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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



8012
Mishnah, Ketuvot, 7.5


הַמַּדִּיר אֶת אִשְׁתּוֹ שֶׁלֹּא תֵלֵךְ לְבֵית הָאֵבֶל אוֹ לְבֵית הַמִּשְׁתֶּה, יוֹצִיא וְיִתֵּן כְּתֻבָּה, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁנּוֹעֵל בְּפָנֶיהָ. וְאִם הָיָה טוֹעֵן מִשּׁוּם דָּבָר אַחֵר, רַשָּׁאי. אָמַר לָהּ, עַל מְנָת שֶׁתֹּאמְרִי לִפְלוֹנִי מַה שֶּׁאָמַרְתְּ לִי אוֹ מַה שֶּׁאָמַרְתִּי לָךְ, אוֹ שֶׁתְּהֵא מְמַלְּאָה וּמְעָרָה לָאַשְׁפָּה, יוֹצִיא וְיִתֵּן כְּתֻבָּה:If a man forbade his wife by vow from visiting a house of mourning or a house of feasting, he must divorce her and give her the ketubah, because he has closed [peoples doors] against her. If he claims [that his vow] was due to some other cause he is permitted [to forbid her]. If he said to her: “[There shall be no prohibition] provided you tell so-and-so what you have told me” or “what I have told you” or “that you will fill and pour out in the garbage”, he must divorce her and give her the ketubah.


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9 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 24.29 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

24.29. וּלְרִבְקָה אָח וּשְׁמוֹ לָבָן וַיָּרָץ לָבָן אֶל־הָאִישׁ הַחוּצָה אֶל־הָעָיִן׃ 24.29. And Rebekah had a brother, and his name was Laban; and Laban ran out unto the man, unto the fountain."
2. Philo of Alexandria, On The Special Laws, 3.169 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

3.169. Market places, and council chambers, and courts of justice, and large companies and assemblies of numerous crowds, and a life in the open air full of arguments and actions relating to war and peace, are suited to men; but taking care of the house and remaining at home are the proper duties of women; the virgins having their apartments in the centre of the house within the innermost doors, and the full-grown women not going beyond the vestibule and outer courts;
3. Mishnah, Ketuvot, 7.1, 7.3-7.4, 7.6, 7.10 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

7.1. If a man forbade his wife by vow to have any benefit from him, for thirty days, he may appoint a provider, but if for a longer period he must divorce her and give her the ketubah. Rabbi Judah ruled: if he was an Israelite he may keep her [as his wife, if the vow was] for one month, but must divorce her and give her the ketubah [if it was for] two months. If he was a priest he may keep her [as his wife, if the vow was] for two months, but must divorce her and give her the ketubah [if it was for] three." 7.3. If a man forbade his wife by vow that she should not adorn herself with any type of adornment he must divorce her and give her the ketubah. Rabbi Yose says: [this refers] to poor women if no time limit is given, and to rich women [if the time limit is] thirty days." 7.4. If a man forbade his wife by vow that she may not go to her father’s house: --When the father lives with her in the same town, the husband may retain [her as his wife, if the prohibition was for] one month; but if for two months he must divorce her and give her the ketubah. --When the father lives in another town, the husband may retain [her as his wife, if the prohibition was for] one festival, but if for three festivals, he must divorce her and give her the ketubah." 7.6. These leave [their marriage] without their ketubah: A wife who transgresses the law of Moses or Jewish law. And what is the law of Moses? Feeding her husband with untithed food, having intercourse with him while in the period of her menstruation, not separating dough offering, or making vows and not fulfilling them. And what is Jewish practice? Going out with her head uncovered, spinning wool in the marketplace or conversing with every man. Abba Shaul says: also one who curses her husband’s parents in his presence. Rabbi Tarfon says: also one who has a loud voice. And who is regarded as one who has a loud voice? A woman whose voice can be heard by her neighbors when she speaks inside her house." 7.10. These are the ones who are forced to divorce [their wives]: one who is afflicted with boils, one who has a polypus, a gatherer [of dog feces for the treatment of hides], a coppersmith or a tanner whether they were [in such a condition] before they married or whether they arose after they had married. And concerning all these Rabbi Meir said: although the man made a condition with her [that she accept him despite these defects] she may nevertheless say, “I thought I could accept him, but now I cannot accept him.” The Sages say: she must accept [such a person] against her will, the only exception being a man afflicted with boils, because she [by her intercourse] will enervate him. It once happened at Sidon that a tanner died, and he had a brother who was also a tanner. The Sages said: she may say, “I was able to accept your brother but I cannot accept you.”"
4. Tosefta, Ketuvot, 7.6 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

7.6. All of these women that transgressed custom need [a formal, legal] warning [in order to] go out without the ketubah. If they were not warned, he sends her out and pays her ketubah—and they don't need to [this about] say 200 for a virgin or 100 for a non-virgin [that of course if she leaves without her ketubah she doesn't get this money], but even more than this, even if her ketubah is 100 maneh, she can lose it all and receive only the rags that she can find in front of her."
5. Tosefta, Sotah, 5.9 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

6. Babylonian Talmud, Bava Qamma, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

82a. והא כי אתא ר' אבין א"ר יוחנן אחד אילן הנוטה לתוך שדה חבירו ואחד אילן הסמוך למצר מביא וקורא שעל מנת כן הנחיל יהושע לישראל את הארץ,אלא מאן תנא עשרה תנאין שהתנה יהושע ר' יהושע בן לוי הוא רב גביהה מבי כתיל מתני לה בהדיא ר' תנחום ור' ברייס אמרי משום זקן אחד ומנו ר' יהושע בן לוי עשרה תנאין התנה יהושע:,עשרה תקנות תיקן עזרא שקורין במנחה בשבת וקורין בשני ובחמישי ודנין בשני ובחמישי ומכבסים בחמישי בשבת ואוכלין שום בערב שבת ושתהא אשה משכמת ואופה ושתהא אשה חוגרת בסינר ושתהא אשה חופפת וטובלת ושיהו רוכלין מחזירין בעיירות ותיקן טבילה לבעלי קריין:,שיהו קוראין במנחה בשבת משום יושבי קרנות:,ושיהו קוראין בשני ובחמישי עזרא תיקן והא מעיקרא הוה מיתקנא דתניא (שמות טו, כב) וילכו שלשת ימים במדבר ולא מצאו מים דורשי רשומות אמרו אין מים אלא תורה שנאמר (ישעיהו נה, א) הוי כל צמא לכו למים,כיון שהלכו שלשת ימים בלא תורה נלאו עמדו נביאים שביניהם ותיקנו להם שיהו קורין בשבת ומפסיקין באחד בשבת וקורין בשני ומפסיקין שלישי ורביעי וקורין בחמישי ומפסיקין ערב שבת כדי שלא ילינו ג' ימים בלא תורה,מעיקרא תקנו חד גברא תלתא פסוקי אי נמי תלתא גברי תלתא פסוקי כנגד כהנים לוים וישראלים אתא הוא תיקן תלתא גברי ועשרה פסוקי כנגד עשרה בטלנין:,ודנין בשני ובחמישי דשכיחי דאתו למקרא בסיפרא:,ושיהו מכבסין בחמישי בשבת משום כבוד שבת:,ושיהו אוכלין שום בע"ש משום עונה דכתיב (תהלים א, ג) אשר פריו יתן בעתו וא"ר יהודה ואיתימא רב נחמן ואיתימא רב כהנא ואיתימא ר' יוחנן זה המשמש מטתו מע"ש לע"ש,ת"ר חמשה דברים נאמרו בשום משביע ומשחין ומצהיל פנים ומרבה הזרע והורג כנים שבבני מעיים וי"א מכניס אהבה ומוציא את הקנאה:,ושתהא אשה משכמת ואופה כדי שתהא פת מצויה לעניים:,ושתהא אשה חוגרת בסינר משום צניעותא:,ושתהא אשה חופפת וטובלת דאורייתא היא,דתניא (ויקרא יד, ט) ורחץ את בשרו במים שלא יהא דבר חוצץ בין בשרו למים את בשרו את הטפל לבשרו ומאי ניהו שער,אמרי דאורייתא לעיוני דלמא מיקטר אי נמי מאוס מידי משום חציצה 82a. The Gemara further questions the number of Joshua’s stipulations: bBut when Rabbi Avin camefrom Eretz Yisrael he said that bRabbi Yoḥa says:With regard to bboth a tree that leans into the field of another and a tree that is close to a boundarywith another field, the owner of the tree bbringsthe first fruits of the tree band recitesthe accompanying declaration, as described in Deuteronomy 26:5–10, basit was bon this conditionthat bJoshua apportioned EretzYisrael bto the Jewish people.This is an additional stipulation by Joshua, which means that there are more than ten.,The Gemara answers: bRather, whois the one who btaughtthe ibaraitathat deals with the bten conditions that Joshua stipulated? It is Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi,an iamora /i. Therefore, Rabbi Yoḥa, another iamora /i, can disagree with it. bRav Geviha from Bei Katil teachesthis bexplicitlyin his version of the ibaraita /i: bRabbi Tanḥum and Rabbi Berayes say in the name of a certain elder, and who is thatelder? It is bRabbi Yehoshua ben Levi: Joshua stipulated ten conditions. /b,§ The Sages taught that bEzrathe Scribe binstituted ten ordices:He instituted bthatcommunities breadthe Torah bon Shabbat in the afternoon; and theyalso breadthe Torah bonevery bMonday and Thursday; andthe courts convene and bjudgeevery bMonday and Thursday; and one does laundry on Thursday; and one eats garlic on Shabbat eve. AndEzra further instituted bthat a woman should rise early and bakebread on those days when she wants to bake; band that a woman should don a breechcloth; and that a woman shouldfirst bcombher hair bandonly then bimmersein a ritual bath after being ritually impure; band that peddlersof cosmetics and perfumes bshould travel around throughall bthe towns. AndEzra further binstitutedthe requirement of bimmersion for those who experienced a seminal emission. /b,The Gemara analyzes these ordices, the first of which is bthatcommunities bshall readthe Torah bon Shabbat afternoon.This Gemara explains that this ordice was instituted bdue to those who sitidly on street bcorners,who do not attend the synagogue during the week.,The Gemara discusses the second of Ezra’s ordices: bAnd that they should readthe Torah bonevery bMonday and Thursday.The Gemara asks: bDid Ezra institutethis practice? bBut it was instituted from the beginning,i.e., long before his time. bAs it is taughtin a ibaraitawith regard to the verse: “And Moses led Israel onward from the Red Sea, and they went out into the wilderness of Shur; band they went three days in the wilderness, and found no water”(Exodus 15:22). bThose who interpret versesmetaphorically bsaidthat bwaterhere is referring to bnothing other than Torah, as it is statedmetaphorically, concerning those who desire wisdom: b“Ho, everyone who thirsts, come for water”(Isaiah 55:1).,The ibaraitacontinues: The verse means that bsincethe Jews btraveled for three days withouthearing any bTorah they became weary,and therefore the bprophets among them arose and instituted for them that they should readfrom the Torah each bShabbat, and pauseon bSunday, and readagain on bMonday, and pauseon bTuesday and Wednesday, and readagain on bThursday, and pauseon bShabbat eve, so they would not tarry three days withouthearing the bTorah.Evidently this practice predates Ezra.,The Gemara answers: bInitially they institutedthat bone manread bthree verses;or balternatively,that bthree menread bthree verses.Either way, the number three bcorresponds tothe three types of Jews: bPriests, Levites, and Israelites.Ezra later bcameand binstitutedthat bthree menalways read, bandthat bten versesaltogether be read by them, bcorresponding to the ten idlersin a city, i.e., the ten men who are paid to spend their time dealing with synagogue and communal matters.,The next ordice of Ezra is: bAndthe courts convene and bjudgeevery bMonday and Thursday.The Gemara explains that the reason for this ordice is bthatmany people are bfoundin a city on these days, bas they comefrom the countryside bfor the reading of theholy bbook,the Torah, which is performed on Mondays and Thursdays, as stated above.,The ibaraitateaches: bAnd that one should do laundry on Thursday.This was instituted bdue tothe need to have clean garments in bdeference to Shabbat. /b,The Gemara explains the next listed ordice: bAnd that one should eat garlic Shabbat eve.This is bdue tothe fact that garlic enhances sexual potency, and Friday night is an appropriate time for bconjugal relations. As it is writtenconcerning the righteous: “And he shall be like a tree planted by streams of water, bwho brings forth his fruit in his season”(Psalms 1:3); band Rabbi Yehuda says, and some sayit was bRav Naḥman, and some sayit was bRav Kahana, and some sayit was bRabbi Yoḥawho said: bThisis referring to bone who engages in sexual intercourse every Shabbat eve. /b, bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraitathat bfive matters were stated with regard to garlic: It satisfies; it warmsthe body; bit causesone’s bcountece to shine; it increasesone’s bsperm, and it kills lice that are in the intestines. And some saythat it also binstills loveinto those who eat it band removes jealousyfrom them.,The next ordice is: bAnd that a woman should rise early and bakebread on those days when she bakes. This Gemara explains that this was instituted bso that bread should be available for poor people,who go begging for bread in the mornings.,The ibaraitafurther teaches: bAnd that a woman should don a breechcloth [ isinar /i].This ordice was instituted bdue toreasons of bmodesty. /b,The ibaraitaadds: bAnd that a woman shouldfirst bcombher hair bandonly then bimmersein a ritual bath. This is to ensure that there is no dirt or other substance in the hair that would invalidate the immersion. The Gemara questions this: bThis isrequired bby Torah law,Ezra did not institute this., bAs it is taughtin a ibaraita /i, concerning a verse that discusses one who must undergo ritual immersion: b“And he shall bathe his flesh [ iet besaro /i] in water”(Leviticus 14:9). This verse teaches bthat no substance should interpose between his flesh and the water.When the verse states this in the expanded form of b“ iethis flesh,”using the term “ iet /i,” this teaches that the water must come into contact even with bthat which is subordinate to his flesh. And what is that?It is one’s bhair.Accordingly, the Torah itself states that there may not be any interposing substance in the hair at the time of immersion. What, then, did Ezra add?,The Sages bsayin response: bBy Torah lawone is required bto inspecthis or her hair before immersion, as bperhapssome hairs are bknottedtogether, preventing contact with water at that spot, borperhaps there is some brepulsive substancein his hair. One must perform this inspection bbecausethese would constitute ban interposition. /b
7. Babylonian Talmud, Shabbat, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

64b. שזנו עיניהם מן הערווה,אמר רב ששת מפני מה מנה הכתוב תכשיטין שבחוץ עם תכשיטין שבפנים לומר לך כל המסתכל באצבע קטנה של אשה כאילו מסתכל במקום התורפה:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big יוצאה אשה בחוטי שער בין משלה בין משל חבירתה בין משל בהמה,ובטוטפת ובסרביטין בזמן שהן תפורין,בכבול ובפאה נכרית לחצר במוך שבאזנה ובמוך שבסנדלה ובמוך שהתקינה לנדתה,בפילפל ובגלגל מלח וכל דבר שניתן לתוך פיה ובלבד שלא תתן לכתחלה בשבת ואם נפל לא תחזיר,שן תותבת שן של זהב רבי מתיר וחכמים אוסרים:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big וצריכא דאי אשמעינן דידה משום דלא מאיס אבל חבירתה דמאיס אימא לא,ואי אשמעינן דחבירתה דבת מינה הוא אבל דבהמה לאו בר מינה הוא אימא לא צריכא,תנא ובלבד שלא תצא ילדה בשל זקנה וזקנה בשל ילדה,בשלמא זקנה בשל ילדה שבח הוא לה אלא ילדה בשל זקנה אמאי גנאי הוא לה איידי דתנא זקנה בשל ילדה תנא נמי ילדה בשל זקנה:,בכבול ובפאה נכרית לחצר: אמר רב כל שאסרו חכמים לצאת בו לרה"ר אסור לצאת בו לחצר חוץ מכבול ופאה נכרית,רבי ענני בר ששון משמיה דר' ישמעאל אמר הכל ככבול,תנן בכבול ובפאה נכרית לחצר בשלמא לרב ניחא אלא לרבי ענני בר ששון קשיא רבי ענני בר ששון משמיה דמאן קאמר ליה משמיה דר' ישמעאל בר יוסי רבי ישמעאל בר יוסי תנא הוא ופליג,ורב מאי שנא הני אמר עולא כדי שלא תתגנה על בעלה כדתניא (ויקרא טו, לג) והדוה בנדתה זקנים הראשונים אמרו שלא תכחול ולא תפקוס ולא תתקשט בבגדי צבעונין עד שבא ר"ע ולימד אם כן אתה מגנה על בעלה ונמצא בעלה מגרשה אלא מה ת"ל והדוה בנדתה בנדתה תהא עד שתבא במים,אמר רב יהודה אמר רב כל מקום שאסרו חכמים מפני מראית העין אפילו בחדרי חדרים אסור,תנן ולא בזוג אע"פ שפקוק ותניא אידך פוקק לה זוג בצוארה ומטייל עמה בחצר,תנאי היא דתניא 64b. bthey nourished their eyes from nakedness. /b,With regard to the verse that lists the ornaments, bRav Sheshet said: For what reason did the verse list outer ornaments,i.e., a bracelet, bwith inner ornaments,i.e., a ikumaz /i? bTo tell youthat banyone who gazes upon a woman’s little fingeris considered bas if he gazed upon hernaked bgenitals.The atonement was for the sin of looking., strongMISHNA: /strong The mishna continues to discuss those items with which it is permitted to go out and those items with which it is prohibited to go out on Shabbat. bA woman may go out with strands of hairthat she put on her head, bwhetherthey are bfrom her ownhair that she made into a wig, bor whetherthey are bfromthe hair of banother, or whether they are fromthe hair of ban animal. /b, bAnda woman may go out bwithan ornament called itotefet /i, and with isarvitinwhen they are sewnand will not fall.,She may go out on Shabbat bwitha bwoolen cap or with a wig to the courtyard,although not to the public domain. bAndlikewise she may go out bwith a cloth that is in her ear, and with a cloth in her sandal, and with a cloth that she placed due to her menstrualstatus.,She may go out on Shabbat bwith pepper, or with a grain of salt, or anything placed in her mouthfor healing or for preventing bad odor, bas long as she does not putthese objects in her mouth bfor the first time on Shabbat. And if it fell out she may not replace it. /b, bA false toothas well as (Ramban) ba gold tooth, RabbiYehuda HaNasi bpermitsgoing out with it, band the Rabbis prohibitdoing so., strongGEMARA: /strong We learned in the mishna that a woman may go out with different strands of hair. The Gemara comments: bAnd it is necessaryto cite all of the cases. bIfthe mishna btaught us onlywith regard to bher ownhair, I would have said that she may go out with it bbecause it is not repulsive,as it is her own hair; therefore, there is no concern lest she come to remove the strands and carry them in the public domain. bHowever,the hair bof another, which is repulsiveand a different color from hers, bsay no,she may not go out with it, due to concern lest she be embarrassed, remove it, and come to carry it in the public domain., bAnd ifthe mishna btaught usthat she is permitted to go out with the hair bof another,I would have said that she may go out with it because bit ishair bof her own kind.Therefore, it is not repulsive in her eyes and she will not come to remove it. bHowever,the hair bof an animal,since bit is not of her own kind, say no,she may not go out with it due to concern lest she remove it. Therefore, bit is necessaryto cite all three cases., bIt was taughtin the iTosefta /i: It is permitted bas long as a girl does not go out withthe hair bof an elderly woman, and an elderly womandoes not go out bwiththe hair bof a girl. /b,The Gemara challenges: bGranted,the Gemara cited the case of ban elderly womanwho goes out bwiththe hair bof a girl,as it is a reasonable scenario because bit is flattering for herto look young. bHowever, whywould ba girlgo out bwiththe hair bof an elderly woman?Since bit is demeaning for herto appear elderly, it is an unlikely scenario. The Gemara answers: bSincethe mishna btaughtthe case of ban elderly woman withthe hair bof a girl, it also taughtthe improbable case of ba girl withthe hair bof an elderly woman. /b,It was taught in the mishna that a woman may go out bwith a woolen cap or with a wig to the courtyard. Rav said:With regard to ballornaments and garments with bwhich the Sages prohibited going out into the public domainon Shabbat, bit isalso bprohibited to go out withthem binto the courtyarddue to the concern lest she forget and go out to the street, bwith the exception of a woolen cap and a wig. /b, bRabbi Ai bar Sason said in the name of Rabbi Yishmael: Allornaments have the same legal status bas a woolen capand may be worn into the courtyard., bWe learnedin the mishna that it is permitted to go out bwith a woolen cap or a wig into the courtyard. Granted, according tothe opinion of bRavthe matter works out bwell,as the mishna allows one to go out into a courtyard only with a woolen cap and a wig. bHowever, according to the opinion of Rabbi Ai bar Sason,it is bdifficult.The Gemara answers: bIn whose name did Rabbi Ai bar Sason sayhis ihalakha /i? bIn the name of Rabbi Yishmael bar Yosei, and Rabbi Yishmael bar Yosei is a itannaand,as such, has the authority bto disputethe determination in the mishna.,The Gemara asks: bAndaccording to bRav, what is differentabout bthese,the woolen cap and the wig, that the mishna permitted going out into the courtyard with them? bUlla said: So that she will not become unappealing to her husband.That would be the result if all ornamentation was prohibited. bAs it was taughtin a ibaraitawith regard to the verse: b“And of her that is sick in her menstrual status [ iniddata /i]”(Leviticus 15:33), bthe Eldersof the bearlygenerations bsaidthat this verse comes to teach us that the menstruating woman should be distanced from her husband in all senses, like a person ostracized [ imenudeh /i] by the Sages. This includes bthat she may not painther eyes bblue /b, band she may not rouge [ ipokeset /i]her face, band she may not adorn herself with colorful clothing. Until Rabbi Akiva came and taught: Ifyou do bso, you are making her unappealing to her husband, and her husband willconsequently bdivorce her.Therefore, extreme strictures should not be instituted. bRather, whatis the meaning of that which bthe verse states: “And of her that is sick in her menstrual status”? She shall remainprohibited bin her menstrual statuseven after the flow of blood has stopped buntil she immerses in the waterof a ritual bath., bRav Yehuda saidthat bRav said: Wherever the Sages prohibitedan action bdue to the appearanceof prohibition, beven in the innermost chambers,where no one will see it, it bis prohibited.When prohibiting an action, the Sages did not distinguish between different circumstances. They prohibited performing the action in all cases.,The Gemara raises an objection. bWe learnedin the mishna that an animal belonging to a Jew may bnotgo out on Shabbat bwith a bellaround its neck, beven though it is pluggedand makes no sound, due to the appearance of prohibition, as it appears as if he were taking the animal to the marketplace. bAnd it was taught in another ibaraita /i: bHe may plug the bell onthe animal’s bneck and walk with it in the courtyard.Apparently, although the Sages prohibited this action due to the appearance of prohibition, they permitted it in the courtyard.,The Gemara answers: bIt issubject to a dispute between itanna’im /iin this matter, bas it was taughtin a ibaraita /i:
8. Babylonian Talmud, Yoma, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

39b. חמצן עד יום מותו,אמר רבה בר (בר) שילא מאי קרא (תהלים עא, ד) אלהי פלטני מיד רשע מכף מעול וחומץ רבא אמר מהכא (ישעיהו א, יז) למדו היטב דרשו משפט אשרו חמוץ אשרו חמוץ ואל תאשרו חומץ,תנו רבנן אותה שנה שמת בה שמעון הצדיק אמר להם בשנה זו הוא מת אמרו לו מניין אתה יודע אמר להם בכל יום הכפורים היה מזדמן לי זקן אחד לבוש לבנים ועטוף לבנים נכנס עמי ויצא עמי והיום נזדמן לי זקן אחד לבוש שחורים ועטוף שחורים נכנס עמי ולא יצא עמי אחר הרגל חלה שבעה ימים ומת,ונמנעו אחיו הכהנים מלברך בשם,ת"ר ארבעים שנה קודם חורבן הבית לא היה גורל עולה בימין ולא היה לשון של זהורית מלבין ולא היה נר מערבי דולק,והיו דלתות ההיכל נפתחות מאליהן עד שגער בהן רבן יוחנן בן זכאי אמר לו היכל היכל מפני מה אתה מבעית עצמך יודע אני בך שסופך עתיד ליחרב וכבר נתנבא עליך זכריה בן עדוא (זכריה יא, א) פתח לבנון דלתיך ותאכל אש בארזיך,אמר רבי יצחק בן טבלאי למה נקרא שמו לבנון שמלבין עונותיהן של ישראל,אמר רב זוטרא בר טוביה למה נקרא שמו יער דכתיב (מלכים א י, יז) בית יער הלבנון לומר לך מה יער מלבלב אף בית המקדש מלבלב דאמר רב הושעיא בשעה שבנה שלמה בית המקדש נטע בו כל מיני מגדים של זהב והיו מוציאין פירות בזמניהן וכיון שהרוח מנשבת בהן היו נושרין פירותיהן שנאמר (תהלים עב, טז) ירעש כלבנון פריו ומהן היתה פרנסה לכהונה,וכיון שנכנסו עובדי כוכבים להיכל יבשו שנאמר (נחום א, ד) ופרח לבנון אומלל ועתיד הקב"ה להחזירה לנו שנאמר (ישעיהו לה, ב) פרוח תפרח ותגל אף גילת ורנן כבוד הלבנון נתן לה,נתנן על שני השעירים תנו רבנן עשר פעמים מזכיר כהן גדול את השם בו ביום ג' בוידוי ראשון ושלשה בוידוי שני ושלשה בשעיר המשתלח ואחד בגורלות,וכבר אמר השם ונשמע קולו ביריחו אמר רבה בר בר חנה מירושלים ליריחו עשרה פרסאות,וציר דלתות ההיכל נשמע בשמונה תחומי שבת עזים שביריחו היו מתעטשות מריח הקטורת נשים שביריחו אינן צריכות להתבשם מריח קטורת כלה שבירושלים אינה צריכה להתקשט מריח קטורת,אמר רבי (יוסי בן דולגאי) עזים היו לאבא בהרי (מכמר) והיו מתעטשות מריח הקטורת אמר רבי חייא בר אבין אמר רבי יהושע בן קרחה סח לי זקן אחד פעם אחת הלכתי לשילה והרחתי ריח קטורת מבין כותליה,אמר ר' ינאי עליית גורל מתוך קלפי מעכבת הנחה אינה מעכבת ורבי יוחנן אמר אף עלייה אינה מעכבת,אליבא דרבי יהודה דאמר דברים הנעשין בבגדי לבן מבחוץ לא מעכבא כולי עלמא לא פליגי דלא מעכבא כי פליגי אליבא דר' נחמיה מ"ד מעכבא כר' נחמיה ומאן דאמר לא מעכבא הני מילי עבודה הגרלה לאו עבודה היא,איכא דאמרי,אליבא דרבי נחמיה דאמר מעכבא כולי עלמא לא פליגי דמעכבא,כי פליגי אליבא דר' יהודה מאן דאמר לא מעכבא כרבי יהודה ומאן דאמר מעכבא שאני הכא דתנא ביה קרא אשר עלה אשר עלה תרי זימני,מיתיבי מצוה להגריל ואם לא הגריל כשר,בשלמא להך לישנא דאמרת אליבא דרבי יהודה כולי עלמא לא פליגי דלא מעכבא הא מני רבי יהודה היא 39b. ba robber [ iḥamtzan /i] until the day of his death. /b, bRabba bar bar Sheila said: What is the versethat indicates that a iḥamtzanis a robber? The verse states: b“O, my God, rescue me out of the hand of wicked, out of the hand of the unrighteous and robbing man [ iḥometz /i]”(Psalms 71:4). bRava said: From here: “Learn to do well, seek justice, strengthen the robbed [ iḥamotz /i]”(Isaiah 1:17), which teaches that one should bstrengthen the robbed, but not strengthen the robber. /b,§ bThe Sages taught:During bthe year in which Shimon HaTzaddik died, he said to them,his associates: bIn this year, he will die,euphemistically referring to himself. bThey said to him: How do you know? He said to them:In previous years, bon every Yom Kippur,upon entering the Holy of Holies, bI was met,in a prophetic vision, bby an old man who was dressed in white, andhis head was bwrapped up in white,and bhe would enterthe Holy of Holies bwith me, and he would leave with me. But today, I was met by an old man who was dressed in black, andhis head was bwrapped up in black,and bhe enteredthe Holy of Holies bwith me,but bhe did not leave with me.He understood this to be a sign that his death was impending. Indeed, bafter the festivalof iSukkot /i, bhe was ill for seven days and died. /b,Without the presence of Shimon HaTzaddik among them, the Jewish people were no longer worthy of the many miracles that had occurred during his lifetime. For this reason, following his death, bhis brethren, the priests, refrained from blessingthe Jewish people bwith theexplicit bname of Godin the priestly blessing., bThe Sages taught:During the tenure of Shimon HaTzaddik, the lot for God always arose in the High Priest’s right hand; after his death, it occurred only occasionally; but during the bforty years prior to the destruction of theSecond bTemple,the blotfor God bdid not arise in theHigh Priest’s brighthand at all. So too, bthe strip of crimsonwool that was tied to the head of the goat that was sent to Azazel bdid not turn white, and the westernmost lampof the candelabrum bdid not burncontinually., bAnd the doors of the Sanctuary opened by themselvesas a sign that they would soon be opened by enemies, buntil Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai scolded them. He said tothe Sanctuary: bSanctuary, Sanctuary, why do you frighten yourselfwith these signs? bI know about you that you will ultimately be destroyed, and Zechariah, son of Ido, has already prophesied concerning you: “Open your doors, O Lebanon, that the fire may devour your cedars”(Zechariah 11:1), Lebanon being an appellation for the Temple., bRabbi Yitzḥak ben Tavlai said: Why isthe Temple bcalled Lebanon [ iLevanon /i]? Because it whitens [ imalbin /i] the Jewish people’s sins,alluded to by the root ilavan /i, meaning white., bRav Zutra bar Toviya said: Why isthe Temple bcalled: Forest, as it is written: “The house of the forest of Lebanon”(I Kings 10:17)? bTo tell you: Just as a forest blooms, so too the Temple blooms. As Rav Hoshaya said: When Solomon built the Temple, he planted in it all kinds of sweet fruittrees made bof gold, andmiraculously these bbrought forth fruit in their season. And when the wind blew upon them, their fruit would fall off, as it is stated: “May his fruits rustle like Lebanon”(Psalms 72:16). bAnd throughselling these golden fruits to the public, bthere was a source of income for the priesthood. /b, bBut once thegentile bnations entered the Sanctuarythe golden trees bwithered, as it states “And the blossoms of Lebanon wither”(Nahum 1:4). bAnd in the futurehour of redemption, bthe Holy One, Blessed be He, will restorethem bto us as it is stated: “It shall blossom abundantly, it shall also rejoice and shout, the glory of Lebanon will be given to it”(Isaiah 35:2).,§ The mishna states that after selecting the two lots, the High Priest bplacesthem bupon the two goats.Upon placing the lot for God upon the appropriate goat, he says: For God, as a sin-offering. This is just one of the occasions on which he mentions God’s name, as bthe Sages taughtin the iTosefta( iYoma2:2): bThe High Priest mentions the nameof God bten times on that day: Threetimes bduring the first confession; and threetimes bduring the second confession,over the bull; band threetimes when he confesses over bthe scapegoatto Azazel; band onetime bwith the lots,when placing the lot for God upon the goat., bAnd there alreadywas an incident when the High Priest bsaid the nameof God and bhis voicewas so strong that it bwas heardeven bin Jericho. Rabba bar bar Ḥana said:The distance bfrom Jerusalem to Jericho is ten parasangs.Despite the great distance, his voice was miraculously heard there.,The Gemara describes similar miracles in which events in the Temple were sensed a great distance away. bAndthe sound of bthe doors of the Sanctuaryopening bwas heardfrom a distance of beight Shabbat limits,which is eight imil /i. Furthermore, bgoats that were in Jericho would sneeze fromsmelling bthe fragrance of the incensethat burned in the Temple; the bwomen that were in Jericho did not need to perfume themselves,since they were perfumed by the bfragranceof the bincense,which reached there; ba bride that was in Jerusalem did not need to adorn herselfwith perfumes, since she was perfumed by the bfragranceof the bincense,which filled the air of Jerusalem., bRabbi Yosei ben Dolgai said: Father had goats in the hills of Mikhmar,a district some distance from Jerusalem, band they would sneeze fromsmelling bthe fragrance of the incense.Similarly, bRabbi Ḥiyya bar Avin saidthat bRabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa said: An old man reported to me: One time I went tothe ruins of the Tabernacle in bShiloh, and I smelled the smell of the incense from between its walls.The Tabernacle stood there during the period of the Judges, and more than a thousand years had passed since its destruction.,§ bRabbi Yannai said:The bdrawing of the lot from inside the receptacle is an indispensablepart of the service, as it determines which goat will be for God and which for Azazel. However, the actual bplacingof the lots upon the goats bis not indispensable. And Rabbi Yoḥa said: Eventhe bdrawing of the lotsfrom inside the receptacle bis not indispensable,since the High Priest may designate the goats himself, without employing the lottery.,The Gemara explains the dispute: bIn accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Yehuda, who saidthat bmatters that are performed inthe bwhite garments outsideof the Holy of Holies bare not indispensable, everyone agrees thatthe drawing of the lots bis not indispensable,since it is held outside the Holy of Holies. bWhen they disagree, it is in accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Neḥemya.He holds that all matters performed in the white garments, even those performed outside the Holy of Holies, are indispensable. bThe one who saidthe drawing of the lots bis indispensableholds bin accordance withthe straightforward application of the principle of bRabbi Neḥemya. And the one who saidthe drawing of the lots bis not indispensableclaims that bthisprinciple bappliesonly with regard btomatters that are classified as a Temple bservice.The bdrawing of the lots is nota Temple bservice,therefore it is indispensable, even according to Rabbi Neḥemya’s principle., bSome saya different version of the dispute:, bIn accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Neḥemya, who saidthat all matters performed in the white garments, even those performed outside the Holy of Holies, are bindispensable, everyone agrees thatthe drawing of the lots bis indispensable. /b, bWhen they disagree, it is in accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Yehuda,who holds that matters that are performed in the white garments outside of the Holy of Holies are not indispensable. bThe one who saidthat the drawing of the lots bis not indispensableholds bin accordance withthe straightforward application of the principle of bRabbi Yehuda. And the one who saidthat the drawing of the lots bis indispensableclaims that although Rabbi Yehuda’s principle is generally true, bit is different here,in the case of the lottery, bbecause the verse repeatedthe phrase b“which came up”(Leviticus 16:9) b“which came up”(Leviticus 16:10) btwo times.In the laws of sacrifices, a repeated phrase indicates the matter is indispensable.,The Gemara braises an objectionfrom that which was taught in a ibaraita /i: bIt is a mitzva to drawthe lots, band ifthe High Priest bdid not draw the lotsbut instead designated the goats without using the lots, the designation bis valid. /b,The Gemara considers the opinion presented in the ibaraita /i: bGranted, according to thatfirst bversionof the dispute, bin which you said: In accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Yehuda everyone,i.e., Rabbi Yannai and Rabbi Yoḥa, bagrees thatthe drawing of the lots bis not indispensable,in accordance with bwhoseopinion bis this ibaraitataught? bIt isin accordance with the opinion of bRabbi Yehuda,according to all opinions.
9. Anon., Avot Derabbi Nathan B, 9 (6th cent. CE - 8th cent. CE)



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abbahu Rubin Time and the Life Cycle in Talmud and Midrash: Socio-Anthropological Perspectives (2008) 106
abbaye Rubin Time and the Life Cycle in Talmud and Midrash: Socio-Anthropological Perspectives (2008) 106
betrothal Rubin Time and the Life Cycle in Talmud and Midrash: Socio-Anthropological Perspectives (2008) 106
bible, heroes Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 44
bridal procession Rubin Time and the Life Cycle in Talmud and Midrash: Socio-Anthropological Perspectives (2008) 106
bride, and jewelry Rubin Time and the Life Cycle in Talmud and Midrash: Socio-Anthropological Perspectives (2008) 106
bride Rubin Time and the Life Cycle in Talmud and Midrash: Socio-Anthropological Perspectives (2008) 106
consecration Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 44
contract) Rubin Time and the Life Cycle in Talmud and Midrash: Socio-Anthropological Perspectives (2008) 106
divorce Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 44
economic activity Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 44
gender, mishna ideology of Hayes, The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning (2022) 191
halakhah Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 44
hiyya Rubin Time and the Life Cycle in Talmud and Midrash: Socio-Anthropological Perspectives (2008) 106
independent vs. edited parallels, mishna/tosefta parallels Hayes, The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning (2022) 191, 192
infidelity Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 44
intention Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 44
jerusalem temple Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 44
ketubah Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 44; Rosen-Zvi, The Mishnaic Sotah Ritual: Temple, Gender and Midrash (2012) 41
marriage, contract Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 44
marriage Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 44; Rubin Time and the Life Cycle in Talmud and Midrash: Socio-Anthropological Perspectives (2008) 106
mishna, and tosefta Hayes, The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning (2022) 191, 192
mishna, ideology Hayes, The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning (2022) 191
mishna, redactional intention Hayes, The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning (2022) 191, 192
mourning' Rosen-Zvi, The Mishnaic Sotah Ritual: Temple, Gender and Midrash (2012) 41
muhammad Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 44
parallels (inner-rabbinic), as edited vs. independent Hayes, The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning (2022) 191
qiddushin Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 44
rabbinic judaism, legislation Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 44
redaction, final vs. dynamic Hayes, The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning (2022) 192
redaction, intention in Hayes, The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning (2022) 191, 192
scripture Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 44
sirach, and hellenistic culture Rosen-Zvi, The Mishnaic Sotah Ritual: Temple, Gender and Midrash (2012) 41
slaves Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 44
sotah Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 44
tosefta, as opponent and companion to mishna Hayes, The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning (2022) 192
tosefta, redaction Hayes, The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning (2022) 192
yehuda ha-nasi (rabbi), as compiler of mishna Hayes, The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning (2022) 192
yohanan Rubin Time and the Life Cycle in Talmud and Midrash: Socio-Anthropological Perspectives (2008) 106