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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



8012
Mishnah, Ketuvot, 7.6


וְאֵלּוּ יוֹצְאוֹת שֶׁלֹּא בִכְתֻבָּה, הָעוֹבֶרֶת עַל דַּת מֹשֶׁה וִיהוּדִית. וְאֵיזוֹ הִיא דַּת מֹשֶׁה, מַאֲכִילָתוֹ שֶׁאֵינוֹ מְעֻשָּׂר, וּמְשַׁמַּשְׁתּוֹ נִדָּה, וְלֹא קוֹצָה לָהּ חַלָּה, וְנוֹדֶרֶת וְאֵינָהּ מְקַיֶּמֶת. וְאֵיזוֹהִי דַת יְהוּדִית, יוֹצְאָה וְרֹאשָׁהּ פָּרוּעַ, וְטוֹוָה בַשּׁוּק, וּמְדַבֶּרֶת עִם כָּל אָדָם. אַבָּא שָׁאוּל אוֹמֵר, אַף הַמְקַלֶּלֶת יוֹלְדָיו בְּפָנָיו. רַבִּי טַרְפוֹן אוֹמֵר, אַף הַקּוֹלָנִית. וְאֵיזוֹ הִיא קוֹלָנִית, לִכְשֶׁהִיא מְדַבֶּרֶת בְּתוֹךְ בֵּיתָהּ וּשְׁכֵנֶיהָ שׁוֹמְעִין קוֹלָהּ:These leave [their marriage] without their ketubah: A wife who transgresses the law of Moses or Jewish law. And what is the law of Moses? Feeding her husband with untithed food, having intercourse with him while in the period of her menstruation, not separating dough offering, or making vows and not fulfilling them. And what is Jewish practice? Going out with her head uncovered, spinning wool in the marketplace or conversing with every man. Abba Shaul says: also one who curses her husband’s parents in his presence. Rabbi Tarfon says: also one who has a loud voice. And who is regarded as one who has a loud voice? A woman whose voice can be heard by her neighbors when she speaks inside her house.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

55 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Esther, 2.3 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

2.3. וְיַפְקֵד הַמֶּלֶךְ פְּקִידִים בְּכָל־מְדִינוֹת מַלְכוּתוֹ וְיִקְבְּצוּ אֶת־כָּל־נַעֲרָה־בְתוּלָה טוֹבַת מַרְאֶה אֶל־שׁוּשַׁן הַבִּירָה אֶל־בֵּית הַנָּשִׁים אֶל־יַד הֵגֶא סְרִיס הַמֶּלֶךְ שֹׁמֵר הַנָּשִׁים וְנָתוֹן תַּמְרוּקֵיהֶן׃ 2.3. and let the king appoint officers in all the provinces of his kingdom, that they may gather together all the fair young virgins unto Shushan the castle, to the house of the women, unto the custody of Hegai the king’s chamberlain, keeper of the women; and let their ointments be given them;"
2. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 49.8 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

49.8. יְהוּדָה אַתָּה יוֹדוּךָ אַחֶיךָ יָדְךָ בְּעֹרֶף אֹיְבֶיךָ יִשְׁתַּחֲוּוּ לְךָ בְּנֵי אָבִיךָ׃ 49.8. Judah, thee shall thy brethren praise; Thy hand shall be on the neck of thine enemies; Thy father’s sons shall bow down before thee."
3. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 24.10-24.11 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

24.11. וַיִּקֹּב בֶּן־הָאִשָּׁה הַיִּשְׂרְאֵלִית אֶת־הַשֵּׁם וַיְקַלֵּל וַיָּבִיאוּ אֹתוֹ אֶל־מֹשֶׁה וְשֵׁם אִמּוֹ שְׁלֹמִית בַּת־דִּבְרִי לְמַטֵּה־דָן׃ 24.10. And the son of an Israelitish woman, whose father was an Egyptian, went out among the children of Israel; and the son of the Israelitish woman and a man of Israel strove together in the camp." 24.11. And the son of the Israelitish woman blasphemed the Name, and cursed; and they brought him unto Moses. And his mother’s name was Shelomith, the daughter of Dibri, of the tribe of Dan."
4. Hebrew Bible, Proverbs, 7.10 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

7.10. And, behold, there met him a woman With the attire of a harlot, and wily of heart."
5. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 69.13 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

69.13. יָשִׂיחוּ בִי יֹשְׁבֵי שָׁעַר וּנְגִינוֹת שׁוֹתֵי שֵׁכָר׃ 69.13. They that sit in the gate talk of me; And I am the song of the drunkards. ."
6. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 4.10-4.11, 16.33-16.35 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

4.11. וּמַיִם בִּמְשׂוּרָה תִשְׁתֶּה שִׁשִּׁית הַהִין מֵעֵת עַד־עֵת תִּשְׁתֶּה׃ 16.33. לְכָל־זֹנוֹת יִתְּנוּ־נֵדֶה וְאַתְּ נָתַתְּ אֶת־נְדָנַיִךְ לְכָל־מְאַהֲבַיִךְ וַתִּשְׁחֳדִי אוֹתָם לָבוֹא אֵלַיִךְ מִסָּבִיב בְּתַזְנוּתָיִךְ׃ 16.34. וַיְהִי־בָךְ הֵפֶךְ מִן־הַנָּשִׁים בְּתַזְנוּתַיִךְ וְאַחֲרַיִךְ לֹא זוּנָּה וּבְתִתֵּךְ אֶתְנָן וְאֶתְנַן לֹא נִתַּן־לָךְ וַתְּהִי לְהֶפֶךְ׃ 16.35. לָכֵן זוֹנָה שִׁמְעִי דְּבַר־יְהוָה׃ 4.10. And thy food which thou shalt eat shall be by weight, twenty shekels a day; from time to time shalt thou eat it." 4.11. Thou shalt drink also water by measure, the sixth part of a hin; from time to time shalt thou drink." 16.33. to all harlots gifts are given; but thou hast given thy gifts to all thy lovers, and hast bribed them to come unto thee from every side in thy harlotries." 16.34. And the contrary is in thee from other women, in that thou didst solicit to harlotry, and wast not solicited; and in that thou givest hire, and no hire is given unto thee, thus thou art contrary." 16.35. Wherefore, O harlot, hear the word of the LORD!"
7. Hebrew Bible, 1 Chronicles, 4.18 (5th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

4.18. וְאִשְׁתּוֹ הַיְהֻדִיָּה יָלְדָה אֶת־יֶרֶד אֲבִי גְדוֹר וְאֶת־חֶבֶר אֲבִי שׂוֹכוֹ וְאֶת־יְקוּתִיאֵל אֲבִי זָנוֹחַ וְאֵלֶּה בְּנֵי בִּתְיָה בַת־פַּרְעֹה אֲשֶׁר לָקַח מָרֶד׃ 4.18. and his wife Hajehudijah bore Jered the father of Gedor, and Heber the father of Soco, and Jekuthiel the father of Zanoah—and these are the sons of Bithiah the daughter of Pharaoh whom Mered took."
8. Hebrew Bible, Ezra, 7.6, 7.12, 7.26 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

7.6. הוּא עֶזְרָא עָלָה מִבָּבֶל וְהוּא־סֹפֵר מָהִיר בְּתוֹרַת מֹשֶׁה אֲשֶׁר־נָתַן יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיִּתֶּן־לוֹ הַמֶּלֶךְ כְּיַד־יְהוָה אֱלֹהָיו עָלָיו כֹּל בַּקָּשָׁתוֹ׃ 7.12. אַרְתַּחְשַׁסְתְּא מֶלֶךְ מַלְכַיָּא לְעֶזְרָא כָהֲנָא סָפַר דָּתָא דִּי־אֱלָהּ שְׁמַיָּא גְּמִיר וּכְעֶנֶת׃ 7.26. וְכָל־דִּי־לָא לֶהֱוֵא עָבֵד דָּתָא דִי־אֱלָהָךְ וְדָתָא דִּי מַלְכָּא אָסְפַּרְנָא דִּינָה לֶהֱוֵא מִתְעֲבֵד מִנֵּהּ הֵן לְמוֹת הֵן לשרשו [לִשְׁרֹשִׁי] הֵן־לַעֲנָשׁ נִכְסִין וְלֶאֱסוּרִין׃ 7.6. this Ezra went up from Babylon; and he was a ready scribe in the Law of Moses, which the LORD, the God of Israel, had given; and the king granted him all his request, according to the hand of the LORD his God upon him." 7.12. ’Artaxerxes, king of kings, unto Ezra the priest, the scribe of the Law of the God of heaven, and so forth. And now" 7.26. And whosoever will not do the law of thy God, and the law of the king, let judgment be executed upon him with all diligence, whether it be unto death, or to banishment, or to confiscation of goods, or to imprisonment.’ ."
9. Hebrew Bible, Daniel, 3.12, 7.25-7.26 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

3.12. אִיתַי גֻּבְרִין יְהוּדָאיִן דִּי־מַנִּיתָ יָתְהוֹן עַל־עֲבִידַת מְדִינַת בָּבֶל שַׁדְרַךְ מֵישַׁךְ וַעֲבֵד נְגוֹ גֻּבְרַיָּא אִלֵּךְ לָא־שָׂמוּ עליך [עֲלָךְ] מַלְכָּא טְעֵם לאלהיך [לֵאלָהָךְ] לָא פָלְחִין וּלְצֶלֶם דַּהֲבָא דִּי הֲקֵימְתָּ לָא סָגְדִין׃ 7.25. וּמִלִּין לְצַד עליא [עִלָּאָה] יְמַלִּל וּלְקַדִּישֵׁי עֶלְיוֹנִין יְבַלֵּא וְיִסְבַּר לְהַשְׁנָיָה זִמְנִין וְדָת וְיִתְיַהֲבוּן בִּידֵהּ עַד־עִדָּן וְעִדָּנִין וּפְלַג עִדָּן׃ 7.26. וְדִינָא יִתִּב וְשָׁלְטָנֵהּ יְהַעְדּוֹן לְהַשְׁמָדָה וּלְהוֹבָדָה עַד־סוֹפָא׃ 3.12. There are certain Jews whom thou hast appointed over the affairs of the province of Babylon, Shadrach, Meshach, and Abed-nego; these men, O king, have not regarded thee: they serve not thy gods, nor worship the golden image which thou hast set up.’" 7.25. And he shall speak words against the Most High, and shall wear out the saints of the Most High; and he shall think to change the seasons and the law; and they shall be given into his hand until a time and times and half a time." 7.26. But the judgment shall sit, and his dominions shall be taken away, to be consumed and to be destroy unto the end."
10. Philo of Alexandria, On The Special Laws, 3.169-3.174 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

3.169. Market places, and council chambers, and courts of justice, and large companies and assemblies of numerous crowds, and a life in the open air full of arguments and actions relating to war and peace, are suited to men; but taking care of the house and remaining at home are the proper duties of women; the virgins having their apartments in the centre of the house within the innermost doors, and the full-grown women not going beyond the vestibule and outer courts; 3.170. for there are two kinds of states, the greater and the smaller. And the larger ones are called really cities; but the smaller ones are called houses. And the superintendence and management of these is allotted to the two sexes separately; the men having the government of the greater, which government is called a polity; and the women that of the smaller, which is called oeconomy. 3.171. Therefore let no woman busy herself about those things which are beyond the province of oeconomy, but let her cultivate solitude, and not be seen to be going about like a woman who walks the streets in the sight of other men, except when it is necessary for her to go to the temple, if she has any proper regard for herself; and even then let her not go at noon when the market is full, but after the greater part of the people have returned home; like a well-born woman, a real and true citizen, performing her vows and her sacrifices in tranquillity, so as to avert evils and to receive blessings. 3.172. But when men are abusing one another or fighting, for women to venture to run out under pretence of assisting or defending them, is a blameable action and one of no slight shamelessness, since even, in the times of war and of military expeditions, and of dangers to their whole native land, the law does not choose that they should be enrolled as its defenders; looking at what is becoming, which it thinks desirable to preserve unchangeable at all times and in all places, thinking that this very thing is of itself better than victory, or then freedom, or than any kind of success and prosperity. 3.173. Moreover, if any woman, hearing that her husband is being assaulted, being out of her affection for him carried away by love for her husband, should yield to the feelings which overpower her and rush forth to aid him, still let her not be so audacious as to behave like a man, outrunning the nature of a woman; {16}{#de 25:11.} but even while aiding him let her continue a woman. For it would be a very terrible thing if a woman, being desirous to deliver her husband from an insult, should expose herself to insult, by exhibiting human life as full of shamelessness and liable to great reproaches for her incurable boldness; 3.174. for shall a woman utter abuse in the marketplace and give vent to unlawful language? and if another man uses foul language, will not she stop her ears and run away? But as it is now, some women are advanced to such a pitch of shamelessness as not only, though they are women, to give vent to intemperate language and abuse among a crowd of men, but even to strike men and insult them, with hands practised rather in works of the loom and spinning than in blows and assaults, like competitors in the pancratium or wrestlers. And other things, indeed, may be tolerable, and what any one might easily bear, but that is a shocking thing if a woman were to proceed to such a degree of boldness as to seize hold of the genitals of one of the men quarrelling.
11. Seneca The Elder, Controversies, 2.7.6 (1st cent. BCE

12. Josephus Flavius, Against Apion, 2.201 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.201. for (says the scripture) “A woman is inferior to her husband in all things.” Let her, therefore, be obedient to him; not so, that he should abuse her, but that she may acknowledge her duty to her husband; for God hath given the authority to the husband. A husband, therefore, is to lie only with his wife whom he hath married; but to have to do with another man’s wife is a wicked thing; which, if any one ventures upon, death is inevitably his punishment: no more can he avoid the same who forces a virgin betrothed to another man, or entices another man’s wife.
13. Mishnah, Avodah Zarah, 2.1, 2.6, 4.4 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

2.1. One should not place animals in inns of non-Jews, because they are suspected of bestiality. A woman should not be alone with them, because they are suspected of licentiousness; Nor should a man be alone with them, because they are suspected of shedding blood. A Jewish woman should not act as midwife to a non-Jewish woman, because she would be delivering a child for idolatry. But a non-Jewish woman may act as midwife to a Jewish woman. A Jewish woman should not suckle the child of a non-Jewish woman, But a non-Jewish woman may suckle the child of a Jewish woman in her premises." 2.6. The following articles of non-Jews are prohibited but the prohibition does not extend to deriving benefit from them: 1. milk which a non-Jew milked without an israelite watching him, 2. their bread and oil (Rabbi and his court permitted the oil) 3. stewed and pickled things into which they are accustomed to put wine or vinegar, 4. pickled herring which had been minced, 5. brine in which there is no kalbith-fish floating, 6. helek, 7. pieces of asa foetida 8. and sal-conditum. Behold these are prohibited but the prohibition does not extend to deriving benefit from them." 4.4. The idol of an idolater is prohibited immediately; but if it belonged to a Jew it is not prohibited until it is worshipped. An idolater can annul an idol belonging to himself or to another idolater, but a Jew cannot annul the idol of an idolater. He who annuls an idol annuls the things that pertain to it. If he only annulled the things that pertain to it these are permitted but the idol itself is prohibited."
14. Mishnah, Avot, 6.4 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

6.4. Such is the way [of a life] of Torah: you shall eat bread with salt, and rationed water shall you drink; you shall sleep on the ground, your life will be one of privation, and in Torah shall you labor. If you do this, “Happy shall you be and it shall be good for you” (Psalms 128:2): “Happy shall you be” in this world, “and it shall be good for you” in the world to come. "
15. Mishnah, Bava Qamma, 8.6 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

8.6. If a man boxed the ear of his fellow, he must pay him a sela (four. Rabbi Judah says in the name of Rabbi Yose the Galilean: “A maneh (one hundred.” If he slapped him he must pay 200 zuz. If with the back of his hand, he must pay him 400 zuz. If he tore at his ear, plucked out his hair, spat at him and his spit touched him, or pulled his cloak from off him, or loosed a woman’s hair in the street, he must pay 400 zuz. This is the general rule: all is in accordance with the person’s honor. Rabbi Akiva said: “Even the poor in Israel are regarded as free people who have lost their possessions, for they are the children of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob. It once happened that a man unloosed a woman’s hair in the street and she came before Rabbi Akiva and he condemned him to pay her 400 zuz. He said, “Rabbi, give me time”. And he gave him time. He caught her standing at the entrance to her courtyard, and he broke a jug of one issar’s worth of oil in front of her. She unloosed her hair and scooped up the oil in her hand and laid her hand on her head. He had set up witnesses up against her and he came before Rabbi Akiva and said to him, “Rabbi, should I give one such as this 400 zuz?” He answered, “You have said nothing.” If a man injures himself, even though he has no right to do so, is not liable. But others who injure him are liable. If a man cuts down his own saplings, even though he has no right to do so, is not liable. But, if others cut them down, they are liable."
16. Mishnah, Eduyot, 9.10 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

17. Mishnah, Ketuvot, 7.5 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

7.5. If a man forbade his wife by vow from visiting a house of mourning or a house of feasting, he must divorce her and give her the ketubah, because he has closed [peoples doors] against her. If he claims [that his vow] was due to some other cause he is permitted [to forbid her]. If he said to her: “[There shall be no prohibition] provided you tell so-and-so what you have told me” or “what I have told you” or “that you will fill and pour out in the garbage”, he must divorce her and give her the ketubah."
18. Mishnah, Makkot, 3.12 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

3.12. How do they lash him? His two hands are tied to a pillar on either side of it and the minister of the synagogue grabs his clothing, if they are torn, they are torn; if they are ripped open, they are ripped open, until he exposes the offender’s chest. And a stone is placed behind the offender, the minister of the synagogue stands on it, a strap of cowhide in his hands, doubled over into two, and redoubled, and two straps that rise and fall attached to it."
19. Mishnah, Nedarim, 11.12 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

11.12. At first they would say that three women must be divorced and receive their ketubah: She who says: “I am defiled to you”; “Heaven is between me and you”; “I have been removed from the Jews.” But subsequently they changed the ruling to prevent her from setting her eye on another and spoiling herself to her husband: She who said, “I am defiled unto you” must bring proof. “Heaven is between me and you” they [shall appease them] by a request. “I have been removed from the Jews” he [the husband] must annul his portion, and she may have relations with him, and she shall be removed from other Jews."
20. Mishnah, Shabbat, 1.4 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

1.4. And these are of halakhot which they stated in the upper chamber of Haiah ben Hezekiah ben Gurion, when they went up to visit him. They took a count, and Bet Shammai outnumbered Beth Hillel and on that day they enacted eighteen measures."
21. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 14.34 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

14.34. let your wives keepsilent in the assemblies, for it has not been permitted for them tospeak; but let them be in subjection, as the law also says.
22. New Testament, 2 Timothy, 3.6-3.7 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.6. For of these are those who creep into houses, and take captive gullible women loaded down with sins, led away by various lusts 3.7. always learning, and never able to come to the knowledge of the truth.
23. New Testament, Matthew, 19.3 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

19.3. Pharisees came to him, testing him, and saying, "Is it lawful for a man to divorce his wife for any reason?
24. Tosefta, Avodah Zarah, 3.3, 4.6 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

25. Tosefta, Ketuvot, 4.9, 7.6 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

4.9. Hillel the Elder would explain lay-language [of contracts as if it were the biblical text]. When the people of Alexandria would betroth wives, another would come and seize her from the street. The matter came to the Sages. They sought to make their children bastards [since the betrothal was valid, so when they are married to others in the meantime their children will be illegitimate]. Hillel the Elder said to them: \"Bring to me the ketubah of your mothers.\" They brought them for him, and it was written in it \"When you enter my house, you will be my wife according to the law of Moshe and Yisrael\" [in other words, based on a fine reading of the ketubah text, the betrothal only takes full effect when she enters his house, which means that the other husband was not illegitimate and her children aren't bastards]." 7.6. All of these women that transgressed custom need [a formal, legal] warning [in order to] go out without the ketubah. If they were not warned, he sends her out and pays her ketubah—and they don't need to [this about] say 200 for a virgin or 100 for a non-virgin [that of course if she leaves without her ketubah she doesn't get this money], but even more than this, even if her ketubah is 100 maneh, she can lose it all and receive only the rags that she can find in front of her."
26. Tosefta, Sotah, 5.9 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

27. Tosefta, Yevamot, 14.7 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

28. Valerius Maximus, Memorable Deeds And Sayings, 6.3.10 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

29. Anon., Genesis Rabba, 17.8, 18.5 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

17.8. שָׁאֲלוּ אֶת רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ מִפְּנֵי מָה הָאִישׁ יוֹצֵא פָּנָיו לְמַטָּה, וְאִשָּׁה יוֹצֵאת פָּנֶיהָ לְמַעְלָה, אָמַר לָהֶם הָאִישׁ מַבִּיט לִמְקוֹם בְּרִיָּתוֹ, וְאִשָּׁה מַבֶּטֶת לִמְקוֹם בְּרִיָּתָהּ. וּמִפְּנֵי מָה הָאִשָּׁה צְרִיכָה לְהִתְבַּשֵֹּׂם וְאֵין הָאִישׁ צָרִיךְ לְהִתְבַּשֵֹּׂם, אָמַר לָהֶם אָדָם נִבְרָא מֵאֲדָמָה וְהָאֲדָמָה אֵינָהּ מַסְרַחַת לְעוֹלָם, וְחַוָּה נִבְרֵאת מֵעֶצֶם, מָשָׁל אִם תַּנִּיחַ בָּשָׂר שְׁלשָׁה יָמִים בְּלֹא מֶלַח מִיָּד הוּא מַסְרִיחַ. וּמִפְּנֵי מָה הָאִשָּׁה קוֹלָהּ הוֹלֵךְ וְלֹא הָאִישׁ, אָמַר לָהֶם מָשָׁל אִם תְּמַלֵּא קְדֵרָה בָּשָׂר אֵין קוֹלָהּ הוֹלֵךְ, כֵּיוָן שֶׁתִּתֵּן לְתוֹכָהּ עֶצֶם מִיָּד קוֹלָהּ הוֹלֵךְ. מִפְּנֵי מָה הָאִישׁ נוֹחַ לְהִתְפַּתּוֹת וְאֵין הָאִשָּׁה נוֹחָה לְהִתְפַּתּוֹת, אָמַר לָהֶן אָדָם נִבְרָא מֵאֲדָמָה וְכֵיוָן שֶׁאַתָּה נוֹתֵן עָלֶיהָ טִפָּה שֶׁל מַיִם מִיָּד הִיא נִשְׁרֵית, וְחַוָּה נִבְרֵאת מֵעֶצֶם וַאֲפִלּוּ אַתָּה שׁוֹרֶה אוֹתוֹ כַּמָּה יָמִים בַּמַּיִם אֵינוֹ נִשְׁרֶה. וּמִפְּנֵי מָה הָאִישׁ תּוֹבֵעַ בְּאִשָּׁה וְאֵין הָאִשָּׁה תּוֹבַעַת בְּאִישׁ, אָמַר לָהֶן מָשָׁל לְמָה הַדָּבָר דּוֹמֶה לְאֶחָד שֶׁאָבַד אֲבֵדָה הוּא מְבַקֵּשׁ אֲבֵדָתוֹ וַאֲבֵדָתוֹ אֵינָהּ מְבַקְשַׁתּוֹ. וּמִפְּנֵי מָה הָאִישׁ מַפְקִיד זֶרַע בָּאִשָּׁה וְאֵין הָאִשָּׁה מַפְקֶדֶת זֶרַע בָּאִישׁ, אָמַר לָהֶם דּוֹמֶה לְאֶחָד שֶׁהָיָה בְּיָדוֹ פִּקָּדוֹן וּמְבַקֵּשׁ אָדָם נֶאֱמָן שֶׁיַּפְקִידֶנוּ אֶצְלוֹ. וּמִפְּנֵי מָה הָאִישׁ יוֹצֵא רֹאשׁוֹ מְגֻלֶּה וְהָאִשָּׁה רֹאשָׁהּ מְכֻסֶּה, אָמַר לָהֶן לְאֶחָד שֶׁעָבַר עֲבֵרָה וְהוּא מִתְבַּיֵּשׁ מִבְּנֵי אָדָם, לְפִיכָךְ יוֹצֵאת וְרֹאשָׁהּ מְכֻסֶּה. וּמִפְּנֵי מָה הֵן מְהַלְּכוֹת אֵצֶל הַמֵּת תְּחִלָּה, אָמַר לָהֶם עַל יְדֵי שֶׁגָּרְמוּ מִיתָה לָעוֹלָם, לְפִיכָךְ הֵן מְהַלְּכוֹת אֵצֶל הַמֵּת תְּחִלָּה, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (איוב כא, לג): וְאַחֲרָיו כָּל אָדָם יִמְשׁוֹךְ. וּמִפְּנֵי מָה נִתַּן לָהּ מִצְוַת נִדָּה, עַל יְדֵי שֶׁשָּׁפְכָה דָּמוֹ שֶׁל אָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן, לְפִיכָךְ נִתַּן לָהּ מִצְוַת נִדָּה. וּמִפְּנֵי מָה נִתַּן לָהּ מִצְוַת חַלָּה, עַל יְדֵי שֶׁקִּלְקְלָה אֶת אָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן שֶׁהָיָה גְּמַר חַלָּתוֹ שֶׁל עוֹלָם, לְפִיכָךְ נִתַּן לָהּ מִצְוַת חַלָּה. וּמִפְּנֵי מָה נִתַּן לָהּ מִצְוַת נֵר שַׁבָּת, אָמַר לָהֶן עַל יְדֵי שֶׁכִּבְּתָה נִשְׁמָתוֹ שֶׁל אָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן, לְפִיכָךְ נִתַּן לָהּ מִצְוַת נֵר שַׁבָּת. 18.5. עַל כֵּן יַעֲזָב אִישׁ (בראשית ב, כד), תַּנְיָא גֵּר שֶׁנִּתְגַּיֵּיר וְהָיָה נָשׂוּי לַאֲחוֹתוֹ בֵּין מִן הָאָב בֵּין מִן הָאֵם, יוֹצִיא, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי מֵאִיר. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים מִן הָאֵם יוֹצִיא מִן הָאָב יְקַיֵּם, שֶׁאֵין אָב לְעוֹבֵד כּוֹכָבִים. אֲתִיבוּן לֵיהּ וְהָא כְתִיב (בראשית כ, יב): וְגַם אָמְנָה אֲחֹתִי בַת אָבִי הִיא וגו', אָמַר לָהֶן בְּשִׁיטָתָן הֵשִׁיבָן. אֲתֵיב לְהוֹן רַבִּי מֵאִיר עַל כֵּן יַעֲזָב אִישׁ אֶת אָבִיו וְאֶת אִמּוֹ, אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן וּפָשְׁטוּ לֵיהּ עַל כֵּן יַעֲזָב אִישׁ אֶת אָבִיו וְאֶת אִמּוֹ הַסָּמוּךְ לְאָבִיו הַסָּמוּךְ לְאִמּוֹ. אֲתֵיב רַבִּי אַבָּהוּ וְהָכְתִיב (שמות ו, כ): וַיִּקַּח עַמְרָם אֶת יוֹכֶבֶד דֹּדָתוֹ, אָמַר רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בְּרֵיהּ דְּרַבִּי אַבָּהוּ מֵעַתָּה אֲפִלּוּ כִּבְנֵי נֹחַ לֹא הָיוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל נוֹהֲגִים קֹדֶם מַתַּן תּוֹרָה, אֶתְמְהָא. אָמַר רַבִּי לֵוִי וּפָשְׁטוּ לֵיהּ עַל כֵּן יַעֲזָב אִישׁ וגו', הַסָּמוּךְ לוֹ מֵאָבִיו הַסָּמוּךְ לוֹ מֵאִמּוֹ. רַבִּי אַבָּהוּ בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן אָמַר בְּנֵי נֹחַ עַל הַנְּשׂוּאוֹת חַיָּבִין וְעַל הָאֲרוּסוֹת פְּטוּרִין. רַבִּי יוֹנָה בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל אָמַר זוֹנָה שֶׁהִיא עוֹמֶדֶת בַּשּׁוּק וּבָאוּ עָלֶיהָ שְׁנַיִם, הָרִאשׁוֹן פָּטוּר וְהַשֵּׁנִי חַיָּב מִשּׁוּם בְּעוּלַת בַּעַל, וְכִי נִתְכַּוֵּן הָרִאשׁוֹן לִקְנוֹתָהּ בִּבְעִילָה, הָדָא אֲמַר בְּעִילָה בִּבְנֵי נֹחַ קוֹנֶה שֶׁלֹא כַּדָּת. וּמִנַּיִן שֶׁאֵין לָהֶם גֵּרוּשִׁין, רַבִּי יְהוּדָה בְּרַבִּי סִימוֹן וְרַבִּי חָנִין בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן אָמַר שֶׁאֵין לָהֶם גֵּרוּשִׁין אוֹ שֶׁשְּׁנֵיהֶם מְגָרְשִׁין זֶה אֶת זֶה. אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן אִשְׁתּוֹ מְגָרַשְׁתּוֹ וְנוֹתֶנֶת לוֹ דּוֹפוֹרוֹן. תָּנֵי רַבִּי חִיָּא עוֹבֵד כּוֹכָבִים שֶׁגֵּרַשׁ אֶת אִשְׁתּוֹ וְהָלְכָה וְנִשַֹּׂאת לְאַחֵר וְהָלְכוּ שְׁנֵיהֶם וְנִתְגַיְּרוּ, אֵינִי קוֹרֵא עָלָיו (דברים כד, ד): לֹא יוּכַל בַּעֲלָהּ הָרִאשׁוֹן אֲשֶׁר שִׁלְחָהּ וגו', רַבִּי אַחָא בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי חֲנִינָא בַּר פָּפָּא אָמַר בְּכָל סֵפֶר מַלְאָכִי כְּתִיב ה' צְבָאוֹת, וּבְכָאן כְּתִיב אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (מלאכי ב, טז): כִּי שָׂנֵא שַׁלַּח אָמַר ה' אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל, כִּבְיָכוֹל לֹא יָחוּל שְׁמוֹ אֶלָּא עַל יִשְׂרָאֵל בִּלְבָד. אָמַר רַבִּי חַגַּי בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁעָלוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל מִן הַגּוֹלָה, נִתְפַּחֲמוּ פְּנֵי הַנָּשִׁים מִן הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ וְהִנִּיחוּ אוֹתָן וְהָלְכוּ לָהֶם וְנָשְׂאוּ נָשִׁים עֲמוֹנִיּוֹת, וְהָיוּ מַקִּיפוֹת אֶת הַמִּזְבֵּחַ וּבוֹכוֹת, הוּא שֶׁמַּלְאָכִי אוֹמֵר (מלאכי ב, יג): וְזֹאת שֵׁנִית תַּעֲשׂוּ, שְׁנִיָּה לְשִׁטִּים. (מלאכי ב, יג): כַּסּוֹת דִּמְעָה אֶת מִזְבַּח ה' בְּכִי וַאֲנָקָה, אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא מַאן קַבֵּל מֵהֶם, בְּכִי וַאֲנָקָה, מִשֶּׁגָּזַלְתָּ וְחָמַסְתָּ וְנָטַלְתָּ יָפְיָהּ מִמֶּנָּהּ אַתָּה מְשַׁלְּחָהּ, אֶתְמְהָא. וּמִנַּיִן שֶׁהֵן מֻזְהָרִין עַל גִּלּוּי עֲרָיוֹת כְּיִשְׂרָאֵל, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (בראשית ב, כד): וְדָבַק בְּאִשְׁתּוֹ, וְלֹא בְּאֵשֶׁת חֲבֵרוֹ, וְלֹא בְּזָכוּר, וְלֹא בִּבְהֵמָה. רַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל וְרַבִּי אַבָּהוּ וְרַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי חֲנִינָא אָמְרוּ בֶּן נֹחַ שֶׁבָּא עַל אִשְׁתּוֹ שֶׁלֹא כְּדַרְכָּהּ חַיָּב מִיתָה. אָמַר רַבִּי אַסֵּי כָּל אִסּוּר שֶׁכָּתוּב בִּבְנֵי נֹחַ לֹא בַּעֲשֵׂה, וְלֹא בְּלֹא תַעֲשֶׂה, אֶלָּא בְּמִיתָה, וְהֵיאַךְ עֲבִידָא (בראשית ב, כד): וְדָבַק בְּאִשְׁתּוֹ וְהָיוּ לְבָשָׂר אֶחָד לְמָקוֹם שֶׁשְּׁנֵיהֶם עוֹשִׂים בָּשָׂר אֶחָד. 18.5. \"Therefore a man will abandon.\" It was taught: a convert that converted and was married to his sister, whether from the mother or the father - it is acceptable, according to Rabbi Meir. The Sages say: from the mother it is acceptable, from the father, it must be established that he does not worship idols. A refutation arose: does it not say: \"And moreover, she is my sister, the daughter of my father...\" (Genesis 20:12)! He said to them: reply to them by their own reasoning. Rabbi Meir refuted: \"Therefore a man will abandon his father and his mother\" (Genesis 2:24). Rabbi Yocha said: they explained this verse \"therefore a man will abandon his father and his mother\" the one who supports his father, the one who supports his mother. Rabbi Abahu refuted: does it not say: \"And Amram took Yocheved his cousin\" (Exodus 6:20)! Rabbi Shimon the son of Rabbi Abahu said: from here would we learn that at the time of the children of Noah, Israel acted differently, before the giving of the Torah!? Rabbi Levi said: we explain the verse \"therefore a man will abandon...\" the one who is supported by his father, or by his mother. Rabbi Abahu in the name of Rabbi Yocha said: the children of Noah, in matters of marriage are obligated, in matters of engagement are not. Rabbi Yonah in the name of Rabbi Shmuel said: if a whore is in the marketplace, and two men come to her, the first is exempt and the second is liable, because he was sleeping with a married woman. Did the first one intend to acquire her [as a wife]?! It is said: intercourse at the time of the children of Noah acquires, even not in the way of [later] Judaism. And how do we know that they did not divorce? Rabbi Yehuda in the name of Rabbi Simon and Rabbi Chanin in the name of Rabbi Yocha said: they did not divorce, or they both divorced each other. Rabbi Yocha said: his wife divorced him and gave him a bill of divorce. Rabbi Hiyya taught: an idol-worshipper that divorced his wife, and she went and married someone else, and then they both went and converted to Judaism, I do not apply to them the verse \"The first husband that sent her away cannot...\" (Deuteronomy 24:4). Rabbi Aha in the name of Rabbi Hanina bar Pappa said: in the whole book of Malachi it is written 'Hashem, Lord of Hosts' but here it is written 'the God of Israel' as it says: \"For I hate sending away, said Hashem, God of Israel\" (Malachi 2:16) - as if to say, God's name only rests on Israel. Rabbi Haggai said: When Israel was exiled, the women's faces were blackened from the sun, and they were left and the men went and married Amonite women. They went and circled the altar, crying, as Malachi says: \"And this do a second time\" (Malachi 2:13) - a second time in relation to Shittim. \"Cover with tears the altar of Hashem with wailing and sighing\" (ibid.), the Holy One Blessed be He said: who will accept these tears and wailing, since you stole and did violence to and took it's beauty from her, now you will send her away? And how do we know that they were fastidious about sexual impropriety like Israel? As it says: \"And he cleaved to his wife\" (Genesis 2:24) and not the wife of his friend, or another man, or an animal. Rabbi Shmuel and Rabbi Abahu and Rabbi Eleazar in the name of Rabbi Hanina said: a child of Noah who comes to his wife unnaturally is liable for the death penalty. Rabbi Assi said: every crime written about the children of Noah is not judged on the metric of positive and negative commandments; rather, they all require the death penalty. How do we know this? \"And he cleaved to his wife and they became as one flesh\" (ibid.)."
30. Anon., Lamentations Rabbah, None (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

31. Anon., Leviticus Rabba, 13.5 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

13.5. אָמַר רַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל בַּר נַחְמָן כָּל הַנְּבִיאִים רָאוּ הַמַּלְכֻיּוֹת בְּעִסּוּקָן, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (בראשית ב, י): וְנָהָר יֹצֵא מֵעֵדֶן לְהַשְׁקוֹת וגו', רַבִּי תַּנְחוּמָא וְאַמְרֵי לָהּ רַבִּי מְנַחֲמָא בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בֶּן לֵוִי אָמַר עָתִיד הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לְהַשְׁקוֹת כּוֹס הַתַּרְעֵלָה לְאֻמּוֹת הָעוֹלָם לֶעָתִיד לָבוֹא, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב: וְנָהָר יֹצֵא מֵעֵדֶן, מָקוֹם שֶׁהַדִּין יוֹצֵא, (בראשית ב, י): וּמִשָּׁם יִפָּרֵד וְהָיָה לְאַרְבָּעָה רָאשִׁים, אֵלּוּ אַרְבָּעָה נְהָרוֹת, (בראשית ב, יא): שֵׁם הָאֶחָד פִּישׁוֹן, זֶה בָּבֶל, עַל שֵׁם (חבקוק א, ח): וּפָשׁוּ פָּרָשָׁיו. (בראשית ב, יא): הוּא הַסֹּבֵב אֵת כָּל אֶרֶץ הַחֲוִילָה, נְבוּכַדְנֶצַּר הָרָשָׁע שֶׁעָלָה וְהִקִּיף אֶת כָּל אֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁמְּיַחֶלֶת לְהַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (תהלים מב, ו): הוֹחִלִי לֵאלֹהִים. (בראשית ב, יא): אֲשֶׁר שָׁם הַזָּהָב, אֵלּוּ דִּבְרֵי תוֹרָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים יט, יא): הַנֶּחֱמָדִים מִזָּהָב וּמִפָּז רָב. (בראשית ב, יב): וּזֲהַב הָאָרֶץ הַהִוא טוֹב, מְלַמֵּד שֶׁאֵין תּוֹרָה כְּתוֹרַת אֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאֵין חָכְמָה כְּחָכְמַת אֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל, (בראשית ב, יב): שָׁם הַבְּדֹלַח וְאֶבֶן הַשֹּׁהַם, מִקְרָא מִשְׁנָה תַּלְמוּד הֲלָכוֹת וְאַגָּדוֹת. (בראשית ב, יג): וְשֵׁם הַנָּהָר הַשֵּׁנִי גִיחוֹן, זֶה מָדַי, שֶׁהֶעֱמִידָה אֶת הָמָן הָרָשָׁע שֶׁמָּשַׁךְ עִסָּה כַּנָּחָשׁ, עַל שׁוּם (בראשית ג, יד): עַל גְּחֹנְךָ תֵלֵךְ. (בראשית ב, יג): הוּא הַסּוֹבֵב אֶת כָּל אֶרֶץ כּוּשׁ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (אסתר א, א): מֵהוֹדוּ וְעַד כּוּשׁ. (בראשית ב, יד): וְשֵׁם הַנָּהָר הַשְּׁלִישִׁי חִדֶּקֶל, זוֹ יָוָן, שֶׁהִיא חַדָּה וְקַלָּה בִּגְזֵרוֹתֶיהָ עַל יִשְׂרָאֵל, וְאוֹמֵר לָהֶם כִּתְבוּ עַל קֶרֶן הַשּׁוֹר שֶׁאֵין לְיִשְׂרָאֵל חֵלֶק בֵּאלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל. (בראשית ב, יד): הַהֹלֵךְ קִדְמַת אַשּׁוּר, אָמַר רַב הוּנָא כָּל הַמַּלְכֻיּוֹת נִקְרְאוּ עַל שֵׁם אַשּׁוּר, שֶׁהָיוּ מְאַשְׁרִין עַצְמָן מִיִּשְׂרָאֵל. אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹסֵי בְּרַבִּי חֲנִינָא, כָּל הַמַּלְכֻיּוֹת נִקְרְאוּ עַל שֵׁם מִצְרַיִם, עַל שֵׁם שֶׁהָיוּ מְצֵירִין לְיִשְׂרָאֵל. (בראשית ב, יד): וְהַנָּהָר הָרְבִיעִי הוּא פְרָת, הוּא אֱדוֹם שֶׁפָּרָת וְרָבָת בִּתְפִלָּתוֹ שֶׁל זָקֵן. דָּבָר אַחֵר, שֶׁפָּרָת וְרָבָת וְהֵצֵירָה לְעוֹלָמוֹ שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל. דָּבָר אַחֵר, שֶׁפָּרָת וְרָבָת וְהֵצֵירָה לִבְנוֹ. דָּבָר אַחֵר, שֶׁפָּרָת וְרָבָת וְהֵצֵירָה לְבֵיתוֹ. דָּבָר אַחֵר, פָּרָת עַל שׁוּם סוֹפָהּ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ישעיה סג, ג): פּוּרָה דָרַכְתִּי לְבַדִּי. אַבְרָהָם רָאָה הַמַּלְכֻיּוֹת בְּעִסּוּקָן (בראשית טו, יב): וְהִנֵּה אֵימָה, זוֹ בָּבֶל עַל שֵׁם (דניאל ג, יט): נְבוּכַדְנֶצַּר הִתְמְלִי חֱמָא. (בראשית טו, יב): חֲשֵׁכָה, זוֹ מָדַי, שֶׁהֶחֱשִׁיכָה בִּגְזֵרוֹתֶיהָ אֶת יִשְׂרָאֵל, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (אסתר ג, יג): לְהַשְׁמִיד לַהֲרֹג וּלְאַבֵּד. (בראשית טו, יב): גְּדֹלָה, זוֹ יָוָן, אָמַר רַב נַחְמָן מְלַמֵּד שֶׁהָיְתָה מַלְכוּת יָוָן מַעֲמֶדֶת מֵאָה וְשִׁבְעִים וְאֶחָד אִפַּרְכִין, מֵאָה וְעֶשְׂרִים וְשִׁבְעָה אִסְטְרָטָלִיטוּן, וְרַבָּנָן אָמְרִין שִׁשִּׁים שִׁשִׁים, וְרַבִּי בֶּרֶכְיָה וְרַבִּי חָנִין עַל הֲדָא דְרַבָּנָן (דברים ח, טו): הַמּוֹלִיכְךָ בַּמִּדְבָּר הַגָּדֹל וְהַנּוֹרָא נָחָשׁ שָׂרָף וְעַקְרָב, נָחָשׁ זֶה בָּבֶל. שָׂרָף, זֶה מָדַי. עַקְרָב, זֶה יָוָן, מָה עַקְרָב זֶה מַשְׁרֶצֶת שִׁשִּׁים שִׁשִּׁים, כָּךְ הָיְתָה מַלְכוּת יָוָן מַעֲמֶדֶת שִׁשִּׁים שִׁשִּׁים. (בראשית טו, יב): נֹפֶלֶת, זוֹ אֱדוֹם, עַל שֵׁם (ירמיה מט, כא): מִקּוֹל נִפְלָם רָעֲשָׁה הָאָרֶץ. וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִים אֵימָה, זוֹ אֱדוֹם, עַל שֵׁם (דניאל ז, ז): דְּחִילָה וְאֵימְתָנִי. חֲשֵׁכָה, זוֹ יָוָן. גְּדֹלָה, זוֹ מָדַי, עַל שֵׁם (אסתר ג, א): גִּדַּל הַמֶּלֶךְ אֲחַשְׁוֵרוֹשׁ. נֹפֶלֶת, זוֹ בָּבֶל, עַל שֵׁם (ישעיה כא, ט): נָפְלָה נָפְלָה בָּבֶל. רָאָה דָּנִיֵּאל אֶת הַמַּלְכֻיּוֹת בְּעִסּוּקָן, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (דניאל ז, ב ג): חָזֵה הֲוֵית בְּחֶזְוִי עִם לֵילְיָא וַאֲרוּ אַרְבַּע רוּחֵי שְׁמַיָא מְגִיחָן לְיַמָּא רַבָּא, וְאַרְבַּע חֵיוָן רַבְרְבָן סָלְקָן מִן יַמָּא, אִם זְכִיתֶם מִן יַמָּא וְאִם לָאו מִן חוֹרְשָׁא, הֲדָא חֵיוְתָא דְיַמָּא כִּי סָלְקָא מִן יַמָּא הִיא מִמַּכְיָא, סָלְקָא מִן חוֹרְשָׁא לֵית הִיא מִמַּכְיָא, דְכַוָּותָא (תהלים פ, יד): יְכַרְסְמֶנָּה חֲזִיר מִיָּעַר, עַיִ"ן תְּלוּיָה, אִם זְכִיתֶם מִן הַיְאוֹר וְאִם לָאו מִן הַיַּעַר, הֲדָא חֵיוְתָא כִּי סָלְקָא מִן נַהֲרָא הִיא מִמַּכְיָא, סָלְקָא מִן חוֹרְשָׁא לֵית הִיא מִמַּכְיָא, (דניאל ז, ג): שָׁנְיָן דָּא מִן דָּא, אַל תִּקְרֵי שָׁנְיָן אֶלָּא סָנְיָן דָּא מִן דָּא, מְלַמֵּד שֶׁכָּל אֻמָּה שֶׁשּׁוֹלֶטֶת בָּעוֹלָם הִיא שׂוֹנְאָה לְיִשְׂרָאֵל וּמְשַׁעְבְּדָא בָּהֶן. (דניאל ז, ד): קַדְמָיְתָא כְאַרְיֵה, זוֹ בָּבֶל, יִרְמְיָה רָאָה אוֹתָהּ אֲרִי וְרָאָה אוֹתָהּ נֶשֶׁר, דִּכְתִיב (ירמיה ד, ז): עָלָה אַרְיֵה מִסֻּבְּכוֹ (ירמיה מט, כב): הִנֵּה כַנֶּשֶׁר יַעֲלֶה וְיִדְאֶה, אָמְרִין לְדָנִיֵּאל אַתּ מָה חָמֵית לְהוֹן, אָמַר לְהוֹן חָמֵיתִי אַפִּין כְּאַרְיֵה וְגַפִּין דִּי נְשַׁר, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (דניאל ז, ד): קַדְמָיְתָא כְאַרְיֵה וְגַפִּין דִּי נְשַׁר לַהּ חָזֵה הֲוֵית עַד דִּי מְּרִיטוּ גַּפֵּיהּ וּנְטִילַת מִן אַרְעָא. רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר וְרַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל בַּר נַחְמָן, רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר אוֹמֵר כָּל אוֹתוֹ אֲרִי לָקָה וְלִבּוֹ לֹא לָקָה, דִּכְתִיב (דניאל ז, ד): וּלְבַב אֱנָשׁ יְהִיב לַהּ. וְרַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל בַּר נַחְמָן אָמַר אַף לִבּוֹ לָקָה, דִּכְתִיב (דניאל ד, יג): לִבְבֵהּ מִן אֲנָשָׁא יְשַׁנּוֹן. חָזֵה הֲוֵית (דניאל ז, ה): וַאֲרוּ חֵיוָה אָחֳרֵי תִנְיָנָא דָמְיָא לְדֹב, לְדב כְּתִיב זֶה מָדַי, הוּא דַעְתֵּיהּ דְּרַבִּי יוֹחָנָן דְּאָמַר רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן (ירמיה ה, ו): עַל כֵּן הִכָּם אַרְיֵה מִיַּעַר, זוֹ בָּבֶל. (ירמיה ה, ו): זְאֵב עֲרָבוֹת יְשָׁדְדֵם, זוֹ מָדַי. (ירמיה ה, ו): נָמֵר שֹׁקֵד עַל עָרֵיהֶם, זוֹ יָוָן. (ירמיה ה, ו): כָּל הַיּוֹצֵא מֵהֵנָּה יִטָּרֵף, זוֹ אֱדוֹם, לָמָּה, (ירמיה ה, ו): כִּי רַבּוּ פִּשְׁעֵיהֶם עָצְמוּ מְשֻׁבוֹתֵיהֶם. (דניאל ז, ו): חָזֵה הֲוֵית וַאֲרוּ אָחֳרִי כִּנְמַר, זוֹ יָוָן, שֶׁהָיְתָה מַעֲמֶדֶת בִּגְזֵרוֹתֶיהָ וְאוֹמֶרֶת לְיִשְׂרָאֵל כִּתְבוּ עַל קֶרֶן הַשּׁוֹר שֶׁאֵין לָכֶם חֵלֶק לָעוֹלָם הַבָּא. (דניאל ז, ז): בָּאתַר דְּנָא חָזֵה הֲוֵית בְּחֶזְוֵי לֵילְיָא וַאֲרוּ חֵיוָה רְבִיעָאָה דְּחִילָה וְאֵימְתָנִי וְתַקִּיפָא יַתִּירָה, זוֹ אֱדוֹם, דָּנִיֵּאל רָאָה שְׁלָשְׁתָּן בְּלַיְלָה אֶחָד וְלָזוֹ בְּלַיְלָה אֶחָד, לָמָּה, רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן וְרַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן לָקִישׁ, רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן אָמַר שֶׁשְּׁקוּלָה כְּנֶגֶד שְׁלָשְׁתָּן, רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן לָקִישׁ אָמַר יַתִּירָה. מָתִיב רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן לְרַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן לָקִישׁ (יחזקאל כא, יט): בֶּן אָדָם הִנָּבֵא וְהַךְ כַּף אֶל כָּף, דָּא מָה עָבַד לָהּ רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן לָקִישׁ (יחזקאל כא, יט): וְתִכָּפֵל. משֶׁה רָאָה אֶת הַמַּלְכֻיּוֹת בְּעִסּוּקָן, (ויקרא יא, ד): אֶת הַגָּמָל, זוֹ בָּבֶל, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים קלז, ח): אַשְׁרֵי שֶׁיְשַׁלֶּם לָךְ אֶת גְּמוּלֵךְ שֶׁגָּמַלְתְּ לָנוּ. (ויקרא יא, ה): אֶת הַשָּׁפָן, זוֹ מָדַי. רַבָּנָן וְרַבִּי יְהוּדָה בְּרַבִּי סִימוֹן, רַבָּנָן אָמְרֵי מַה הַשָּׁפָן הַזֶּה יֵשׁ בּוֹ סִימָנֵי טֻמְאָה וְסִימָנֵי טָהֳרָה, כָּךְ הָיְתָה מַלְכוּת מָדַי מַעֲמֶדֶת צַדִּיק וְרָשָׁע. אָמַר רַבִּי יְהוּדָה בְּרַבִּי סִימוֹן דָּרְיָוֶשׁ הָאַחֲרוֹן בְּנָהּ שֶׁל אֶסְתֵּר הָיָה, טָהוֹר מֵאִמּוֹ וְטָמֵא מֵאָבִיו. (ויקרא יא, ו): וְאֶת הָאַרְנֶבֶת, זוֹ יָוָן, אִמּוֹ שֶׁל תַּלְמַי אַרְנֶבֶת שְׁמָהּ. (ויקרא יא, ז): וְאֶת הַחֲזִיר, זוֹ פָּרַס, משֶׁה נָתַן שְׁלָשְׁתָּם בְּפָסוּק אֶחָד, וְלָזוֹ בְּפָסוּק אֶחָד, וְלָמָּה, רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן וְרַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן לָקִישׁ, רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן אָמַר שֶׁשְּׁקוּלָה כְּנֶגֶד שְׁלָשְׁתָּן, רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן לָקִישׁ אָמַר (דניאל ז, ז): יַתִּירָה. מָתִיב רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן לְרַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן לָקִישׁ בֶּן אָדָם הִנָּבֵא וְהַךְ כַּף אֶל כָּף, דָּא מָה עָבַד לֵיהּ רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן לָקִישׁ וְתִכָּפֵל. רַבִּי פִּנְחָס וְרַבִּי חִלְקִיָּה בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי סִימוֹן מִכָּל הַנְּבִיאִים לֹא פִּרְסְמוּהָ אֶלָּא שְׁנַיִם אָסָף וּמשֶׁה, אָסָף אָמַר (תהלים פ, יד): יְכַרְסְמֶנָּה חֲזִיר מִיָּעַר. משֶׁה אָמַר (ויקרא יא, ז): וְאֶת הַחֲזִיר כִּי מַפְרִיס פַּרְסָה, לָמָּה נִמְשְׁלָה לַחֲזִיר, לוֹמַר לָךְ מָה חֲזִיר בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁהוּא רוֹבֵץ מוֹצִיא טְלָפָיו וְאוֹמֵר רְאוּ שֶׁאֲנִי טָהוֹר, כָּךְ מַלְכוּת אֱדוֹם מִתְגָּאָה וְחוֹמֶסֶת וְגוֹזֶלֶת וְנִרְאֵית כְּאִלּוּ מַצַּעַת בִּימָה. מַעֲשֶׂה בְּשִׁלְטוֹן אֶחָד שֶׁהָיָה הוֹרֵג הַגַּנָּבִים וְהַמְנָאֲפִים וְהַמְכַשְּׁפִים, גָּחִין וְאָמַר לַסַּנְקְלִיטִין, שְׁלָשְׁתָּן עָשִׂיתִי בְּלַיְלָה אֶחָד. דָּבָר אַחֵר, (ויקרא יא, ד): אֶת הַגָּמָל, זוֹ בָּבֶל, (ויקרא יא, ד): כִּי מַעֲלֶה גֵרָה הוּא, שֶׁמְקַלֶּסֶת לְהַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא. רַבִּי בֶּרֶכְיָה וְרַבִּי חֶלְבּוֹ בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי יִשְׁמָעֵאל בַּר נַחְמָן, כָּל מַה שֶּׁפָּרַט דָּוִד כָּלַל אוֹתוֹ רָשָׁע בְּפָסוּק אֶחָד, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דניאל ד, לד): כְּעַן אֲנָה נְבֻכַדְנֶצַּר מְשַׁבַּח וּמְרוֹמֵם וּמְהַדַּר לְמֶלֶךְ שְׁמַיָא. מְשַׁבַּח (תהלים קמז, יב): שַׁבְּחִי יְרוּשָׁלַיִם אֶת ה'. וּמְרוֹמֵם (תהלים ל, ב): אֲרוֹמִמְךָ ה'. וּמְהַדַּר (תהלים קד, א): ה' אֱלֹהַי גָדַלְתָּ מְאֹד הוֹד וְהָדָר לָבָשְׁתָּ. (דניאל ד, לד): דִּי כָל מַעֲבָדוֹהִי קְשֹׁט (תהלים קלח, ב): עַל חַסְדְּךָ וְעַל אֲמִתֶּךָ. (דניאל ד, לד): וְאֹרְחָתֵהּ דִּין (תהלים צו, י): יָדִין עַמִּים בְּמֵישָׁרִים. (דניאל ד, לד): וְדִי מַהְלְכִין בְּגֵוָה (תהלים צג, א): ה' מָלָךְ גֵּאוּת לָבֵשׁ. (דניאל ד, לד): יָכִל לְהַשְׁפָּלָה (תהלים עה, יא): וְכָל קַרְנֵי רְשָׁעִים אֲגַדֵּעַ. (ויקרא יא, ה): וְאֶת הַשָּׁפָן, זוֹ מָדַי, (ויקרא יא, ה): כִּי מַעֲלֵה גֵרָה הוּא, שֶׁמְקַלֶּסֶת לְהַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (עזרא א, ב): כֹּה אָמַר כֹּרֶשׁ מֶלֶךְ פָּרַס. (ויקרא יא, ו): וְאֶת הָאַרְנֶבֶת, זוֹ יָוָן, (ויקרא יא, ו): כִּי מַעֲלַת גֵּרָה הִוא, שֶׁמְּקַלֶּסֶת לְהַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא. אֲלֶכְּסַנְדְּרוֹס מוֹקְדוֹן כַּד הֲוָה חָמֵי לְרַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן הַצַּדִּיק, אוֹמֵר בָּרוּךְ ה' אֱלֹהֵי שֶׁל שִׁמְעוֹן הַצַּדִּיק. (ויקרא יא, ז): וְאֶת הַחֲזִיר, זֶה אֱדוֹם, (ויקרא יא, ז): וְהוּא גֵרָה לֹא יִגָּר, שֶׁאֵינָהּ מְקַלֶּסֶת לְהַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, וְלֹא דַּיָּן שֶׁאֵינָהּ מְקַלֶּסֶת אֶלָּא מְחָרֶפֶת וּמְגַדֶּפֶת וְאוֹמֶרֶת (תהלים עג, כה): מִי לִי בַשָּׁמָיִם. דָּבָר אַחֵר, אֶת הַגָּמָל, זוֹ בָּבֶל, כִּי מַעֲלֶה גֵרָה הוּא, שֶׁמְגַדֶּלֶת אֶת דָּנִיֵּאל, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דניאל ב, מט): וְדָנִיֵּאל בִּתְרַע מַלְכָּא. וְאֶת הַשָּׁפָן, זוֹ מָדַי, כִּי מַעֲלֵה גֵרָה הוּא, שֶׁמְגַדֶּלֶת אֶת מָרְדְּכַי, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (אסתר ב, יט): וּמָרְדֳּכַי ישֵׁב בְּשַׁעַר הַמֶּלֶךְ. וְאֶת הָאַרְנֶבֶת, זוֹ יָוָן, כִּי מַעֲלַת גֵּרָה הִוא, שֶׁמְגַדֶּלֶת הַצַּדִּיקִים. אֲלֶכְּסַנְדְּרוֹס כַּד הֲוָה חָמֵי לְשִׁמְעוֹן הַצַּדִּיק הֲוָה קָאֵים עַל רַגְלֵיהּ, אָמְרִין לֵיהּ מִינָאֵי, מִן קֳדָם יְהוּדָאי אַתְּ קָאֵים, אָמַר לָהֶם בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁאֲנִי יוֹצֵא לְמִלְחָמָה דְּמוּתוֹ אֲנִי רוֹאֶה וְנוֹצֵחַ. וְאֶת הַחֲזִיר, זוֹ אֱדוֹם, וְהוּא גֵרָה לֹא יִגָּר, שֶׁאֵינָה מְגַדֶּלֶת הַצַּדִּיקִים, וְלֹא דַי שֶׁאֵינָה מְגַדֶּלֶת אֶלָּא שֶׁהוֹרֶגֶת אוֹתָם. הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (ישעיה מז, ו): קָצַפְתִּי עַל עַמִּי חִלַּלְתִּי נַחֲלָתִי וגו', נַחֲלָתִי רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא וַחֲבֵרָיו. דָּבָר אַחֵר, אֶת הַגָּמָל, זוֹ בָּבֶל, כִּי מַעֲלֶה גֵרָה, שֶׁגָּרְרָה מַלְכוּת אַחֲרֶיהָ. וְאֶת הַשָּׁפָן, זוֹ מָדַי כִּי מַעֲלֵה גֵרָה הוּא, שֶׁגָּרְרָה מַלְכוּת אַחֲרֶיהָ, וְאֶת הָאַרְנֶבֶת, זוֹ יָוָן, כִּי מַעֲלַת גֵרָה הִוא, שֶׁגָּרְרָה מַלְכוּת אַחֲרֶיהָ. וְאֶת הַחֲזִיר, זוֹ אֱדוֹם, וְהוּא גֵרָה לֹא יִגָּר, שֶׁאֵינָה גוֹרֶרֶת מַלְכוּת אַחֲרֶיהָ, וְלָמָּה נִקְרָא שְׁמָהּ חֲזִיר, שֶׁמַּחֲזֶרֶת עֲטָרָה לִבְעָלֶיהָ, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (עובדיה א, כא): וְעָלוּ מוֹשִׁיעִים בְּהַר צִיּוֹן לִשְׁפֹּט אֶת הַר עֵשָׂו וְהָיְתָה לַה' הַמְּלוּכָה.
32. Anon., Sifre Deuteronomy, 253 (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

33. Anon., Sifre Numbers, 131, 11 (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

34. Apuleius, The Golden Ass, 2.8 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

35. Palestinian Talmud, Shabbat, 2.6 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

36. Babylonian Talmud, Berachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

55a. כל המאריך בתפלתו ומעיין בה סוף בא לידי כאב לב שנאמר (משלי יג, יב) תוחלת ממושכה מחלה לב וא"ר יצחק שלשה דברים מזכירים עונותיו של אדם ואלו הן קיר נטוי ועיון תפלה ומוסר דין על חבירו לשמים,הא לא קשיא הא דמעיין בה הא דלא מעיין בה והיכי עביד דמפיש ברחמי,והמאריך על שלחנו דלמא אתי עניא ויהיב ליה דכתיב (יחזקאל מא, כב) המזבח עץ שלש אמות גבוה וכתיב (יחזקאל מא, כב) וידבר אלי זה השלחן אשר לפני ה' פתח במזבח וסיים בשלחן ר' יוחנן ור' אלעזר דאמרי תרוייהו כל זמן שבהמ"ק קיים מזבח מכפר על ישראל ועכשיו שלחנו של אדם מכפר עליו,והמאריך בבית הכסא מעליותא הוא והתניא עשרה דברים מביאין את האדם לידי תחתוניות האוכל עלי קנים ועלי גפנים ולולבי גפנים ומוריגי בהמה ושדרו של דג ודג מליח שאינו מבושל כל צרכו והשותה שמרי יין והמקנח בסיד ובחרסית והמקנח בצרור שקנח בו חבירו וי"א אף התולה עצמו בבית הכסא יותר מדאי,לא קשיא הא דמאריך ותלי הא דמאריך ולא תלי,כי הא דאמרה ליה ההיא מטרוניתא לר' יהודה בר' אלעאי פניך דומים למגדלי חזירים ולמלוי ברבית אמר לה הימנותא לדידי תרוייהו אסירן אלא עשרים וארבעה בית הכסא איכא מאושפיזאי לבי מדרשא דכי אזילנא בדיקנא נפשאי בכולהו.,ואמר רב יהודה שלשה דברים מקצרים ימיו ושנותיו של אדם מי שנותנין לו ס"ת לקרות ואינו קורא כוס של ברכה לברך ואינו מברך והמנהיג עצמו ברבנות,ס"ת לקרות ואינו קורא דכתיב (דברים ל, כ) כי הוא חייך ואורך ימיך כוס של ברכה לברך ואינו מברך דכתיב (בראשית יב, ג) ואברכה מברכיך והמנהיג עצמו ברבנות דא"ר חמא בר חנינא מפני מה מת יוסף קודם לאחיו מפני שהנהיג עצמו ברבנות:,ואמר רב יהודה אמר רב שלשה צריכים רחמים מלך טוב שנה טובה וחלום טוב מלך טוב דכתיב (משלי כא, א) פלגי מים לב מלך ביד ה' שנה טובה דכתיב (דברים יא, יב) תמיד עיני ה' אלהיך בה מראשית השנה ועד אחרית שנה חלום טוב דכתיב (ישעיהו לח, טז) ותחלימני (ותחייני):,אמר רבי יוחנן שלשה דברים מכריז עליהם הקב"ה בעצמו ואלו הן רעב ושובע ופרנס טוב רעב דכתיב (מלכים ב ח, א) כי קרא ה' לרעב וגו' שובע דכתיב (יחזקאל לו, כט) וקראתי אל הדגן והרביתי אותו פרנס טוב דכתיב (שמות לא, ב) (ויאמר) ה' אל משה לאמר ראה קראתי בשם בצלאל וגו',אמר רבי יצחק אין מעמידין פרנס על הצבור אלא אם כן נמלכים בצבור שנא' (שמות לה, ל) ראו קרא ה' בשם בצלאל אמר לו הקדוש ברוך הוא למשה משה הגון עליך בצלאל אמר לו רבונו של עולם אם לפניך הגון לפני לא כל שכן אמר לו אף על פי כן לך אמור להם הלך ואמר להם לישראל הגון עליכם בצלאל אמרו לו אם לפני הקדוש ברוך הוא ולפניך הוא הגון לפנינו לא כל שכן,א"ר שמואל בר נחמני א"ר יונתן בצלאל על שם חכמתו נקרא בשעה שאמר לו הקדוש ברוך הוא למשה לך אמור לו לבצלאל עשה לי משכן ארון וכלים הלך משה והפך ואמר לו עשה ארון וכלים ומשכן אמר לו משה רבינו מנהגו של עולם אדם בונה בית ואחר כך מכניס לתוכו כלים ואתה אומר עשה לי ארון וכלים ומשכן כלים שאני עושה להיכן אכניסם שמא כך אמר לך הקב"ה עשה משכן ארון וכלים אמר לו שמא בצל אל היית וידעת,אמר רב יהודה אמר רב יודע היה בצלאל לצרף אותיות שנבראו בהן שמים וארץ כתיב הכא (שמות לה, לא) וימלא אותו רוח אלהים בחכמה ובתבונה ובדעת וכתיב התם (משלי ג, יט) ה' בחכמה יסד ארץ כונן שמים בתבונה וכתיב (משלי ג, כ) בדעתו תהומות נבקעו,אמר רבי יוחנן אין הקדוש ברוך הוא נותן חכמה אלא למי שיש בו חכמה שנא' (דניאל ב, כא) יהב חכמתא לחכימין ומנדעא לידעי בינה שמע רב תחליפא בר מערבא ואמרה קמיה דרבי אבהו אמר ליה אתון מהתם מתניתו לה אנן מהכא מתנינן לה דכתיב (שמות לא, ו) ובלב כל חכם לב נתתי חכמה:,אמר רב חסדא כל חלום ולא טוות ואמר רב חסדא חלמא דלא מפשר כאגרתא דלא מקריא ואמר רב חסדא לא חלמא טבא מקיים כוליה ולא חלמא בישא מקיים כוליה ואמר רב חסדא חלמא בישא עדיף מחלמא טבא וא"ר חסדא חלמא בישא עציבותיה מסתייה חלמא טבא חדויה מסתייה אמר רב יוסף חלמא טבא אפילו לדידי בדיחותיה מפכחא ליה ואמר רב חסדא חלמא בישא קשה מנגדא שנאמר (קהלת ג, יד) והאלהים עשה שייראו מלפניו ואמר רבה בר בר חנה א"ר יוחנן זה חלום רע,(ירמיהו כג, כח) הנביא אשר אתו חלום יספר חלום ואשר דברי אתו ידבר דברי אמת מה לתבן את הבר נאם ה' וכי מה ענין בר ותבן אצל חלום אלא אמר ר' יוחנן משום ר' שמעון בן יוחי כשם שאי אפשר לבר בלא תבן כך אי אפשר לחלום בלא דברים בטלים,אמר ר' ברכיה חלום אף על פי שמקצתו מתקיים כולו אינו מתקיים מנא לן מיוסף דכתיב (בראשית לז, ט) והנה השמש והירח וגו' 55a. bAnyone who prolongs his prayer and expects itto be answered, bwill ultimately come to heartache, as it is stated: “Hope deferred makes the heart sick”(Proverbs 13:12). Similarly, bRabbi Yitzḥak said: Three matters evoke a person’s sins, and they are:Endangering oneself by sitting or standing next to an binclined wallthat is about to collapse, bexpecting prayerto be accepted, as that leads to an assessment of his status and merit, band passing a case against another to Heaven,as praying for Heaven to pass judgment on another person causes one’s own deeds to be examined and compared with the deeds of that other person. This proves that prolonging prayer is a fault.,The Gemara resolves the apparent contradiction: This is bnot difficult. This,where we learned that prolonging prayer is undesirable, refers to a situation when one bexpectshis prayer to be accepted, bwhile this,where Rav Yehuda says that prolonging prayer prolongs one’s life, refers to a situation where one does bnot expecthis prayer to be accepted. bHow does heprolong his prayer? By bincreasinghis bsupplication. /b,As for the virtue of bprolonging one’smealtime at the btable,which Rav Yehuda mentioned, the Gemara explains: bPerhaps a poor person will comeduring the meal and the host will be in a position to bgive himfood immediately, without forcing the poor person to wait. The Sages elsewhere praised a person who acts appropriately at a meal, bas it is written: “The altar, three cubits highand the length thereof, two cubits, was of wood, and so the corners thereof; the length thereof, and the walls thereof, were also of wood” (Ezekiel 41:22), band it is writtenin the continuation of that verse: b“And he said unto me: This is the table that is before the Lord.”The language of this verse is difficult, as it bbegins with the altar and concludes with the table.Rather, bRabbi Yoḥa and Rabbi Elazar both say: As long as the Temple stood, the altar atoned for Israel’stransgressions. bNowthat it is destroyed, ba person’s table atones for histransgressions.,With regard to what Rav Yehuda said in praise of bone who prolongshis time bin the bathroom,the Gemara asks: bIs that a virtue? Wasn’t it taughtin a ibaraita /i: bTen things bring a person tosuffer from bhemorrhoids: One who eats the leaves of bulrushes, grape leaves, tendrils of grapevines, the palate and tongue of an animal,as well as any other part of the animal which is not smooth and which has protrusions, bthe spine of a fish, a salty fish that is not fully cooked, and one who drinks wine dregs, and one who wipes himself with lime and clay,the materials from which earthenware is made, band one who wipes himself with a stone with which anotherperson bwiped himself. And some say: One who suspends himself too much in the bathroom as well.This proves that prolonging one’s time in the bathroom is harmful.,The Gemara responds: This is bnot difficult. This ibaraita /i, which teaches that doing so is harmful, refers to where bone prolongshis time there band suspendshimself, while bthisstatement of Rav Yehuda refers to where bone prolongshis time there band does not suspendhimself.,The Gemara relates the benefits of prolonging one’s time in the bathroom. bLike thatincident bwhen a matron [ imatronita /i] said to Rabbi Yehuda son of Rabbi El’ai: Your face isfat and full, blikethe faces of bpig farmers and usurerswho do not work hard and who make a plentiful living. bHe said to her: Honestly, those twooccupations bare prohibited to me; rather,why is it that my face is nice? Because bthere are twenty-four bathrooms between my lodging and the study hall, and when I walk Istop and bexamine myself in all of them. /b, bAnd Rav Yehuda said: Three things curtail a person’s days and years: One who isinvited and bgiven the Torah scroll to read and he does not read,one who is given ba cup of blessing over which to recite a blessing and he does not recite a blessing, and one who conducts himself withan air of bsuperiority. /b,The Gemara details the biblical sources for these cases: One who is given the bTorah scroll to read and he does not read, as it is writtenof the Torah: b“It is your life and the length of your days”(Deuteronomy 30:20). bA cup of blessing over which to recite a blessing and he does not recite a blessing, as it is written: “I will bless them that bless you”(Genesis 12:3); one who blesses is blessed and one who does not bless does not merit a blessing. bAndwith regard to bone who conducts himself withan air of bsuperiority, as Rabbi Ḥama, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, said: Why did Joseph die before his brothers,as evidenced by the order in the verse: “And Joseph died, and all his brethren, and all that generation” (Exodus 1:6)? bBecause he conducted himself withan air of bsuperiority,and those who did not serve in a leadership role lived on after he died., bRav Yehuda said in the name of Rav: Threematters brequirea plea for bmercyto bring them about: bA good king, a good year, and a good dream.These three, kings, years, and dreams, are all bestowed by God and one must pray that they should be positive and constructive. The Gemara enumerates the sources for these cases: bA good king, as it is written: “The king’s heart is in the hand of the Lord as the watercourses:He turns it whithersoever He will” (Proverbs 21:1). A bgood year, as it is written: “The eyes of the Lord, thy God, are always upon it, from the beginning of the year even unto the end of the year”(Deuteronomy 11:12). And a bgood dream, as it is written:“O Lord, by these things men live, and altogether therein is the life of my spirit; wherefore bYou will recover me [ ivataḥlimeni /i], and make me to live”(Isaiah 38:16). Due to their apparent etymological similarity, the word itaḥlimeniis interpreted as deriving from the word iḥalom /i, dream.,Similarly, bRabbi Yoḥa said: Three matters are proclaimed by the Holy One, Blessed be He, Himself: Famine, plenty, and a good leader.The Gemara enumerates the sources for these cases: bFamine, as it is written: “For the Lord has called for a famine;and it shall also come upon the land seven years” (II Kings 8:1). bPlenty, as it is written: “And I will call for the grain, and will increase it, and lay no famine upon you”(Ezekiel 36:29). And ba good leader, as it is written: “And the Lord spoke unto Moses, saying: See, I have called by name Bezalel,son of Uri, son of Hur, of the tribe of Judah” (Exodus 31:1–2).,With regard to Bezalel’s appointment, bRabbi Yitzḥak said: One may only appoint a leader over a community if he consults with the communityand they agree to the appointment, bas it is stated:“And Moses said unto the children of Israel: bSee, the Lord has called by name Bezalel,son of Uri, son of Hur, of the tribe of Judah” (Exodus 35:30). bThe Lord said to Moses: Moses, is Bezalela bsuitableappointment in byoureyes? Moses bsaid to Him: Master of the universe, if he isa bsuitableappointment in bYoureyes, bthen all the more soin bmyeyes. The Holy One, Blessed be He, bsaid to him: Nevertheless, go and tellIsrael and ask their opinion. Moses bwent and said to Israel: Is Bezalel suitablein byoureyes? bThey said to him: If he is suitablein the eyes of bthe Holy One, Blessed be He, andin byoureyes, ball the more sohe is suitable in boureyes., bRabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani saidthat bRabbi Yonatan said: Bezalel was calledby that name bon account of his wisdom. When the Holy One, Blessed be He, said to Moses: Go say to Bezalel, “Make a tabernacle, an ark, and vessels”(see Exodus 31:7–11), bMoses went and reversedthe order band toldBezalel: b“Make an ark, and vessels, and a tabernacle”(see Exodus 25–26). bHe said toMoses: bMoses, our teacher, thestandard bpracticethroughout the bworldis that ba person builds a house andonly bafterward places the vesselsin the house, band you sayto me: bMake an ark, and vessels, and a tabernacle.If I do so in the order you have commanded, bthe vessels that I make, where shall I put them? Perhaps God told you the following: “Make a tabernacle, ark, and vessels”(see Exodus 36). Moses bsaid toBezalel: bPerhaps you were in God’s shadow [ ibetzel El /i], and you knewprecisely what He said. You intuited God’s commands just as He stated them, as if you were there., bRav Yehuda saidthat bRav said: Bezalel knewhow bto jointhe bletters with which heaven and earth were created.From where do we derive this? bIt is written herein praise of Bezalel: b“And I have filled him with the spirit of God, in wisdom, and in understanding, and in knowledge,and in all manner of workmanship” (Exodus 31:3); band it is written therewith regard to creation of heaven and earth: b“The Lord, by wisdom, founded the earth; by understanding He established the heavens”(Proverbs 3:19), band it is written: “By His knowledge the depths were broken up and the skies drop down the dew”(Proverbs 3:20). We see that wisdom, understanding, and knowledge, the qualities with which the heavens and earth were created, are all found in Bezalel.,On a similar note, bRabbi Yoḥa said: The Holy One, Blessed be He, only grants wisdom to one whoalready bpossesses wisdom, as it is stated: “He gives wisdom unto the wise, and knowledge to they who know understanding”(Daniel 2:21). bRav Taḥalifa, from the West,Eretz Yisrael, bheardthis band repeated it before Rabbi Abbahu.Rabbi Abbahu bsaid to him: You learnedproof for this idea bfrom there; we learn it from here: As it is writtenin praise of the builders of the Tabernacle: b“And in the hearts of all who are wise-hearted I have placed wisdom”(Exodus 31:6).,Related to what was stated above, that one should pray for a good dream, the Gemara cites additional maxims concerning dreams and their interpretation. bRav Ḥisda said:One should see bany dream, and not a fast.In other words, any dream is preferable to a dream during a fast. bAnd Rav Ḥisda said: A dream not interpreted is like a letter not read.As long as it is not interpreted it cannot be fulfilled; the interpretation of a dream creates its meaning. bAnd Rav Ḥisda said: A good dream is not entirely fulfilled and a bad dream is not entirely fulfilled. And Rav Ḥisda said: A bad dream is preferable to a good dream,as a bad dream causes one to feel remorse and to repent. bAnd Rav Ḥisda said: A bad dream, his sadness is enough for him; a good dream, his joy is enough for him.This means that the sadness or joy engendered by the dream renders the actual fulfillment of the dream superfluous. Similarly, bRav Yosef said: Even for me, the joy of a good dream negates it.Even Rav Yosef, who was blind and ill, derived such pleasure from a good dream that it was never actually realized. bAnd Rav Ḥisda said: A bad dream is worse than lashes, as it is stated: “God has so made it, that men should fear before Him”(Ecclesiastes 3:14), band Rabba bar bar Ḥana saidthat bRabbi Yoḥa said: That is a bad dreamthat causes man to fear.,With regard to the verse: b“The prophet that has a dream, let him tell a dream; and he that has My word, let him speak My word faithfully. What has the straw to do with the grain? says the Lord”(Jeremiah 23:28), the Gemara asks: bWhat do straw and grain have to do with a dream? Rather, Rabbi Yoḥa said in the name of Rabbi Shimon bar Yoḥai: Just as it is impossible for the grainto grow bwithout straw, so too it is impossible to dream without idle matters.Even a dream that will be fulfilled in the future contains some element of nonsense.,On a similar note, bRabbi Berekhya said: Even though part of a dream is fulfilled, all of it is not fulfilled. From where do wederive this? bFromthe story of bJoseph’sdream, bas it is written:“And he said: Behold, I have dreamed yet a dream: band, behold, the sun and the moon /b
37. Babylonian Talmud, Gittin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

57a. במאי דפסיק אנפשיה כל יומא מכנשי ליה לקיטמיה ודייני ליה וקלו ליה ומבדרו אשב ימי,אזל אסקיה לבלעם בנגידא אמר ליה מאן חשיב בההוא עלמא א"ל ישראל מהו לאידבוקי בהו א"ל (דברים כג, ז) לא תדרוש שלומם וטובתם כל הימים א"ל דיניה דההוא גברא במאי א"ל בשכבת זרע רותחת,אזל אסקיה [ליש"ו] בנגידא (לפושעי ישראל) א"ל מאן חשיב בההוא עלמא א"ל ישראל מהו לאדבוקי בהו א"ל טובתם דרוש רעתם לא תדרוש כל הנוגע בהן כאילו נוגע בבבת עינו,א"ל דיניה דההוא גברא במאי א"ל בצואה רותחת דאמר מר כל המלעיג על דברי חכמים נידון בצואה רותחת תא חזי מה בין פושעי ישראל לנביאי אומות העולם עובדי ע"ז,תניא אמר רבי אלעזר בא וראה כמה גדולה כחה של בושה שהרי סייע הקב"ה את בר קמצא והחריב את ביתו ושרף את היכלו:,אתרנגולא ואתרנגולתא חריב טור מלכא דהוו נהיגי כי הוו מפקי חתנא וכלתא מפקי קמייהו תרנגולא ותרנגולתא כלומר פרו ורבו כתרנגולים,יומא חד הוה קא חליף גונדא דרומאי שקלינהו מינייהו נפלו עלייהו מחונהו אתו אמרו ליה לקיסר מרדו בך יהודאי אתא עלייהו הוה בהו ההוא בר דרומא דהוה קפיץ מילא וקטיל בהו שקליה קיסר לתאגיה ואותביה אארעא אמר ריבוניה דעלמא כוליה אי ניחא לך לא תמסריה לההוא גברא לדידיה ולמלכותיה בידיה דחד גברא,אכשליה פומיה לבר דרומא ואמר (תהלים ס, יב) הלא אתה אלהים זנחתנו ולא תצא אלהים בצבאותינו דוד נמי אמר הכי דוד אתמוהי קא מתמה,על לבית הכסא אתא דרקונא שמטיה לכרכשיה ונח נפשיה אמר הואיל ואיתרחיש לי ניסא הא זימנא אישבקינהו שבקינהו ואזל איזדקור ואכלו ושתו ואדליקו שרגי עד דאיתחזי בליונא דגושפנקא ברחוק מילא אמר מיחדא קא חדו בי יהודאי הדר אתא עלייהו,א"ר אסי תלת מאה אלפי שליפי סייפא עיילו לטור. מלכא וקטלו בה תלתא יומי ותלתא לילוותא ובהך גיסא הלולי וחנגי ולא הוו ידעי הני בהני,(איכה ב, ב) בלע ה' ולא חמל את כל נאות יעקב כי אתא רבין אמר רבי יוחנן אלו ששים רבוא עיירות שהיו לו לינאי המלך בהר המלך דאמר רב יהודה אמר רב אסי ששים רבוא עיירות היו לו לינאי המלך בהר המלך וכל אחת ואחת היו בה כיוצאי מצרים חוץ משלש שהיו בהן כפלים כיוצאי מצרים,אלו הן כפר ביש כפר שיחליים כפר דכריא כפר ביש דלא יהבי ביתא לאושפיזא כפר שיחליים שהיתה פרנסתן מן שחליים כפר דכריא אמר רבי יוחנן שהיו נשותיהן יולדות זכרים תחלה ויולדות נקבה באחרונה ופוסקות,אמר עולא לדידי חזי לי ההוא אתרא ואפילו שיתין ריבוותא קני לא מחזיק אמר ליה ההוא צדוקי לרבי חנינא שקורי משקריתו אמר ליה (ירמיהו ג, יט) ארץ צבי כתיב בה מה צבי זה אין עורו מחזיק את בשרו אף ארץ ישראל בזמן שיושבין עליה רווחא ובזמן שאין יושבין עליה גמדא,רב מניומי בר חלקיה ורב חלקיה בר טוביה ורב הונא בר חייא הוו יתבי גבי הדדי אמרי אי איכא דשמיע ליה מילתא מכפר סכניא של מצרים לימא,פתח חד מינייהו ואמר מעשה בארוס וארוסתו שנשבו לבין העובדי כוכבים והשיאום זה לזה אמרה לו בבקשה ממך אל תגע בי שאין לי כתובה ממך ולא נגע בה עד יום מותו,וכשמת אמרה להן סיפדו לזה שפטפט ביצרו יותר מיוסף דאילו ביוסף לא הוה אלא חדא שעתא והאי כל יומא ויומא ואילו יוסף לאו בחדא מטה והאי בחדא מטה ואילו יוסף לאו אשתו והא אשתו,פתח אידך ואמר מעשה ועמדו ארבעים מודיות בדינר נחסר השער מודיא אחת ובדקו ומצאו אב ובנו שבאו על נערה מאורסה ביום הכפורים והביאום לבית דין וסקלום וחזר השער למקומו,פתח אידך ואמר מעשה באדם אחד שנתן עיניו באשתו לגרשה והיתה כתובתה מרובה מה עשה הלך וזימן את שושביניו והאכילן והשקן שיכרן והשכיבן על מיטה אחת והביא לובן ביצה והטיל ביניהן והעמיד להן עדים ובא לבית דין,היה שם זקן אחד מתלמידי שמאי הזקן ובבא בן בוטא שמו אמר להן כך מקובלני משמאי הזקן לובן ביצה סולד מן האור ושכבת זרע דוחה מן האור בדקו ומצאו כדבריו והביאוהו לב"ד והלקוהו והגבוהו כתובתה ממנו,א"ל אביי לרב יוסף ומאחר דהוו צדיקים כולי האי מאי טעמא איענוש א"ל משום דלא איאבול על ירושלים דכתיב (ישעיהו סו, י) שמחו את ירושלם וגילו בה כל אוהביה שישו אתה משוש כל המתאבלים עליה:,אשקא דריספק חריב ביתר דהוו נהיגי כי הוה מתיליד ינוקא שתלי ארזא ינוקתא שתלי תורניתא וכי הוו מינסבי קייצי להו ועבדו גננא יומא חד הוה קא חלפא ברתיה דקיסר אתבר שקא דריספק קצו ארזא ועיילו לה אתו נפול עלייהו מחונהו אתו אמרו ליה לקיסר מרדו בך יהודאי אתא עלייהו:,(איכה ב, ג) גדע בחרי אף כל קרן ישראל א"ר זירא א"ר אבהו א"ר יוחנן אלו שמונים [אלף] קרני מלחמה שנכנסו לכרך ביתר בשעה שלכדוה והרגו בה אנשים ונשים וטף עד שהלך דמן ונפל לים הגדול שמא תאמר קרובה היתה רחוקה היתה מיל,תניא רבי אליעזר הגדול אומר שני נחלים יש בבקעת ידים אחד מושך אילך ואחד מושך אילך ושיערו חכמים שני חלקים מים ואחד דם במתניתא תנא שבע שנים בצרו עובדי כוכבים את כרמיהן מדמן של ישראל בלא זבל 57a. bThat which he decreed against himself,as he undergoes the following: bEvery day his ashes are gathered, and they judge him, and they burn him, and they scatter him over the seven seas. /b,Onkelos then bwent and raised Balaamfrom the grave bthrough necromancy. He said to him: Who ismost bimportant in that worldwhere you are now? Balaam bsaid to him: The Jewish people.Onkelos asked him: bShould Ithen battachmyself bto themhere in this world? Balaam bsaid to him: You shall not seek their peace or their welfare all the days(see Deuteronomy 23:7). Onkelos bsaid to him: What is the punishment of that man,a euphemism for Balaam himself, in the next world? Balaam bsaid to him:He is cooked bin boiling semen,as he caused Israel to engage in licentious behavior with the daughters of Moab.,Onkelos then bwentand braised Jesus the Nazarenefrom the grave bthrough necromancy.Onkelos bsaid to him: Who ismost bimportant in that worldwhere you are now? Jesus bsaid to him: The Jewish people.Onkelos asked him: bShould Ithen battachmyself bto themin this world? Jesus bsaid to him: Their welfare you shall seek, their misfortune you shall not seek,for banyone who touches them isregarded bas if he were touching the apple of his eye(see Zechariah 2:12).,Onkelos bsaid to him: What is the punishment of that man,a euphemism for Jesus himself, in the next world? Jesus bsaid to him:He is punished bwith boiling excrement. As the Master said: Anyone who mocks the words of the Sages will be sentenced to boiling excrement.And this was his sin, as he mocked the words of the Sages. The Gemara comments: bComeand bsee the difference between the sinners of Israel and the prophets of the nations of the world.As Balaam, who was a prophet, wished Israel harm, whereas Jesus the Nazarene, who was a Jewish sinner, sought their well-being.,To conclude the story of Kamtza and bar Kamtza and the destruction of Jerusalem, the Gemara cites a ibaraita /i. It bis taught: Rabbi Elazar says: Come and see how great is the power of shame, for the Holy One, Blessed be He, assisted bar Kamtza,who had been humiliated, banddue to this humiliation and shame bHe destroyed His Temple and burned His Sanctuary. /b,§ It was previously mentioned (55b) that the place known as bthe King’s Mountain [ iTur Malka /i] was destroyed on account of a rooster and a hen.The details of what happened are as follows: bIt was customaryin that place bthat when they would lead a bride and groomto their wedding, bthey would take out a rooster and a hen before them,as if bto sayin the manner of a good omen: bBe fruitful and multiply like chickens. /b, bOne day a troop [ igunda /i] of Romansoldiers bpassed bythere while a wedding was taking place band tookthe rooster and hen bfrom them.The residents of the city bfell upon them and beat them.The soldiers bcame and said to the emperor: The Jews have rebelled against you.The emperor then bcame against themin war. Among the residents of the King’s Mountain bthere was a certain mannamed bbar Deroma who could jumpthe distance of ba imil /i, and he killedmany of the Romans, who were powerless to stand up against him. bThe emperorthen btook his crown and set it on the groundas a sign of mourning. bHe said: Master of the Universe, if it is pleasing to You, do not give over that man,a euphemism for himself, band his kingdom into the hands ofonly bone man. /b,In the end it was the words issuing from bhisown bmouththat bcaused bar Deroma to stumble, as he utteredthis verse in complaint against God: b“Have You not rejected us, O God, so that You go not forth, O God, with our hosts?”(Psalms 60:12). The Gemara asks: But did not bDavid also say this?The Gemara answers: bDavid utteredthese words bas a question,wondering whether they were true, whereas bar Deroma pronounced them as a statement of fact.,The Gemara recounts what happened to bar Deroma: bHe entered an outhouse, a snake cameand beviscerated him, and he died.The emperor bsaid: Since a miracle was performed for me,as I had no part in bar Deroma’s death, bI will letthe rest of the people bbe this timeand take no further action against them. bHe let them be and wenton his way. bThey leaptabout, bate, drank, and litso many bcandlesin celebration bthat the image [ ibilyona /i]imprinted bon a seal [ igushpanka /i] was visible from a distance of a imil /i.The emperor then bsaid: The Jews are rejoicing over me.So bhe went backand bcame against them. /b, bRav Asi says: Three hundred thousand men with drawn swords entered the King’s Mountain and massacredits inhabitants bfor three days and three nights. Andat the same time bonthe other bsideof the mountain, bweddings andother bfestivitiescontinued to be celebrated, band they did not know about each other,owing to the enormous size of the place.,§ Concerning the verse: b“The Lord has swallowed up without pity all the habitations of Jacob”(Lamentations 2:2), it is related that bwhen Ravin camefrom Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia bhesaid that bRabbi Yoḥa says: Thisis referring to the bsix hundred thousand citiesthat bKing Yannai had in the King’s Mountain.As bRav Yehuda saysthat bRav Asi says: King Yannai had six hundred thousand cities in the King’s Mountain, and each of themhad a population as great basthe number of bthose who left Egypt, except for threeof those cities, the population of which bwas doublethe number of bthose who left Egypt. /b, bTheseare bthosethree cities: bKefar Bish, Kefar Shiḥalayim, and Kefar Dikhrayya.The Gemara explains the meaning of these place-names. bKefar Bish,Evil Town, was called by that name because its inhabitants bwould not opentheir bhouses to guests. Kefar Shiḥalayimwas referred to by that name because btheir livelihood wasderived bfromthe cultivation of bcress [ ishaḥalayim /i].As for bKefar Dikhrayya,Town of Males, bRabbi Yoḥa says: Their women would first give birth to boys, and afterward give birth to girls, andthen bthey would stophaving children., bUlla said: I myself saw that place, and it could not hold even six hundred thousand reeds,all the more so that number of people. bA certain heretic said to Rabbi Ḥanina: You liewith your exorbitant exaggerations. Rabbi Ḥanina bsaid to him: With regard toEretz Yisrael bit is written: Land of the deer(see Jeremiah 3:19). bJust as the skin of a deer cannot hold its flesh,for after the animal is skinned, its hide shrinks, bso too,with regard to bEretz Yisrael, when it is settled, it expands, but when it is not settled, it contracts.This explains how a place that is so small today could have been so highly populated prior to the Temple’s destruction.,§ The Gemara relates that bRav Minyumi bar Ḥilkiya, Rav Ḥilkiya bar Toviya, and Rav Huna bar Ḥiyya wereonce bsitting together. They said: If there is someone who has heard anything about Kefar Sekhanya of Egypt,which was in that region, blet him relateit., bOne of them beganthe discussion band said:There was ban incident involving a betrothed man and womanfrom there bwho were taken captive by gentiles andthe latter bmarried them off to each other.The woman bsaid tothe man: bPlease do not touch me, as I do not have a marriage contract from you,and it is prohibited for us to live together without one. bAnd untilthe day of bhis deaththe man bdid not touchthe woman., bAnd when he diedwithout having touched her, the woman bsaid tothe Sages: bEulogize thisman bwho conquered [ ishepitpet /i] his passion [ ibeyitzro /i] more than Joseph. Asin the case of bJoseph it was only for a short timethat he had to overpower his inclination and resist Potiphar’s wife (see Genesis, chapter 39), bwhereas thisman struggled with his passion beach and every day.Furthermore, bJosephwas bnot in one bedwith Potiphar’s wife, bwhereas thisman was bin one bedwith his wife. In addition, with bJosephthe woman was bnot his wife, whereaswith bthisman she was bhis wife,as she was already betrothed to him., bAnotherSage bbeganhis remarks band said: It once happened thatthe market price of bforty ise’a /iof grain bstood at one dinar.And then bthe rate went down one ise’a[ imodeya /i],so that only thirty-nine ise’awere sold for a dinar. bAnd they checkedto see what sin had caused this, band they found a father and son who had engaged in sexual intercourse with a betrothed young woman on Yom Kippur. They broughtthe offenders bto court and stoned them, and the rate returned to itsformer blevel. /b,Yet banotherSage bbeganhis remarks band said:There was ban incidentthere binvolving a man who set his eyes upon his wife to divorce her, but her marriage contract was largeand he wished to avoid having to pay it. bWhat did he do? He went and invited his friends, gave them food and drink, made them drunk, and layhis friends and his wife bin one bed. Hethen bbrought the white of an egg,which has the appearance of semen, band placed iton the sheet bbetween them. Hethen bstood witnesses over themso that they could offer testimony, band went to courtclaiming that his wife had committed adultery., bA certain Elder of the disciples of Shammai the Elder was there, and Bava ben Butawas bhis name. He said to them: This isthe tradition that bI received from Shammai the Elder: Egg whiteon a bedsheet bcontractsand hardens when heated bby fire, whereas semen is absorbedinto the sheet bby the fire. They checkedthe matter band found in accordance with his statementthat the substance on the sheet was not semen but egg white. bTheythen bbroughtthe husband bto court, administered lashes to him, and made him payhis wife’s bmarriage contractin full., bAbaye said to Rav Yosef: But sincethose in the city bwere so righteous, what is the reason that they were punishedand destroyed? Rav Yosef bsaid to him:It is bbecause they did not mourn for Jerusalem, as it is written: “Rejoice with Jerusalem, and be glad with her, all you that love her, rejoice with joy with her, all you that did mourn for her”(Isaiah 66:10). The verse teaches that one who mourns for Jerusalem will rejoice in its rebuilding, and one who fails to mourn for Jerusalem is destroyed.,§ It was stated earlier that the city of bBeitar was destroyed on account of a shaft from a carriage.The Gemara explains that bit was customaryin Beitar that bwhen a boy was born they would plant a cedartree and when ba girlwas born they bwould plant a cypress [ itornita /i]. And when they wouldlater bmarryeach other bthey would cutdown these trees band constructa wedding bcanopyfor them with their branches. bOne day the emperor’s daughter passed bythere and bthe shaft of the carriagein which she was riding bbroke.Her attendants bchopped down a cedarfrom among those trees band brought it to her.Owing to the importance that they attached to their custom, the residents of Beitar bcameand bfell upon them and beat them.The attendants bcameand bsaid to the emperor: The Jews have rebelled against you.The emperor then bcame against themin war.,It was in connection with the war that ensued that the Sages expounded the following verse: b“He has cut off in His fierce anger all the horn of Israel”(Lamentations 2:3). bRabbi Zeira saysthat bRabbi Abbahu saysthat bRabbi Yoḥa says: These are the eighty thousandofficers bearing bbattle trumpetsin their hands, bwho entered the city of Beitar whenthe enemy btook it and killed men, women, and children until their blood flowed into the Great Sea. Lest you saythat the city bwas closeto the sea, know that bit was a imilaway. /b, bIt issimilarly btaughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Eliezer the Great says: There are two rivers in the Yadayim Valleyin that region, bone flowing one way and one flowing the other way. And the Sages estimatedthat in the aftermath of this war these rivers were filled with btwo parts water to one part blood.Likewise, bit was taught in a ibaraita /i: For seven years the gentiles harvested their vineyardsthat had been soaked bwith the blood of Israel withoutrequiring any additional bfertilizer. /b
38. Babylonian Talmud, Ketuvot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

72a. איכא נועל בפניה אלא לבית האבל מאי נועל בפניה איכא תנא למחר היא מתה ואין כל בריה סופדה ואיכא דאמרי אין כל בריה סופנה,תניא היה ר' מאיר אומר מאי דכתיב (קהלת ז, ב) טוב ללכת אל בית אבל מלכת אל בית משתה באשר הוא סוף כל האדם והחי יתן אל לבו מאי והחי יתן אל לבו דברים של מיתה דספד יספדוניה דקבר יקברוניה דידל ידלוניה דלואי ילווניה דטען יטענוניה:,ואם היה טוען משום דבר אחר רשאי: מאי דבר אחר אמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל משום בני אדם פרוצין שמצויין שם אמר רב אשי לא אמרן אלא דאיתחזק אבל לא איתחזק לא כל כמיניה:,ואם אמר לה ע"מ שתאמרי: ותימא אמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל דברים של קלון:,או שתהא ממלאה ומערה לאשפה: ותיעביד א"ר יהודה אמר שמואל שתמלא ונופצת במתניתא תנא שתמלא עשרה כדי מים ותערה לאשפה,בשלמא לשמואל משום הכי יוציא ויתן כתובה אלא למתניתא מאי נפקא לה מינה תיעביד אמר רבה בר בר חנה אמר רבי יוחנן מפני שנראית כשוטה,אמר רב כהנא המדיר את אשתו שלא תשאל ושלא תשאיל נפה וכברה וריחים ותנור יוציא ויתן כתובה שמשיאה שם רע בשכינותיה,תניא נמי הכי המדיר את אשתו שלא תשאל ושלא תשאיל נפה וכברה ריחים ותנור יוציא ויתן כתובה מפני שמשיאה שם רע בשכינותיה וכן היא שנדרה שלא תשאל ושלא תשאיל נפה וכברה וריחים ותנור ושלא תארוג בגדים נאים לבניו תצא שלא בכתובה מפני שמשיאתו שם רע בשכיניו:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big ואלו יוצאות שלא בכתובה העוברת על דת משה ויהודית ואיזו היא דת משה מאכילתו שאינו מעושר ומשמשתו נדה ולא קוצה לה חלה ונודרת ואינה מקיימת,ואיזוהי דת יהודית יוצאה וראשה פרוע וטווה בשוק ומדברת עם כל אדם אבא שאול אומר אף המקללת יולדיו בפניו רבי טרפון אומר אף הקולנית ואיזוהי קולנית לכשהיא מדברת בתוך ביתה ושכיניה שומעין קולה:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big מאכילתו שאינו מעושר: היכי דמי אי דידע נפרוש אי דלא ידע מנא ידע לא צריכא דאמרה ליה פלוני כהן תיקן לי את הכרי ואזיל שייליה ואשתכח שיקרא:,ומשמשתו נדה: היכי דמי אי דידע בה נפרוש אי דלא ידע נסמוך עילוה דא"ר חיננא בר כהנא אמר שמואל מנין לנדה שסופרת לעצמה שנאמר (ויקרא טו, כח) וספרה לה שבעת ימים לה לעצמה,לא צריכא דאמרה ליה פלוני חכם טיהר לי את הדם ואזל שייליה ואשתכח שיקרא ואיבעית אימא כדרב יהודה דאמר רב יהודה הוחזקה נדה בשכינותיה בעלה לוקה עליה משום נדה:,ולא קוצה לה חלה: היכי דמי אי דידע נפרוש אי דלא ידע מנא ידע לא צריכא דאמרה ליה פלוני גבל תיקן לי את העיסה ואזיל שייליה ואשתכח שיקרא:,ונודרת ואינה מקיימת: דאמר מר בעון נדרים בנים מתים שנאמר (קהלת ה, ה) אל תתן את פיך לחטיא את בשרך וגו' ואיזו הן מעשה ידיו של אדם הוי אומר בניו ובנותיו רב נחמן אמר מהכא (ירמיהו ב, ל) לשוא הכיתי את בניכם לשוא על עסקי שוא,תניא היה ר"מ אומר כל היודע באשתו שנודרת ואינה מקיימת יחזור וידירנה ידירנה במאי מתקן לה אלא יחזור ויקניטנה כדי שתדור בפניו ויפר לה אמרו לו אין אדם דר עם נחש בכפיפה,תניא היה ר' יהודה אומר כל היודע באשתו שאינה קוצה לו חלה יחזור ויפריש אחריה אמרו לו אין אדם דר עם נחש בכפיפה,מאן דמתני לה אהא כ"ש אהך אבל מאן דמתני אהך אבל הא זימנין דמקרי ואכיל:,ואיזוהי דת יהודית יוצאה וראשה פרוע: ראשה פרוע דאורייתא היא דכתיב (במדבר ה, יח) ופרע את ראש האשה ותנא דבי רבי ישמעאל אזהרה לבנות ישראל שלא יצאו בפרוע ראש דאורייתא 72a. bthere iseffectively an act of blockinga door bin front of herby withholding from her any possibility of rejoicing, bbutwhen he forbids her from going bto a house of mourning, what lockingof a door bin front of her is there? He taught: In the future shetoo bwill die, and no person will eulogize heror take care of her, just as she did not do so for others. bAnd some say: No person will value heror pay attention to her, since a person who does not visit the sick or console mourners cuts himself off from others.,Similarly, bit is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bRabbi Meir used to say: What isthe meaning of that bwhich is written: “It is better to go to a house of mourning than to go to a house of feasting, since that is the end of all men, and the living will take it to heart”(Ecclesiastes 7:2)? bWhatdoes b“and the living will take it to heart”mean? It means that they will take bmattersrelating bto deathto heart, realizing that they too will eventually die. He bwho eulogizesothers, people bwill eulogize him;he bwho buriessomeone, people bwill bury him;he bwho liftsothers to bring them to burial, people bwillsimilarly blifthim to bring him to burial; he bwho escortsothers out for burial, people bwillsimilarly bescort him;he bwho carriesothers, others bwill carry him.Therefore, one who does not come to a house of mourning to comfort the bereaved will himself not be treated with proper dignity when he dies.,§ The mishna stated: bAnd if he claimedhe forbade her bdue to something else, he is permittedto do so. The Gemara asks: bWhat ismeant by bsomething else? Rav Yehuda saidthat bShmuel said:He claims he did so bdue to promiscuous individuals that arecommonly bfound there,and he does not want his wife to be among them. bRav Ashi said: We saidthat he may forbid her bonlywith regard to a case bwhere a presumption has beenestablished that promiscuous people frequent this location, bbutif bnosuch bpresumption has beenestablished, bit is not in his powerto say he is concerned about it.,§ The mishna stated: bAnd if he said to her:The vow will be void bon condition that you tellso-and-so what you told me, or what I told you, he must divorce her and give her the payment of her marriage contract. The Gemara asks: bAnd let her say it.Why shouldn’t she simply comply with his wishes? bRav Yehuda saidthat bShmuel said:It is referring to bdegrading matters,meaning intimate conversations between husband and wife, which she is ashamed to relate in the presence of others.,The mishna stated: bOrhe said the vow will be void on condition bthat she fillsomething up band pourit binto the refuse.The Gemara asks: bAnd let her do it. Rav Yehuda saidthat bShmuel said:The mishna’s intention is bthathe demanded that bshe fillherself up bandthen bshakeherself out. This is a euphemistic way of saying that the husband wants her to take measures to prevent herself from becoming pregt, and she is permitted to protest this. bIt was taught in a ibaraita /i:The case is bthathe told her bto fillup bten jugs of water and pourthem binto the refuse,a task that involves pointless effort and appears foolish.,The Gemara asks: bGrantedthat baccording to Shmuel,who explains that the mishna is referring to a case where the husband insists that she not become pregt, bdue to thatreason bhe must divorceher band giveher the payment of her bmarriage contract. But according to the ibaraita /i,which explains that he simply wants her to engage in pointless work, bwhat difference does it make to her? Let her do it. Rabba bar bar Ḥanna saidthat bRabbi Yoḥa said: Because shewould bappear insaneif she were to perform pointless actions, she may therefore demand a divorce., bRav Kahana said: One who vowsand obligates bhis wife not to borrow or not to lendutensils that people generally lend, such as ba sifter, or a sieve, or a mill, or an oven, must divorceher band giveher the payment of her bmarriage contract, sinceby making such rules bhe causes her to develop a bad reputation among her neighbors,who will suspect her of stinginess or haughtiness.,The Gemara notes: bThatopinion bis also taughtin a ibaraita /i: bOne who vowsand obligates bhis wife not to borrow or not to lend a sifter, or a sieve, or a mill, or an oven, must divorceher band giveher the payment of her bmarriage contract, since he causes her to develop a bad reputation among her neighbors. And similarly,if it is bshe who vowed not to borrow or not to lend a sifter, or a sieve, or a mill, or an oven, or that she will not weave nice garments for his children, shemay be bdivorced withoutpayment of her bmarriage contract.This too is bbecause she causes him to develop a bad reputation among his neighbors,as they will link her behavior to him and think that he instructed her to act this way., strongMISHNA: /strong bAnd theseare examples of women who may be bdivorced withoutpayment of their bmarriage contract:A woman bwho violatesthe bprecepts of Moses,i.e., ihalakha /i, borthe precepts of bJewishwomen, i.e., custom. The Mishna explains: bAnd who iscategorized as a woman who violates the bprecepts of Moses?This includes cases such as when bshe feeds himfood bthat has not been tithed, or she engages in sexual intercourse with himwhile she has the legal status of ba menstruating woman, or she does not separate a portion of dough to be given to a priest [ iḥalla /i], or she vows and does not fulfillher vows., bAnd who isconsidered a woman who violates the bprecepts of Jewishwomen? One who, for example, bgoes outof her house, band her head,i.e., her hair, is buncovered; orshe bspinswool bin thepublic bmarketplace; orshe bspeaks with every manshe encounters. bAbba Shaul says: Also one who curses his,i.e., her husband’s, bparents in his presence. Rabbi Tarfon says: Also a loud woman. And who isdefined as ba loud woman? When she speaks inside her house and her neighbors hear her voice. /b, strongGEMARA: /strong The mishna stated: bShe feeds himfood bthat has not been tithed.The Gemara attempts to clarify: bWhat are the circumstancesof the case under discussion? bIf he knowsthat the food is untithed, bhe should abstainand not eat it. And bif he does not knowthat the food is untithed, then bhow does he knowthat she in fact fed him such food, so that he can divorce her? The Gemara responds: bNo,it is bnecessary when she tells him: So-and-sothe bpriest rectified the pileof grain bfor meby tithing it, band hethen bwent and askedthe priest whether he did so, band it was foundto be ba lie.It is therefore clear that she did not tithe the food before she served it to him.,§ The mishna stated: bOr she engages in sexual intercourse with himwhile she has the status of ba menstruating woman.The Gemara asks: bWhat are the circumstances? If he knows about herthat she is a menstruating woman, bhe should abstain.And bif he does not know,then bhe should rely on her. Because Rav Ḥina bar Kahana saidthat bShmuel said: From whereis it derived bthat a menstruating woman can countthe days bfor herself,and that she is trusted to testify that she did so? bAs it is stated: “Then she shall count to herself seven days”(Leviticus 15:28). b“To herself”means bby herself,and she may be trusted that she did so. If so, why can’t the husband trust his wife that she is not a menstruating woman?,The Gemara answers: bNo,it is bnecessary when she tells him: So-and-sothe bSage purified the blood for meby ruling that it did not qualify as menstrual blood, band he went and asked him, and it was foundthat her claim was ba lie. And if you wish, sayinstead that this is bsimilar to that which Rav Yehudasaid, bas Rav Yehuda stated:If bshe is known by her neighbors to be a menstruating woman, her husband is flogged ifhe has relations with bher, due tothe prohibition against cohabiting with ba menstruating woman.In this case, she was known by her neighbors to be a menstruating woman, but she had not told her husband. She then engaged in sexual intercourse with him, and he subsequently discovered her status from her neighbors.,§ The mishna stated: bOr she does not separate iḥalla /i.The Gemara asks: bWhat are the circumstances? If he knowsthat she did not separate iḥalla /i, bhe should abstain. If he does not know,then bhow does he knowabout it afterward in order to divorce her? The Gemara answers: bNo,it is bnecessary when she tells him: So-and-sothe bkneader rectified the dough for meby separating iḥalla /i, band he went and asked him, and it was foundthat her claim was ba lie. /b,§ The mishna also stated: bOr she vows and does not fulfillher vows. The Gemara clarifies the reason for this, as it is different from the other cases in the mishna, where she causes her husband to violate a prohibition. In this case it is only she who violates a prohibition. bAs the Master said: Due tothe sin of unfulfilled bvows, children die, as it is stated:“It is better not to vow than to vow and not pay. bDo not allow your mouth to bring your flesh to sin… /bwhy should the Lord become angry at your voice and destroy the work of your hands?” (Ecclesiastes 5:4–5). bAnd what is the work of a person’s hands? You must sayit is referring to bhis sons and his daughters. Rav Naḥman said:A proof to the above idea may be brought bfrom here: “In vain I smote your children”(Jeremiah 2:30). The phrase b“in vain”means: bFor matterscaused by bvainwords, meaning that you took a vow and did not fulfill it., bIt is taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Meir used to say: Anyone who knows concerning his wife that she vows and does not fulfillher vows bshould return and vowto obligate bher.The Gemara wonders: bHe should vowand obligate bher? How will he rectifyit bfor herby doing this? bRather,the intention is bhe should return and provoke her, so that she will vow in his presence and he canthen bnullifyit bfor her. They said to him:This solution is not effective, because ba person does not reside in a basket [ ikefifa /i],i.e., in close quarters, bwith a snake,since this is extremely dangerous. Similarly, he cannot constantly prevent her from taking vows, so it would be preferable that he divorce her., bIt is taughtin a ibaraitasimilar to the previous one that bRabbi Yehuda used to say: Anyone who knows concerning his wife that she does not separate iḥallafor him should go back and separateit bafter sheis finished. bThey said to him:This solution is not effective, since ba person does not reside in a basket with a snake. /b,The Gemara discusses the two applications of the idea that a husband should try to correct his wife’s misdeeds: bHe who teaches it with regard to this,the case of iḥalla /i, ball the more sowould teach it bfor that,the case of vows, which are not a daily occurrence. bBut he who teaches it with regard to that,i.e., the case of vows, teaches it only in that case, bbutin bthiscase of iḥalla /i, bsometimes hewill bhappen to eatuntithed produce; and Rabbi Meir holds that he cannot always be careful enough to ensure that iḥallawas taken.,§ The mishna stated: bAnd who isconsidered a woman who violates the bprecepts of Jewishwomen? One who bgoes out and her head is uncovered.The Gemara asks: The prohibition against a woman going out with bher head uncoveredis not merely a custom of Jewish women. Rather, bit is by Torahlaw, bas it is writtenwith regard to a woman suspected by her husband of having been unfaithful: b“And he shall uncover the head of the woman”(Numbers 5:18). And bthe school of Rabbi Yishmael taught:From here there is a bwarning to Jewish women not to go out with an uncovered head,since if the Torah states that a woman suspected of adultery must have her head uncovered, this indicates that a married woman must generally cover her head. The Gemara explains: bBy Torahlaw
39. Babylonian Talmud, Megillah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

12b. בבוציני,ביום השביעי כטוב לב המלך ביין אטו עד השתא לא טב לביה בחמרא אמר רבא יום השביעי שבת היה שישראל אוכלין ושותין מתחילין בד"ת ובדברי תשבחות אבל עובדי כוכבים שאוכלין ושותין אין מתחילין אלא בדברי תיפלות,וכן בסעודתו של אותו רשע הללו אומרים מדיות נאות והללו אומרים פרסיות נאות אמר להם אחשורוש כלי שאני משתמש בו אינו לא מדיי ולא פרסי אלא כשדיי רצונכם לראותה אמרו לו אין ובלבד שתהא ערומה,שבמדה שאדם מודד בה מודדין לו מלמד שהיתה ושתי הרשעה מביאה בנות ישראל ומפשיטן ערומות ועושה בהן מלאכה בשבת היינו דכתיב אחר הדברים האלה כשוך חמת המלך אחשורוש זכר את ושתי ואת אשר עשתה ואת אשר נגזר עליה כשם שעשתה כך נגזר עליה,ותמאן המלכה ושתי מכדי פריצתא הואי דאמר מר שניהן לדבר עבירה נתכוונו מ"ט לא אתאי א"ר יוסי בר חנינא מלמד שפרחה בה צרעת במתניתא תנא [בא גבריאל ועשה לה זנב],ויקצף המלך מאד אמאי דלקה ביה כולי האי אמר רבא שלחה ליה בר אהורייריה דאבא אבא לקבל אלפא חמרא שתי ולא רוי וההוא גברא אשתטי בחמריה מיד וחמתו בערה בו,ויאמר המלך לחכמים מאן חכמים רבנן יודעי העתים שיודעין לעבר שנים ולקבוע חדשים אמר להו דיינוה לי אמרו היכי נעביד נימא ליה קטלה למחר פסיק ליה חמריה ובעי לה מינן נימא ליה שבקה קא מזלזלה במלכותא אמרו לו מיום שחרב בית המקדש וגלינו מארצנו ניטלה עצה ממנו ואין אנו יודעין לדון דיני נפשות זיל לגבי עמון ומואב דיתבי בדוכתייהו כחמרא דיתיב על דורדייה,וטעמא אמרו ליה דכתיב (ירמיהו מח, יא) שאנן מואב מנעוריו ושוקט הוא אל שמריו ולא הורק מכלי אל כלי ובגולה לא הלך על כן עמד טעמו בו וריחו לא נמר מיד והקרוב אליו כרשנא שתר אדמתא תרשיש,א"ר לוי כל פסוק זה על שום קרבנות נאמר,כרשנא אמרו מלאכי השרת לפני הקב"ה רבש"ע כלום הקריבו לפניך כרים בני שנה כדרך שהקריבו ישראל לפניך שתר כלום הקריבו לפניך שתי תורין אדמתא כלום בנו לפניך מזבח אדמה תרשיש כלום שימשו לפניך בבגדי כהונה דכתיב בהו (שמות כח, כ) תרשיש ושהם וישפה מרס כלום מירסו בדם לפניך מרסנא כלום מירסו במנחות לפניך ממוכן כלום הכינו שלחן לפניך,ויאמר ממוכן תנא ממוכן זה המן ולמה נקרא שמו ממוכן שמוכן לפורענות אמר רב כהנא מכאן שההדיוט קופץ בראש,להיות כל איש שורר בביתו אמר רבא אלמלא אגרות הראשונות לא נשתייר משונאיהן של ישראל שריד ופליט,אמרי מאי האי דשדיר לן להיות כל איש שורר בביתו פשיטא אפילו קרחה בביתיה פרדשכא ליהוי,ויפקד המלך פקידים א"ר מאי דכתיב (משלי יג, טז) כל ערום יעשה בדעת וכסיל יפרוש אולת,כל ערום יעשה בדעת זה דוד דכתיב (מלכים א א, ב) ויאמרו לו עבדיו יבקשו לאדני המלך נערה בתולה כל מאן דהוה ליה ברתא אייתה ניהליה וכסיל יפרוש אולת זה אחשורוש דכתיב ויפקד המלך פקידים כל מאן דהוה ליה ברתא איטמרה מיניה,איש יהודי היה בשושן הבירה וגו' איש ימיני מאי קאמר אי ליחוסא קאתי ליחסיה ואזיל עד בנימין אלא מאי שנא הני,תנא כולן על שמו נקראו בן יאיר בן שהאיר עיניהם של ישראל בתפלתו בן שמעי בן ששמע אל תפלתו בן קיש שהקיש על שערי רחמים ונפתחו לו,קרי ליה יהודי אלמא מיהודה קאתי וקרי ליה ימיני אלמא מבנימין קאתי אמר רב נחמן מרדכי מוכתר בנימוסו היה,אמר רבה בר בר חנה אמר ר' יהושע בן לוי אביו מבנימין ואמו מיהודה ורבנן אמרי משפחות מתגרות זו בזו משפחת יהודה אומרת אנא גרים דמתיליד מרדכי דלא קטליה דוד לשמעי בן גרא ומשפחת בנימין אמרה מינאי קאתי,רבא אמר כנסת ישראל אמרה לאידך גיסא ראו מה עשה לי יהודי ומה שילם לי ימיני מה עשה לי יהודי 12b. bwith zucchinis,indicating that often a man and his wife engage in similar actions.,The verse states: b“On the seventh day, when the heart of the king was merry with wine”(Esther 1:10). The Gemara asks: bIs that to saythat buntil now his heart was not merry with wine?Did it take seven days for him to achieve merriment? bRava said: The seventh day was Shabbat,when the difference between the Jewish people and the gentiles is most apparent. On Shabbat, bwhen the Jewish people eat and drink, they beginby occupying themselves bwith words of Torah and words of praisefor God. bBut the nations of the world, when they eat and drink, they begin only with words of licentiousness. /b,The Gemara continues to detail what occurred at the feast. bSo too, at the feast of that wicked man,Ahasuerus, when the men began to converse, bsome said: The Median women arethe most bbeautiful, while others said: The Persian women arethe most bbeautiful. Ahasuerus said to them: The vessel that I use,i.e., my wife, bis neither Median nor Persian, butrather bChaldean. Do you wish to see her? They said to him: Yes, provided that she be naked,for we wish to see her without any additional adornments.,The Gemara comments: Vashti was punished in this humiliating way bfor it is with the measure that a man measuresto others bthat hehimself bis measured.In other words, God punishes individuals in line with their transgressions, measure for measure. bThis teaches that the wicked Vashti would take the daughters of Israel, and strip them naked, and make them work on Shabbat.Therefore, it was decreed that she be brought before the king naked, on Shabbat. This is bas it is written: “After these things, when the wrath of King Ahasuerus was appeased, he remembered Vashti, and what she had done, and what was decreed against her”(Esther 2:1). That is to say, bjust as she had donewith the young Jewish women, bso it was decreed upon her. /b,The verse states: b“But the queen Vashti refusedto come” (Esther 1:12). The Gemara asks: bSince she was immodest, as the Master saidabove: bThe two of them had sinful intentions, what is the reasonthat bshe did not come? Rabbi Yosei bar Ḥanina said: This teaches that she broke out in leprosy,and therefore she was embarrassed to expose herself publicly. An alternative reason for her embarrassment bwas taught in a ibaraita /i:The angel bGabriel came and fashioned her a tail. /b,The verse continues: b“Therefore the king was very wrathful,and his anger burned in him” (Esther 1:12). The Gemara asks: bWhy didhis anger bburn in him so greatlymerely because she did not wish to come? bRava said:Vashti not only refused to come, but she also bsent hima message by way of a messenger: You, bson of my father’s stableman [ iahuriyyarei /i].Belshazzar, bmy father, drank wine against a thousandmen band did not become inebriated,as the verse in Daniel (5:1) testifies about him: “Belshazzar the king made a great feast to a thousand of his lords, and drank wine before the thousand”; band that man,referring euphemistically to Ahasuerus himself, bhas become senseless from his wine.Due to her audacity, bimmediately “his anger burned in him”(Esther 1:12).,The following verse states: b“Then the king said to the wise men,who knew the times” (Esther 1:13). The Gemara asks: bWho are these wise men?These wise men are bthe Sagesof the Jewish people, who are referred to as those b“who knew the times,” for they know how to intercalate years and fix the monthsof the Jewish calendar. Ahasuerus bsaid to them: Judge her for me.The Sages bsaidin their hearts: bWhat should we do?If bwe say to him: Kill her, tomorrow he will become sober andthen come and bdemand her from us.If bwe say to him: Let her be, she has scorned royalty,and that cannot be tolerated. Consequently, they decided not to judge the matter, and bthey said to himas follows: bFrom the day that the Temple was destroyed and we have been exiled from our land, counseland insight bhave been removed from us, and we do not know how to judge capital cases,as they are exceptionally difficult. bGo tothe people of bAmmon and Moab, who have remainedpermanently bsettled in their places like wine that is settled on its lees,and so their minds are settled as well., bAndthey provided a good breasonwhen bthey spoke to him,as they proved that one who is settled retains his reasoning: bFor it is written: “Moab has been at ease from his youth, and he has settled on his lees, and has not been emptied from vessel to vessel, neither has he gone into exile; therefore his taste has remained in him, and his scent is not changed”(Jeremiah 48:11). Ahasuerus bimmediatelyacted on their advice and asked his advisors, as it is written: b“And next to him was Carshena, Shethar, Admatha, Tarshish,Meres, Marsena, and Memucan” (Esther 1:14)., bRabbi Levi said: This entire verselisting the names of the king’s advisors bis stated on account of offerings.Each name alludes to an aspect of the sacrificial service that was unique to the Jewish people, which the ministering angels mentioned as merit for the Jewish people., b“Carshena”; the ministering angels said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe, didthe gentiles bever offer before You lambs [ ikarim /i] of the first year [ ishana /i], as the Jewish people have offered before You? “Shethar”; have they ever offered before You two turtledoves [ ishetei torim /i]? “Admatha”; have they ever built before You an altar of earth [ iadama /i]? “Tarshish”; have they ever ministered before You in the priestly vestments, as it is writtenthat on the fourth of the four rows of precious stones contained on the breastplate were: b“A beryl [ itarshish /i], an onyx, and a jasper”(Exodus 28:20). b“Meres”; have they ever stirred [ imeirsu /i] the blood of the offerings before You? “Marsena”; have they ever stirred [ imeirsu /i] the meal-offering before You? “Memucan”; have they ever prepared [ ihekhinu /i]the btable before You,on which the shewbread was placed?,The verse states: b“And Memucan said”(Esther 1:16). A Sage btaughtin a ibaraita /i: bMemucan is Haman. And why isHaman breferred to as Memucan? Because he was prepared [ imukhan /i] tobring bcalamityupon the Jewish people. bRav Kahana said: From herewe see bthat the common man jumps to the frontand speaks first, for Memucan was mentioned last of the king’s seven advisors, and nevertheless he expressed his opinion first.,The king sent out letters to the people of all his provinces, in which it was written: b“That every man shall wield authority in his own houseand speak according to the language of his people” (Esther 1:22). bRava said: Were it not for the first letterssent by Ahasuerus, which everybody discounted, bthere would not have been left among the enemies of the Jewish people,a euphemism for the Jewish people themselves, ba remt or a refugee.Since these first letters were the subject of ridicule, people didn’t take the king seriously and did not immediately act upon the directive of the later letters, calling for the Jewish people’s destruction.,The Gemara continues. The reason that the first letters were not taken seriously is that btheywho received them would bsay: What is this that he has sent us: “That every man shall wield authority in his own house”?This is bobvious; evena lowly bweaver is commander [ iparedashekha /i] in his house.If so, why then did the king find it necessary to make such a proclamation?,The verse describes Ahasuerus’s search for a new wife by stating: b“And let the king appoint officersin all the provinces of his kingdom, that they may gather together all the fair young virgins unto Shushan the castle” (Esther 2:3). bRabbiYehuda HaNasi bsaid: What isthe meaning of bthat which is written: “In everything a prudent man acts with knowledge, but a fool unfolds his folly”(Proverbs 13:16)? The verse highlights the difference between two kings’ approaches to finding a wife., b“In everything a prudent man acts with knowledge”; thisstatement is referring to bDavid,who also sought a wife for himself, bas it is written: “And his servants said to him, Let there be sought for my lord the king a young virgin”(I Kings 1:2). Since he sought one maiden, bwhoever had a daughter brought her to him,for everyone wanted his daughter to be the king’s wife. With regard to the continuation of the verse: b“But a fool unfolds his folly”(Proverbs 13:16), bthisstatement bisreferring to bAhasuerus, as it is written: “And let the king appoint officers”to seek out many maidens. Since it became clear that the king would have relations with all of them, but in the end he would choose only one as his bride, bwhoever had a daughter hid her from him. /b,The verse that initially describes Mordecai states: b“There was a certain Jew in Shushan the castle,whose name was Mordecai the son of Jair the son of Shimei the son of Kish, a bBenjamite”(Esther 2:5). The Gemara asks: bWhat is itconveying in the verse by bsayingthe names of Mordecai’s ancestors? bIfthe verse in fact bcomes totrace his bancestry, it should continue tracinghis lineage bbackall the way bto Benjamin,the founder of his tribe. bRather, what is differentabout these names that they deserve special mention?,The Gemara answers: A Sage btaughtthe following ibaraita /i: bAll of them are names by whichMordecai bwas called.He was called b“the son of Jair”because he was bthe son who enlightened [ iheir /i] the eyes ofall of bthe Jewish people with his prayers; “the son of Shimei”because he was bthe son whom God heard [ ishama /i] his prayers; “the son of Kish” because he knocked [ ihikish /i] on the gates of mercy and they were opened to him. /b,The Gemara points out a contradiction: Mordecai bis referred to as a “Jew [ iYehudi /i],” apparentlyindicating that bhe came fromthe tribe of bJudah,but in the continuation of the verse bhe is called “Benjamite” [ iYemini /i], which indicates that he came fromthe tribe of bBenjamin. Rav Naḥman said: Mordecai was crowned withhonorary bnames. iYehudiis one such honorary epithet, due to its allusion to the royal tribe of Judah, but it is not referring to Mordecai’s tribal affiliation., bRabba bar bar Ḥana saidthat bRabbi Yehoshua ben Levi saidan alternative explanation: Mordecai’s bfather was fromthe tribe of bBenjamin, and his mother was fromthe tribe of bJudah.Therefore, he was both a iYemini /i, a Benjamite, and a iYehudi /i, from the tribe of Judah. bAnd the Rabbis saythat the dual lineage is due to a dispute: bThe families competedwith beach otherover which tribe could take credit for Mordecai. bThe family of Judahwould bsay: I caused the birth of Mordecai,as only bbecause David did not kill Shimei, the son of Gera,when he cursed him (see II Samuel 16) was it possible for Mordecai to be born later from his descendants. bAnd the family of Benjamin saidin response: In the end bhe came from me,as he in fact was from Benjamin’s tribe., bRava said: The Congregation of Israelat the time bsaidthis bfrom the opposite perspective,not as a boast, but as a complaint, remarking: bSee what a Judean has done to me and how a Benjamite has repaid me. What a Judean has done to meis referring to
40. Babylonian Talmud, Menachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

85b. it is only bthe ibaraita /ithat bteachesthat he plows and then brepeatsthe plowing. It would appear, then, that the mishna and ibaraitaexpress different opinions, and it may be that according to the mishna one does not need to plow in the second year at all.,The Gemara dismisses this suggestion: bThisis bnot difficult;it is possible that the mishna and the ibaraitado not disagree, and bhere,the mishna, which does not require plowing a second time, bis referring to a cultivatedfield, whereas bthere,the ibaraita bis referring to an uncultivatedfield, and therefore it requires that the field be plowed a second time.,The Gemara concludes: bWhathalakhic conclusion bwasreached baboutthis matter? bComeand bhearthe resolution from that bwhich is taughtin a ibaraita /i: For the first year, bone plowsthe entire field during the first bhalf ofthe year, bandthen he bsows half ofthe field, leaving the other half fallow. For the second year, one again bplowsthe entire field during the first bhalf ofthe year, bandthen he bsowsthe bhalf ofthe field that was left fallow in the previous year. It is evident from this ibaraitathat during the second year as well, the field is plowed before it is sown.,§ bRabbi Yoḥa says: One brings the iomeronly fromthe bsouthern fields of Eretz Yisrael, as upon thosefields, the bsun risesand shines, band from thosefields, the bsunalso bsets.Those fields are exposed to abundant sunlight, and so they produce a superior-quality crop., bThis is also taughtin a ibaraita /i: bAbba Shaul saysthat bthe iomerwould come fromgrain grown in bthe valley of Beit Mikle.The field there bwas about three ise’a /i, and it was a southern field, andthe bsun would riseand shine bupon it, andthe bsun would set from it.During the first year, the farmer bplowedthe entire field during the first bhalf ofthe year, bandhe then bsowed half ofthe field, leaving the other half fallow. During the second year, he again bplowedthe entire field during the first bhalf ofthe year, bandhe then bsowedthe bhalf ofthe field that was left fallow in the previous year.,The Gemara demonstrates the efficacy of this method: bRav Ḥilkiya bar Tovi had a tract of land. He plowedthe field during the first bhalf ofthe year bandthen bsowed half ofit. The next year, bhe plowedthe field during the first bhalf ofthe year bandthen bsowedthe other bhalf of it. Andthis method was so effective that his field bproduced twiceas much wheat as other fields its size, bandit was of such a superior quality that bhe soldthe bwheatto be used bas fine flour [ ilismida /i]for the meal offerings in the Temple.,§ The mishna teaches: bAnd ifthe flour bbecame wormy,it is bunfitfor use in a meal offering. bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: bFine flour the majority of which became wormyis bunfit. Andsimilarly, bwheatkernels bthe majority of which became wormyare bunfit,and they may not be used to produce fine flour for meal offerings. bRabbi Yirmeya asks:What is the meaning of this latter ruling? Is it saying only that if the bmajority ofan individual bwheatkernel becomes wormy the flour produced from it is unfit, boris it saying that when the bmajority of a ise’a /iof kernels becomes wormy the entire ise’ais bunfit?The Gemara concludes: The dilemma bshall standunresolved., bRava asks:If bone consecratedgrains of wormy wheat for use in a meal offering, bwhat isthe ihalakhawith regard to whether bhe should be flogged forconsecrating bthem due tothe prohibition against consecrating ba flaweditem as an offering? One is flogged for consecrating a blemished animal as an offering (see iTemura6b); does the same apply to consecrating wormy wheat? Does one say that bsincethe wheat is bunfit,it is bcomparable to a blemishedanimal? bOr perhaps,the prohibition against consecrating ba flaweditem bapplies only to an animal.The Gemara concludes: The dilemma bshall standunresolved.,§ bWe learnedin a mishna belsewhere( iMiddot2:5) with regard to the wood logs that are burned on the altar: Priests inspect them before they are used and bany log in which a worm is foundis bunfit foruse bon the altar.In reference to this mishna, bShmuel says: They taughtthis ihalakha bonlywith regard to ba wetlog, as a wormy section cannot be removed. bButif a wormy section is found in ba drylog, the priest bscrapesthe wormy spot baway, andthe log is bfitfor use., bRava asks:If bone consecrateda wormy log to be used on the altar, bwhat isthe ihalakhawith regard to whether bhe should be flogged forconsecrating bit due tothe prohibition against consecrating ba flaweditem as an offering? Does one say that bsincethe log is bunfit,it is bcomparable to a blemishedanimal? bOr perhaps,the prohibition against consecrating ba flaweditem bapplies only to an animal.The Gemara concludes: The dilemma bshall standunresolved., strongMISHNA: /strong Olive trees in bTekoaare the bprimarysource bof oilto be used in meal offerings. bAbba Shaul says: Secondary toTekoa bis Regev on theeast bbank of the JordanRiver. bAll the regions were validfor oil to be brought from them, bbutit was bfrom herethat bthey would bringit., bOne may not bringa meal offering containing oil from olives taken bfrom a fertilizedolive bgrove, norfrom olives taken bfrom an irrigatedolive bgrove, norfrom olives taken bfroman olive grove where grain bwas sown betweenthe trees. bBut if one did bringa meal offering containing oil from such groves, it is bvalid. One may not bringa meal offering containing oil from bunripe olives [ ianpiktan /i], but if one did bringit, it is bvalid. One may not bringa meal offering containing oil bfrom olives that were soaked in water, nor from pickledolives, bnor from boiledolives, bandeven if bone did bringit, it is bnot valid. /b, strongGEMARA: /strong The Gemara notes the effect of Tekoa’s oil on those living there: The verse states: b“And Joab sent to Tekoa, and fetched from there a wise woman”(II Samuel 14:2). bWhat is differentabout bTekoathat Joab chose to bring a woman from there? bRabbi Yoḥa says: Sincethe residents of Tekoa bare accustomed touse bolive oil, wisdom is prevalent there. /b,§ The Gemara digresses to discuss the tribal portion of Asher, in which the city of Tekoa is located: bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: In his blessing to the tribe of Asher, Moses said: “He will be pleasing to his brothers, band immerse his foot in oil”(Deuteronomy 33:24). bThisis referring to bthe portion of Asher, as the oil flowsthere blike a spring.The Gemara relates: bThey saidthat bonce, the people of Laodicea were in need of oil. They appointeda gentile bmessenger [ ipolmostos /i]and bsaid to him: Go and bring us one million imanehworth bof oil. /b, bHefirst bwent to Jerusalemto procure the oil, but residents there did not have that quantity of oil. bThey said to him: Go to Tyre,which was a commercial city. bHe went to Tyre,but they also did not have enough oil. bThey said to him: Go to Gush Ḥalav,which is located in the portion of Asher. bHe went to Gush Ḥalav,and bthey said to him: Go to so-and-so, to that field.He went there band foundsomeone bhoeing [ iozek /i] under his olive trees.The messenger bsaid tothat man: bDo you havethe bone million imanehworth bof oil that I need?The man bsaid to him: Wait for me until I complete my labor,i.e., hoeing. The messenger bwaited untilthe man bcompleted his labor. /b, bAfter he completed his labor,the man bslung his toolsover his shoulders bbehind him,a manner typical of poor laborers, and started walking, band he was removing stonesfrom his orchard bas he went along the path.Upon seeing this behavior, which suggested the man was merely a laborer, the messenger questioned whether the man was truly able to provide him with the oil. bHe said tothe man: Can it be that byoureally bhavethe bone million imanehworth bof oil that I need? It seems to me that the Jewsof Gush Ḥalav bare making a laughingstock of meby sending me here. bWhen he reached his city,the man’s bmaidservant brought out to him a kettle [ ikumkemos /i] of hotwater, band he washed his hands and his feet.Afterward, bshe brought out to him a golden basin filled with oil, in which he immersed his hands and feet, in fulfillment of thatwhich bis statedwith regard to the Tribe of Asher: b“And immerse his foot in oil”(Deuteronomy 33:24)., bAfter they ate and drank,the man bmeasured outfor the messenger bone million imanehworth bof oil.The man bsaid to him:Are you sure that byou do not need any moreoil? The messenger bsaid to him: Yes,I do need more, bbut I do not havethe bmoneyfor it. The man bsaid to him: If you wish to takemore oil, btakeit band I will goback to Laodicea bwith you and collect the moneyfor the extra oil there. The messenger agreed and the man bmeasured outan additional b180,000 imanehworth bof oil.Concerning this incident, people bsaid:The messenger had such an enormous burden of oil that bhe left neither a horse, nor a mule, nor a camel, nor a donkey inall of bEretz Yisrael that he did not rentin order to help transport the oil back to Laodicea., bWhenthe messenger finally breached his city, the people of his city came out to praise him [ ilekaleso /i]for achieving this tremendous feat. The messenger bsaid to them: Do not praise me. Rather,praise bthisman bwho has come with me, asit is bhewho bmeasured for me one million imanehworth bof oil, and he extended a debt to me for 180,000 imanehworth bof oil.This incident was bin fulfillment of thatwhich bis stated: “There is one who seems to be rich, yet has nothing; there is one who seems to be poor, yet has great wealth”(Proverbs 13:7).,§ The mishna teaches: bOne may not bringa meal offering containing oil made from olives bfrom a fertilizedolive bgrove.The mishna continues to state that one may not bring a meal offering containing oil from unripe olives, and, according to one version of the mishna’s text, it adds that even if one did bring a meal offering containing such oil, it is not valid. The Gemara asks: bBut isn’t it taughtin a ibaraita /i: bOne may not bringa meal offering containing oil made from bunripe olives, /b
41. Babylonian Talmud, Moed Qatan, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

16a. זו עשירית האיפה שלו דברי רבי יהודה,ר"ש אומר (יחזקאל מד, כז) בבאו יקריב בזמן שראוי לביאה ראוי להקרבה בזמן שאינו ראוי לביאה אינו ראוי להקרבה,אמר רבא מנלן דמשדרין שליחא דבי דינא ומזמנינן ליה לדינא דכתיב (במדבר טז, יב) וישלח משה לקרא לדתן ולאבירם בני אליאב ומנלן דמזמנינן לדינא דכתיב (במדבר טז, טז) ויאמר משה אל קרח אתה וכל עדתך,לקמי גברא רבה דכתיב (במדבר טז, טז) לפני ה' את ופלניא דכתיב אתה והם ואהרן דקבעינן זימנא דכתיב מחר זימנא בתר זימנא דכתיב (ירמיהו מו, יז) קראו שם פרעה מלך מצרים שאון העביר המועד,ומנלן דאי מתפקר בשליחא דבי דינא ואתי ואמר לא מיתחזי כלישנא בישא דכתיב (במדבר טז, יד) העיני האנשים ההם תנקר,ומנלן דמשמתינן דכתיב (שופטים ה, כג) אורו מרוז דהכי סברא דגברא רבה דכתיב (שופטים ה, כג) אמר מלאך ה' ומנלן דמחרמינן דכתיב אורו ארור,דאכיל ושתי בהדיה וקאי בארבע אמות דידיה דכתיב יושביה ומנלן דפרטינן חטאיה בציבורא דכתיב (שופטים ה, כג) כי לא באו לעזרת ה',ואמר עולא בד' מאה שיפורי שמתיה ברק למרוז איכא דאמרי גברא רבה הוה ואיכא דאמרי כוכבא הוה שנאמר (שופטים ה, כ) מן שמים נלחמו הכוכבים,ומנלן דמפקרינן נכסיה דכתיב (עזרא י, ח) וכל אשר לא יבא לשלשת הימים בעצת השרים והזקנים יחרם כל רכושו והוא יבדל מקהל הגולה,ומנלן דנצינן ולייטינן ומחינן ותלשינן שיער ומשבעינן דכתיב (נחמיה יג, כה) ואריב עמם ואקללם ואכה מהם אנשים ואמרטם ואשביעם,ומנלן דכפתינן ואסרינן ועבדינן הרדפה דכתיב (עזרא ז, כו) הן למות הן לשרושי הן לענש נכסין ולאסורין מאי לשרושי אמר אדא מרי אמר נחמיה בר ברוך אמר רב חייא בר אבין אמר רב יהודה הרדפה מאי הרדפה אמר רב יהודה בריה דרב שמואל בר שילת משמיה דרב מנדין לאלתר ושונין לאחר ל' ומחרימין לאחר ששים,א"ל רב הונא בר חיננא הכי אמר רב חסדא מתרין ביה שני וחמישי ושני ה"מ לממונא אבל לאפקירותא לאלתר,ההוא טבחא דאיתפקר ברב טובי בר מתנה אימנו עליה אביי ורבא ושמתוהו לסוף אזל פייסיה לבעל דיניה אמר אביי היכי ליעביד לישרי ליה לא חל שמתא עליה תלתין יומין לא לישרי ליה קא בעו רבנן למיעל,א"ל לרב אידי בר אבין מידי שמיע לך בהא א"ל הכי אמר רב תחליפא בר אבימי אמר שמואל טוט אסר וטוט שרי אמר ליה ה"מ לממונא אבל לאפקירותא עד דחיילא שמתא עליה תלתין יומין,אלמא קסבר אביי הני בי תלתא דשמיתו לא אתו תלתא אחריני ושרו ליה,דאיבעיא להו הני בי תלתא דשמיתו מהו למיתי תלתא אחריני ושרו ליה ת"ש מנודה לרב מנודה לתלמיד מנודה לתלמיד אינו מנודה לרב,מנודה לעירו מנודה לעיר אחרת מנודה לעיר אחרת אינו מנודה לעירו מנודה לנשיא מנודה לכל ישראל מנודה לכל ישראל אינו מנודה לנשיא רשב"ג אומר אחד מן התלמידים שנידה ומת חלקו אינו מופר,ש"מ תלת שמע מינה תלמיד שנידה לכבודו נידויו נידוי ושמע מינה כל אחד ואחד מיפר חלקו וש"מ הני בי תלתא דשמיתו לא אתו תלתא אחריני ושרו ליה,אמר אמימר הלכתא הני בי תלתא דשמיתו אתו בי תלתא אחריני ושרו ליה א"ל רב אשי לאמימר והא תניא רשב"ג אומר אחד מן התלמידים שנידה ומת חלקו אינו מופר מאי לאו אינו מופר כלל לא עד דאתו בי תלתא אחריני ושרו ליה,ת"ר אין נידוי פחות מל' יום ואין נזיפה פחות מז' ימים ואף על פי שאין ראיה לדבר זכר לדבר שנאמר (במדבר יב, יד) ואביה ירק ירק בפניה הלא תכלם שבעת ימים,אמר רב חסדא נידוי שלנו כנזיפה שלהן ונזיפה דידהו שבעה ותו לא והא ר"ש בר רבי ובר קפרא הוו יתבי וקא גרסי קשיא להו שמעתא א"ל ר"ש לבר קפרא דבר זה צריך רבי א"ל בר קפרא לר"ש ומה רבי אומר בדבר זה,אזל א"ל לאבוה איקפד אתא בר קפרא לאיתחזויי ליה א"ל בר קפרא איני מכירך מעולם ידע דנקט מילתא בדעתיה נהג נזיפותא בנפשיה תלתין יומין,שוב פעם אחד גזר רבי שלא ישנו לתלמידים בשוק מאי דרש (שיר השירים ז, ב) חמוקי ירכיך כמו חלאים מה ירך בסתר 16a. bthis isthe meal-offering of ba tenth of an ephahof flour, which every priest would bring on the day he began serving in the Temple. But as long as he is ritually impure, whether because he had come into contact with a corpse or due to leprosy, he may not send his offerings to the Temple; this is bthe statement of Rabbi Yehuda. /b, bRabbi Shimon says:The verse states: “And on the day that bhe goes intothe Sanctuary, into the inner court, to minister in the Sanctuary bhe shall sacrificehis sin offering.” This teaches that bwhen he is fit to enterthe Sanctuary, bhe is fit to sacrificean offering. But bwhen he is not fit to go intothe Sanctuary, i.e., when he is ritually impure, bhe is not fit to sacrificean offering. This implies that a leper may not send his offerings to the Temple to be sacrificed on the altar, as he himself is not fit to enter the Temple.,§ Having discussed some of the restrictions applying to a person who was ostracized, the Gemara explains some of the basic principles relating to ostracism: bRava said: From where do wederive bthat a court agent is sent to summonthe defendant btoappear before the bcourtbefore he is ostracized? bAs it is written: “And Moses sent to call Dathan and Abiram, the sons of Eliab”(Numbers 16:12). bAnd from where do wederive bthat we summonthe defendant, that he himself must appear before the bcourt? As it is written: “And Moses said to Korah: Be you and all your congregationbefore the Lord, you and they, and Aaron, tomorrow” (Numbers 16:16).,From where is it derived that the defendant must be told that he is being summoned to appear bbefore a great man? As it is written:“And Moses said to Korah: Be you and all your congregation bbefore the Lord”(Numbers 16:16). From where is it derived that the summons must mention the names of both parties: bYou and so-and-so,the plaintiff? bAs it is written: “You, and they, and Aaron”(Numbers 16:16). From where is it derived bthat we set a datefor the court proceedings? bAs it is written: “Tomorrow”(Numbers 16:16). From where is it derived that a second bdatemust be set bafterthe first bdate,if the defendant did not heed the first summons? bAs it is written: “They did cry there, Pharaoh, king of Egypt is but a noise; he has passed the time appointed… /bSurely as Tabor is among the mountains, and as Carmel by the sea, so shall he come” (Jeremiah 46:17). Although a time had been appointed and it had passed, it was not canceled entirely but pushed off to a later date., bAnd from where do wederive bthat ifthe summoned person bbehaves disrespectfully toward the agent of the court, andthe agent bcomesback band reportshis conduct, that bthis is not considered slander? As it is written: “Will you put out the eyes of these men?”(Numbers 16:14). Dathan and Abiram spoke these words to the messenger that Moses had sent to them, and the messenger reported them back to Moses., bAnd from where do wederive bthat we ostracizeone who does not obey a court summons? bAs it is written: “Curse Meroz”(Judges 5:23), who was ostracized for not coming to battle after having been summoned. From where is it derived that the ostracized person must be told bthat itwas bthe decision of a great manto ostracized him? bAs it is written:“Curse Meroz, bsaid the messenger of the Lord”(Judges 5:23). bAnd from where do wederive bthat,if he fails to mend his ways, bwe excommunicatesuch a person more harshly, putting him under the most severe form of excommunication? bAs it is written:“Curse Meroz… bcurse bitterlyits inhabitants” (Judges 5:23), implying that one curse is followed by another, i.e., lesser ostracism is followed by harsh excommunication.,From where is it derived bthatthe curse applies to anyone who beats or drinks with, or stands within, four cubits ofthe ostracized person? bAs it is written:“Curse bitterly bits inhabitants”(Judges 5:23), in reference to all those sitting together with Meroz. bAnd from where do wederive bthat we detail his sin in public? As it is written:“Curse bitterly its inhabitants, bbecause they did not come to the help of the Lord”(Judges 5:23)., bAnd Ulla said: Barak ostracized Meroz withthe blowing of bfour hundred ishofarot /idue to his failure to come. As for the identification of Meroz, bsome saythat bhe was a great manand that he was ostracized because he did not join in the war effort. bAnd others saythat the reference is to ba starand not a human being, and that it did not aid the Jewish people in their battle, bas it is stated: “The stars fought from heaven;in their courses they fought against Sisera,” (Judges 5:20). This star, which did not help the Jewish people, was cursed., bAnd from where do wederive bthatthe court bmay declare the property ofone who does not obey its orders bas ownerless? As it is written: “And that whoever would not come within three days, according to the counsel of the princes and the Elders, all his substance shall be forfeited [ iyaḥoram /i] and himself separated from the congregation of the exiles”(Ezra 10:8). “Shall be forfeited” is referring to excommunication., bAnd from where do wederive bthat we may contend withsuch a person, band cursehim, band beathim, band pull outhis bhair, and makehim btake an oathin order to prevent him from sinning? bAs it is written: “And I contended with them, and cursed them, and beat some of them, and pulled out their hair, and made them take oathby God” (Nehemiah 13:25)., bAnd from where do wederive bthat we may shacklehis hands and feet, bchainhim, band apply pressure? As it is written: “Whether it be for death, or for banishment [ ilishroshi /i], or for confiscation of goods, or for imprisonment”(Ezra 7:26). The Gemara asks: bWhatis the meaning of the word b“ ilishroshi /i,”translated here as banishment? bAdda Mari saidthat bNeḥemya bar Baruch saidthat bRav Ḥiyya bar Avin saidthat bRav Yehuda said:This is bpressure.Since this expression is also unclear, the Gemara asks: bWhatis bpressure? Rav Yehuda, son of Rav Shmuel bar Sheilat, said in the name of Ravthat this term refers to the following series of actions: bThey ostracizehim bimmediately, andthen once bagain after thirtydays, and if he still does not repent, bthey excommunicate him after sixtydays., bRav Huna bar Ḥina said to him: Rav Ḥisda said as follows:Before excommunicating a person, the court bwarns himthree times, on bMonday, Thursday, andthe following bMonday.The Gemara notes: bThis appliesin a case where one ignores ba monetary judgmentthat was issued against him. He is warned three times that he must repay his debt. bButin a case where one bbehaves disrespectfullytoward a Torah scholar, he is bimmediatelyostracized.,§ The Gemara relates that ba certain butcher behaved disrespectfully toward Rav Tuvi bar Mattana. Abaye and Rava were appointedto the case band ostracized him. In the endthe butcher bwent and appeased his disputant,Rav Tuvi. bAbaye said: What should we doin this case? Shall bhe be releasedfrom his decree of ostracism? bHisdecree of bostracism has notyet bbeen in effect forthe usual bthirty days.On the other hand, bshall he not be releasedfrom ostracism? But bthe Sages wish to enterhis shop and purchase meat, and they are presently unable to do so. What, then, is the most appropriate course of action?, bHe said to Rav Idi bar Avin:Have byou heard anything with regard to sucha case? Rav Idi bar Avin bsaid toAbaye: bRav Taḥlifa bar Avimi saidthat bShmuel said as follows:A ishofar bblastat the time of the ostracism bmakesit bbinding, anda ishofar bblast releasesit. In other words, the ishofarshould be sounded now, as it had been sounded when the decree of ostracism was pronounced, and it should be canceled, although thirty days have not passed. Abaye bsaid to him: This appliesin a case where one ignores ba monetary judgmentthat was issued against him; bbutin a case where one bbehaves disrespectfully,there must be no release buntil thedecree of bostracism has been in effect for thirty days. /b,The Gemara comments: bApparently, Abaye maintainsthat if bthreepeople bostracizedone, bthree others may not come and release him.This is derived from the fact that Abaye was concerned about releasing the butcher from ostracism and did not delegate the task to someone else., bAs a dilemma was raised beforethe Sages: If bthreepeople bostracizedsomeone, bwhat isthe ihalakhawith regard to bthree others coming and releasing himfrom his decree of ostracism? The Gemara suggests: bComeand bheara proof from that which is taught in a ibaraita /i: bOne who was ostracized by the teacherof Torah for having acted disrespectfully toward him bisconsidered bostracized with regard to the student,and the latter must keep his distance from him. However, bone who was ostracized by the student is notconsidered bostracized with regard to the teacher. /b, bOne who was ostracized by hisown bcity isconsidered bostracized with regard to another city.However, bone who was ostracized by another city is notconsidered bostracized with regard to hisown bcity. One who was ostracized by the iNasi /iof the Sanhedrin bisconsidered bostracized with regard to all the Jewish people;but bone who was ostracized by all the Jewish people is notconsidered bostracized with regard to the iNasi /iof the Sanhedrin. bRabban Shimon ben Gamliel says:If bone of the studentssitting as a judge on the court bhad ostracizedsomeone, band he diedbefore releasing him from the decree of ostracism, bhis portionof the decree of ostracism bis not nullified. /b,The Gemara says: bLearn three ihalakhot bfrom this ibaraita /i. bLearn from thisthat in the case of ba student who ostracizessomeone bdue toan insult to bhis dignityand not because the ostracized person was guilty of some transgression, bhisdecree of bostracism is valid.Were the case one where one was ostracized due to sin, everyone is required to respect the decree of ostracism, even the student’s teacher. bAnd learn from thisthat beach and every onewho participated in the decree of ostracism bnullifies hisown bportionof the decree of ostracism, as the ibaraitaspeaks of: His portion. bAnd learn from thisthat if bthreepeople bostracizedanother person, bthree otherpeople bmay not come and nullifythe decree of ostracism. Were this not the case, it wouldn’t matter if a certain person’s portion was not nullified. His portion could be nullified by someone else., bAmeimar said: The ihalakhaisthat if bthreepeople bostracizeanother person, bthree others may come and nullifythe decree of ostracism. bRav Ashi said to Ameimar: But isn’t it taughtin a ibaraita /i: bRabban Shimon ben Gamliel says:If bone of the students had ostracizedanother person, band he diedbefore releasing him from the decree of ostracism, bhis portion is not nullified? What, is it notthat bit is not nullified at all,i.e., it cannot be nullified by another person? The Gemara rejects this argument: bNo,this means that the decree of ostracism remains in force buntil three other people come and nullifyit.,§ bThe Sages taughtthe following ibaraita /i: bOstracism does notapply bfor less thana period of bthirty days, and admonition,which is less severe than ostracism, bdoes notapply bfor less thana period of bseven days. And although there is no proof with regard to the matter,i.e., the standard duration of admonition, there is ban allusion to the matter, as it is stated: “If her father had but spit in her face, should she not be ashamed for seven days?”(Numbers 12:14). This implies that admonition lasts for seven days., bRav Ḥisda said: Ourdecree of bostracismin Babylonia has the power bof their admonitionin Eretz Yisrael. Since the authorities in Eretz Yisrael are ordained with the title Rabbi, their admonition carries more weight than a decree of ostracism issued in Babylonia. The Gemara asks: Is btheir admonitionin Eretz Yisrael only bsevendays band no more? But isn’tit related that bRabbi Shimon, son of RabbiYehuda HaNasi, band bar Kappara were sitting and studying,and they posed ba difficulty witha certain ihalakha /i. Rabbi Shimon said to bar Kappara: This issue requiresmy father, bRabbiYehuda HaNasi, to explain it. bBar Kappara said to Rabbi Shimon,somewhat mockingly: bAnd what canyour father, bRabbiYehuda HaNasi, bsay about thisissue? What can he add and teach us about it?,Rabbi Shimon bwent and told his father,Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi, what bar Kappara had said, and Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi bbecame angrywith him. When bbar Kappara cameat some later point bto visit,Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi bsaid to him: Bar Kappara, I do not know you at all.Bar Kappara bunderstood thatRabbi Yehuda HaNasi bhad takenhis bstatement to heart,i.e., was insulted. He subsequently bbehavedas if he had been badmonished,as a self-imposed punishment, bfor thirty days. /b, bOnce again, on another occasion, RabbiYehuda HaNasi bdecreed that students not be taught in the marketplacebut only in a study hall. bWhatverse did he bexpoundto serve as the basis for this decree? The verse states: b“Your rounded thighs are like jewels,the work of the hands of an artist” (Song of Songs 7:2). bJustas ba thigh isordinarily bhiddenand kept covered with clothes
42. Babylonian Talmud, Nedarim, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

49b. כמאן מצלינן על קצירי ועל מריעי [כמאן כר' יוסי] מדאמר קצירי ומריעי שמע מינה קצירי קצירי ממש מריעי רבנן:,ומותר בעבה: מתני' דלא כבבלאי דאמר ר' זירא בבלאי טפשאי דאכלי לחמא בלחמא,א"ר חסדא דמשאיל להון להלין נקדני דהוצל הדין דייסא היכין מעלי למיכלה דחיטי בלחמא דחיטי ודשערי בלחמא דשערי או דלמא דחיטי בדשערי ודשערי בדחיטי,רבא אכליה בחסיסי רבה בר רב הונא אשכחי' לרב הונא דקאכיל דייסא באצבעתיה אמ' ליה אמאי קאכיל מר בידיה א"ל הכי אמר רב דייסא באצבעתא בסים וכל דכן בתרתין וכל דכן בתלת,אמר ליה רב לחייא בריה וכן אמר ליה רב הונא לרבה בריה מזמנים לך למיכל דייסא עד פרסה למיכל בישרא דתורא עד תלתא פרסין אמר ליה רב לחייא בריה וכן א"ל רב הונא לרבה בריה כל מידעם לא תפלוט קמיה רבך לבר מן קרא ודייסא שהן דומין לפתילתא של אבר ואפילו קמי שבור מלכא פלוט,רבי יוסי ורבי יהודה חד אכיל דייסא באצבעתיה וחד אכיל בהוצא א"ל דאכיל בהוצא לדאכיל באצבעתיה עד מתי אתה מאכילני צואתך אמר ליה דאכיל באצבעתיה לדאכיל בהוצא עד מתי אתה מאכילני רוקך,רבי יהודה ורבי שמעון אייתו לקמייהו בלוספיין רבי יהודה אכל ר' שמעון לא אכל א"ל רבי יהודה מאי טעמא לא אכיל מר אמר ליה ר' שמעון אלו אין יוצאין מבני מעים כל עיקר אמר ליה רבי יהודה כ"ש שנסמוך עליהן למחר,רבי יהודה הוה יתיב קמיה דר' טרפון אמר ליה רבי טרפון היום פניך צהובין אמר ליה אמש יצאו עבדיך לשדה והביאו לנו תרדין ואכלנום בלא מלח ואם אכלנום במלח כל שכן שהיו פנינו צהובין,אמרה ההיא מטרוניתא לרבי יהודה מורה ורוי אמר לה הימנותא בידא דההיא איתתא אי טעימנא אלא קידושא ואבדלתא וארבעה כסי דפסחא וחוגרני צידעי מן הפסח עד העצרת אלא (קהלת ח, א) חכמת אדם תאיר פניו,אמר לי' ההוא צדוקי לרבי יהודה פניך דומין אי כמלוי רבית אי כמגדלי חזירין א"ל ביהודאי תרוייהו אסירן אלא עשרים וארבעה בית הכסא אית לי מן ביתא עד בי מדרשא וכל שעה ושעה אני נכנס לכל אחד ואחד,ר' יהודה כד אזיל לבי מדרשא שקיל גולפא על כתפיה אמר גדולה מלאכה שמכבדת את בעליה רבי שמעון שקיל צנא על כתפיה אמר גדולה מלאכה שמכבדת את בעליה,דביתהו דרבי יהודה נפקת נקטת עמרא עבדה גלימא דהוטבי כד נפקת לשוקא מיכסיא ביה וכד נפיק רבי יהודה לצלויי הוה מיכסי ומצלי וכד מיכסי ביה הוה מברך ברוך שעטני מעיל,זימנא חדא גזר רבן שמעון בן גמליאל תעניתא ר' יהודה לא אתא לבי תעניתא אמרין ליה לא אית ליה כסויא שדר ליה גלימא ולא קביל 49b. bIn accordance with whoseopinion bdo we prayevery day bfor the sick and for the suffering? In accordance with whoseopinion? bIn accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Yosei,who holds that one is judged every day, not only on Rosh HaShana, and therefore it is appropriate to pray for people every day. bFromthe fact bthat he said: The sick and the suffering,one can blearn fromhis statement that the term: bThe sick,is referring to bactual sickpeople, while the term: bThe suffering,is referring to bthe Sages,who typically are physically frail.,§ It is stated in the mishna that one who vowed that loose cooked food is forbidden to him is bpermitted totaste ba thickcooked food. The Gemara comments: bThe mishna is not in accordance with thecustom of the bBabylonians, as Rabbi Zeira said: Babylonians are foolish, as they eat bread with bread.They eat thick porridge with their bread, which is essentially eating one kind of bread with another. According to their custom, one who vows that cooked foods are forbidden to him is prohibited from eating even a thick cooked food.,In that context, bRav Ḥisda said that those fastidiousresi-dents bof Huzal,Babylonia bwere asked: How is it best to eat this porridge?Should bwheatporridge be eaten bwith wheat bread and barleyporridge bwith barley bread, or perhaps wheatporridge should be eaten bwith barleybread band barleyporridge bwith wheatbread?,The Gemara relates: bRava would eathis bread bwith iḥasisei /i,a porridge made of toasted barley grains. bRabba, son of Rav Huna, found Rav Huna eating porridge with his fingers. He said to him: Why is the Master eating with his hands?Rav Huna bsaid to him: Thisis what bRav said: Porridgeeaten bwith a finger is tasty, and all the more soif it is eaten bwith twofingers, band all the more so with three.It is more enjoyable to eat porridge with your hands., bRav said to his son Ḥiyya, and Rav Huna similarly said to his son Rabba:If byou are invited to eat porridge,for such a meal you should travel bup tothe distance of ba parasang [ iparsa /i].If you are invited bto eat ox meat,you should travel bup to three parasangs. Rav said to his son Ḥiyya, and Rav Huna similarly said to his son Rabba: You should not spit out anything before your teacher,as this is disrespectful, bapart from gourd and porridge, as they are likea burning blead wickin the intestines when they cannot be digested, bandtherefore bspitthem bout even before King Shapur,due to the danger involved.,The Gemara relates more incidents: bRabbi Yosei and Rabbi Yehudadined together. bOneof them bate porridge with his fingers, andthe other bone ate with a fork [ ihutza /i].The one bwho was eating with a fork said tothe one bwho was eating with his fingers: For how long will youkeep bfeeding me your filth?Must I keep eating off of your dirty fingernails? The one bwho was eating with his fingers said tothe one bwho was eating with a fork: For how long will youkeep bfeeding me your spittle,as you eat with a fork which you then put back in the common bowl.,iBelospayin /i,a type of figs, bwere brought before Rabbi Yehuda and Rabbi Shimon. Rabbi Yehuda atethem, but bRabbi Shimon did not eatthem. bRabbi Yehuda said to him: What is the reasonthat the bMaster is not eating? Rabbi Shimon said to him: These do not leave the intestines at all.They remain undigested. bRabbi Yehuda said to him:If so, ball the more that one can rely on themto feel full btomorrow. /b, bRabbi Yehuda was sitting before Rabbi Tarfon. Rabbi Tarfon said to him: Your face today is ruddy,i.e., a rosy, healthy color. Rabbi Yehuda bsaid to him: Last night your servants,i.e., we students, bwent out to the field, and beets were brought to us, and we ate them without salt.This is the reason for our healthy complexion. bAnd had we eaten them with salt, all the more so would our faces have been ruddy. /b,The Gemara cites related incidents: bA certaingentile blady [ imatronita /i] said to Rabbi Yehuda,whose face was ruddy: How can one bteachthe Jews bandbe ba drunkat the same time? bHe said to her:I place my bintegrity in the hands of this womanand should no longer be deemed credible bif Iever btasteany wine bexceptfor that of ikiddush /i, ihavdala /i, and the four cups of Passover. Andafter I drink those four cups bI tie my temples from Passover to iShavuot /i,as wine gives me a headache. bRather,my complexion is explained by the verse b“A man’s wisdom makes his face to shine”(Ecclesiastes 8:1)., bA certain heretic said to Rabbi Yehuda: Your face is similar either to usurers or to pig breeders.These people would earn a good living without expending much energy, which gave them plump, healthy complexions. Rabbi Yehuda bsaid to him: Bothof these occupations bare prohibited to Jews. Rather,my face is ruddy because bI have twenty-four bathroomson the way bfrom my home to the study hall, and all the time I enter each and every oneof them. He did not suffer from constipation, which had a beneficial effect on his complexion.,§ The Gemara relates: bWhen Rabbi Yehuda would go to the study hall he would carry a pitcher [ igulefa /i] on his shoulderto sit on, bsaying: Labor is great, as it brings honor to the laborerwho performs bit.It brought him honor by enabling him to avoid sitting on the floor of the study hall. Similarly, bRabbi Shimon would carry a basket on his shoulder, saying: Labor is great, as it brings honor to the laborerwho performs bit. /b,The Gemara further relates: bRabbi Yehuda’s wife went outto the market, bcollected wool,and bmade a thick [ ihutevei /i] cloak. When she would go out to the market she would cover herself with it, and when Rabbi Yehuda would go out to pray he would cover himselfwith the cloak band pray. And when hewould bcover himself with it he would recite the blessing: Blessed is He who wrapped me in a coat,as he took much pleasure in it.,On bone occasion Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel,the iNasi /i, bdecreed a fast. Rabbi Yehuda did not come to the house of the fast,where everyone gathered. The people bsaid toRabban Shimon ben Gamliel: Rabbi Yehuda bdoes not havea dignified garment to bcoverhimself with, and therefore he shies away from public events. Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel bsent him a cloakof his own, bbutRabbi Yehuda bdid not acceptthis gift.
43. Babylonian Talmud, Niddah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

31b. שמשהין עצמן בבטן כדי שיזריעו נשותיהן תחלה שיהו בניהם זכרים מעלה עליהן הכתוב כאילו הם מרבים בנים ובני בנים והיינו דאמר רב קטינא יכולני לעשות כל בני זכרים אמר רבא הרוצה לעשות כל בניו זכרים יבעול וישנה,ואמר רבי יצחק אמר רבי אמי אין אשה מתעברת אלא סמוך לוסתה שנאמר (תהלים נא, ז) הן בעון חוללתי,ורבי יוחנן אמר סמוך לטבילה שנאמר (תהלים נא, ז) ובחטא יחמתני אמי,מאי משמע דהאי חטא לישנא דדכויי הוא דכתיב (ויקרא יד, מט) וחטא את הבית ומתרגמינן וידכי ית ביתא ואי בעית אימא מהכא (תהלים נא, ט) תחטאני באזוב ואטהר,ואמר רבי יצחק אמר רבי אמי כיון שבא זכר בעולם בא שלום בעולם שנאמר (ישעיהו טז, א) שלחו כר מושל ארץ זכר זה כר,ואמר ר' יצחק דבי רבי אמי בא זכר בעולם בא ככרו בידו זכר זה כר דכתיב (מלכים ב ו, כג) ויכרה להם כירה גדולה,נקבה אין עמה כלום נקבה נקייה באה עד דאמרה מזוני לא יהבי לה דכתיב (בראשית ל, כח) נקבה שכרך עלי ואתנה,שאלו תלמידיו את רבי שמעון בן יוחי מפני מה אמרה תורה יולדת מביאה קרבן אמר להן בשעה שכורעת לילד קופצת ונשבעת שלא תזקק לבעלה לפיכך אמרה תורה תביא קרבן,מתקיף לה רב יוסף והא מזידה היא ובחרטה תליא מילתא ועוד קרבן שבועה בעי איתויי,ומפני מה אמרה תורה זכר לשבעה ונקבה לארבעה עשר זכר שהכל שמחים בו מתחרטת לשבעה נקבה שהכל עצבים בה מתחרטת לארבעה עשר,ומפני מה אמרה תורה מילה לשמונה שלא יהו כולם שמחים ואביו ואמו עצבים,תניא היה ר"מ אומר מפני מה אמרה תורה נדה לשבעה מפני שרגיל בה וקץ בה אמרה תורה תהא טמאה שבעה ימים כדי שתהא חביבה על בעלה כשעת כניסתה לחופה,שאלו תלמידיו את רבי דוסתאי ברבי ינאי מפני מה איש מחזר על אשה ואין אשה מחזרת על איש משל לאדם שאבד לו אבידה מי מחזר על מי בעל אבידה מחזיר על אבידתו,ומפני מה איש פניו למטה ואשה פניה למעלה כלפי האיש זה ממקום שנברא וזו ממקום שנבראת,ומפני מה האיש מקבל פיוס ואין אשה מקבלת פיוס זה ממקום שנברא וזו ממקום שנבראת,מפני מה אשה קולה ערב ואין איש קולו ערב זה ממקום שנברא וזו ממקום שנבראת שנאמר {שיר השירים ב } כי קולך ערב ומראך נאוה, br br big strongהדרן עלך המפלת חתיכה /strong /big br br,מתני׳ big strongבנות /strong /big כותים נדות מעריסתן והכותים מטמאים משכב תחתון כעליון מפני שהן בועלי נדות,והן יושבות על כל דם ודם,ואין חייבין עליהן על ביאת מקדש ואין שורפין עליהם את התרומה מפני שטומאתן ספק, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big ה"ד אי דקא חזיין אפילו דידן נמי ואי דלא קחזיין דידהו נמי לא,אמר רבא בריה דרב אחא בר רב הונא אמר רב ששת הכא במאי עסקינן בסתמא דכיון דאיכא מיעוטא דחזיין חיישינן ומאן תנא דחייש למיעוטא 31b. bthey delaywhile bintheir wives’ babdomen,initially refraining from emitting semen bso that their wives will emit seed first,in order bthat their children will be male, the verse ascribes themcredit bas though they have many sons and sons’ sons. And thisstatement bisthe same as that bwhich Rav Ketina said: I could have made all of my children males,by refraining from emitting seed until my wife emitted seed first. bRava saysanother method through which one can cause his children to be males: bOne who wishes to make all of his children males should engage in intercoursewith his wife band repeatthe act.,§ bAnd Rabbi Yitzḥak saysthat bRabbi Ami says: A woman becomes pregt onlyby engaging in intercourse bclose to the onset of hermenstrual bcycle, as it is stated: “Behold, I was brought forth in iniquity”(Psalms 51:7). This iniquity is referring to intercourse close to the woman’s menstrual cycle, when intercourse is prohibited. Accordingly, David is saying that his mother presumably conceived him at this time., bAnd Rabbi Yoḥa says:A woman becomes pregt only by engaging in intercourse bnearthe time of her bimmersionin a ritual bath, through which she is purified from her status as a menstruating woman, bas it is statedin the continuation of the same verse: b“And in sin [ iuvḥet /i] did my mother conceive me”(Psalms 51:7).,The Gemara explains this derivation: bFrom where mayit bbe inferred that this term “ iḥet /i” isa reference bto purity?The Gemara answers: bAs it is writtenwith regard to leprosy of houses: b“ iVeḥitteithe house”(Leviticus 14:52), band we translatethe verse into Aramaic as: bAnd he shall purify the house. And if you wish, saythat the interpretation is derived bfrom here: “Purge me [ iteḥatte’eni /i] with hyssop, and I shall be pure”(Psalms 51:9). Evidently, the root iḥet /i, itet /i, ialefrefers to purification.,§ bAnd Rabbi Yitzḥak saysthat bRabbi Ami says: When a male comes into the world,i.e., when a male baby is born, bpeace comes to the world, as it is stated: “Send the lambs [ ikhar /i] for the ruler of the land”(Isaiah 16:1). This ikhar /i, or ikar /i, a gift one sends the ruler, contributes to the stability of the government and peace, and the word bmale [ izakhar /i]can be interpreted homiletically as an abbreviation of: bThis is a ikar[ izeh kar /i]. /b, bAnd Rabbi Yitzḥak from the school of Rabbi Ami says: When a male comes into the world, his loafof bread, i.e., his sustece, bcomes into his possession.In other words, a male can provide for himself. This is based on the aforementioned interpretation of the word bmale [ izakhar /i]as an abbreviation of: bThis is a ikar[ izeh kar /i],and the term ikarrefers to sustece, bas it is written: “And he prepared great provision [ ikera /i] for them”(II Kings 6:23).,By contrast, bwhen a female comes into the world, nothing,i.e., no sustece, comes bwith her.This is derived from the homiletic interpretation of the word bfemale [ inekeva /i]as an abbreviation of the phrase: bShe comes clean [ inekiya ba’a /i],i.e., empty. Furthermore, buntil she says:Give me bsustece,people bdo not give her, as it is writtenin Laban’s request of Jacob: b“Appoint me [ inokva /i] your wages, and I will give it”(Genesis 30:28). Laban used the word inokva /i, similar to inekeva /i, when he said that he would pay Jacob only if he explicitly demanded his wages., bThe students of Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai asked him: For whatreason bdoes the Torah saythat ba woman after childbirth brings an offering? He said to them: At the time thata woman bcrouches to give birth,her pain is so great that bshe impulsively takes an oath that she will not engage in intercourse with her husbandever again, so that she will never again experience this pain. bTherefore, the Torah saysthat bshe must bring an offeringfor violating her oath and continuing to engage in intercourse with her husband., bRav Yosef objects to thisanswer: bBut isn’tthe woman ban intentional violatorof her oath? bAndif she wishes that her oath be dissolved, so that she may engage in intercourse with her husband, bthe matter depends onher bregretof her oath. One is obligated to bring an offering for violating an oath of an utterance only if his transgression is unwitting. bAnd furthermore,if the purpose of the offering that a woman brings after childbirth is to atone for violating an oath, then bsheshould be brequired to bringa female lamb or goat as ban offering,which is the requirement of one who violated ban oath,rather than the bird offering brought by a woman after childbirth., bAndthe students of Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai further inquired of him: bFor whatreason bdoes the Torah saythat a woman who gives birth to ba maleis ritually impure bfor sevendays, bbuta woman who gives birth to ba femaleis impure bfor fourteendays? Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai answered them: When a woman gives birth to ba male, over which everyone is happy, she regretsher oath, that she will never again engage in intercourse with her husband, already bsevendays after giving birth. By contrast, after giving birth to ba female, over which everyone is unhappy, she regretsher oath only bfourteendays after giving birth., bAndthe students further asked him: bFor whatreason bdoes the Torah saythat bcircumcisionis performed only bon the eighthday of the baby’s life, and not beforehand? He answered them: It is bso thatthere bwill not bea situation where beveryoneis bhappyat the circumcision ceremony bbut the father and mother ofthe infant bare unhappy,as they are still prohibited from engaging in intercourse., bIt is taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Meir would say: For whatreason bdoes the Torah saythat ba menstruating womanis prohibited from engaging in intercourse with her husband bfor sevendays? It is bbecauseif a woman were permitted to engage in intercourse with her husband all the time, her husband would be too baccustomed to her, andwould eventually be brepulsed by her.Therefore, bthe Torah saysthat a menstruating woman bshall be ritually impurefor bseven days,during which she is prohibited from engaging in intercourse with her husband, bso thatwhen she becomes pure again bshe will be dear to her husband asat bthe time when she entered the wedding canopywith him.,§ bThe students of Rabbi Dostai, son of Rabbi Yannai, asked him: For whatreason is it the norm that ba man pursues a womanfor marriage, bbut a woman does not pursue a man?Rabbi Dostai answered them by citing ba parable of a person who lost an item. Who searches for what?Certainly bthe owner of the lost item searches for his item;the item does not search for its owner. Since the first woman was created from the body of the first man, the man seeks that which he has lost., bAndthe students of Rabbi Dostai further asked him: bFor whatreason does ba manengage in intercourse bfacing down, and a womanengage in intercourse bfacing up toward the man?Rabbi Dostai answered them: bThisman faces bthe place from which he was created,i.e., the earth, band thatwoman faces bthe place from which she was created,namely man., bAndthe students also inquired: bFor whatreason is ba manwho is angry likely to baccept appeasement, but a womanis bnotas likely to baccept appeasement?Rabbi Dostai answered them: It is bbecause thisman behaves like bthe place from which he was created,i.e., the earth, which yields to pressure, band thatwoman behaves like bthe place from which she was created,i.e., from bone, which cannot be molded easily.,The students continued to ask Rabbi Dostai: bFor whatreason bis a woman’s voice pleasant, but a man’s voice is not pleasant?He answered: bThisman is similar to bthe place from which he was created,the earth, which does not issue a sound when it is struck, band thatwoman is similar to bthe place from which she was created,a bone, which makes a sound when it is struck. The proof that a woman’s voice is pleasant is bthat it is statedin Song of Songs that the man says to his beloved: b“For sweet is your voice, and your countece is beautiful”(Song of Songs 2:14).,, strongMISHNA: /strong Samaritan bgirlsare considered bmenstruating women fromthe time they lie in btheir cradle. And the Samaritanmen bimpart ritual impurityto the blower bedding like the upperbedding, i.e., all layers of bedding beneath them are impure, and their status is like the bedding above a man who experiences a gonorrhea-like discharge [ izav /i]: The status of both levels of bedding is that of first-degree ritual impurity, which can impart impurity to food and drink. This is bdue tothe fact bthatSamaritan men are considered men who bengage in intercourse with menstruating women. /b, bAndthey are considered men who engage in intercourse with menstruating women because Samaritan women bobservethe seven-day menstrual period of ritual impurity bfor each and everyemission of bblood,even for blood that does not render them impure. Accordingly, if a Samaritan woman has an emission of impure blood during the seven-day period, she will nevertheless continue counting seven days from the first emission. It is therefore possible that the Samaritan men will engage in intercourse with their wives while they are still halakhically considered menstruating women, as the seven-day period of impurity should have been counted from the emission of the impure blood., bButone who enters the Temple while wearing bthosegarments upon which a Samaritan had lain bis not liableto bring an offering bfor entering the Templein a status of impurity, bnor does one burn iteruma /ithat came into contact with bthosegarments, bbecause their impurityis buncertain. /b, strongGEMARA: /strong The mishna teaches that Samaritan girls are considered menstruating women from the time they lie in their cradle. The Gemara asks: bWhat are the circumstancesof this statement? bIfthe mishna is referring to girls bwhoalready bseemenstrual blood, then beven our own,i.e., Jewish girls, are balsoconsidered menstruating women under such circumstances. bAnd ifit is referring to girls bwho do notyet bseemenstrual blood, then btheirgirls, i.e., those of the Samaritans, should balso nothave the status of menstruating women., bRava, son of Rav Aḥa bar Rav Huna, saysthat bRav Sheshet says: Here we are dealing with an unspecifiedcase, i.e., it is unknown whether these girls have experienced their first menstrual period. bSince there is a minorityof girls bwho seemenstrual blood, bwe are concernedwith regard to each Samaritan girl that she might be from this minority. The Gemara asks: bAnd whois the itannawho btaught that one must be concerned for the minority? /b
44. Babylonian Talmud, Pesahim, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

113b. תני תנא קמיה דרבא ורב ספרא צהבו פניו דרב ספרא אמר לו רבא לאו כגון מר אלא כגון רב חנינא ורב אושעיא דהוו אושכפי בארעא דישראל והוו יתבי בשוקא דזונות ועבדי להו מסאני לזונות ועיילי להו אינהו מסתכלי בהו ואינהו לא מדלן עינייהו לאיסתכולי בהו ומומתייהו הכי בחייהן רבנן קדישי דבארעא דישראל:,שלשה הקדוש ברוך הוא אוהבן מי שאינו כועס ומי שאינו משתכר ומי שאינו מעמיד על מדותיו שלשה הקדוש ברוך הוא שונאן המדבר א' בפה ואחד בלב והיודע עדות בחבירו ואינו מעיד לו והרואה דבר ערוה בחבירו ומעיד בו יחידי,כי הא דטוביה חטא ואתא זיגוד לחודיה ואסהיד ביה קמיה דרב פפא נגדיה לזיגוד א"ל טוביה חטא וזיגוד מינגד אמר ליה אין דכתיב (דברים יט, טו) לא יקום עד אחד באיש ואת לחודך אסהדת ביה שם רע בעלמא קא מפקת ביה,אמר רבי שמואל בר רב יצחק אמר רב מותר לשנאתו שנאמר (שמות כג, ה) כי תראה חמור שנאך רובץ תחת משאו מאי שונא אילימא שונא נכרי והא תניא שונא שאמרו שונא ישראל ולא שונא נכרי,אלא פשיטא שונא ישראל ומי שריא למסניה והכתיב (ויקרא יט, יז) לא תשנא את אחיך בלבבך אלא דאיכא סהדי דעביד איסורא כולי עלמא נמי מיסני סני ליה מאי שנא האי אלא לאו כי האי גוונא דחזיא ביה איהו דבר ערוה,רב נחמן בר יצחק אמר מצוה לשנאתו שנאמר (משלי ח, יג) יראת ה' (שונאי) רע אמר רב אחא בריה דרבא לרב אשי מהו למימרא ליה לרביה למשנייה אמר ליה אי ידע דמהימן לרביה כבי תרי לימא ליה ואי לא לא לימא ליה,תנו רבנן שלשה חייהן אינם חיים הרחמנין והרתחנין ואניני הדעת ואמר רב יוסף כולהו איתנהו בי,תנו רבנן שלשה שונאין זה את זה אלו הן הכלבים והתרנגולין והחברין וי"א אף הזונות וי"א אף תלמידי חכמים שבבבל,ת"ר שלשה אוהבין זה את זה אלו הן הגרים ועבדים ועורבין,ארבעה אין הדעת סובלתן אלו הן דל גאה ועשיר מכחש וזקן מנאף ופרנס מתגאה על הציבור בחנם ויש אומרים אף המגרש את אשתו פעם ראשונה ושניה ומחזירה,ותנא קמא זימנא דכתובתה מרובה אי נמי יש לו בנים הימנה ולא מצי מגרש לה,חמשה דברים צוה כנען את בניו אהבו זה את זה ואהבו את הגזל ואהבו את הזמה ושנאו את אדוניכם ואל תדברו אמת,ששה דברים נאמרים בסוס אוהב את הזנות ואוהב את המלחמה ורוחו גסה ומואס את השינה ואוכל הרבה ומוציא קמעה וי"א אף מבקש להרוג בעליו במלחמה,שבעה מנודין לשמים אלו הן יהודי שאין לו אשה ושיש לו אשה ואין לו בנים ומי שיש לו בנים ואין מגדלן לתלמוד תורה ומי שאין לו תפילין בראשו ותפילין בזרועו וציצית בבגדו ומזוזה בפתחו והמונע מנעלים מרגליו וי"א אף מי שאין מיסב בחבורה של מצוה,אמר רבה בר בר חנה אמר רבי שמואל בר מרתא אמר רב משום רבי יוסי איש הוצל מניין שאין שואלין בכלדיים שנאמר (דברים יח, יג) תמים תהיה עם ה' אלהיך,ומניין היודע בחבירו שהוא גדול ממנו אפילו בדבר אחד שחייב לנהוג בו כבוד שנאמר (דניאל ו, ד) כל קבל די רוח יתירא ביה [ומלכא עשית להקמותיה על כל מלכותא],והיושבת על דם טהור אסורה לשמש עד כמה אמר רב עונה,תנא הוא יוסף איש הוצל הוא יוסף הבבלי הוא איסי בן גור אריה הוא איסי בן יהודה הוא איסי בן גמליאל הוא איסי בן מהללאל ומה שמו איסי בן עקביה שמו הוא רבי יצחק בן טבלא הוא רבי יצחק בן חקלא הוא רבי יצחק בן אלעא הוא 113b. When bthe itannataughtthis ibaraita bbefore Rava and Rav Safra, Rav Safra’s face lit upwith joy, as he was listed among those praised by God. bRava said to him:This does not refer to someone blike the Master. Rather,the statement applies to people like bRav Ḥanina and Rav Oshaya, who were cobblers in Eretz Yisrael, and they would sit in the marketplace of prostitutes and fashion shoes for prostitutes. Andthe prostitutes bwould entertheir shops and blook at them.However, due to their piety, these Sages bdid not raise their eyes to look atthe women. And those prostitutes were so impressed with this behavior that when they bswore,they would say bas follows: By the lives of the holy Sages of Eretz Yisrael.It is this type of bachelor who is praised by Heaven.,The Gemara cites a similar statement. bThe Holy One, Blessed be He, loves threepeople: bOne who does not get angry; one who does not get drunk; and one who is forgiving. The Holy One, Blessed be He, hates threepeople: bOne who says onestatement bwith his mouth andmeans banother in his heart,i.e., a hypocrite; bone who knows testimony about anotherperson band does not testify on his behalf; and one who observes a licentious matterperformed bby anotherperson band testifies against him alone.His testimony is meaningless, as he is the only witness; consequently, he merely gives the individual a bad reputation.,The Gemara comments: This is blikethat incident bwhere Tuveya sinnedwith immorality, band Zigud came alone to testify about him before Rav Pappa.Rav Pappa instructed that bZigud be lashed.Zigud bsaid to him: Tuveya sinned and Zigud is lashed,an objection that became a popular saying. bHe said to him: Yes, as it is written: “One witness shall not rise up against a man”(Deuteronomy 19:15), band you testified against him alone. You have merely given him a bad reputation. /b, bRabbi Shmuel bar Rav Yitzḥak saidthat bRav said:Although one who sees another committing a sin should not testify against him by himself, bhe isnonetheless bpermitted to hate him, as it is stated: “If you see the donkey of he who hates you lying under its load”(Exodus 23:5). The Gemara clarifies this verse: bWhatis the meaning of he bwho hates youmentioned in the verse? bIf you sayit is referring to ba gentile who hatesyou, bbut wasn’tit btaughtin a ibaraitathat the phrase: bHe who hates, ofwhich the Torah bspoke, is a Jew who hatesyou, bnot a gentile who hatesyou?, bRather,it is bobviousthat the verse is referring to ba Jew who hatesyou. bBut is one permitted to hatea fellow Jew? bBut isn’t it written: “You shall not hate your brother in your heart”(Leviticus 19:17), which clearly prohibits the hatred of another Jew? bRather,perhaps you will say that the verse is referring to a situation bwhere there are witnesses that he performed a sin.However, in that case, beveryoneelse should balso hate him. What is differentabout this particular person who hates him? bRather, is it notreferring bto a case like this, when he saw himperform ba licentious matter?He is therefore permitted to hate him for his evil behavior, whereas others who are unaware of his actions may not hate him., bRav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said:Not only is this permitted, it is even ba mitzva to hate him, as it is stated: “The fear of God is to hate evil”(Proverbs 8:13). bRav Aḥa, sonof bRava, said to Rav Ashi: What isthe ihalakhawith regard btowhether one who saw someone sin may btell his teacherso that bhetoo bwill hate him?Rav Ashi bsaid to him: Ifthe student bknowsthat he is btrusted by his teacher as twowitnesses, and therefore his statement will be accepted, bheshould btell him, and ifhe is bnottrusted by his teacher as two witnesses, he should bnot tell him. /b, bThe Sages taught:There are bthreetypes of people bwhose lives are not lives,due to their constant suffering: bThe compassionate, the hot tempered, and the delicate. Rav Yosef said: All of theseattributes barefound bin me. /b,Furthermore, bthe Sages taught:Members of bthreegroups bhate othermembers of the same group: bDogs, roosters, and the Persian priests. And some say: Also prostitutes. And some say: Also Torah scholars in Babylonia. /b,Likewise, bthe Sages taught:Members of bthreegroups blove one another: Converts, slaves, and ravens. /b, bFourtypes of people bcannot be enduredby anyone: bAn arrogant pauper; a wealthy person who deniesmonetary claims against him; ba lecherous old man; and a leader who lords over the community for no cause. And some say: Also one who divorces his wife once and twice and takes her backa third time. He should decide definitively whether or not he wants her.,The Gemara asks: bAndwhy didn’t bthe first itanna /imention this case of a man who remarries his wife after two divorces? The Gemara answers: bSometimesthe husband’s payment to her in the event of divorce, as stipulated in bher marriage contract, is large,and since he is unable to pay he is forced to take her back. bAlternatively, he has children with her and cannot divorce her,as he wants someone to care for them.,The Gemara continues: bCanaan commanded his sonswith regard to bfive mattersthat are apparently normal behavior for slaves: bLove one another, love robbery, love promiscuity, hate your masters, and do not speak the truth. /b, bSix matters are said with regard to a horse:It bloves promiscuity,it bloves war, its demeanor is arrogant, it despises sleep, it eats much, and it excretes little. And some say:Just as a horse always rushes straight into the heat of a battle, it balso attempts to kill its master in war. /b, bSevenare bostracized by Heaven,despite the fact that they have not been ostracized in any court: bA Jew who does not have a wife; and one who has a wife but has no sons; and one who has sons whom he does not raise toengage in bTorah study; and one who does not have phylacteries on his head, and phylacteries on his arm, and ritual fringes on his garment, and a imezuzain his doorway; and one who withholds shoes from his feet. And some say: Also one who does not sit with a groupthat is partaking of a feast in celebration bof a mitzva. /b, bRabba bar bar Ḥana saidthat bRabbi Shmuel bar Marta saidthat Rav said, citing bRabbi Yosei of Hutzal: From whereis it derived bthat onemay bnot consult astrologers? As it is stated: “You shall be wholehearted with the Lord your God”(Deuteronomy 18:13). The Torah demands absolute faith in God and acceptance of His justice, without attempting to predict the future., bAnd from whereis it derived concerning bone who knows about another that he is greater than him, even in one matter, that he must treat him with respect? As it is stated: “Because a surpassing spirit was in him, the king thought to set him over the whole realm”(Daniel 6:4). This verse teaches that one who is in any way greater than another person is worthy of his respect., bAndit was also stated by Rabba bar bar Ḥana: With regard to a woman who was bobservingher days of ritually bpure blood,and those days have ended, she bis prohibited to engage in intimacyimmediately, lest she see ritually impure blood. Any blood emitted by a woman within forty days after giving birth to a male child or eighty days after giving birth to a female child is ritually pure. After this period of time has passed, a woman should not have relations with her husband immediately. The Gemara asks: bUntil whenis she prohibited to her husband? bRav said:She must wait ba set interval of timefor the ritual impurity of a inidda /i, i.e., either one day or one night.,With regard to Rabbi Yosei of Hutzal, it was btaught:The bYosef of Hutzalmentioned in other places in the Gemara bisthe same person as bYosef the Babylonian.Yosef is the full name of Yosei. Furthermore, bhe isalso known as bIsi ben Gur Arye, he is Isi ben Yehuda, he is Isi ben Gamliel,and bhe is Isi ben Mahalalel. And what is hisreal bname? Hisreal bnameis bIsi ben Akavya.Similarly, the Sage bRabbi Yitzḥak ben Tavla isalso known as bRabbi Yitzḥak ben Ḥakla,who bis Rabbi Yitzḥak ben Ela.These are two cases of one Sage with several names.
45. Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

106a. מחליף ושרשיו מרובין ואפילו כל רוחות שבעולם באות ונושבות בו אין מזיזות אותו ממקומו אלא הוא הולך ובא עמהן כיון שדוממו הרוחות עמד קנה במקומו,אבל בלעם הרשע ברכן בארז מה ארז זה אינו עומד במקום מים ושרשיו מועטין ואין גזעו מחליף אפילו כל הרוחות שבעולם באות ונושבות בו אין מזיזות אותו ממקומו כיון שנשבה בו רוח דרומית מיד עוקרתו והופכתו על פניו ולא עוד אלא שזכה קנה ליטול ממנו קולמוס לכתוב ממנו ס"ת נביאים וכתובים,(במדבר כד, כא) וירא את הקיני וישא משלו אמר לו בלעם ליתרו קיני לא היית עמנו באותה עצה מי הושיבך אצל איתני עולם,והיינו דא"ר חייא בר אבא א"ר סימאי שלשה היו באותה עצה אלו הן בלעם איוב ויתרו בלעם שיעץ נהרג איוב ששתק נידון ביסורין ויתרו שברח זכו בני בניו לישב בלשכת הגזית שנאמר (דברי הימים א ב, נה) ומשפחות סופרים יושבי יעבץ תרעתים שמעתים סוכתים המה הקינים הבאים מחמת אבי בית רכב וכתיב (שופטים א, טז) ובני קיני חותן משה עלו מעיר התמרים,(במדבר כד, כג) וישא משלו ויאמר אוי מי יחיה משמו אל (אמר רשב"ל אוי מי שמחיה עצמו בשם אל) א"ר יוחנן אוי לה לאומה שתמצא בשעה שהקב"ה עושה פדיון לבניו מי מטיל כסותו בין לביא ללביאה בשעה שנזקקין זה עם זה,(במדבר כד, כד) וצים מיד כתים אמר רב ליבון אספיר (במדבר כד, כד) וענו אשור וענו עבר עד אשור קטלי מיקטל מכאן ואילך משעבדי שיעבודי,(במדבר כד, יד) הנני הולך לעמי לכה איעצך אשר יעשה העם הזה לעמך עמך לעם הזה מיבעי ליה א"ר אבא בר כהנא כאדם שמקלל את עצמו ותולה קללתו באחרים,אמר להם אלהיהם של אלו שונא זימה הוא והם מתאוים לכלי פשתן בוא ואשיאך עצה עשה להן קלעים והושיב בהן זונות זקינה מבחוץ וילדה מבפנים וימכרו להן כלי פשתן,עשה להן קלעים מהר שלג עד בית הישימות והושיב בהן זונות זקינה מבחוץ וילדה מבפנים ובשעה שישראל אוכלין ושותין ושמחין ויוצאין לטייל בשוק אומרת לו הזקינה אי אתה מבקש כלי פשתן זקינה אומרת לו בשוה וילדה אומרת לו בפחות שתים ושלש פעמים,ואח"כ אומרת לו הרי את כבן בית שב ברור לעצמך וצרצורי של יין עמוני מונח אצלה ועדיין לא נאסר (יין של עמוני ולא) יין של נכרים אמרה לו רצונך שתשתה כוס של יין כיון ששתה בער בו,אמר לה השמיעי לי הוציאה יראתה מתוך חיקה אמרה לו עבוד לזה אמר לה הלא יהודי אני אמרה לו ומה איכפת לך כלום מבקשים ממך אלא פיעור [והוא אינו יודע שעבודתה בכך] ולא עוד אלא שאיני מנחתך עד שתכפור בתורת משה רבך שנא' (הושע ט, י) המה באו בעל פעור וינזרו לבשת ויהיו שקוצים באהבם,(במדבר כה, א) וישב ישראל בשטים ר"א אומר שטים שמה רבי יהושע אומר שנתעסקו בדברי שטות,ותקראן לעם לזבחי אלהיהן רבי אלעזר אומר ערומות פגעו בהן רבי יהושע אומר שנעשו כולן בעלי קריין,מאי לשון רפידים רבי אליעזר אומר רפידים שמה רבי יהושע אומר שריפו עצמן מדברי תורה שנאמר (ירמיהו מז, ג) לא הפנו אבות אל בנים מרפיון ידים,אמר רבי יוחנן כל מקום שנאמר וישב אינו אלא לשון צער שנא' (במדבר כה, א) וישב ישראל בשטים ויחל העם לזנות אל בנות מואב (בראשית לז, א) וישב יעקב בארץ מגורי אביו בארץ כנען ויבא יוסף את דבתם רעה אל אביהם ונאמר (בראשית מז, כז) וישב ישראל בארץ גשן ויקרבו ימי ישראל למות (מלכים א ה, ה) וישב יהודה וישראל לבטח איש תחת גפנו ותחת תאנתו (מלכים א יא, יד) ויקם ה' שטן לשלמה את הדד האדומי מזרע המלך הוא באדום,(במדבר לא, ח) ואת מלכי מדין הרגו על חלליהם וגו' את בלעם בן בעור הרגו בחרב בלעם מאי בעי התם א"ר יוחנן שהלך ליטול שכר עשרים וארבעה אלף [שהפיל מישראל] אמר מר זוטרא בר טוביה אמר רב היינו דאמרי אינשי גמלא אזלא למיבעי קרני אודני דהוו ליה גזיזן מיניה,(יהושע יג, כב) ואת בלעם בן בעור הקוסם קוסם נביא הוא א"ר יוחנן בתחלה נביא ולבסוף קוסם אמר רב פפא היינו דאמרי אינשי מסגני ושילטי הואי אייזן לגברי נגרי 106a. breplenishesitself, as if it is cut another grows, band its roots are numerous. And even if all the winds that are in the world come and gust against it, they do not move it from its placeand uproot it. bRather, it goes and comes withthe winds. And bonce the winds subside the reed remains in its place. /b, bBut Balaam the wicked blessed them with a cedar.There is an aspect of curse in that blessing, as he was saying they will be bjust like a cedarthat bdoes not stand in a placenear bwater, and its roots are fewrelative to its height, band its trunk does not replenishitself, as if it is cut it does not grow back. And bevenif ball the winds that are in the world come and gust against it, they do not move it from its placeand uproot it; but bonce a southern wind gusts it immediately uprootsthe cedar band overturns it on its face. Moreover,it is bthe reed that was privileged tohave ba quill [ ikulmos /i] taken from it to write scrolls of Torah, Prophets, and Writings.Therefore, the curse of Ahijah is better than the blessing of Balaam.,§ It is stated with regard to Balaam: b“And he looked at the Kenite and he took up his parableand said: Though firm is your dwelling place, and though your nest be set in rock” (Numbers 24:21). bBalaam said to Yitro: Kenite,were byou not in Egypt with us in that counselto drown the newborn males of Israel? bWho placed you alongside the mighty of the world? /b,The Gemara comments: bAnd that is what Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba saysthat bRabbi Simai says: Three wereassociates bin that counsel, and they are: Balaam, Job, and Yitro. Balaam, who advisedto drown the newborn males, bwas killed. Job, who was silentand was reluctant to express his opinion, bwas sentenced tosuffer bafflictions. And Yitro, who fledafter he disagreed with that counsel and Pharaoh sought to kill him, bhis descendants were privileged to sitas scribes in session with the Sanhedrin bin the Chamber of Hewn Stone, as it is stated: “And the families of the scribes who dwelt in Jabez; the Tirathites, the Shimeathites, the Sucathites. These were the Kenites who came of Hammath the father of the house of Rechab”(I Chronicles 2:55). bAnd it is written therewith regard to the identity of the Kenites: b“And the children of the Kenite, Moses’ father-in-law, went up from the city of the palm trees”(Judges 1:16).,With regard to the verse: b“And he took up his parable, and said: Alas, he who lives from what God has appointed him”(Numbers 24:23), bRabbi Shimon ben Lakish says: Woe unto one who sustains himselfin an indulgent manner bin the name of God,i.e., Balaam, whose livelihood was from speaking in the name of God. bRabbi Yoḥa says: Woe unto the nation that will be foundhindering the Jewish people bat the time when the Holy One, Blessed be He, redeems His children. Who places his garment between a male lion and a female lion when they are mating?One who does so will certainly die.,With regard to the verse: b“And ships come from the coast of Kittim”(Numbers 24:24), bRav says:This is bthe Roman legion [ ilibbun aspir /i]that will attack Assyria. b“And they shall afflict Assyria, and they shall afflict Eber”(Numbers 24:24). bBeforethey reach bAssyria they will killthe Jewish people; bfrom thatpoint bforward they will enslave themand not kill them.,§ Balaam said to Balak: b“Behold, I go to my people; come therefore, and I shall advise you what this people shall do to your people”(Numbers 24:14). Ostensibly, bhe should havesaid: What byour peopleshall do bto this people. Rabbi Abba bar Kahana says:Balaam spoke blike a person who curses himselfbut does not wish to utter so awful a matter bandinstead bascribes his curse totake effect on bothers. /b,Balaam bsaid to them: The God of theseJewish people bdespises lewdness, and they desire linen garments,as they have no new garments; bcome, and I will give you advice. Make for themenclosures using wall bhangings and seat prostitutes in them,with ban old woman outsidethe enclosure band a young woman inside, andhave the women bsell them linen garments. /b,Balak bmade for themenclosures using wall bhangings from the snow mountain,the Ḥermon, buntil Beit HaYeshimot, and he sat prostitutes in them,with ban old woman outside and a young woman on the inside. And at the time when Jewish people were eating and drinking and were glad and going out to stroll in the marketplace, the old woman would say toa Jew: bAren’t you seeking linen garments?He would enter the enclosure and ask the price, bthe old woman would quote hima price bequalto its value, band the young woman would quote hima price blessthan its value. That scenario would repeat itself btwo or three times. /b, bAnd thereafter she would say to him: You are like a member of our household, sitand bchoose for yourselfthe merchandise that you want. bAnd a jug of Ammonite wine was placed near her, andneither bAmmonite wine nor gentile wine had been prohibited yetfor Jews. bShe said to him: Is it your wish to drink a cup of wine? Once he drankthe wine, his evil inclination bburned within him. /b, bHethen bsaid to her: Submit to meand engage in intercourse with me. bShethen bremovedthe bidolthat bshe worshipped from her lap and said to him: Worship this. He said to her: Am I not Jewish?I am therefore forbidden from engaging in idol worship. bShe said to him: And what is your concern? We are asking you to do nothing more than defecatein its presence. bBut he does not know that its worshipis conducted bin thatmanner. Once he did so, she said to him: bMoreover, I will not leave you until you deny the Torah of Moses your teacher, as it is stated: “But when they came to Ba’al-Peor they separated themselves to the shameful item; and they became detestable like that which they loved”(Hosea 9:10). They devoted themselves to the disgrace of defecation, and detested the name of God.,With regard to the verse: b“And Israel dwelt in Shittim”(Numbers 25:1), bRabbi Eliezer says: Shittimis bthe name ofthe place. bRabbi Yehoshua says:It is an allusion to the fact bthat they were engaged in matters of nonsense [ ishetut /i],i.e., prostitution and idol worship.,With regard to the verse: b“And they called [ ivatikrena /i] the people to the offerings of their gods”(Numbers 25:2), bRabbi Eliezer says: Naked women encountered them. Rabbi Yehoshua says: They all became those who experienced a seminal emission [ ikerayin /i]resulting from the lust that they experienced.,Apropos the homiletic interpretation of the names of places, the Gemara asks: bWhatis the connotation of the bterm Rephidim(see Exodus 19:2)? bRabbi Eliezer says: Rephidimis bthe name ofthe place. bRabbi Yehoshua says:It is an allusion to the fact bthat they enfeebled [ irippu /i] themselves with regard toengaging in bmatters of Torah, as it is stated: “The fathers do not look back to their children from feebleness [ irifyon /i] of hands”(Jeremiah 47:3). There too, the connotation of the name is dereliction in the study of Torah., bRabbi Yoḥa says: Everywhere that it is stated: And he dwelt, it is nothing other than an expression of pain,of an impending calamity, bas it is stated: “And Israel dwelt in Shittim, and the people began to commit harlotry with the daughters of Moab”(Numbers 25:1). It is stated: b“And Jacob dwelt in the land where his father had sojourned in the land of Canaan”(Genesis 37:1), and it is stated thereafter: b“And Joseph brought evil report of them to his father”(Genesis 37:2), which led to the sale of Joseph. bAnd it is stated: “And Israel dweltin the land of Egypt bin the land of Goshen”(Genesis 47:27), and it is stated thereafter: b“And the time drew near that Israel was to die”(Genesis 47:29). It is stated: b“And Judah and Israel dwelt safely, every man under his vine and under his fig tree”(I Kings 5:5), and it is stated thereafter: b“And the Lord raised up an adversary to Solomon, Hadad the Edomite; he was of the king’s seed in Edom”(I Kings 11:14).,§ With regard to Balaam, it is stated: b“And they slew the kings of Midian, with the rest of their slain…And Balaam, son of Beor, they slew with the sword”(Numbers 31:8). The Gemara asks: bBalaam, what did he seek there;what was his role in that war? He lived in Aram. bRabbi Yoḥa says: He went to collect payment for twenty-four thousandmembers bof the Jewish people, whom he felledwith his advice. bMar Zutra bar Toviya saysthat bRav saysthat bthisis in accordance with the adage bthat people say: A camel goes to seek hornsand bthe ears that it had are severed from it.Not only was Balaam unsuccessful in collecting his fee, he also lost his life.,It is stated: b“And Balaam, son of Beor, the diviner,did the children of Israel slay with the sword among the rest of their slain” (Joshua 13:22). The Gemara asks: Was he ba diviner? He is a prophet. Rabbi Yoḥa says: Initiallyhe was ba prophet, but ultimately,he lost his capacity for prophecy and remained merely ba diviner. Rav Pappa saysthat bthisis in accordance with the adage bthat people say:This woman bwasdescended bfrom princes and rulers,and bwas licentious with carpenters. /b
46. Babylonian Talmud, Shabbat, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

17b. טבי רישבא אמר שמואל אף גידולי תרומה תרומה בו ביום גזרו מ"ט א"ר חנינא גזירה משום תרומה טהורה ביד ישראל,אמר רבא אי דחשידי להכי אפרושי נמי לא ליפרשו (אלא אמר רבא ישראל) כיון דאפשר למעבד חטה אחת כדשמואל ולא קעביד הימוני מהימני אלא גזירה משום תרומה טמאה ביד כהן דילמא משהי לה גביה ואתי לידי תקלה:,ואידך אמר ר' חייא בר אמי משמיה דעולא אף מי שהחשיך לו בדרך נותן כיסו לנכרי בו ביום גזרו:,ואידך אמר באלי אמר אבימי סנוותאה פתן ושמנן ויינן ובנותיהן כולן מי"ח דבר הן הניחא לרבי מאיר אלא לר' יוסי שבסרי הויין איכא הא דרב אחא בר אדא דאמר רב אחא בר אדא אמר ר' יצחק גזרו על פתן משום שמנן ועל שמנן משום יינן,על פתן משום שמנן מאי אולמיה דשמן מפת אלא גזרו על פתן ושמנן משום יינן ועל יינן משום בנותיהן ועל בנותיהן משום דבר אחר ועל דבר אחר משום דבר אחר מאי דבר אחר אמר רב נחמן בר יצחק גזרו על תינוק נכרי שמטמא בזיבה שלא יהא תינוק ישראל רגיל אצלו במשכב זכור אי הכי לר"מ נמי תשסרי הויין אוכלין וכלים שנטמאו במשקין בחדא חשיב להו:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big ב"ש אומרים אין שורין דיו וסמנים וכרשינין אלא כדי שישורו מבעוד יום וב"ה מתירין ב"ש אומרים אין נותנין אונין של פשתן לתוך התנור אלא כדי שיהבילו מבעוד יום ולא את הצמר ליורה אלא כדי שיקלוט העין וב"ה מתירין,ב"ש אומרים אין פורסין מצודות חיה ועופות ודגים אלא כדי שיצודו מבעוד יום וב"ה מתירין ב"ש אומרים אין מוכרין לנכרי ואין טוענין עמו ואין מגביהין עליו אלא כדי שיגיע למקום קרוב ובית הלל מתירין ב"ש אומרים אין נותנין עורות לעבדן ולא כלים לכובס נכרי אלא כדי שיעשו מבעוד יום ובכולן בית הלל מתירין עם 17b. bTavi the bird hunter [ irishba /i]that bShmuel said:The decree that bgrowths of iteruma /i,i.e., produce that grows from iterumathat was planted in the ground, are considered iteruma /i, the Sages balso issued on that day.The Gemara asks: bWhat is the reasonfor this decree? bRabbi Ḥanina said: A decree due to pure iterumain the hand of anon b- /bpriest bIsraelite.One who seeks to avoid giving iterumato a priest would plant it in the ground and thereby negate its iterumastatus. To prevent him from doing so, the Sages decreed that that which grows from the iterumais also considered iteruma /i. Consequently, one would gain nothing by replanting the iteruma /i., bRava said: If they are suspected of that, let them refrain from separating iteruma /ialtogether. bRather, Rava said:We know that with regard to ban Israelite,as opposed to a Levite, fundamentally bit is possible to performthe mitzva of iterumaby separating merely bone grain of wheat, inaccordance with the opinion of bShmuel,who said that by Torah law there is no fixed measure for iteruma /i. By separating one grain of wheat as iterumafor all the wheat on the threshing floor, one fulfills his obligation. bSince henevertheless bdid nottake advantage of that possibility to exempt himself from the obligation of separating iteruma /i, bhe is trustworthy,and there is no reason to suspect that he will seek to avoid giving iterumato the priest by planting it. bRather,the reason for bthe decreeis bdue to impure iterumain the hand of a priest.A priest is forbidden to eat impure iterumaand he is required to burn it. However, the priest is permitted to derive benefit from its burning. The Sages were concerned blest he keepthe impure iteruma bwith himuntil the season of sowing and sow his field with it, band,as a result, bhe encounter a stumbling-blockbecause over time he is liable to forget that the iterumais impure and eat it.,With regard to the total of eighteen decrees, the Gemara asks: bAndwhat is bthe otherdecree? bRabbi Ḥiyya bar Ami said in the name of Ulla:In a case of bone whowas carrying a purse with money in it on Shabbat eve, and bit got darkfor him bon the way,the Torah law permitted him to carry the purse in increments, each of which is less than four cubits. However, the Sages issued the following decree: It is prohibited to carry in increments; bheshould bgive his purse to a gentileaccompanying him. This decree was balso issued on that day. /b, bAnd the otherdecree: The Sage bBali saidthat bAvimi of Sanvata said:The decrees with regard to gentiles that prohibit btheir bread, and their oil, and their wine, and their daughters are allone decree bof the eighteen matters.The Gemara asks: bThis works out wellaccording bto Rabbi Meir,as according to his opinion the Gemara already enumerated eighteen decrees. bHowever,according bto Rabbi Yosei,who holds that the dispute remains with regard to the matter of vessels in the courtyard, bthey areonly bseventeen.The Gemara answers: bThere isalso bthatstatement of bRav Aḥa bar Adda, as Rav Aḥa bar Adda saidthat bRabbi Yitzḥak said:The Sages bissued a decreeprohibiting eating btheir bread due to their oil. Andthey issued a decree prohibiting btheir oil due to their wine.Consequently, there are two separate decrees.,The Gemara wonders: They issued a decree bon their bread because of their oil.In bwhatway bis theprohibition on boil stronger thanthe prohibition on bbread? Rather,say that bthey issued a decreeprohibiting btheir bread and their oil due to their wine. Andthey issued a decree prohibiting btheir wine due tothe fact that it leads to familiarity, and people will come to marry btheir daughters. Andthey issued a decree prohibiting btheir daughters due to something else,idolatry. bAndthey further issued a decree bon something else,idolatry, bdue to something else.The Gemara asks: bWhat isthe bsomething elsealluded to here? bRav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said: They issued a decree on a gentile baby,according him the legal status bthat he transmits impurityas one bwith thelegal status bof agreat izav /i,who experienced three emissions, even though he did not experience an emission. This was in order to distance Jewish children from gentile children so bthat a Jewish boy should not be accustomed to be witha gentile bin homosexual relations.The Gemara asks: bIf so,according bto Rabbi Meirit is difficult bas well,as bthey arenow bnineteendecrees. The Gemara answers: Rabbi Meir bcountsthe decrees of bfooditems band vessels that became impurethrough contact bwith liquids as one.Consequently, according to Rabbi Meir, too, there are only eighteen decrees., strongMISHNA: /strong In this mishna there is a fundamental dispute between Beit Hillel and Beit Shammai: Must one begin refraining from actions prohibited on Shabbat on Shabbat eve? Or, may one initiate an action prior to Shabbat, even if he knows that it will continue on its own on Shabbat itself? These are the details of that dispute: bBeit Shammai say: One may only soakdry binkin water banddry plants, which produce bdyes,in water band vetchfor animal food to soften them in water on Shabbat eve, adjacent to Shabbat, bifthere is clearly bsufficient time for them to soakfor their designated purpose bwhile it is still day,before Shabbat begins, and their continued soaking on Shabbat will have no effect. bAnd Beit Hillel permitdoing so. bBeit Shammai say: One may only place bundles ofcombed bflax inside the ovenon Shabbat eve if there is sufficient time bso that they will be heated while it is still day. Andone may bonlyplace bwool into thedyer’s bkettle ifthere is bsufficient time forthe wool bto absorb the dyewhile it is still day. bAnd Beit Hillel permitdoing so., bBeit Shammai say: One may spread trapsfor an banimal and birds and fish onlyif there is sufficient time remaining in the day bfor them to be trappedin them bwhile it is still day, and Beit Hillel permitdoing so even if there is not sufficient time remaining in the day. bBeit Shammai say: One may only sellan item bto a gentileon Shabbat eve, bandone bmay only loada burden on his donkey bwith him, andone bmay only lifta burden bon him ifthere remains bsufficient time forthe gentile bto arrive to a near placeprior to Shabbat, and the Jew will play no role in the performance of a prohibited labor by the gentile on Shabbat. bAnd Beit Hillel permitdoing so. bBeit Shammai say: One may not give skins to agentile btanner, nor clothes to a gentile launderer, unlessthere is bsufficient time forwork on bthem to be completed while it is still day,before Shabbat begins. bAnd in all of them Beit Hillel permitdoing so bwith /b
47. Babylonian Talmud, Sukkah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

56b. והני תרתי מאי עבידתייהו אמר ר' יצחק בשכר הגפת דלתות ונימא ליה דל בדל אמר אביי בוצינא טבא מקרא,אמר רב יהודה ובמוספין חולקין מיתיבי משמרה היוצאת עושה תמיד של שחר ומוספין משמרה הנכנסת עושה תמיד של בין הערבים ובזיכין ואילו מוספין חולקין לא קתני האי תנא בחלוקה לא קא מיירי,אמר רבא והא תנא דבי שמואל דמיירי בחלוקה ובמוספין חולקין לא קתני דתנא דבי שמואל משמרה היוצאת עושה תמיד של שחר ומוספין משמרה הנכנסת עושה תמיד של בין הערבים ובזיכין ארבעה כהנים היו נכנסין שם שנים ממשמר זו ושנים ממשמר זו וחולקין לחם הפנים ואילו במוספין חולקין לא קתני תיובתא דרב יהודה תיובתא:,הנכנסין חולקין בצפון: ת"ר הנכנסין חולקין בצפון כדי שיראו שהן נכנסין והיוצאין חולקין בדרום כדי שיראו שהן יוצאין:,בילגה לעולם חולקת בדרום: ת"ר מעשה במרים בת בילגה שהמירה דתה והלכה ונשאת לסרדיוט אחד ממלכי יוונים כשנכנסו יוונים להיכל היתה מבעטת בסנדלה על גבי המזבח ואמרה לוקוס לוקוס עד מתי אתה מכלה ממונן של ישראל ואי אתה עומד עליהם בשעת הדחק וכששמעו חכמים בדבר קבעו את טבעתה וסתמו את חלונה,ויש אומרים משמרתו שוהה לבא ונכנס ישבב אחיו עמו ושימש תחתיו אע"פ ששכיני הרשעים לא נשתכרו שכיני בילגה נשתכרו שבילגה לעולם חולקת בדרום וישבב אחיו בצפון,בשלמא למ"ד משמרתו שוהה לבא היינו דקנסינן לכולה משמר אלא למ"ד מרים בת בילגה שהמירה דתה משום ברתיה קנסינן ליה לדידיה אמר אביי אין כדאמרי אינשי שותא דינוקא בשוקא או דאבוה או דאימיה,ומשום אבוה ואימיה קנסינן לכולה משמרה אמר אביי אוי לרשע אוי לשכינו טוב לצדיק טוב לשכינו שנאמר (ישעיהו ג, י) אמרו צדיק כי טוב כי פרי מעלליהם יאכלו, br br big strongהדרן עלך החליל וסליקא לה מסכת סוכה /strong /big br br
48. Babylonian Talmud, Taanit, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

18a. אלא לאסור יום שלפניו ה"נ לא נצרכה אלא לאסור יום שלאחריו כמאן כרבי יוסי דאמר בין לפניו בין לאחריו אסור אי הכי בעשרים ותשעה נמי מאי איריא דהוי יומא דמקמי יומא דמיתוקם תמידא תיפוק ליה דה"ל יומא דבתר עשרין ותמניא ביה,דתניא בעשרים ותמני' ביה אתת בשורתא טבתא ליהודאי דלא יעידון מן אורייתא שפעם אחת נגזרה גזירה על ישראל שלא יעסקו בתורה ושלא ימולו את בניהם ושיחללו שבתות מה עשה יהודה בן שמוע וחביריו הלכו ונטלו עצה ממטרוניתא אחת שכל גדולי רומי מצויין אצלה,אמרה להם עמדו והפגינו בלילה הלכו והפגינו בלילה אמרו אי שמים לא אחים אנחנו לא בני אב אחד אנחנו לא בני אם אחת אנחנו מה נשתנינו מכל אומה ולשון שאתם גוזרין עלינו גזירות רעות ובטלום ואותו היום עשאוהו יו"ט,אמר אביי לא נצרכה אלא לחדש מעובר,רב אשי אמר אפילו תימא לחדש חסר כל שלאחריו בתענית אסור בהספד מותר וזה הואיל ומוטל בין שני ימים טובים עשאוהו כיו"ט עצמו ואפילו בהספד נמי אסור,אמר מר מתמניא ביה ועד סוף מועדא איתותב חגא דשבועיא דלא למיספד למה לי למימר מתמניא ביה לימא מתשעה ביה ותמניא גופיה אסור דה"ל יומא דאיתוקם ביה תמידא,כיון דאילו מקלע (ליה) מילתא ובטליניה לשבעה תמניא גופיה אסור דה"ל יומא קמא דאיתותב ביה חגא דשבועיא,השתא דאתית להכי עשרים ותשעה נמי כיון דאילו מיקלע מילתא ובטליניה לעשרים ותמניא עשרין ותשעה גופיה אסור דה"ל יומא דמקמי יומא דאיתוקם תמידא,איתמר ר' חייא בר אסי אמר רב הלכה כר' יוסי ושמואל אמר הלכה כר' מאיר,ומי אמר שמואל הכי והתניא רשב"ג אומר ומה תלמוד לומר בהון בהון שתי פעמים לומר לך שהן אסורין לפניהן ולאחריהן מותרין ואמר שמואל הלכה כרבן שמעון בן גמליאל,מעיקרא סבר כיון דליכא תנא דמיקל כרבי מאיר אמר הלכה כרבי מאיר כיון דשמעיה לרבן שמעון דמיקל טפי אמר הלכה כרבן שמעון בן גמליאל,וכן אמר באלי אמר רבי חייא בר אבא א"ר יוחנן הלכה כרבי יוסי א"ל רבי חייא לבאלי אסברא לך כי אמר ר' יוחנן הלכה כרבי יוסי אדלא להתענאה,ומי אמר רבי יוחנן הכי והאמר ר' יוחנן הלכה כסתם משנה ותנן אע"פ שאמרו מקדימין ולא מאחרין 18a. bonly to prohibiteulogizing on bthe day before. Here too, it is necessaryto mention Passover bonly to prohibiteulogizing on the bfollowing day.The Gemara asks: bIn accordance with whoseopinion is this ruling? It is bin accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Yosei, who saidthat eulogizing is bprohibited bothon the day bbeforethe date recorded in iMegillat Ta’anit bandon the bfollowing day.The Gemara asks: bIf so,with regard to bthe twenty-ninthof Adar btoo, whystate bspecificallythat eulogizing is prohibited then bbecause it is the day before the day on which the daily offering was established? Let him derivethis prohibition from the fact bthat it is the day after the twenty-eighth ofAdar., bAs it is taughtin iMegillat Ta’anit /i: bOn the twenty-eighth ofAdar bgood tidings came to the Jews, that they would not be restricted from Torahstudy, and they declared this date a commemorative day. The ibaraitaproceeds to describe the events of this day. bAs on one occasion the wicked empire,Rome, bissued a decree of apostasy against the Jews, that they may not occupy themselves with Torahstudy, band that they may not circumcise their sons, and that they must desecrate Shabbat.What did bYehuda ben Shammua and his colleagues do? They went and soughtthe badvice of a certainRoman bmatron [ imatronita /i] whosecompany was kept bby all the prominentpeople bof Rome. /b, bShe said to them: Arise and cry out [ ihafginu /i] at night. They went and cried out at night, saying: O Heaven! Are we not brothers? Are we not children of one father? Are we notthe bchildren of one mother? How are we different from any other nation and tongue that yousingle us out and bissue against us evil decrees?Their cries were effective, bandthe authorities bannulledthe decrees, band they made that daya commemorative bholiday. /b,§ Since the twenty-eighth of Adar is also a commemorative day, according to the opinion of Rabbi Yosei, it is also prohibited to fast on the following day. The question therefore remains: Why was it necessary to list the New Moon of Nisan, when the day before was already prohibited? bAbaye said: It is necessaryto include the New Moon of Nisan bonly forthe case of ba full,thirty-day bmonth.If the month of Adar is thirty days long, fasting on the thirtieth day would be prohibited only because it is the day preceding the New Moon, not because it follows the twenty-eighth of Adar., bRav Ashi said: Evenif byou saythat we are dealing bwith a deficient month,with twenty-nine days, the inclusion of the New Moon of Nisan can still be explained. The reason is that with regard to balldays bthat followthe dates listed in iMegillat Ta’anit /i, bfasting is prohibited but eulogizing is permitted. Butin bthiscase, bsincethe twenty-ninth of Adar bis positioned between twocommemorative bholidays,the twenty-eighth of Adar and the New Moon of Nisan, the Sages bmade it likea commemorative bholiday in its own right, andit is therefore bprohibited even to eulogizeon this date.,§ bThe Master saidabove, in iMegillat Ta’anit /i: bFrom the eighth ofNisan buntil the end of the festivalof Passover, bthe festival of iShavuotwas restored,and it was decreed bnot to eulogizeduring this period. The Gemara asks: bWhy do Ineed it bto say: From the eighth ofNisan? bLetthe itanna bsay: From the ninth ofNisan, band the eighth itselfwill still be prohibited because, basstated earlier, bit is the day on which the daily offering was established. /b,The Gemara answers: bSince ifa calamitous bevent happened and they canceled the sevendays commemorating the establishment of the daily offering, bthe eighthday bitselfwill remain bprohibited, as it is the first day on which the festival of iShavuotwas restored.Since this date is not merely the last of the series for the daily offering, but it also commemorates the restoration of iShavuot /i, it is not affected by the cancellation of the previous seven days.,The Gemara notes: bNow that you have arrived at thisconclusion, the same logic can be applied to bthe twenty-ninthof Adar bas well: Since ifa calamitous bevent happened and they canceledthe commemoration of bthe twenty-eighthof Adar, nevertheless, bthe twenty-ninthday bitselfwill remain bprohibited, as it is the first day on which the daily offering was established. /b, bIt was statedthat there is a dispute between iamora’im /i: bRav Ḥiyya bar Asi saidthat bRav said: The ihalakhais in accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Yosei,that with regard to all the days mentioned in iMegillat Ta’aniton which eulogizing is prohibited, it is likewise prohibited to eulogize on the day before and the day after. bAnd Shmuel said: The ihalakhais in accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Meir,the itannaof the unattributed mishna, who said that although it is prohibited to eulogize on the day before, it is permitted on the day after.,The Gemara asks: bAnd did Shmuelactually bsay this? But isn’t ittaught in a ibaraitathat bRabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: And whatis the meaning when iMegillat Ta’anit bstates: On them, on them, twice,in the phrases: Not to eulogize on them, and: Not to fast on them. This phrase is repeated bto say to youthat fasting and eulogizing bon thesedays themselves bis prohibited,but on the days bbeforeand on the bfollowingdays it is bpermitted. And Shmuel said: The ihalakhais in accordance withthe opinion of bRabban Shimon ben Gamliel.How, then, can it be said that Shmuel ruled in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Meir?,The Gemara answers: bInitially,Shmuel bmaintainedthat bsince there is noother itannaas lenient as Rabbi Meir, he saidthat bthe ihalakhais in accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Meir. When he heard thatthe opinion of bRabban Shimonben Gamliel bwas more lenient,he said that bthe ihalakhais in accordance withthe opinion of bRabban Shimon ben Gamliel.Shmuel consistently ruled in the most lenient manner possible on this issue., bAnd similarly,the Sage bBali saidthat bRabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba saidthat bRabbi Yoḥa said: The ihalakhais in accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Yosei.The Gemara relates that bRabbi Ḥiyyabar Abba bsaid to Bali: I will explainthis ruling bto you. When Rabbi Yoḥa saidthat bthe ihalakhais in accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Yosei,he was not referring to all matters. Rather, he spoke specifically bwith regard tothe day before those dates concerning which iMegillat Ta’anitsaid: bFasting is prohibited.However, with regard to those days on which it is prohibited to eulogize, he did not rule in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yosei, as Rabbi Yoḥa maintains that eulogizing on the following day is permitted.,The Gemara asks: bAnd did Rabbi Yoḥaactually bsay this? But didn’t Rabbi Yoḥa sayas a principle that bthe ihalakha /iis always in accordance with ban unattributed mishna. And we learnedin a mishna: bAlthoughthe Sages bsaid,with regard to reading of the Scroll of Esther, that bonemay read it bearlier but onemay bnotread it blater, /b
49. Babylonian Talmud, Yevamot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

50. Babylonian Talmud, Yoma, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

69a. וסיפא איצטריכא ליה פושטין ומקפלין ומניחין תחת ראשיהם,פושטין ומקפלין ומניחין אותן תחת ראשיהן שמעת מינה בגדי כהונה ניתנו ליהנות בהן אמר רב פפא לא תימא תחת ראשיהן אלא אימא כנגד ראשיהן אמר רב משרשיא שמעת מינה תפילין מן הצד שפיר דמי,הכי נמי מסתברא דכנגד ראשיהן דאי סלקא דעתך תחת ראשיהן ותיפוק לי משום כלאים דהא איכא אבנט ונהי נמי דניתנו ליהנות בהן הא מתהני מכלאים,הניחא למ"ד אבנטו של כהן גדול (בשאר ימות השנה) זה הוא אבנטו של כהן הדיוט אלא למאן דאמר אבנטו של כ"ג לא זה הוא אבנטו של כהן הדיוט מאי איכא למימר,וכי תימא כלאים בלבישה והעלאה הוא דאסור בהצעה שרי והתניא (ויקרא יט, יט) לא יעלה עליך אבל אתה מותר להציעו תחתיך אבל אמרו חכמים אסור לעשות כן שמא תיכרך נימא אחת על בשרו,וכ"ת דמפסיק ליה מידי ביני ביני והאמר ר"ש בן פזי אמר ר' יהושע בן לוי אמר רבי משום קהלא קדישא שבירושלים אפי' עשר מצעות זו על גב זו וכלאים תחתיהן אסור לישן עליהן אלא לאו שמע מינה כנגד ראשיהן שמע מינה,רב אשי אמר לעולם תחת ראשיהן והא קא מתהני מכלאים בגדי כהונה קשין הן כי הא דאמר רב הונא בריה דר' יהושע האי נמטא גמדא דנרש שריא,ת"ש בגדי כהונה היוצא בהן למדינה אסור ובמקדש בין בשעת עבודה בין שלא בשעת עבודה מותר מפני שבגדי כהונה ניתנו ליהנות בהן ש"מ,ובמדינה לא והתניא בעשרים וחמשה [בטבת] יום הר גרזים [הוא] דלא למספד,יום שבקשו כותיים את בית אלהינו מאלכסנדרוס מוקדון להחריבו ונתנו להם באו והודיעו את שמעון הצדיק מה עשה לבש בגדי כהונה ונתעטף בבגדי כהונה ומיקירי ישראל עמו ואבוקות של אור בידיהן וכל הלילה הללו הולכים מצד זה והללו הולכים מצד זה עד שעלה עמוד השחר,כיון שעלה עמוד השחר אמר להם מי הללו אמרו לו יהודים שמרדו בך כיון שהגיע לאנטיפטרס זרחה חמה ופגעו זה בזה כיון שראה לשמעון הצדיק ירד ממרכבתו והשתחוה לפניו אמרו לו מלך גדול כמותך ישתחוה ליהודי זה אמר להם דמות דיוקנו של זה מנצחת לפני בבית מלחמתי,אמר להם למה באתם אמרו אפשר בית שמתפללים בו עליך ועל מלכותך שלא תחרב יתעוך עובדי כוכבים להחריבו אמר להם מי הללו אמרו לו כותיים הללו שעומדים לפניך אמר להם הרי הם מסורין בידיכם,מיד נקבום בעקביהם ותלאום בזנבי סוסיהם והיו מגררין אותן על הקוצים ועל הברקנים עד שהגיעו להר גרזים כיון שהגיעו להר גריזים חרשוהו וזרעוהו כרשינין כדרך שבקשו לעשות לבית אלהינו ואותו היום עשאוהו יו"ט,אי בעית אימא ראויין לבגדי כהונה ואי בעית אימא (תהלים קיט, קכו) עת לעשות לה' הפרו תורתך,חזן הכנסת נוטל ספר תורה ש"מ חולקין כבוד לתלמיד במקום הרב אמר אביי כולה משום כבודו דכ"ג היא,וכהן גדול עומד מכלל שהוא יושב והא אנן תנן 69a. That mishna’s teaching highlighting the prohibition to sleep in priestly vestments bis needed for the latter clauseof that mishna, which states: bThey removetheir priestly vestments band fold them and place them under their heads.Since they are allowed to sleep on them, it must be emphasized that they may not sleep while wearing them.,The Gemara considers resolving the dilemma from the latter clause: bThey removetheir priestly vestments band fold them and place them under their heads.The Gemara suggests: bLearn from thisthat bit is permitted to derive benefit from priestly vestments. Rav Pappa said: Do not saythat the mishna means they may actually place the vestments bunder their headsas a pillow; brather, saythat the mishna permits the vestments to be placed only bnext to their heads. Rav Mesharshiyya said:Given this understanding of that mishna, one can blearn from herethat one who places bphylacteries to the sideof his head when he sleeps has done bwell;there is no concern that he will turn over in his sleep and lie upon them., bSo too, it is reasonableto say bthatthe mishna permits the vestments to be placed only bnext to their headsand not under their heads; bas, if it could enter your mindto say that the mishna permits the vestments to be placed bunder their heads, and I would derivethat it is prohibited bdue tothe fact the priestly vestments contain a forbidden mixture of bdiverse kinds, asamong them bthere isthe bbelt,which is woven from a mixture of wool and linen. bAnd even ifit is assumed bthat it is permitted to derive benefit frompriestly vestments, it would still be prohibited to lie upon them because by doing so the priests would be bderiving benefit froma garment made of bdiverse kinds. /b,The Gemara elaborates on the preceding argument: If one claims that the mishna permits priests to sleep upon their vestments, bit works out well according to the one who said: The belt of the High Priestworn on Yom Kippur, which does not contain diverse kinds, bis the same as the belt of a common priest.According to this view, the common priest’s belt does not contain diverse kinds, and therefore it may be permitted for a priest to sleep upon it. bHowever, according to the one who saidthat bthe High Priest’s belton Yom Kippur bis not the same as the belt of a common priest,and that the belt of the common priest is made of diverse kinds, bwhat is there to say?How could the mishna possibly permit priests to sleep upon their vestments?, bAnd if you saythat with regard to the prohibition of bdiverse kindsonly bwearingor bplacingthe garment bupon oneself is prohibited, but spreading them outand lying upon them on bis permitted,and as such it should be permitted for the priests to sleep upon their vestments, this is incorrect. As, bwasn’t it taughtin a ibaraitathat the verse states: b“Neither shall there come upon youa garment of diverse kinds”(Leviticus 19:19), which implies: bBut you are permitted to spread it beneath youto lie upon. This is true according to Torah law, bbut the Sages said: It is prohibited to do so, lest a fiber wrap upon his flesh,which would lead to the transgression of the Torah prohibition., bAnd if you saythat a priest could still avoid the prohibition of diverse kinds by bplacing a separation betweenhimself and the belt containing diverse kinds, bdidn’t Rabbi Shimon ben Pazi saythat bRabbi Yehoshua ben Levi saidthat bRabbiYehuda HaNasi bsaid in the name of the holy community in Jerusalem: Evenif there are bten mattressespiled bone atop the other anda garment of bdiverse kindsis placed bunderneath themall, bit is prohibited to sleep upon them?This is because the rabbinic decree is applied equally to all cases irrespective of whether the original concern exists. Therefore, there can be no way for the priests to sleep upon the vestments without transgressing the prohibition of diverse kinds. bRather,must one bnot conclude fromthe preceding discussion that the mishna permits the vestments to be placed only bnext to their heads?The Gemara concludes: bLearn from itthat this is indeed so., bRav Ashi said: Actually,the mishna may be understood as permitting the vestments to be placed bunder their heads.One should not object that by doing so the priests would be bderiving benefit froma garment made of bdiverse kindsbecause bpriestly vestments,and specifically the belt, bare stiff,and therefore the prohibition of diverse kinds does not apply to them. This is bin accordance with thatwhich bRav Huna, son of Rabbi Yehoshua, said: This stiff felt [ inamta /i],made of diverse kinds, that is produced binthe city of bNeresh, is permitted,since a stiff object does not wrap around the body to provide warmth, and therefore the person wearing is not considered to have derived benefit from it.,Since the mishna’s intention is uncertain, it cannot provide a clear proof for the dilemma of whether it is permitted to derive benefit from priestly vestments. The Gemara therefore suggests another proof: bComeand bhearan explicit ibaraitaconcerning this issue: With regard to bpriestly vestments, it is prohibited to go out to the country,i.e., outside the Temple, while bwearing them, but in the Temple it is permittedfor the priests to wear them, bwhether during theTemple bservice or not during the service, due tothe fact bthat it is permitted to derive benefit from priestly vestments. Learn from thisthat it is indeed permitted.,§ The ibaraitataught that the priestly vestments may not be worn outside the Temple. The Gemara challenges this: Is it really bnotpermitted to wear priestly vestments bin the country? Wasn’t it taughtin another ibaraita /i, in iMegillat Ta’anit /i: bThe twenty-fifth of Tevetis known as bthe day of Mount Gerizim,which was established as a joyful day, and therefore beulogizingis bnotpermitted.,What occurred on that date? It was on that bday that the Samaritans [ ikutim /i] requested the House of our Lord from Alexander the Macedonian in order to destroy it, and he gave it to them,i.e., he gave them permission to destroy it. People bcame and informedthe High Priest, bShimon HaTzaddik,of what had transpired. bWhat did he do? He donned the priestly vestments and wrapped himself in the priestly vestments. And the nobles of the Jewish Peoplewere bwith him,with btorches of fire in their hands. And all that night, these,the representatives of the Jewish people, bapproached from this side, and those,the armies of Alexander and the Samaritans, bapproached from that side, until dawn,when they finally saw one another., bWhen dawn arrived,Alexander bsaid tothe Samaritans: bWho are thesepeople coming to meet us? bThey said to him:These are the bJews who rebelled against you. When he reached Antipatris, the sun shone andthe two camps bmet each other. WhenAlexander bsaw Shimon HaTzaddik, he descended from his chariot and bowed before him.His escorts bsaid to him:Should ban important king such as you bow to this Jew?He bsaid to them:I do so because bthe image of this man’s face is victorious before me on my battlefields,i.e., when I fight I see his image going before me as a sign of victory, and therefore I know that he has supreme sanctity., bHe saidto the representatives of the Jewish people: bWhy have you come? They saidto him: bIs it possible thatthe Temple, the bhouse in which we pray for you and for your kingdom not to be destroyed, gentiles willtry to bmislead you into destroying it,and we would remain silent and not tell you? bHe said to them: Who are thesepeople who want to destroy it? The Jews bsaid to him:They are bthese Samaritans who stand before you. He said to them:If so, bthey are delivered into your handsto deal with them as you please., bImmediately, they stabbedthe Samaritans bin their heels and hung them from their horses’ tails and continued to drag them over the thorns and thistles until they reached Mount Gerizim. When they arrived at Mount Gerizim,where the Samaritans had their temple, bthey plowed it over and seededthe area bwith leeks,a symbol of total destruction. This was bjust as they had sought to do to the House of our Lord. And they made that day a festivalto celebrate the salvation of the Temple and the defeat of the Samaritans.,It is apparent from the ibaraitathat Shimon HaTzaddik wore the priestly vestments even outside the Temple. This would seem to be in contravention of the ruling of the other ibaraitaprohibiting this. The Gemara resolves the contradiction: bIf you wish, sayShimon HaTzaddik did not wear a set of genuine, sanctified priestly vestments; rather, he wore garments that were bfitting to be priestly vestmentsin that they were made of the same material and design. bAnd if you wish, sayinstead that he indeed wore a set of genuine priestly vestments, but in times of great need, such as when one seeks to prevent the destruction of the Temple, it is permitted to violate the ihalakha /i, as indicated by the verse: b“It is time to act for the Lord, they have nullified your Torah”(Psalms 119:126).,§ It was taught in the mishna: bThe synagogue attendant takes a Torah scrolland gives it to the head of the synagogue, who gives it to the deputy High Priest, who gives it to the High Priest. The Gemara suggests: bLearn from herethat bhonor may be given to a student in the presence of the teacher.Although the High Priest is considered everyone’s teacher and master, honor was nevertheless extended to other individuals without fear of impugning the High Priest’s honor. bAbaye said:A proof may not be adduced from here because bthe entireprocess bis for the honor of the High Priest.The passing of the Torah scroll to people of increasing importance demonstrates that the High Priest is considered the most important of all those present.,§ It was further taught in the mishna: bThe High Priest standsand receives the scroll from the Deputy. bBy inference,until that point bhehad been bsitting. But didn’t we learnin a mishna:
51. Anon., Leges Publicae, None

52. Anon., Sifre Zuta Deuteronomy, 346

53. Papyri, P.Murabba'T, 20, 19

54. Papyri, P.Yadin, 10

55. Papyri, Cpj, 128



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
achaeminid empire Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 196
adornment Rosen-Zvi, The Mishnaic Sotah Ritual: Temple, Gender and Midrash (2012) 80
adultery Rosen-Zvi, The Mishnaic Sotah Ritual: Temple, Gender and Midrash (2012) 80
aha, r. Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 196
akiba, r. Ben-Eliyahu, Identity and Territory: Jewish Perceptions of Space in Antiquity (2019) 26
akiva, r. Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 90, 196
alexander the great Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 171
alexandria Eckhardt, Jewish Identity and Politics Between the Maccabees and Bar Kokhba: Groups, Normativity, and Rituals (2011) 25
amoraic midrash Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 193
ancient halakha Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 90
apocalyptic(ism) (see also dualism) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 318
aramaic Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 318
archaeology, arch(a)eological Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 78
arsacid empire Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 196
babylonia Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 196
babylonian, halakha/tradition Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 171, 196
banquets Keener, First-Second Corinthians (2005) 91
baroqa, rabbi Rubenstein, The Land of Truth: Talmud Tales, Timeless Teachings (2018) 185
beit lapat Rubenstein, The Land of Truth: Talmud Tales, Timeless Teachings (2018) 185
bendavid, a. Segal, The Babylonian Esther Midrash: To the end of Esther chapter 1 (1994) 237
breasts Rosen-Zvi, The Mishnaic Sotah Ritual: Temple, Gender and Midrash (2012) 80
chajes, z. Segal, The Babylonian Esther Midrash: To the end of Esther chapter 1 (1994) 237
conflict, of jews and christians (parting of the ways) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 193
contract Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 164
cosmetics Rosen-Zvi, The Mishnaic Sotah Ritual: Temple, Gender and Midrash (2012) 80
dat Segal, The Babylonian Esther Midrash: To the end of Esther chapter 1 (1994) 237
decrees, eighteen Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 164
diaspora Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 318
disputes, schools (of shammai and hillel) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 90
divorce, law/halakha Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 78, 90
divorce Rubenstein, The Land of Truth: Talmud Tales, Timeless Teachings (2018) 185
divorce bill Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 78, 164
edomite (cf idumaean) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 196
egypt, egyptian Eckhardt, Jewish Identity and Politics Between the Maccabees and Bar Kokhba: Groups, Normativity, and Rituals (2011) 25
elijah ben solomon (gaon of vilna) Segal, The Babylonian Esther Midrash: To the end of Esther chapter 1 (1994) 237
elijah the prophet Rubenstein, The Land of Truth: Talmud Tales, Timeless Teachings (2018) 185
exception clause Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 90
eṣ yosef (by rabbi henokh zundel b. joseph) Segal, The Babylonian Esther Midrash: To the end of Esther chapter 1 (1994) 237
galilee Ben-Eliyahu, Identity and Territory: Jewish Perceptions of Space in Antiquity (2019) 26
gender, mishna ideology of Hayes, The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning (2022) 191
gentile Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 164, 196
gentiles Ben-Eliyahu, Identity and Territory: Jewish Perceptions of Space in Antiquity (2019) 26; Rubenstein, The Land of Truth: Talmud Tales, Timeless Teachings (2018) 185
greek, language Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 318
grounds for divorce Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 78, 90
hai gaon Eckhardt, Jewish Identity and Politics Between the Maccabees and Bar Kokhba: Groups, Normativity, and Rituals (2011) 25
hair covering Rosen-Zvi, The Mishnaic Sotah Ritual: Temple, Gender and Midrash (2012) 77, 80
hair loosening of Rosen-Zvi, The Mishnaic Sotah Ritual: Temple, Gender and Midrash (2012) 77
hasmoneans (dynasty, period) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 193
hate, divorce Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 78
haupt, p. Segal, The Babylonian Esther Midrash: To the end of Esther chapter 1 (1994) 237
head coverings Keener, First-Second Corinthians (2005) 91
hebrew (language) Eckhardt, Jewish Identity and Politics Between the Maccabees and Bar Kokhba: Groups, Normativity, and Rituals (2011) 25
hebrew language Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 164, 318
hellenism, hellenistic Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 318
helleno-centrism Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 318
hillel the elder Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 90
historiography Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 318
house of study Rubenstein, The Land of Truth: Talmud Tales, Timeless Teachings (2018) 185
houses of study Ben-Eliyahu, Identity and Territory: Jewish Perceptions of Space in Antiquity (2019) 26
idolatry Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 164, 171
independent vs. edited parallels, mishna/tosefta parallels Hayes, The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning (2022) 191, 192
ioudaios Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 193, 196
israel, land of Ben-Eliyahu, Identity and Territory: Jewish Perceptions of Space in Antiquity (2019) 26
israel, nation Ben-Eliyahu, Identity and Territory: Jewish Perceptions of Space in Antiquity (2019) 26
jacob Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 196
jailer Rubenstein, The Land of Truth: Talmud Tales, Timeless Teachings (2018) 185
jesus (christ) (see also yeshu) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 90
judah Ben-Eliyahu, Identity and Territory: Jewish Perceptions of Space in Antiquity (2019) 26
ketuba Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 90, 164
kinnuy, as exclusion Rosen-Zvi, The Mishnaic Sotah Ritual: Temple, Gender and Midrash (2012) 34, 35
lilith Rosen-Zvi, The Mishnaic Sotah Ritual: Temple, Gender and Midrash (2012) 34
manner of jewish women Rosen-Zvi, The Mishnaic Sotah Ritual: Temple, Gender and Midrash (2012) 80
market Rubenstein, The Land of Truth: Talmud Tales, Timeless Teachings (2018) 185; Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 90
marriage Rubenstein, The Land of Truth: Talmud Tales, Timeless Teachings (2018) 185
marriage (see also divorce) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 78, 164, 171, 193
marriage contracts (ketubot) Eckhardt, Jewish Identity and Politics Between the Maccabees and Bar Kokhba: Groups, Normativity, and Rituals (2011) 25
matrimonial formulae Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 196
meir, r. Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 90
midrash Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 90, 171, 193, 318
mishna, and tosefta Hayes, The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning (2022) 191, 192
mishna, ideology Hayes, The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning (2022) 191
mishna, redactional intention Hayes, The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning (2022) 191, 192
mishnah Rubenstein, The Land of Truth: Talmud Tales, Timeless Teachings (2018) 185
modesty Rubenstein, The Land of Truth: Talmud Tales, Timeless Teachings (2018) 185
moore, c. Segal, The Babylonian Esther Midrash: To the end of Esther chapter 1 (1994) 237
moses Eckhardt, Jewish Identity and Politics Between the Maccabees and Bar Kokhba: Groups, Normativity, and Rituals (2011) 25; Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 164, 318
mourning Rosen-Zvi, The Mishnaic Sotah Ritual: Temple, Gender and Midrash (2012) 34, 72
nazirite Rosen-Zvi, The Mishnaic Sotah Ritual: Temple, Gender and Midrash (2012) 77
nudity Rosen-Zvi, The Mishnaic Sotah Ritual: Temple, Gender and Midrash (2012) 72
palestinian Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 193
parallels (inner-rabbinic), as edited vs. independent Hayes, The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning (2022) 191
paranoia Rosen-Zvi, The Mishnaic Sotah Ritual: Temple, Gender and Midrash (2012) 28
paton, l. Segal, The Babylonian Esther Midrash: To the end of Esther chapter 1 (1994) 237
paul (saul) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 193, 318
persia and persians, emperor of Rubenstein, The Land of Truth: Talmud Tales, Timeless Teachings (2018) 185
persia and persians, in province of uzestan Rubenstein, The Land of Truth: Talmud Tales, Timeless Teachings (2018) 185
persian empire/period Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 318
persian language/thought/culture Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 318
philo Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 78, 193
pisidia, christians, women Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 499
porneia (zenut, unchastity) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 90
promiscuity Rosen-Zvi, The Mishnaic Sotah Ritual: Temple, Gender and Midrash (2012) 80
prostitute, prostitution Rosen-Zvi, The Mishnaic Sotah Ritual: Temple, Gender and Midrash (2012) 80
purity (see also food laws) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 164, 171
rabbinic literature, tannaitic Ben-Eliyahu, Identity and Territory: Jewish Perceptions of Space in Antiquity (2019) 26
rashi (rabbi solomon b. isaac) Segal, The Babylonian Esther Midrash: To the end of Esther chapter 1 (1994) 237
rava Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 171
redaction, final vs. dynamic Hayes, The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning (2022) 192
redaction, intention in Hayes, The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning (2022) 191, 192
redaction/writing of mishna Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 90, 164
religious value of, market and Rubenstein, The Land of Truth: Talmud Tales, Timeless Teachings (2018) 185
revolt/war, under nero (great ~) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 164
righteousness and the righteous Rubenstein, The Land of Truth: Talmud Tales, Timeless Teachings (2018) 185
roman, period Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 164
rome, women Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 499
sabbatical cycle, year Ben-Eliyahu, Identity and Territory: Jewish Perceptions of Space in Antiquity (2019) 26
sacrifices Segal, The Babylonian Esther Midrash: To the end of Esther chapter 1 (1994) 237
salome Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 499
samaria Ben-Eliyahu, Identity and Territory: Jewish Perceptions of Space in Antiquity (2019) 26
sassanid dynasty/empire Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 196
semiotics Rosen-Zvi, The Mishnaic Sotah Ritual: Temple, Gender and Midrash (2012) 80
sexuality Rosen-Zvi, The Mishnaic Sotah Ritual: Temple, Gender and Midrash (2012) 28, 34
shame Rosen-Zvi, The Mishnaic Sotah Ritual: Temple, Gender and Midrash (2012) 72
shammai, school Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 90
shammai (see also subject index) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 78, 90, 164
shimon the righteous Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 171
social status Keener, First-Second Corinthians (2005) 91
socially significant/\u2009distinct Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 196
synagogue Ben-Eliyahu, Identity and Territory: Jewish Perceptions of Space in Antiquity (2019) 26; Rosen-Zvi, The Mishnaic Sotah Ritual: Temple, Gender and Midrash (2012) 72; Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 171
syria Ben-Eliyahu, Identity and Territory: Jewish Perceptions of Space in Antiquity (2019) 26
tannaic midrash Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 193
tannaim (early rabbis), tannaic Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 171
tertullian Rosen-Zvi, The Mishnaic Sotah Ritual: Temple, Gender and Midrash (2012) 80
the public Rubenstein, The Land of Truth: Talmud Tales, Timeless Teachings (2018) 185
tora (see also pentateuch) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 78
tosefta, as opponent and companion to mishna Hayes, The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning (2022) 192
tosefta, redaction Hayes, The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning (2022) 192
transjordan Ben-Eliyahu, Identity and Territory: Jewish Perceptions of Space in Antiquity (2019) 26
women, church Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 499
women, curses on Rosen-Zvi, The Mishnaic Sotah Ritual: Temple, Gender and Midrash (2012) 34
women, misogyny Rosen-Zvi, The Mishnaic Sotah Ritual: Temple, Gender and Midrash (2012) 34
women, position of Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 78, 90
women, roman Rosen-Zvi, The Mishnaic Sotah Ritual: Temple, Gender and Midrash (2012) 80
women, seating, synagogue' Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 499
world to come Rubenstein, The Land of Truth: Talmud Tales, Timeless Teachings (2018) 185
yavneh Ben-Eliyahu, Identity and Territory: Jewish Perceptions of Space in Antiquity (2019) 26
yehuda ha-nasi, r. Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 164
yehuda ha-nasi (rabbi), as compiler of mishna Hayes, The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning (2022) 192
yehuda nesia, r. Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 164
yehudah ha- nasi, rabbi Rubenstein, The Land of Truth: Talmud Tales, Timeless Teachings (2018) 185
yohanan (ben nappaha), r. Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 171
zealot, zealots Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 164
ḥanin Segal, The Babylonian Esther Midrash: To the end of Esther chapter 1 (1994) 237
ḥeinemann, i. Segal, The Babylonian Esther Midrash: To the end of Esther chapter 1 (1994) 237