובמים:,ואמר רבי חלבו אמר רב הונא לעולם יהא אדם זהיר בתפלת המנחה שהרי אליהו לא נענה אלא בתפלת המנחה שנאמר (מלכים א יח, לו) ויהי בעלות המנחה ויגש אליהו הנביא ויאמר וגו' ענני ה' ענני,ענני שתרד אש מן השמים וענני שלא יאמרו מעשה כשפים הם,ר' יוחנן אמר אף בתפלת ערבית שנאמר (תהלים קמא, ב) תכון תפלתי קטרת לפניך משאת כפי מנחת ערב רב נחמן בר יצחק אמר אף תפלת שחרית שנאמר (תהלים ה, ד) ה' בקר תשמע קולי בקר אערך לך ואצפה:,וא"ר חלבו אמר רב הונא כל הנהנה מסעודת חתן ואינו משמחו עובר בחמשה קולות שנאמר (ירמיהו לג, יא) קול ששון וקול שמחה קול חתן וקול כלה קול אומרים הודו את ה' צבאות,ואם משמחו מה שכרו אמר רבי יהושע בן לוי זוכה לתורה שנתנה בחמשה קולות שנאמר (שמות יט, טז) ויהי ביום השלישי בהיות הבקר ויהי קולות וברקים וענן כבד על ההר וקול שופר וגו' ויהי קול השופר וגו' והאלהים יעננו בקול.,איני והא כתיב (שמות כ, טו) וכל העם רואים את הקולת,אותן קולות דקודם מתן תורה הוו,רבי אבהו אמר כאילו הקריב תודה שנאמר (ירמיהו לג, יא) מביאים תודה בית ה' רב נחמן בר יצחק אמר כאילו בנה אחת מחורבות ירושלים שנאמר (ירמיהו לג, יא) כי אשיב את שבות הארץ כבראשונה אמר ה':,וא"ר חלבו אמר רב הונא כל אדם שיש בו יראת שמים דבריו נשמעין שנאמר (קהלת יב, יג) סוף דבר הכל נשמע את האלהים ירא וגו',מאי (קהלת יב, יג) כי זה כל האדם א"ר אלעזר אמר הקב"ה כל העולם כלו לא נברא אלא בשביל זה,רבי אבא בר כהנא אמר שקול זה כנגד כל העולם כולו ר' שמעון בן עזאי אומר ואמרי לה ר' שמעון בן זומא אומר כל העולם כולו לא נברא אלא לצוות לזה:,וא"ר חלבו אמר רב הונא כל שיודע בחברו שהוא רגיל ליתן לו שלום יקדים לו שלום שנאמר (תהלים לד, טו) בקש שלום ורדפהו ואם נתן לו ולא החזיר נקרא גזלן שנאמר (ישעיהו ג, יד) ואתם בערתם הכרם גזלת העני בבתיכם: 6b. in the phylacteries of the head, where there are four separate compartments. bAnd allof the verses bare writtentogether on one parchment binthe phylacteries of the barm,which has only one compartment.,Additionally, bRavin bar Rav Adda saidthat bRabbi Yitzḥak said: One who is accustomed to come to the synagogue and did not come one day, the Holy One, Blessed be He, asks about him,as it were, to determine what happened to him, bas it is stated: “Who among you fears the Lord? Who hears the voice of His servant? Though he walks in darkness and has no light,let him trust in the name of the Lord, and rely upon his God” (Isaiah 50:10). In other words, God asks, who among you fears the Lord yet did not come to hear the voice of His servant the prayer leader, who engages in the service of God? He who went out before dawn and walks in darkness before prayer., bIf it is for a matterinvolving ba mitzva that he wentand absented himself from prayer in the synagogue, then, despite the darkness, bthere is light for him,the aura of his mitzva will protect him. bBut if it is for an optional matter,some mundane purpose, bthat he wentand absented himself from prayer in the synagogue, then, even once the day begins, bthere is no light for him(Maharsha).,The verse continues: b“Let him trust in the name of the Lord.”The Gemara asks: bWhat is the reasonthat God is so exacting with this person? The Gemara answers: bBecause he should have relied on the name of the Lord,and trusted that he would not incur any loss if he postponed dealing with his mundane matters until after prayer in the synagogue, band he did not relyon God.,On this same topic, bRabbi Yoḥa said: When the Holy One, Blessed be He, enters a synagogue and does not find tenpeople there, bHe immediately becomes angry, as it is stated: “Why, when I came, was there no one? When I called, there was no one to answer… /bBehold, with My rebuke I dry up the sea, I make the rivers a wilderness” (Isaiah 50:2).,Concerning another aspect of the constancy of prayer, bRabbi Ḥelbo said that Rav Huna said: One who sets a fixed place for his prayer, the God of Abraham assists him.Since prayer parallels the Temple service, it is a sign of respect to set a fixed place for this sacred rite (Rabbi Yoshiyahu Pinto). The God of Abraham assists him because this pious custom evokes Abraham’s conduct., bWhen he dies,those who eulogize one who set a fixed place for his prayer bsay about him: “Where is the humbleone, bwhere is the piousone, bof the disciples of our father Abraham?”Presumably, one who sets a fixed place for prayer is a disciple of Abraham in every respect, including humility and piety (Rabbi Yoshiyahu Pinto).,The Gemara asks: bFrom where do wederive bthat Abraham our father set a fixed placefor his prayer? The Gemara answers: bAs it is written: “And Abraham rose in the morning to the place where he had stoodbefore God” (Genesis 19:27), bandthe verb b“standing” means nothing other than prayer, as it is stated: “And Pinehas stood and prayed”(Psalms 106:30)., bRabbi Ḥelbo saidthat bRav Huna said: One who leaves the synagogue should not take large stridesbecause it creates the impression that he is eager to leave. bAbayeexplained Rav Huna’s statement and bsaid:This ihalakha bwas only saidwith regard bto leavingthe synagogue, where large strides seem particularly disrespectful. bHowever,with regard bto enteringa synagogue, bit is a mitzva to runand one is permitted to rush and take large strides (Rabbi Yoshiyahu Pinto). bAs it is said:“And let us know, beagerly strive to know the Lord”(Hosea 6:3). One who eagerly enters a synagogue displays his enthusiasm to follow the path of God., bRabbi Zeira said: Initially, when I saw the Sages running to theRabbi’s blecture on Shabbat, I said: These Sages are desecrating Shabbat.One is prohibited from running on Shabbat in deference to the sanctity of the day. bOnce I heard that which Rabbi Tanḥum saidthat bRabbi Yehoshua ben Levisaid: bOne should always run for a matter of ihalakha /i, even on Shabbat, as it is stated: “They shall walk after the Lord, who will roar like a lion”(Hosea 11:10). In other words, one should rush as though he were chased by a lion ( iBirkat Hashem /i), bI too run. /b, bRabbi Zeira said: The reward forattending bthe lecture isfor brunning.Since most individuals attending the lecture did not fully understand the material taught, the primary reward for attendance was given for their intention to hear the Torah being taught, as evidenced by their rush to arrive.,Similarly, bAbaye said: The reward forattending bthe ikallaisfor bthe crowding.Due to the large crowd, study was difficult, so the primary reward was given for their effort to hear and understand some part of the lecture.,Similarly, bRava said: The reward forlearning the halakhic btraditionsof the iamora’im bisfor bthe logicalanalysis, as the primary reward for studying Talmud was not given for knowing the halakhic conclusions, but for the logical reasoning that led to those conclusions., bRav Pappa said: Theprimary breward forattending ba house of mourning [ ibei tammaya /i] isfor the bsilence,which is the optimal manner for those consoling the mourners to express their empathy., bMar Zutra said: Theprimary breward for fasting isfor the bcharitygiven to the poor on the fast day (see Isaiah 58)., bRav Sheshet said: Theprimary breward fordelivering ba eulogy isfor causing those in attendance to braise their voicesand cry, as that increases the grief over the deceased., bRav Ashi said: Theprimary breward forparticipating in ba wedding isfor bthe words,i.e., the good wishes with which the guests regale the bride and groom.,Back to the topic of deference for a synagogue, the Gemara records that bRav Huna said: One who prays behind the synagogue is called wicked,as while the entire congregation is facing one direction to pray, he faces the opposite direction creating the impression that he is treating the synagogue and its congregation with contempt. bAs it is stated: “The wicked walk round about,when vileness is exalted among the sons of men” (Psalms 12:9). In other words, only the wicked walk round about the synagogue in order to pray., bAbaye said: This ihalakha bwas said onlyin a case bwhere one does not turn his face toward the synagogue. Butwhere bhe turns his face toward the synagogueand prays bwe have noprohibition binthat case.,To reinforce the gravity of this prohibition, the Gemara relates: bA certain individual prayed behind the synagogue and did not turn to face the synagogue.Elijah the Prophet bpassed by and appeared tohim bas an Arab [ itaya’a /i].Elijah bsaid: “This is how [ ikadu bar /i] you stand before your Master?”Elijah bdrew a sword and killed him. /b,Rav Huna already explained the beginning of the verse, “The wicked walk round about.” The Gemara explains the end of the verse: “When vileness is exalted among the sons of men.” bOne of the Sages said to Rav Beivai bar Abaye, and some say Rav Beivaisaid to bRav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak: What isthe meaning of: b“When vileness is exalted among the sons of men”? /b, bHe said to him: These are matters of utmost importance,exalted, i.e., mitzvot or prayer, bwhich peoplenonetheless btreat with contempt,vileness among the sons of men., bRabbi Yoḥa andhis student, bRabbi Elazar, both saidan alternative explanation of this verse: bOnce a person needsthe help of bothersand loses dignity in their eyes, vileness among the sons of men, bhis face changesand becomes blike a ikerum /i, as it is stated: “When [ ikerum /i] vileness is exalted among the sons of men.” /b, bWhat is ikerum /ireferred to by Rabbi Yoḥa and Rabbi Elazar? bWhen Rav Dimi cameto Babylonia from Eretz Yisrael bhe said: There is a bird in the cities by the sea called ikerumand when the sun rises,the bird bchanges several colors.Similarly, one who becomes dependent upon others blushes in embarrassment., bRabbi Ami and Rabbi Asi both said:One who becomes dependent upon others, bit is as if he was punished with two punishments: Fire and water. As it is stated: “You have caused men to ride over our heads; we have gone through fire and water”(Psalms 66:12)., bAnd Rabbi Ḥelbo saidthat bRav Huna said: One must always be vigilant with regard to the afternoon prayer, as Elijah’sprayer bwas only answered in the afternoon prayer, as it is stated: “And it was at the time of the afternoon offering that Elijah the Prophet came near, and he said:Lord, God of Abraham, Isaac and Israel, let it be known on this day that You are God in Israel, and that I am Your servant, and that I have done all these things at Your word. bAnswer me, Lord, answer me,that this people will know that You, Lord, are God” (I Kings 18:36–37). Because Elijah was answered in the afternoon prayer, it has particular significance.,In passing, the Gemara explains why it was necessary for Elijah to repeat, “answer me, Lord, answer me”: The first banswer mewas the request bthat fire descend from the heavens, whilethe second banswer mewas the request bthatIsrael should accept complete faith in God and bnot say thatthe fire descending from the heavens bwas an act of sorcery. /b, bRabbi Yoḥasaid: One must be vigilant bwith regard to the evening prayer as well, as it is stated: “Let my prayer come forth as incense before You, the lifting of my hands as the evening offering”(Psalms 141:2). br bRav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said:One must be vigilant bwith regard to the morning prayer as well, as it is stated: “Lord, in the morning You shall hear my voice; in the morning I will order my prayer unto You and will look forward”(Psalms 5:4)., bAnd Rabbi Ḥelbo saidthat bRav Huna said: Anyone who benefits from the feast of a groom but does not cause him to rejoice violates the five voicesmentioned in this verse, bas it is stated: “The voice of joy and the voice of gladness, the voice of the groom and the voice of the bride, and the voice of those who say: Give thanks to the Lord of hosts,for the Lord is good, for His mercy lasts forever, even of those who bring a thanks-offering to the house of the Lord. For I will restore the captivity of the land as it was in the beginning, says the Lord” (Jeremiah 33:11). These five voices in the context of a bride and groom correspond to the five voices mentioned in the context of the revelation at Sinai, as in Song of Songs, the day of the revelation at Sinai is alluded to by the phrase: His wedding day (Rabbi Yoshiyahu Pinto, Maharsha)., bWhat is his reward if he causesthe groom bto rejoice? bRabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said:He is privilegedto acquire bthe Torah, which was given with five voices, as it is stated: “And it was on the third day, when it was morning, there were sounds [ ikolot /i], and lightning and a thick cloud upon the mountain, and the voice of the ishofar /i”(Exodus 19:16). The plural ikolotindicates at least two sounds, while “the voice of the shofar” is one more. The passage continues: b“And when the voice of the ishofar /igrew louder and louder, Moses spoke band God answered him by a voice”(Exodus 19:19). Along with the three previous voices, the second shofar and the voice with which God answered Moses amount to a total of five voices at the revelation at Sinai.,The Gemara asks: bIs this so? Isn’t it also written: “And the whole nation saw the voicesand the torches and the sound of the shofar” (Exodus 20:15)? Clearly more than five voices are mentioned with regard to the revelation at Sinai.,The Gemara answers: bThose voices weresounded bprior to the giving of the Torah,so they are not included in this calculation of voices., bRabbi Abbahu said:The reward for causing a groom to rejoice bisthe same bas if one had offered a thanks-offeringin the Temple, for bas it is statedlater in the previously cited verse from Jeremiah: b“Those who bring a thanks-offering to the house of the Lord.” br bAnd Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said:The reward for causing a groom to rejoice is the same bas if one rebuilt one of Jerusalem’s ruins, as it is statedlater in the same verse: b“For I will restore the captivity of the land as it was in the beginning.” /b, bAnd Rabbi Ḥelbo saidthat bRav Huna said: Any person who has the fear of Heaven, his words are heeded, as it is stated: “The end of the matter, all having been heard: Fear God,and keep His commandments; for this is all of man” (Ecclesiastes 12:13). The Gemara explains: “The end of the matter, all having been heard,” refers to the words of one “who keeps His commandments; for this is all of man.”,With regard to the end of this verse, the Gemara asks: bWhat ismeant by, b“for this is all of man”? Rabbi Elazar said: The Holy One, Blessed be He, saidabout him: bThe entire world was created only for thisperson. This is the ultimate person for which all of man was created., bRabbi Abba bar Kahana said:The end of this verse teaches that bthis is equivalent to the entire world,all of man. br bRabbi Shimon ben Azzai, and some say Rabbi Shimon ben Zoma, says:Not only is he the equivalent of the entire world, but bthe entire world was createdto serve bas companions for him,so that he would have a society in which to live and with which to interact., bAnd Rabbi Ḥelbo saidthat bRav Huna said: One who is aware that anotherperson bis accustomed to greet himis not only obligated to return his greeting, but bhemust bgreet him first, as it is stated: “Seek peace and pursue it”(Psalms 34:15). bIfthe other person bextendedhis bgreeting to him and he did not respond, he is called a robber, as it is stated: “It is you who have eaten up the vineyard, the spoils of the poor is in your houses”(Isaiah 3:14). The only way to steal from a pauper who owns nothing is to rob him of his dignity by refusing to return his greeting.
25. Babylonian Talmud, Sukkah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

43b. תשבו תשבו לגזרה שוה נאמר כאן תשבו ונאמר במלואים (ויקרא ח, לה) תשבו מה להלן ימים ואפי' לילות אף כאן ימים ואפילו לילות:,ערבה שבעה כיצד: ערבה בשביעי מ"ט דחיא שבת א"ר יוחנן כדי לפרסמה שהיא מן התורה אי הכי לולב נמי לידחי כדי לפרסמו שהוא מן התורה,לולב גזרה משום דרבה אי הכי ערבה נמי נגזור ערבה שלוחי בית דין מייתי לה לולב לכל מסור,אי הכי כל יומא נמי לידחי אתי לפקפוקי בלולב ולידחי ביום טוב ראשון לא מוכחא מלתא אמרי לולב הוא דקא דחי,ולידחי בחד מהנך כיון דקא מפקת לה מראשון אוקמה אשביעי,אי הכי האידנא נמי לידחי אנן לא ידעינן בקיבועא דירחא,אינהו דידעי בקיבועא דירחא לידחי כי אתא בר הדיא אמר לא איקלע כי אתא רבין וכל נחותי אמרי איקלע ולא דחי,ואלא קשיא אמר רב יוסף מאן לימא לן דערבה בנטילה דלמא בזקיפה,איתיביה אביי לולב וערבה ששה ושבעה מאי לאו כלולב מה לולב בנטילה אף ערבה בנטילה מידי איריא הא כדאיתיה והא כדאיתיה,איתיביה אביי בכל יום מקיפין את המזבח פעם אחת ואותו היום שבע פעמים מאי לאו בערבה לא בלולב והא אמר רב נחמן אמר רבה בר אבוה בערבה א"ל הוא אמר לך בערבה ואנא אמינא בלולב אתמר ר' אלעזר אומר בלולב רב שמואל [בר נתן] אמר ר' חנינא בערבה וכן אמר רב נחמן אמר רבה בר אבוה בערבה,א"ל רבא לרב יצחק בריה דרבה בר בר חנה בר אוריא תא ואימא לך מלתא מעליתא דהוה אמר אבוך הא דתנן כל היום מקיפין את המזבח פעם אחת ואותו היום מקיפין את המזבח שבע פעמים הכי אמר אבוך משמיה דר' אלעזר בלולב,איתיביה לולב דוחה את השבת בתחלתו וערבה בסופו פעם אחת חל שביעי של ערבה להיות בשבת והביאו מרביות של ערבה מערב שבת והניחום בעזרה והכירו בהן בייתוסין ונטלום וכבשום תחת אבנים,למחר הכירו בהן עמי הארץ ושמטום מתחת האבנים והביאום הכהנים וזקפום בצידי המזבח לפי שאין בייתוסין מודים שחיבוט ערבה דוחה את השבת,אלמא בנטילה היא תיובתא,ואלא נדחו כיון דאנן לא דחינן אינהו נמי לא דחו והא יום טוב הראשון דלדידן לא דחי ולדידהו דחי 43b. b“You shall reside,” “you shall reside,”by means bof a verbal analogy. It is stated here,with regard to isukka /i: b“You shall residein isukkotseven days” (Leviticus 23:42), band it is stated with regard to the inaugurationof the Tabernacle: “And at the door of the Tent of Meeting byou shall resideday and night seven days” (Leviticus 8:35). bJust as there,with regard to the inauguration, the meaning is bdays and even nights, so too here,with regard to isukka /i, the meaning is bdays and even nights. /b,§ The mishna continues: The altar is encircled with the bwillow branchfor bsevendays. bHowso? If the seventh day of performing the mitzva of the willow branch occurs on Shabbat, since on that day the mitzva of the willow branch is a mitzva by Torah law, it overrides Shabbat and the mitzva of the willow branch is then performed seven days. The Gemara asks: With regard to the mitzva of the bwillow branch on the seventhday, bwhat is the reasonthat bit overrides Shabbat? Rabbi Yoḥa said:It is bin order to publicize that it isa mitzva that bapplies by Torahlaw, since it is not written explicitly in the Torah. The Gemara raises an objection: bIf so, ilulavtoo should overrideShabbat in the Temple on the other days of iSukkotas well and not only on the first day bin order to publicize that it isa mitzva bby Torahlaw all seven days, since that too is not written explicitly in the Torah.,The Gemara answers: One is prohibited from taking the ilulav /ion Shabbat by rabbinic bdecree due tothe concern expressed bby Rabba(42b) lest he take the ilulavin his hand and go to an expert to learn how to wave the ilulavand thereby carry it in the public domain. The Gemara objects: bIf so,with regard to the bwillow branch as well let us issue a decreedue to the same concern. The Gemara answers: The two cases are different. With regard to the bwillow branch, agents of the court bring itto the priests who perform the mitzva in the Temple, and they carefully prepare the willow branch prior to the onset of Shabbat and will not come to carry it in a prohibited manner on Shabbat. However, performance of the mitzva of ilulavis incumbent upon every individual.Therefore, there is concern lest one unwittingly perform the prohibited labor of carrying on Shabbat.,The Gemara objects: bIf so,i.e., because the willow branch is supplied by agents of the court there is no concern that Shabbat will be desecrated, bletthe mitzva of the willow branch boverrideShabbat on bevery dayof the Festival bas well.The Gemara answers: In that case people bwould come to raise doubts aboutthe significance of the mitzva of ilulav /i,as, unlike the mitzva of the willow branch, it would override Shabbat on only one day of the Festival and not on all seven. The Gemara asks: bAnd letthe mitzva of the willow branch boverrideShabbat bon the first day of the Festival,just as the mitzva of ilulavdoes, and not on the seventh day. The Gemara answers: bThe matterof publicizing that the mitzva of willow branch is a mitzva by Torah law bwould not be apparent,as people bwould saythat bit isreally the mitzva of ilulavthat overridesShabbat, and once ilulavis permitted the willow branch is permitted as well.,The Gemara asks: bAnd letthe mitzva of the willow branch boverrideShabbat bon one of theseother days of iSukkot /i; why specifically the seventh day? The Gemara answers: bOnce you moved it from the firstday, bestablish it on the seventhday, which is also a unique day of iSukkot /i, and not on one of the other intermediate days of iSukkot /i.,The Gemara asks: bIf so,i.e., if the mitzva of the willow branch is so significant that it overrides Shabbat, blet it overrideShabbat btoday as well,even though the Temple is not standing. The Gemara answers: bWe do not knowwhen precisely bthe establishment of the monthwas determined by the court. Therefore, it is possible that the day observed as the seventh day of iSukkotis not the seventh day at all. Certainly, one does not violate the rabbinic decree to fulfill a mitzva that is not definitely a mitzva by Torah law.,The Gemara asks: If so, with regard to the people of Eretz Yisrael, bwho know the establishment of the month, let them overrideShabbat for the mitzva of willow branch on the seventh day of iSukkoteven today. bWhen bar Hedya camefrom Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia bhe said:That is not a practical question, as the seventh day bdoes not coincidewith Shabbat, since the Sages fixed the calendar to avoid that possibility. bWhen Ravin and all thoseemissaries bwho descendedto Babylonia, or who originally left Babylonia for Eretz Yisrael and returned, bcame, they said: It does coincidewith Shabbat, bbut it does not overrideShabbat.,The Gemara asks: bButthen it is bdifficult;why doesn’t the mitzva of the willow branch override Shabbat on the seventh day today? bRav Yosef said: Who will say to usdefinitively bthatthe mitzva of bthe willow branchis performed bby takingit? bPerhaps it isperformed bby standingthe branches buprightagainst the altar. Since there is no altar today, the mitzva does not override Shabbat., bAbaye raised an objection toRav Yosef from the mishna, which states: The ilulav /iis taken bandthe altar is encircled with bthe willow brancheither bsix or sevendays. bWhat, is it notlearned from the juxtaposition of these mitzvot in the mishna that the mitzva of the willow branch is blikethe mitzva of ilulav /iin that bjust asthe mitzva of ilulav /iis performed bby takingit, bso too,the mitzva of the bwillow branchis performed bby takingit and not by standing it upright? He answered him: bAre the casesnecessarily bcomparable?Perhaps bthismitzva of ilulavis bas it is,by means of taking, band thismitzva of the willow branch is bas it is,by means of standing it upright., bAbaye raised an objection toRav Yosef from a mishna: bOn every daythe people bcircle the altar one time, andon bthat day,the seventh day of the willow branch, they circle it bseven times. What, isthe mishna bnotreferring to circling the altar bwith the willow branchin hand? He answered him: bNo,it is referring to circling the altar bwith a ilulav /i.Abaye objects: bBut didn’t Rav Naḥman saythat bRabba bar Avuh said:They would circle the altar bwith the willow branch?Rav Yosef bsaid to him: He said to you with the willow branch;however, my authority is no less than his, as we are both iamora’im /i, band I saythat they circle the altar bwith a ilulav /i. It was statedthat this was the subject of dispute between other iamora’imas well. bRabbi Elazar says:They circle the altar bwith a ilulav /i. Rav Shmuel bar Natan saidthat bRabbi Ḥanina said:They circle the altar bwith the willow branch. And likewise, Rav Naḥman saidthat bRabba bar Avuh said:They would circle the altar bwith the willow branch. /b, bRava said to Rav Yitzḥak, son of Rabba bar bar Ḥana: Son of Torah [ ibar urya /i], come and I will tell you an outstanding statement that your father would say.With regard to bthat which we learnedin a mishna: On bevery daythe people bcircle the altar one time, and on that day,the seventh day of the willow branch, bthey circle the altar seven times; thisis what byour father said in the name of Rabbi Elazar:They circle the altar bwith a ilulav /i. /b,Abaye braised an objection toRav Yosef from the iTosefta( iSukka3:1): The mitzva of ilulavoverrides Shabbat atthe bstartof the Festival, band the willow branchoverrides it batthe bendof the Festival. bOne time, the seventhday bofthe bwillow branch occurred on Shabbat, and they brought branches ofthe bwillowtree bon Shabbat eve,before Shabbat, band placed them in theTemple bcourtyardfor use on Shabbat. The bBoethusiansin the Temple, who disagreed with the Sages and held that there is no mitzva of the willow branch on the seventh day of the Festival, bnoticed them and took them and concealed them underthe bstones.This was an attempt to prevent fulfillment of the mitzva, as they knew that the Sages would prohibit moving the stones, which are set-aside on Shabbat., bThe next day,some of bthe ignoramuses noticedthe branches concealed under the stones. bAndsince the ignoramuses identified with the opinion of the Sages, and at the same time were ignorant of the details of the mitzvot, bthey extracted them from under the stones. And the priests brought them and stood them upright at the sides of the altar.This happened bbecausethe bBoethusians do not concede that waving the willow branch overrides Shabbat. /b, bApparently,based on the conclusion of the incident, the mitzva of the willow branch bisfulfilled bby takingit, as it is referring to waving the willow branch and not just standing it upright at the sides of the altar. The Gemara notes: Indeed, it is ba conclusive refutationof Rav Yosef’s opinion.,Given the refutation of Rav Yosef’s opinion, the original question is difficult: bRather, let themin Eretz Yisrael boverrideShabbat for the mitzva of the willow branch on the seventh day of iSukkotnowadays as well. The Gemara answers: bSince wein the Diaspora bdo not overrideShabbat for this purpose, btheyin Eretz Yisrael balso do not overrideit. The Gemara objects: bBut doesn’t the first day of the Festivalrefute that contention, as bfor usin the Diaspora it bdoes not overrideShabbat and we do not take the ilulav /i, band for themin Eretz Yisrael bit overridesShabbat and they take the ilulav /i?


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
akiva, r. Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 527
archon Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 446
baptism Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 266
batlanim Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 446
boethus (dynasty of) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 527
calendar (lunar, solar) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 266, 527
daily services Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 207
fasting Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 266, 527
friday (fast/festival day) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 266, 527
gamaliel (gamliel) the elder, r. Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 266
gamaliel (gamliel) the younger, r. Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 527
gamaliel ii, rabban Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 207
grammateus Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 446
high (chief) priest Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 266
hypocrites (pharisees) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 266, 527
idelsohn a.z. Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 207
index of subjects, shammaite) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 527
jewish prayer Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 266
john (the baptist) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 266
josephus Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 266
leadership, synagogue, leadership, town, communal Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 446
leadership, synagogue Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 446
levine l.e. Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 178
lords prayer Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 266
luke Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 266
maamads Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 178
market Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 527
mater synagoges Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 446
minyan (quorum) Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 446
monday (fast/festival day) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 266, 527
pater synagoges Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 446
phrontistes Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 446
qumran documents Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 266, 527
r. judah (babylonia, third century) Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 446
r. yohanan Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 446
rabbis Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 266
reading, quorum Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 446
ritual Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 527
rowley h.h. Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 178
sabbath Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 527
sadducees Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 266, 527
shimon b. nataneel, r. Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 527
short prayer Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 266, 527
synagogue Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 527
synagogues Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 178
teacher' Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 446
temple (jerusalem) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 527
temple ~ Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 266
thursday (fastday) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 266, 527
wednesday (fast/festival day) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 266, 527
worship, daily and weekly Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 178, 207
yom kippur (day of atonement) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 527
yose, r. Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 527
yoshua, r. Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 527