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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



8013
Mishnah, Kelim, 1.8


לִפְנִים מִן הַחוֹמָה מְקֻדָּשׁ מֵהֶם, שֶׁאוֹכְלִים שָׁם קָדָשִׁים קַלִּים וּמַעֲשֵׂר שֵׁנִי. הַר הַבַּיִת מְקֻדָּשׁ מִמֶּנּוּ, שֶׁאֵין זָבִים וְזָבוֹת, נִדּוֹת וְיוֹלְדוֹת נִכְנָסִים לְשָׁם. הַחֵיל מְקֻדָּשׁ מִמֶּנּוּ, שֶׁאֵין גּוֹיִם וּטְמֵא מֵת נִכְנָסִים לְשָׁם. עֶזְרַת נָשִׁים מְקֻדֶּשֶׁת מִמֶּנּוּ, שֶׁאֵין טְבוּל יוֹם נִכְנָס לְשָׁם, וְאֵין חַיָּבִים עָלֶיהָ חַטָּאת. עֶזְרַת יִשְׂרָאֵל מְקֻדֶּשֶׁת מִמֶּנָּה, שֶׁאֵין מְחֻסַּר כִּפּוּרִים נִכְנָס לְשָׁם, וְחַיָּבִין עָלֶיהָ חַטָּאת. עֶזְרַת הַכֹּהֲנִים מְקֻדֶּשֶׁת מִמֶּנָּה, שֶׁאֵין יִשְׂרָאֵל נִכְנָסִים לְשָׁם אֶלָּא בִשְׁעַת צָרְכֵיהֶם, לִסְמִיכָה לִשְׁחִיטָה וְלִתְנוּפָה:The area within the wall [of Jerusalem] is holier, for it is there that lesser holy things and second tithe may be eaten. The Temple Mount is holier, for zavim, zavot, menstruants and women after childbirth may not enter it. The chel is holier, for neither non-Jews nor one who contracted corpse impurity may enter it. The court of women is holier, for a tevul yom may not enter it, though he is not obligated a hatat for doing so. The court of the Israelites is holier, for a man who has not yet offered his obligatory sacrifices may not enter it, and if he enters he is liable for a hatat. The court of the priests is holier, for Israelites may not enter it except when they are required to do so: for laying on of the hands, slaying or waving.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

49 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 31 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

2. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 1.5, 1.11, 3.2, 3.8, 3.13, 4.4, 4.15, 4.24, 4.29, 4.33, 5.2, 7.7, 17.3-17.4, 22.1-22.17 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.5. וְשָׁחַט אֶת־בֶּן הַבָּקָר לִפְנֵי יְהוָה וְהִקְרִיבוּ בְּנֵי אַהֲרֹן הַכֹּהֲנִים אֶת־הַדָּם וְזָרְקוּ אֶת־הַדָּם עַל־הַמִּזְבֵּחַ סָבִיב אֲשֶׁר־פֶּתַח אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד׃ 1.11. וְשָׁחַט אֹתוֹ עַל יֶרֶךְ הַמִּזְבֵּחַ צָפֹנָה לִפְנֵי יְהוָה וְזָרְקוּ בְּנֵי אַהֲרֹן הַכֹּהֲנִים אֶת־דָּמוֹ עַל־הַמִּזְבֵּחַ סָבִיב׃ 3.2. וְסָמַךְ יָדוֹ עַל־רֹאשׁ קָרְבָּנוֹ וּשְׁחָטוֹ פֶּתַח אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד וְזָרְקוּ בְּנֵי אַהֲרֹן הַכֹּהֲנִים אֶת־הַדָּם עַל־הַמִּזְבֵּחַ סָבִיב׃ 3.8. וְסָמַךְ אֶת־יָדוֹ עַל־רֹאשׁ קָרְבָּנוֹ וְשָׁחַט אֹתוֹ לִפְנֵי אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד וְזָרְקוּ בְּנֵי אַהֲרֹן אֶת־דָּמוֹ עַל־הַמִּזְבֵּחַ סָבִיב׃ 3.13. וְסָמַךְ אֶת־יָדוֹ עַל־רֹאשׁוֹ וְשָׁחַט אֹתוֹ לִפְנֵי אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד וְזָרְקוּ בְּנֵי אַהֲרֹן אֶת־דָּמוֹ עַל־הַמִּזְבֵּחַ סָבִיב׃ 4.4. וְהֵבִיא אֶת־הַפָּר אֶל־פֶּתַח אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד לִפְנֵי יְהוָה וְסָמַךְ אֶת־יָדוֹ עַל־רֹאשׁ הַפָּר וְשָׁחַט אֶת־הַפָּר לִפְנֵי יְהוָה׃ 4.15. וְסָמְכוּ זִקְנֵי הָעֵדָה אֶת־יְדֵיהֶם עַל־רֹאשׁ הַפָּר לִפְנֵי יְהוָה וְשָׁחַט אֶת־הַפָּר לִפְנֵי יְהוָה׃ 4.24. וְסָמַךְ יָדוֹ עַל־רֹאשׁ הַשָּׂעִיר וְשָׁחַט אֹתוֹ בִּמְקוֹם אֲשֶׁר־יִשְׁחַט אֶת־הָעֹלָה לִפְנֵי יְהוָה חַטָּאת הוּא׃ 4.29. וְסָמַךְ אֶת־יָדוֹ עַל רֹאשׁ הַחַטָּאת וְשָׁחַט אֶת־הַחַטָּאת בִּמְקוֹם הָעֹלָה׃ 4.33. וְסָמַךְ אֶת־יָדוֹ עַל רֹאשׁ הַחַטָּאת וְשָׁחַט אֹתָהּ לְחַטָּאת בִּמְקוֹם אֲשֶׁר יִשְׁחַט אֶת־הָעֹלָה׃ 5.2. וַיְדַבֵּר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה לֵּאמֹר׃ 5.2. אוֹ נֶפֶשׁ אֲשֶׁר תִּגַּע בְּכָל־דָּבָר טָמֵא אוֹ בְנִבְלַת חַיָּה טְמֵאָה אוֹ בְּנִבְלַת בְּהֵמָה טְמֵאָה אוֹ בְּנִבְלַת שֶׁרֶץ טָמֵא וְנֶעְלַם מִמֶּנּוּ וְהוּא טָמֵא וְאָשֵׁם׃ 7.7. כַּחַטָּאת כָּאָשָׁם תּוֹרָה אַחַת לָהֶם הַכֹּהֵן אֲשֶׁר יְכַפֶּר־בּוֹ לוֹ יִהְיֶה׃ 17.3. אִישׁ אִישׁ מִבֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל אֲשֶׁר יִשְׁחַט שׁוֹר אוֹ־כֶשֶׂב אוֹ־עֵז בַּמַּחֲנֶה אוֹ אֲשֶׁר יִשְׁחַט מִחוּץ לַמַּחֲנֶה׃ 17.4. וְאֶל־פֶּתַח אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד לֹא הֱבִיאוֹ לְהַקְרִיב קָרְבָּן לַיהוָה לִפְנֵי מִשְׁכַּן יְהוָה דָּם יֵחָשֵׁב לָאִישׁ הַהוּא דָּם שָׁפָךְ וְנִכְרַת הָאִישׁ הַהוּא מִקֶּרֶב עַמּוֹ׃ 22.1. וַיְדַבֵּר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה לֵּאמֹר׃ 22.1. וְכָל־זָר לֹא־יֹאכַל קֹדֶשׁ תּוֹשַׁב כֹּהֵן וְשָׂכִיר לֹא־יֹאכַל קֹדֶשׁ׃ 22.2. דַּבֵּר אֶל־אַהֲרֹן וְאֶל־בָּנָיו וְיִנָּזְרוּ מִקָּדְשֵׁי בְנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל וְלֹא יְחַלְּלוּ אֶת־שֵׁם קָדְשִׁי אֲשֶׁר הֵם מַקְדִּשִׁים לִי אֲנִי יְהוָה׃ 22.2. כֹּל אֲשֶׁר־בּוֹ מוּם לֹא תַקְרִיבוּ כִּי־לֹא לְרָצוֹן יִהְיֶה לָכֶם׃ 22.3. בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא יֵאָכֵל לֹא־תוֹתִירוּ מִמֶּנּוּ עַד־בֹּקֶר אֲנִי יְהוָה׃ 22.3. אֱמֹר אֲלֵהֶם לְדֹרֹתֵיכֶם כָּל־אִישׁ אֲשֶׁר־יִקְרַב מִכָּל־זַרְעֲכֶם אֶל־הַקֳּדָשִׁים אֲשֶׁר יַקְדִּישׁוּ בְנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל לַיהוָה וְטֻמְאָתוֹ עָלָיו וְנִכְרְתָה הַנֶּפֶשׁ הַהִוא מִלְּפָנַי אֲנִי יְהוָה׃ 22.4. אִישׁ אִישׁ מִזֶּרַע אַהֲרֹן וְהוּא צָרוּעַ אוֹ זָב בַּקֳּדָשִׁים לֹא יֹאכַל עַד אֲשֶׁר יִטְהָר וְהַנֹּגֵעַ בְּכָל־טְמֵא־נֶפֶשׁ אוֹ אִישׁ אֲשֶׁר־תֵּצֵא מִמֶּנּוּ שִׁכְבַת־זָרַע׃ 22.5. אוֹ־אִישׁ אֲשֶׁר יִגַּע בְּכָל־שֶׁרֶץ אֲשֶׁר יִטְמָא־לוֹ אוֹ בְאָדָם אֲשֶׁר יִטְמָא־לוֹ לְכֹל טֻמְאָתוֹ׃ 22.6. נֶפֶשׁ אֲשֶׁר תִּגַּע־בּוֹ וְטָמְאָה עַד־הָעָרֶב וְלֹא יֹאכַל מִן־הַקֳּדָשִׁים כִּי אִם־רָחַץ בְּשָׂרוֹ בַּמָּיִם׃ 22.7. וּבָא הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ וְטָהֵר וְאַחַר יֹאכַל מִן־הַקֳּדָשִׁים כִּי לַחְמוֹ הוּא׃ 22.8. נְבֵלָה וּטְרֵפָה לֹא יֹאכַל לְטָמְאָה־בָהּ אֲנִי יְהוָה׃ 22.9. וְשָׁמְרוּ אֶת־מִשְׁמַרְתִּי וְלֹא־יִשְׂאוּ עָלָיו חֵטְא וּמֵתוּ בוֹ כִּי יְחַלְּלֻהוּ אֲנִי יְהוָה מְקַדְּשָׁם׃ 22.11. וְכֹהֵן כִּי־יִקְנֶה נֶפֶשׁ קִנְיַן כַּסְפּוֹ הוּא יֹאכַל בּוֹ וִילִיד בֵּיתוֹ הֵם יֹאכְלוּ בְלַחְמוֹ׃ 22.12. וּבַת־כֹּהֵן כִּי תִהְיֶה לְאִישׁ זָר הִוא בִּתְרוּמַת הַקֳּדָשִׁים לֹא תֹאכֵל׃ 22.13. וּבַת־כֹּהֵן כִּי תִהְיֶה אַלְמָנָה וּגְרוּשָׁה וְזֶרַע אֵין לָהּ וְשָׁבָה אֶל־בֵּית אָבִיהָ כִּנְעוּרֶיהָ מִלֶּחֶם אָבִיהָ תֹּאכֵל וְכָל־זָר לֹא־יֹאכַל בּוֹ׃ 22.14. וְאִישׁ כִּי־יֹאכַל קֹדֶשׁ בִּשְׁגָגָה וְיָסַף חֲמִשִׁיתוֹ עָלָיו וְנָתַן לַכֹּהֵן אֶת־הַקֹּדֶשׁ׃ 22.15. וְלֹא יְחַלְּלוּ אֶת־קָדְשֵׁי בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אֵת אֲשֶׁר־יָרִימוּ לַיהוָה׃ 22.16. וְהִשִּׂיאוּ אוֹתָם עֲוֺן אַשְׁמָה בְּאָכְלָם אֶת־קָדְשֵׁיהֶם כִּי אֲנִי יְהוָה מְקַדְּשָׁם׃ 22.17. וַיְדַבֵּר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה לֵּאמֹר׃ 1.5. And he shall kill the bullock before the LORD; and Aaron’s sons, the priests, shall present the blood, and dash the blood round about against the altar that is at the door of the tent of meeting." 1.11. And he shall kill it on the side of the altar northward before the LORD; and Aaron’s sons, the priests, shall dash its blood against the altar round about." 3.2. And he shall lay his hand upon the head of his offering, and kill it at the door of the tent of meeting; and Aaron’s sons the priests shall dash the blood against the altar round about." 3.8. And he shall lay his hand upon the head of his offering, and kill it before the tent of meeting; and Aaron’s sons shall dash the blood thereof against the altar round about." 3.13. And he shall lay his hand upon the head of it, and kill it before the tent of meeting; and the sons of Aaron shall dash the blood thereof against the altar round about." 4.4. And he shall bring the bullock unto the door of the tent of meeting before the LORD; and he shall lay his hand upon the head of the bullock, and kill the bullock before the LORD." 4.15. And the elders of the congregation shall lay their hands upon the head of the bullock before the LORD; and the bullock shall be killed before the LORD." 4.24. And he shall lay his hand upon the head of the goat, and kill it in the place where they kill the burnt-offering before the LORD; it is a sin-offering." 4.29. And he shall lay his hand upon the head of the sin-offering, and kill the sin-offering in the place of burnt-offering." 4.33. And he shall lay his hand upon the head of the sin-offering, and kill it for a sin-offering in the place where they kill the burnt-offering." 5.2. or if any one touch any unclean thing, whether it be the carcass of an unclean beast, or the carcass of unclean cattle, or the carcass of unclean swarming things, and be guilty, it being hidden from him that he is unclean;" 7.7. As is the sin-offering, so is the guilt-offering; there is one law for them; the priest that maketh atonement therewith, he shall have it." 17.3. What man soever there be of the house of Israel, that killeth an ox, or lamb, or goat, in the camp, or that killeth it without the camp," 17.4. and hath not brought it unto the door of the tent of meeting, to present it as an offering unto the LORD before the tabernacle of the LORD, blood shall be imputed unto that man; he hath shed blood; and that man shall be cut off from among his people." 22.1. And the LORD spoke unto Moses, saying:" 22.2. Speak unto Aaron and to his sons, that they separate themselves from the holy things of the children of Israel, which they hallow unto Me, and that they profane not My holy name: I am the LORD." 22.3. Say unto them: Whosoever he be of all your seed throughout your generations, that approacheth unto the holy things, which the children of Israel hallow unto the LORD, having his uncleanness upon him, that soul shall be cut off from before Me: I am the LORD." 22.4. What man soever of the seed of Aaron is a leper, or hath an issue, he shall not eat of the holy things, until he be clean. And whoso toucheth any one that is unclean by the dead; or from whomsoever the flow of seed goeth out;" 22.5. or whosoever toucheth any swarming thing, whereby he may be made unclean, or a man of whom he may take uncleanness, whatsoever uncleanness he hath;" 22.6. the soul that toucheth any such shall be unclean until the even, and shall not eat of the holy things, unless he bathe his flesh in water." 22.7. And when the sun is down, he shall be clean; and afterward he may eat of the holy things, because it is his bread." 22.8. That which dieth of itself, or is torn of beasts, he shall not eat to defile himself therewith: I am the LORD." 22.9. They shall therefore keep My charge, lest they bear sin for it, and die therein, if they profane it: I am the LORD who sanctify them." 22.10. There shall no acommon man eat of the holy thing; a tet of a priest, or a hired servant, shall not eat of the holy thing." 22.11. But if a priest buy any soul, the purchase of his money, he may eat of it; and such as are born in his house, they may eat of his bread." 22.12. And if a priest’s daughter be married unto a common man, she shall not eat of that which is set apart from the holy things." 22.13. But if a priest’s daughter be a widow, or divorced, and have no child, and is returned unto her father’s house, as in her youth, she may eat of her father’s bread; but there shall no common man" 22.14. And if a man eat of the holy thing through error, then he shall put the fifth part thereof unto it, and shall give unto the priest the holy thing." 22.15. And they shall not profane the holy things of the children of Israel, which they set apart unto the LORD;" 22.16. and so cause them to bear the iniquity that bringeth guilt, when they eat their holy things; for I am the LORD who sanctify them." 22.17. And the LORD spoke unto Moses, saying:"
3. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 18.8-18.13, 18.20-18.23, 31.19 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

18.8. וַיְדַבֵּר יְהוָה אֶל־אַהֲרֹן וַאֲנִי הִנֵּה נָתַתִּי לְךָ אֶת־מִשְׁמֶרֶת תְּרוּמֹתָי לְכָל־קָדְשֵׁי בְנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל לְךָ נְתַתִּים לְמָשְׁחָה וּלְבָנֶיךָ לְחָק־עוֹלָם׃ 18.9. זֶה־יִהְיֶה לְךָ מִקֹּדֶשׁ הַקֳּדָשִׁים מִן־הָאֵשׁ כָּל־קָרְבָּנָם לְכָל־מִנְחָתָם וּלְכָל־חַטָּאתָם וּלְכָל־אֲשָׁמָם אֲשֶׁר יָשִׁיבוּ לִי קֹדֶשׁ קָדָשִׁים לְךָ הוּא וּלְבָנֶיךָ׃ 18.11. וְזֶה־לְּךָ תְּרוּמַת מַתָּנָם לְכָל־תְּנוּפֹת בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל לְךָ נְתַתִּים וּלְבָנֶיךָ וְלִבְנֹתֶיךָ אִתְּךָ לְחָק־עוֹלָם כָּל־טָהוֹר בְּבֵיתְךָ יֹאכַל אֹתוֹ׃ 18.12. כֹּל חֵלֶב יִצְהָר וְכָל־חֵלֶב תִּירוֹשׁ וְדָגָן רֵאשִׁיתָם אֲשֶׁר־יִתְּנוּ לַיהוָה לְךָ נְתַתִּים׃ 18.13. בִּכּוּרֵי כָּל־אֲשֶׁר בְּאַרְצָם אֲשֶׁר־יָבִיאוּ לַיהוָה לְךָ יִהְיֶה כָּל־טָהוֹר בְּבֵיתְךָ יֹאכֲלֶנּוּ׃ 18.21. וְלִבְנֵי לֵוִי הִנֵּה נָתַתִּי כָּל־מַעֲשֵׂר בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל לְנַחֲלָה חֵלֶף עֲבֹדָתָם אֲשֶׁר־הֵם עֹבְדִים אֶת־עֲבֹדַת אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד׃ 18.22. וְלֹא־יִקְרְבוּ עוֹד בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶל־אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד לָשֵׂאת חֵטְא לָמוּת׃ 18.23. וְעָבַד הַלֵּוִי הוּא אֶת־עֲבֹדַת אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד וְהֵם יִשְׂאוּ עֲוֺנָם חֻקַּת עוֹלָם לְדֹרֹתֵיכֶם וּבְתוֹךְ בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל לֹא יִנְחֲלוּ נַחֲלָה׃ 31.19. וְאַתֶּם חֲנוּ מִחוּץ לַמַּחֲנֶה שִׁבְעַת יָמִים כֹּל הֹרֵג נֶפֶשׁ וְכֹל נֹגֵעַ בֶּחָלָל תִּתְחַטְּאוּ בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁלִישִׁי וּבַיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי אַתֶּם וּשְׁבִיכֶם׃ 18.8. And the LORD spoke unto Aaron: ‘And I, behold, I have given thee the charge of My heave-offerings; even of all the hallowed things of the children of Israel unto thee have I given them for a consecrated portion, and to thy sons, as a due for ever." 18.9. This shall be thine of the most holy things, reserved from the fire: every offering of theirs, even every meal-offering of theirs, and every sin-offering of theirs, and every guilt-offering of theirs, which they may render unto Me, shall be most holy for thee and for thy sons." 18.10. In a most holy place shalt thou eat thereof; every male may eat thereof; it shall be holy unto thee." 18.11. And this is thine: the heave-offering of their gift, even all the wave-offerings of the children of Israel; I have given them unto thee, and to thy sons and to thy daughters with thee, as a due for ever; every one that is clean in thy house may eat thereof." 18.12. All the best of the oil, and all the best of the wine, and of the corn, the first part of them which they give unto the LORD, to thee have I given them." 18.13. The first-ripe fruits of all that is in their land, which they bring unto the LORD, shall be thine; every one that is clean in thy house may eat thereof." 18.20. And the LORD said unto Aaron: ‘Thou shalt have no inheritance in their land, neither shalt thou have any portion among them; I am thy portion and thine inheritance among the children of Israel." 18.21. And unto the children of Levi, behold, I have given all the tithe in Israel for an inheritance, in return for their service which they serve, even the service of the tent of meeting." 18.22. And henceforth the children of Israel shall not come nigh the tent of meeting, lest they bear sin, and die." 18.23. But the Levites alone shall do the service of the tent of meeting, and they shall bear their iniquity; it shall be a statute for ever throughout your generations, and among the children of Israel they shall have no inheritance." 31.19. And encamp ye without the camp seven days; whosoever hath killed any person, and whosoever hath touched any slain, purify yourselves on the third day and on the seventh day, ye and your captives."
4. Hebrew Bible, 1 Kings, 8 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

5. Hebrew Bible, Joshua, 9.27 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

9.27. וַיִּתְּנֵם יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא חֹטְבֵי עֵצִים וְשֹׁאֲבֵי מַיִם לָעֵדָה וּלְמִזְבַּח יְהוָה עַד־הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה אֶל־הַמָּקוֹם אֲשֶׁר יִבְחָר׃ 9.27. And Joshua made them that day hewers of wood and drawers of water for the congregation, and for the altar of the LORD, unto this day, in the place which He should choose."
6. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 11.23, 44.4-44.16, 45.8, 47.1 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

11.23. וַיַּעַל כְּבוֹד יְהוָה מֵעַל תּוֹךְ הָעִיר וַיַּעֲמֹד עַל־הָהָר אֲשֶׁר מִקֶּדֶם לָעִיר׃ 44.4. וַיְבִיאֵנִי דֶּרֶךְ־שַׁעַר הַצָּפוֹן אֶל־פְּנֵי הַבַּיִת וָאֵרֶא וְהִנֵּה מָלֵא כְבוֹד־יְהוָה אֶת־בֵּית יְהוָה וָאֶפֹּל אֶל־פָּנָי׃ 44.5. וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלַי יְהֹוָה בֶּן־אָדָם שִׂים לִבְּךָ וּרְאֵה בְעֵינֶיךָ וּבְאָזְנֶיךָ שְּׁמָע אֵת כָּל־אֲשֶׁר אֲנִי מְדַבֵּר אֹתָךְ לְכָל־חֻקּוֹת בֵּית־יְהוָה וּלְכָל־תורתו [תּוֹרֹתָיו] וְשַׂמְתָּ לִבְּךָ לִמְבוֹא הַבַּיִת בְּכֹל מוֹצָאֵי הַמִּקְדָּשׁ׃ 44.6. וְאָמַרְתָּ אֶל־מֶרִי אֶל־בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל כֹּה אָמַר אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה רַב־לָכֶם מִכָּל־תּוֹעֲבוֹתֵיכֶם בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 44.7. בַּהֲבִיאֲכֶם בְּנֵי־נֵכָר עַרְלֵי־לֵב וְעַרְלֵי בָשָׂר לִהְיוֹת בְּמִקְדָּשִׁי לְחַלְּלוֹ אֶת־בֵּיתִי בְּהַקְרִיבְכֶם אֶת־לַחְמִי חֵלֶב וָדָם וַיָּפֵרוּ אֶת־בְּרִיתִי אֶל כָּל־תּוֹעֲבוֹתֵיכֶם׃ 44.8. וְלֹא שְׁמַרְתֶּם מִשְׁמֶרֶת קָדָשָׁי וַתְּשִׂימוּן לְשֹׁמְרֵי מִשְׁמַרְתִּי בְּמִקְדָּשִׁי לָכֶם׃ 44.9. כֹּה־אָמַר אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה כָּל־בֶּן־נֵכָר עֶרֶל לֵב וְעֶרֶל בָּשָׂר לֹא יָבוֹא אֶל־מִקְדָּשִׁי לְכָל־בֶּן־נֵכָר אֲשֶׁר בְּתוֹךְ בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 44.11. וְהָיוּ בְמִקְדָּשִׁי מְשָׁרְתִים פְּקֻדּוֹת אֶל־שַׁעֲרֵי הַבַּיִת וּמְשָׁרְתִים אֶת־הַבָּיִת הֵמָּה יִשְׁחֲטוּ אֶת־הָעֹלָה וְאֶת־הַזֶּבַח לָעָם וְהֵמָּה יַעַמְדוּ לִפְנֵיהֶם לְשָׁרְתָם׃ 44.12. יַעַן אֲשֶׁר יְשָׁרְתוּ אוֹתָם לִפְנֵי גִלּוּלֵיהֶם וְהָיוּ לְבֵית־יִשְׂרָאֵל לְמִכְשׁוֹל עָוֺן עַל־כֵּן נָשָׂאתִי יָדִי עֲלֵיהֶם נְאֻם אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה וְנָשְׂאוּ עֲוֺנָם׃ 44.13. וְלֹא־יִגְּשׁוּ אֵלַי לְכַהֵן לִי וְלָגֶשֶׁת עַל־כָּל־קָדָשַׁי אֶל־קָדְשֵׁי הַקְּדָשִׁים וְנָשְׂאוּ כְּלִמָּתָם וְתוֹעֲבוֹתָם אֲשֶׁר עָשׂוּ׃ 44.14. וְנָתַתִּי אוֹתָם שֹׁמְרֵי מִשְׁמֶרֶת הַבָּיִת לְכֹל עֲבֹדָתוֹ וּלְכֹל אֲשֶׁר יֵעָשֶׂה בּוֹ׃ 44.15. וְהַכֹּהֲנִים הַלְוִיִּם בְּנֵי צָדוֹק אֲשֶׁר שָׁמְרוּ אֶת־מִשְׁמֶרֶת מִקְדָּשִׁי בִּתְעוֹת בְּנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל מֵעָלַי הֵמָּה יִקְרְבוּ אֵלַי לְשָׁרְתֵנִי וְעָמְדוּ לְפָנַי לְהַקְרִיב לִי חֵלֶב וָדָם נְאֻם אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה׃ 44.16. הֵמָּה יָבֹאוּ אֶל־מִקְדָּשִׁי וְהֵמָּה יִקְרְבוּ אֶל־שֻׁלְחָנִי לְשָׁרְתֵנִי וְשָׁמְרוּ אֶת־מִשְׁמַרְתִּי׃ 45.8. לָאָרֶץ יִהְיֶה־לּוֹ לַאֲחֻזָּה בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל וְלֹא־יוֹנוּ עוֹד נְשִׂיאַי אֶת־עַמִּי וְהָאָרֶץ יִתְּנוּ לְבֵית־יִשְׂרָאֵל לְשִׁבְטֵיהֶם׃ 47.1. וְהָיָה יעמדו [עָמְדוּ] עָלָיו דַּוָּגִים מֵעֵין גֶּדִי וְעַד־עֵין עֶגְלַיִם מִשְׁטוֹחַ לַחֲרָמִים יִהְיוּ לְמִינָה תִּהְיֶה דְגָתָם כִּדְגַת הַיָּם הַגָּדוֹל רַבָּה מְאֹד׃ 47.1. וַיְשִׁבֵנִי אֶל־פֶּתַח הַבַּיִת וְהִנֵּה־מַיִם יֹצְאִים מִתַּחַת מִפְתַּן הַבַּיִת קָדִימָה כִּי־פְנֵי הַבַּיִת קָדִים וְהַמַּיִם יֹרְדִים מִתַּחַת מִכֶּתֶף הַבַּיִת הַיְמָנִית מִנֶּגֶב לַמִּזְבֵּחַ׃ 11.23. And the glory of the LORD went up from the midst of the city, and stood upon the mountain which is on the east side of the city." 44.4. Then he brought me the way of the north gate before the house; and I looked, and, behold, the glory of the LORD filled the house of the LORD; and I fell upon my face." 44.5. And the LORD said unto me: ‘Son of man, mark well, and behold with thine eyes, and hear with thine ears all that I say unto thee concerning all the ordices of the house of the LORD, and all the laws thereof; and mark well the entering in of the house, with every going forth of the sanctuary." 44.6. And thou shalt say to the rebellious, even to the house of Israel: Thus saith the Lord GOD: O ye house of Israel, let it suffice you of all your abominations," 44.7. in that ye have brought in aliens, uncircumcised in heart and uncircumcised in flesh, to be in My sanctuary, to profane it, even My house, when ye offer My bread, the fat and the blood, and they have broken My covet, to add unto all your abominations." 44.8. And ye have not kept the charge of My holy things; but ye have set keepers of My charge in My sanctuary to please yourselves." 44.9. Thus saith the Lord GOD: No alien, uncircumcised in heart and uncircumcised in flesh, shall enter into My sanctuary, even any alien that is among the children of Israel." 44.10. But the Levites, that went far from Me, when Israel went astray, that went astray from Me after their idols, they shall bear their iniquity;" 44.11. and they shall be ministers in My sanctuary, having charge at the gates of the house, and ministering in the house: they shall slay the burnt-offering and the sacrifice for the people, and they shall stand before them to minister unto them." 44.12. Because they ministered unto them before their idols, and became a stumblingblock of iniquity unto the house of Israel; therefore have I lifted up My hand against them, saith the Lord GOD, and they shall bear their iniquity." 44.13. And they shall not come near unto Me, to minister unto Me in the priest’s office, nor to come near to any of My holy things, unto the things that are most holy; but they shall bear their shame, and their abominations which they have committed." 44.14. And I will make them keepers of the charge of the house, for all the service thereof, and for all that shall be done therein." 44.15. But the priests the Levites, the sons of Zadok, that kept the charge of My sanctuary when the children of Israel went astray from Me, they shall come near to Me to minister unto Me; and they shall stand before Me to offer unto Me the fat and the blood, saith the Lord GOD;" 44.16. they shall enter into My sanctuary, and they shall come near to My table, to minister unto Me, and they shall keep My charge." 45.8. of the land; it shall be to him for a possession in Israel, and My princes shall no more wrong My people; but they shall give the land to the house of Israel according to their tribes." 47.1. And he brought me back unto the door of the house; and, behold, waters issued out from under the threshold of the house eastward, for the forefront of the house looked toward the east; and the waters came down from under, from the right side of the house, on the south of the altar.
7. Hebrew Bible, Ezra, 2.43-2.58 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

2.43. הַנְּתִינִים בְּנֵי־צִיחָא בְנֵי־חֲשׂוּפָא בְּנֵי טַבָּעוֹת׃ 2.44. בְּנֵי־קֵרֹס בְּנֵי־סִיעֲהָא בְּנֵי פָדוֹן׃ 2.45. בְּנֵי־לְבָנָה בְנֵי־חֲגָבָה בְּנֵי עַקּוּב׃ 2.46. בְּנֵי־חָגָב בְּנֵי־שמלי [שַׁלְמַי] בְּנֵי חָנָן׃ 2.47. בְּנֵי־גִדֵּל בְּנֵי־גַחַר בְּנֵי רְאָיָה׃ 2.48. בְּנֵי־רְצִין בְּנֵי־נְקוֹדָא בְּנֵי גַזָּם׃ 2.49. בְּנֵי־עֻזָּא בְנֵי־פָסֵחַ בְּנֵי בֵסָי׃ 2.51. בְּנֵי־בַקְבּוּק בְּנֵי־חֲקוּפָא בְּנֵי חַרְחוּר׃ 2.52. בְּנֵי־בַצְלוּת בְּנֵי־מְחִידָא בְּנֵי חַרְשָׁא׃ 2.53. בְּנֵי־בַרְקוֹס בְּנֵי־סִיסְרָא בְּנֵי־תָמַח׃ 2.54. בְּנֵי נְצִיחַ בְּנֵי חֲטִיפָא׃ 2.55. בְּנֵי עַבְדֵי שְׁלֹמֹה בְּנֵי־סֹטַי בְּנֵי־הַסֹּפֶרֶת בְּנֵי פְרוּדָא׃ 2.56. בְּנֵי־יַעְלָה בְנֵי־דַרְקוֹן בְּנֵי גִדֵּל׃ 2.57. בְּנֵי שְׁפַטְיָה בְנֵי־חַטִּיל בְּנֵי פֹּכֶרֶת הַצְּבָיִים בְּנֵי אָמִי׃ 2.58. כָּל־הַנְּתִינִים וּבְנֵי עַבְדֵי שְׁלֹמֹה שְׁלֹשׁ מֵאוֹת תִּשְׁעִים וּשְׁנָיִם׃ 2.43. The Nethinim: the children of Ziha, the children of Hasupha, the children of Tabbaoth;" 2.44. the children of Keros, the children of Siaha, the children of Padon;" 2.45. the children of Lebanah, the children of Hagabah, the children of Akkub;" 2.46. the children of Hagab, the children of Salmai, the children of Ha;" 2.47. the children of Giddel, the children of Gahar, the children of Reaiah;" 2.48. the children of Rezin, the children of Nekoda, the children of Gazzam;" 2.49. the children of Uzza, the children of Paseah, the children of Besai;" 2.50. the children of Asnah, the children of Meunim, the children of Nephusim;" 2.51. the children of Bakbuk, the children of Hakupha, the children of Harhur;" 2.52. the children of Bazluth, the children of Mehida, the children of Harsha;" 2.53. the children of Barkos, the children of Sisera, the children of Temah;" 2.54. the children of Neziah, the children of Hatipha." 2.55. The children of Solomon’s servants: the children of Sotai, the children of Hassophereth, the children of Peruda;" 2.56. the children of Jaalah, the children of Darkon, the children of Giddel;" 2.57. the children of Shephatiah, the children of Hattil, the children of Pochereth-hazzebaim, the children of Ami." 2.58. All the Nethinim, and the children of Solomon’s servants, were three hundred ninety and two."
8. Septuagint, 1 Maccabees, 4.38, 4.48, 7.33, 9.54 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

4.38. And they saw the sanctuary desolate, the altar profaned, and the gates burned. In the courts they saw bushes sprung up as in a thicket, or as on one of the mountains. They saw also the chambers of the priests in ruins. 4.48. They also rebuilt the sanctuary and the interior of the temple, and consecrated the courts. 7.33. After these events Nicanor went up to Mount Zion. Some of the priests came out of the sanctuary, and some of the elders of the people, to greet him peaceably and to show him the burnt offering that was being offered for the king. 9.54. In the one hundred and fifty-third year, in the second month, Alcimus gave orders to tear down the wall of the inner court of the sanctuary. He tore down the work of the prophets!
9. Septuagint, 2 Maccabees, 6.4 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

6.4. For the temple was filled with debauchery and reveling by the Gentiles, who dallied with harlots and had intercourse with women within the sacred precincts, and besides brought in things for sacrifice that were unfit.'
10. Septuagint, Judith, 12.6-12.9 (2nd cent. BCE - 0th cent. CE)

12.6. and sent to Holofernes and said, "Let my lord now command that your servant be permitted to go out and pray. 12.7. So Holofernes commanded his guards not to hinder her. And she remained in the camp for three days, and went out each night to the valley of Bethulia, and bathed at the spring in the camp. 12.8. When she came up from the spring she prayed the Lord God of Israel to direct her way for the raising up of her people. 12.9. So she returned clean and stayed in the tent until she ate her food toward evening.
11. Anon., Sibylline Oracles, 3.591-3.593 (1st cent. BCE - 5th cent. CE)

3.591. But when from Italy shall come a man 3.592. A spoiler, then, Laodicea, thou 3.593. Beautiful city of the Carian
12. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 1.323, 5.199, 5.227, 12.106, 12.145-12.146, 15.407, 15.417-15.419, 18.30, 18.90-18.95, 20.6-20.14 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.323. o Laban left off searching any further, not supposing that his daughter in such circumstances would approach to those images. So he made a league with Jacob, and bound it by oaths, that he would not bear him any malice on account of what had happened; and Jacob made the like league, and promised to love Laban’s daughters. 5.199. for this Jabin came out of Hazor, a city that was situate over the lake Semechonitis, and had in pay three hundred thousand footmen, and ten thousand horsemen, with no fewer than three thousand chariots. Sisera was the commander of all his army, and was the principal person in the king’s favor. He so sorely beat the Israelites when they fought with him, that he ordered them to pay tribute. 5.227. And as the report of Gideon’s victory came to the Israelites, they took their weapons and pursued their enemies, and overtook them in a certain valley encompassed with torrents, a place which these could not get over; so they encompassed them, and slew them all, with their kings, Oreb and Zeeb. 12.106. But in the morning they came to the court and saluted Ptolemy, and then went away to their former place, where, when they had washed their hands, and purified themselves, they betook themselves to the interpretation of the laws. 12.145. 4. And these were the contents of this epistle. He also published a decree through all his kingdom in honor of the temple, which contained what follows: “It shall be lawful for no foreigner to come within the limits of the temple round about; which thing is forbidden also to the Jews, unless to those who, according to their own custom, have purified themselves. 12.146. Nor let any flesh of horses, or of mules, or of asses, he brought into the city, whether they be wild or tame; nor that of leopards, or foxes, or hares; and, in general, that of any animal which is forbidden for the Jews to eat. Nor let their skins be brought into it; nor let any such animal be bred up in the city. Let them only be permitted to use the sacrifices derived from their forefathers, with which they have been obliged to make acceptable atonements to God. And he that transgresseth any of these orders, let him pay to the priests three thousand drachmae of silver.” 15.407. for that they ought to have them in their power, as they formerly had. However, the Jews sent ambassadors to Claudius Caesar, to intercede with him for them; upon whose coming, king Agrippa, junior, being then at Rome, asked for and obtained the power over them from the emperor, who gave command to Vitellius, who was then commander in Syria, to give it them accordingly. 15.417. Thus was the first enclosure. In the midst of which, and not far from it, was the second, to be gone up to by a few steps: this was encompassed by a stone wall for a partition, with an inscription, which forbade any foreigner to go in under pain of death. 15.418. Now this inner enclosure had on its southern and northern quarters three gates [equally] distant one from another; but on the east quarter, towards the sun-rising, there was one large gate, through which such as were pure came in, together with their wives; 15.419. but the temple further inward in that gate was not allowed to the women; but still more inward was there a third [court of the] temple, whereinto it was not lawful for any but the priests alone to enter. The temple itself was within this; and before that temple was the altar, upon which we offer our sacrifices and burnt-offerings to God. 18.91. although at this time they were laid up in the tower of Antonia, the citadel so called, and that on the occasion following: There was one of the [high] priests, named Hyrcanus; and as there were many of that name, he was the first of them; this man built a tower near the temple, and when he had so done, he generally dwelt in it, and had these vestments with him, because it was lawful for him alone to put them on, and he had them there reposited when he went down into the city, and took his ordinary garments; 18.92. the same things were continued to be done by his sons, and by their sons after them. But when Herod came to be king, he rebuilt this tower, which was very conveniently situated, in a magnificent manner; and because he was a friend to Antonius, he called it by the name of Antonia. And as he found these vestments lying there, he retained them in the same place, as believing, that while he had them in his custody, the people would make no innovations against him. 18.93. The like to what Herod did was done by his son Archelaus, who was made king after him; after whom the Romans, when they entered on the government, took possession of these vestments of the high priest, and had them reposited in a stone-chamber, under the seal of the priests, and of the keepers of the temple, the captain of the guard lighting a lamp there every day; 18.94. and seven days before a festival they were delivered to them by the captain of the guard, when the high priest having purified them, and made use of them, laid them up again in the same chamber where they had been laid up before, and this the very next day after the feast was over. This was the practice at the three yearly festivals, and on the fast day; 18.95. but Vitellius put those garments into our own power, as in the days of our forefathers, and ordered the captain of the guard not to trouble himself to inquire where they were laid, or when they were to be used; and this he did as an act of kindness, to oblige the nation to him. Besides which, he also deprived Joseph, who was also called Caiaphas, of the high priesthood, and appointed Jonathan the son of Aus, the former high priest, to succeed him. After which, he took his journey back to Antioch. 20.6. He also at this time sent for the high priests and the principal citizens of Jerusalem, and this at the command of the emperor, and admonished them that they should lay up the long garment and the sacred vestment, which it is customary for nobody but the high priest to wear, in the tower of Antonia, that it might be under the power of the Romans, as it had been formerly. 20.6. 2. When he had said this, he set Artabanus upon his horse, and followed him on foot, in honor of a king whom he owned as greater than himself; which, when Artabanus saw, he was very uneasy at it, and sware by his present fortune and honor that he would get down from his horse, unless Izates would get upon his horse again, and go before him. 20.7. Now the Jews durst not contradict what he had said, but desired Fadus, however, and Longinus, (which last was come to Jerusalem, and had brought a great army with him, out of a fear that the [rigid] injunctions of Fadus should force the Jews to rebel,) that they might, in the first place, have leave to send ambassadors to Caesar, to petition him that they may have the holy vestments under their own power; and that, in the next place, they would tarry till they knew what answer Claudius would give to that their request. 20.7. but he could not prevail with him. For Izates so well knew the strength and good fortune of the Romans, that he took Bardanes to attempt what was impossible to be done; 20.8. So they replied, that they would give them leave to send their ambassadors, provided they would give them their sons as pledges [for their peaceable behavior]. And when they had agreed so to do, and had given them the pledges they desired, the ambassadors were sent accordingly. 20.8. and forced all the rest to betake themselves to flight. He also pursued their king, and drove him into a fortress called Arsamus, and following on the siege vigorously, he took that fortress. And when he had plundered it of all the prey that was in it, which was not small, he returned to Adiabene; yet did not he take Abia alive, because, when he found himself encompassed on every side, he slew himself. 20.9. But when, upon their coming to Rome, Agrippa, junior, the son of the deceased, understood the reason why they came, (for he dwelt with Claudius Caesar, as we said before,) he besought Caesar to grant the Jews their request about the holy vestments, and to send a message to Fadus accordingly. 20.9. “O Lord and Governor, if I have not in vain committed myself to thy goodness, but have justly determined that thou only art the Lord and principal of all beings, come now to my assistance, and defend me from my enemies, not only on my own account, but on account of their insolent behavior with regard to thy power, while they have not feared to lift up their proud and arrogant tongue against thee.” 20.11. “Claudius Caesar Germanicus, tribune of the people the fifth time, and designed consul the fourth time, and imperator the tenth time, the father of his country, to the magistrates, senate, and people, and the whole nation of the Jews, sendeth greeting. 20.11. But when he could not induce them to be quiet for they still went on in their reproaches to him, he gave order that the whole army should take their entire armor, and come to Antonia, which was a fortress, as we have said already, which overlooked the temple; 20.12. Upon the presentation of your ambassadors to me by Agrippa, my friend, whom I have brought up, and have now with me, and who is a person of very great piety, who are come to give me thanks for the care I have taken of your nation, and to entreat me, in an earnest and obliging manner, that they may have the holy vestments, with the crown belonging to them, under their power,—I grant their request, as that excellent person Vitellius, who is very dear to me, had done before me. 20.12. upon which the Galileans were much displeased, and persuaded the multitude of the Jews to betake themselves to arms, and to regain their liberty, saying that slavery was in itself a bitter thing, but that when it was joined with direct injuries, it was perfectly intolerable 20.13. And I have complied with your desire, in the first place, out of regard to that piety which I profess, and because I would have every one worship God according to the laws of their own country; and this I do also because I shall hereby highly gratify king Herod, and Agrippa, junior, whose sacred regards to me, and earnest good-will to you, I am well acquainted with, and with whom I have the greatest friendship, and whom I highly esteem, and look on as persons of the best character. 20.13. From whence he came to a certain village called Lydda, which was not less than a city in largeness, and there heard the Samaritan cause a second time before his tribunal, and there learned from a certain Samaritan that one of the chief of the Jews, whose name was Dortus, and some other innovators with him, four in number, persuaded the multitude to a revolt from the Romans; 20.14. Now I have written about these affairs to Cuspius Fadus, my procurator. The names of those that brought me your letter are Cornelius, the son of Cero, Trypho, the son of Theudio, Dorotheus, the son of Nathaniel, and John, the son of Jotre. This letter is dated before the fourth of the calends of July, when Rufus and Pompeius Sylvanus are consuls.” 20.14. He also gave Mariamne in marriage to Archelaus, the son of Helcias, to whom she had formerly been betrothed by Agrippa her father; from which marriage was derived a daughter, whose name was Bernice.
13. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 5.193-5.194 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

5.193. When you go through these [first] cloisters, unto the second [court of the] temple, there was a partition made of stone all round, whose height was three cubits: its construction was very elegant; 5.194. upon it stood pillars, at equal distances from one another, declaring the law of purity, some in Greek, and some in Roman letters, that “no foreigner should go within that sanctuary;” for that second [court of the] temple was called “the Sanctuary;”
14. Josephus Flavius, Against Apion, 2.102-2.109 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.102. But I leave this matter; for the proper way of confuting fools is not to use bare words, but to appeal to the things themselves that make against them. Now then, all such as ever saw the construction of our temple, of what nature it was, know well enough how the purity of it was never to be profaned; 2.103. for it had four several courts, encompassed with cloisters round about, every one of which had by our law a peculiar degree of separation from the rest. Into the first court every body was allowed to go, even foreigners; and none but women, during their courses, were prohibited to pass through it; 2.104. all the Jews went into the second court, as well as their wives, when they were free from all uncleanness; into the third went the Jewish men when they were clean and purified; into the fourth went the priests, having on their sacerdotal garments; 2.105. but for the most sacred place, none went in but the high priests, clothed in their peculiar garments. Now there is so great caution used about these offices of religion, that the priests are appointed to go into the temple but at certain hours: for, in the morning, at the opening of the inner temple, those that are to officiate receive the sacrifices, as they do again at noon, till the doors are shut. 2.106. Lastly, it is not so much as lawful to carry any vessel into the holy house; nor is there any thing therein, but the altar [of incense], the table [of show-bread], the censer, and the candlestick, which are all written in the law: 2.107. for there is nothing farther there, nor are there any mysteries performed that may not be spoken of; nor is there any feasting within the place. For what I have now said is publicly known, and supported by the testimony of the whole people, and their operations are very manifest; 2.108. for although there be four courses of the priests, and every one of them have above five thousand men in them, yet do they officiate on certain days only; and when those days are over, other priests succeed in the performance of their sacrifices, and assemble together at mid-day, and receive the keys of the temple, and the vessels by tale, without any thing relating to food or drink being carried into the temple; 2.109. nay, we are not allowed to offer such things at the altar, excepting what is prepared for the sacrifices. /p9. What then can we say of Apion, but that he examined nothing that concerned these things, while still he uttered incredible words about them! But it is a great shame for a grammarian not to be able to write true history.
15. Mishnah, Arakhin, 8.4 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

8.4. A man may proscribe [part] of his flock or of his herd, of his Canaanite slaves or female slaves or of his field of possession. But if he proscribed all of them, they are not considered [validly] proscribed, the words of Rabbi Eliezer. Rabbi Elazar ben Azaryah said: just as when it comes to the Highest One, one is not permitted to proscribe all of his possessions, how much more so should one be careful with his property."
16. Mishnah, Berachot, 9.5 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

9.5. One must bless [God] for the evil in the same way as one blesses for the good, as it says, “And you shall love the Lord your God with all your heart, with all your soul and with all your might” (Deuteronomy 6:5). “With all your heart,” with your two impulses, the evil impulse as well as the good impulse. “With all your soul” even though he takes your soul [life] away from you. “With all your might” with all your money. Another explanation, “With all your might” whatever treatment he metes out to you. One should not show disrespect to the Eastern Gate, because it is in a direct line with the Holy of Holies. One should not enter the Temple Mount with a staff, or with shoes on, or with a wallet, or with dusty feet; nor should one make it a short cut, all the more spitting [is forbidden]. All the conclusions of blessings that were in the Temple they would say, “forever [lit. as long as the world is].” When the sectarians perverted their ways and said that there was only one world, they decreed that they should say, “for ever and ever [lit. from the end of the world to the end of the world]. They also decreed that a person should greet his fellow in God’s name, as it says, “And behold Boaz came from Bethlehem and said to the reapers, ‘May the Lord be with you.’ And they answered him, “May the Lord bless you’” (Ruth 2:. And it also says, “The Lord is with your, you valiant warrior” (Judges 6:12). And it also says, “And do not despise your mother when she grows old” (Proverbs 23:22). And it also says, “It is time to act on behalf of the Lord, for they have violated Your teaching” (Psalms 119:126). Rabbi Natan says: [this means] “They have violated your teaching It is time to act on behalf of the Lord.”"
17. Mishnah, Hagigah, 2.6-2.7 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

2.6. If he immersed for unconsecrated [food], and was presumed to be fit to eat unconsecrated [food], he is prohibited from [eating second] tithe. If he immersed for [second] tithe, and was presumed to be fit to eat [second] tithe, he is prohibited from [eating] terumah. If he immersed for terumah, and was presumed to be fit to eat terumah, he is prohibited from [eating] holy things. If he immersed for holy things, and was presumed to be fit to eat holy things he is prohibited from [touching the waters of] purification. If one immersed for something possessing a stricter [degree of holiness], one is permitted [to have contact with] something possessing a lighter [degree of holiness]. If he immersed but without special intention, it is as though he had not immersed." 2.7. The garments of an am haaretz possess midras-impurity for Pharisees. The garments of Pharisees possess midras-impurity for those who eat terumah. The garments of those who eat terumah possess midras-impurity for [those who eat] sacred things. The garments of [those who eat] sacred things possess midras-impurity for [those who occupy themselves with the waters of] purification. Yose ben Yoezer was the most pious in the priesthood, yet his apron was [considered to possess] midras-impurity for [those who ate] sacred things. Yoha ben Gudgada all his life used to eat [unconsecrated food] in accordance with the purity required for sacred things, yet his apron was [considered to possess] midras-impurity for [those who occupied themselves with the water of] purification."
18. Mishnah, Ketuvot, 13.11 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

13.11. Everyone may compel [their spouse] to go up to the land of Israel, but none may compel [their spouse] to leave. Everyone may compel [their spouse] to go up to Jerusalem, but none may compel [their spouse] to leave. The same is true for both men and women and [slaves]. If a man married a woman in the land of Israel and divorced her in the land of Israel, he must pay her [her ketubah] in the currency of the land of Israel. If he married a woman in the land of Israel and divorced her in Cappadocia he must pay her [her ketubah] in the currency of the land of Israel. If he married a woman in Cappadocia and divorced her in the land of Israel, he must a gain pay [her ketubah] in the currency of the land of Israel. Rabbi Shimon ben Gamaliel says that he must pay her [her ketubah] in the Cappadocian currency."
19. Mishnah, Kelim, 1.6-1.7, 1.9 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

1.6. There are ten grades of holiness: the land of Israel is holier than all other lands. And what is the nature of its holiness? That from it are brought the omer, the firstfruits and the two loaves, which cannot be brought from any of the other lands." 1.7. Cities that are walled are holier, for metzoras must be sent out of them and a corpse, though it may be carried about within them as long as it is desired, may not be brought back once it has been taken out." 1.9. The area between the porch (ulam) and the altar is holier, for [priests] who have blemishes or unkempt hair may not enter it. The Hekhal is holier, for no one whose hands or feet are unwashed may enter it. The Holy of Holies is holier, for only the high priest, on Yom Kippur, at the time of the service, may enter it. Rabbi Yose said: in five respects the area between the porch and the altar is equal to the Hekhal, for those afflicted with blemishes or with a wild growth of hair, or who have drunk wine or whose hands or feet are unwashed may not enter there, and the people must keep away from the area between the porch and the altar when the incense is being burned."
20. Mishnah, Miqvaot, 8.3 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

8.3. If he emitted thick drops from his member, he is unclean, the words of Rabbi Elazar Hisma. If one had sexual dreams in the night and arose and found his flesh heated, he is unclean. If a woman discharged semen on the third day, she is clean, the words of Rabbi Elazar ben Azariah. Rabbi Ishmael says: sometimes there are four time periods, and sometimes five, and sometimes six. Rabbi Akiva says: there are always five."
21. Mishnah, Niddah, 1.7, 2.1, 10.3 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

1.7. Although though they said [that for a woman who has a regular period] it suffices to reckon her period of uncleanness from the time she observes a flow, she should nevertheless examine herself [regularly], except for a menstruant or one who is sitting over pure blood. She should also use testing-rags when she has marital intercourse except when she is sitting over pure blood or when she is a virgin whose blood is clean. And twice [daily] she should examine herself: in the morning and at the [evening] twilight, and also when she is about to have sexual relations. Priestly women are subject to an additional restriction [for they should examine themselves] when they are going to eat terumah. Rabbi Judah said: [these must examine themselves] also after they have concluded eating terumah." 2.1. Every hand that makes frequent examination: In the case of women is praiseworthy, But in the case of men it ought to be cut off. In the case of a deaf, an person not of sound senses, a blind or an insane woman, if other women of sound senses are available they attend to her, and they may eat terumah. It is the custom of the daughters of Israel to have intercourse using two testing-rags, one for the man and the other for herself. Virtuous women prepare also a third rag to prepare the \"house\" [before intercourse]." 10.3. If a zav or a zavah examined themselves on the first day and found themselves clean and on the seventh day and found themselves clean, but did not examine themselves during the other intervening, days: Rabbi Eliezer says: they are in a presumptive condition of cleanness. Rabbi Joshua says: they are entitled [to count as clean] only the first day and the seventh day. Rabbi Akiva says: they are entitled to reckon as clean the seventh day alone."
22. Mishnah, Sanhedrin, 9.6 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

9.6. If one steals the sacred vessel called a “kasvah” (Numbers 4:7), or cursed by the name of an idol, or has sexual relations with an Aramean (non-Jewish) woman, he is punished by zealots. If a priest performed the temple service while impure, his fellow priests do not bring him to the court, but rather the young priests take him out into the courtyard and split his skull with clubs. A layman who performed the service in the Temple: Rabbi Akiva says: “He is strangled.” But the Sages say: “[His death is] at the hands of heaven.”"
23. Mishnah, Sukkah, 4.3, 4.6 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

4.3. “The aravah seven days.” How is this? If the seventh day of [the ritual of] the aravah fell on Shabbat, [it lasts] seven days; if it fell on any other day, [it lasts only] six." 4.6. As was its performance on a weekday, so was its performance on Shabbat, except that they would gather them on the eve of Shabbat and place them in golden basins so that they would not become wilted. Rabbi Yoha ben Beroka says: they used to bring palm branches and they would beat them on the ground at the sides of the altar, and that day was called “[the day of] the beating of the palm branches.”"
24. Mishnah, Yoma, 1.5 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

1.5. The elders of the court handed him over to the elders of the priesthood and they took him up to the upper chamber of the house of Avtinas. They adjured him and then left. And they said to him [when leaving]: “Sir, high priest, we are messengers of the court and you are our messenger and the messenger of the court. We adjure you by the one that caused His name dwell in this house that you do not change anything of what we said to you.” He turned aside and wept and they turned aside and wept."
25. Mishnah, Zevahim, 3.1 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

3.1. All unfit persons who slaughtered, their slaughtering is valid, for slaughtering is valid [even when performed] by non-priests, and by women, and by slaves, and by the unclean, even in the case of most-holy sacrifices, provided that unclean [persons] do not touch the flesh. Therefore they invalidate [the sacrifice] by an [illegitimate] intention. And in all of these cases, if they received the blood [in order to eat the sacrifice] after the prescribed time, or outside of the prescribed place, if there remains [in the animal] life-blood, a fit person should go back and receive the blood."
26. Mishnah, Zavim, 2.2 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

2.2. There are seven ways in which a zav is examined as long as he had not become subject to zivah: With regard to food, drink, as [to what] he had carried, whether he had jumped, whether he had been ill, what he had seen, or what he had thought. [It doesn't matter] whether he had thoughts before seeing [a woman], or whether he had seen [a woman] before his thoughts. Rabbi Judah says: even if he had watched beasts, wild animals or birds having intercourse with each other, and even when he had seen a woman's dyed garments. Rabbi Akiva says: even if he had eaten any kind of food, be it good or bad, or had drunk any kind of liquid. They said to him: Then there will be no zavim in the world!’ He replied to them: you are not held responsible for the existence of zavim!’ Once he had become subject to zivah, no further examination takes place. [Zov] resulting from an accident, or that was at all doubtful, or an issue of semen, these are unclean, since there are grounds for the assumption [that it is zivah]. If he had at a first [issue] they examine him; On the second [issue] they examine him, but on the third [issue] they don't examine him. Rabbi Eliezer says: even on the third [issue] they examine him because of the sacrifice."
27. New Testament, Mark, 7.1-7.23 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

7.1. Then the Pharisees, and some of the scribes gathered together to him, having come from Jerusalem. 7.2. Now when they saw some of his disciples eating bread with defiled, that is, unwashed, hands, they found fault. 7.3. (For the Pharisees, and all the Jews, don't eat unless they wash their hands and forearms, holding to the tradition of the elders. 7.4. They don't eat when they come from the marketplace, unless they bathe themselves, and there are many other things, which they have received to hold to: washings of cups, pitchers, bronze vessels, and couches.) 7.5. The Pharisees and the scribes asked him, "Why don't your disciples walk according to the tradition of the elders, but eat their bread with unwashed hands? 7.6. He answered them, "Well did Isaiah prophesy of you hypocrites, as it is written, 'This people honors me with their lips, But their heart is far from me. 7.7. But in vain do they worship me, Teaching as doctrines the commandments of men.' 7.8. For you set aside the commandment of God, and hold tightly to the tradition of men -- the washing of pitchers and cups, and you do many other such things. 7.9. He said to them, "Full well do you reject the commandment of God, that you may keep your tradition. 7.10. For Moses said, 'Honor your father and your mother;' and, 'He who speaks evil of father or mother, let him be put to death.' 7.11. But you say, 'If a man tells his father or his mother, "Whatever profit you might have received from me is Corban, that is to say, given to God;"' 7.12. then you no longer allow him to do anything for his father or his mother 7.13. making void the word of God by your tradition, which you have handed down. You do many things like this. 7.14. He called all the multitude to himself, and said to them, "Hear me, all of you, and understand. 7.15. There is nothing from outside of the man, that going into him can defile him; but the things which proceed out of the man are those that defile the man. 7.16. If anyone has ears to hear, let him hear! 7.17. When he had entered into a house away from the multitude, his disciples asked him about the parable. 7.18. He said to them, "Are you thus without understanding also? Don't you perceive that whatever goes into the man from outside can't defile him 7.19. because it doesn't go into his heart, but into his stomach, then into the latrine, thus making all foods clean? 7.20. He said, "That which proceeds out of the man, that defiles the man. 7.21. For from within, out of the hearts of men, proceed evil thoughts, adulteries, sexual sins, murders, thefts 7.22. covetings, wickedness, deceit, lustful desires, an evil eye, blasphemy, pride, and foolishness. 7.23. All these evil things come from within, and defile the man.
28. Tosefta, Berachot, 2.12 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

2.12. Zavim, Zavot, Niddot, and women who gave birth are permitted to read the Torah and to learn Mishna, Midrash, laws, and Aggadot. And men who had a seminal emission (Baalei Keraim) are forbidden in all of them. Rebbi Yossi says, “He can learn the laws that he is familiar with, as long as he does not arrange the Mishna.”"
29. Tosefta, Demai, 2.2 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

30. Tosefta, Miqvaot, 6.4 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

31. Tosefta, Toharot, 8.8 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

32. Anon., Sifre Deuteronomy, 306 (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

33. Anon., Sifre Numbers, 1 (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

34. Lucian, The Syrian Goddess, 31 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

31. But the temple within is not uniform. A special sacred shrine is reared within it; the ascent to this likewise is not steep, nor is it fitted with doors, but is entirely open as you approach it. The great temple is open to all; the sacred shrine to the priests alone and not to all even of these, but only to those who are deemed nearest to the gods and who have the charge of the entire administration of the sacred rites. In this shrine are placed the statues, one of which is Hera, the other Zeus, though they call him by another name. Both of these are golden, both are sitting; Hera is supported by lions, Zeus is sitting on bulls. The effigy of Zeus recalls Zeus in all its details—his head, his robes, his throne; nor even if you wished it could you take him for another deity.
35. Mishna, Challah, 4.8 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

4.8. Rabban Gamaliel says: there are three territories with regard to [liability to] hallah:From the land of Israel to Chezib: one hallah-portion. From Chezib to the river and to Amanah: two hallah-portions. One for the fire and one for the priest. The one for the fire has a minimum measure, and the one for the priest does not have a minimum measure. From the river and from Amanah and inward: two hallah-portions. One for the fire and one for the priest. The one for the fire has no minimum measure, and the one for the priest has a minimum measure. And [a priest] who has immersed himself during the day [and has not waited till sunset for his purification to be complete] may eat it. Rabbi Yose says: he does not require immersion. But it is forbidden to zavim and zavot, to menstruants, and to women after childbirth; It may be eaten with a non-priest at the [same] table; And it may be given to any priest."
36. Palestinian Talmud, Berachot, None (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

37. Palestinian Talmud, Sukkah, 4.3 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

38. Babylonian Talmud, Berachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

31a. אייתי כסא דמוקרא בת ארבע מאה זוזי ותבר קמייהו ואעציבו,רב אשי עבד הלולא לבריה חזנהו לרבנן דהוו קא בדחי טובא אייתי כסא דזוגיתא חיורתא ותבר קמייהו ואעציבו,אמרו ליה רבנן לרב המנונא זוטי בהלולא דמר בריה דרבינא לישרי לן מר אמר להו ווי לן דמיתנן ווי לן דמיתנן אמרי ליה אנן מה נעני בתרך א"ל הי תורה והי מצוה דמגנו עלן,א"ר יוחנן משום רשב"י אסור לאדם שימלא שחוק פיו בעולם הזה שנאמר (תהלים קכו, ב) אז ימלא שחוק פינו ולשוננו רנה אימתי בזמן שיאמרו בגוים הגדיל ה' לעשות עם אלה אמרו עליו על ר"ל שמימיו לא מלא שחוק פיו בעוה"ז מכי שמעה מר' יוחנן רביה:,ת"ר אין עומדין להתפלל לא מתוך דין ולא מתוך דבר הלכה אלא מתוך הלכה פסוקה,והיכי דמי הלכה פסוקה,אמר אביי כי הא דר' זירא דאמר ר' זירא בנות ישראל החמירו על עצמן שאפילו רואות טיפת דם כחרדל יושבת עליה שבעה נקיים,רבא אמר כי הא דרב הושעיא דאמר רב הושעיא מערים אדם על תבואתו ומכניסה במוץ שלה כדי שתהא בהמתו אוכלת ופטורה מן המעשר,ואב"א כי הא דרב הונא דא"ר הונא א"ר זעירא המקיז דם בבהמת קדשים אסור בהנאה ומועלין בו,רבנן עבדי כמתניתין רב אשי עביד כברייתא.,ת"ר אין עומדין להתפלל לא מתוך עצבות ולא מתוך עצלות ולא מתוך שחוק ולא מתוך שיחה ולא מתוך קלות ראש ולא מתוך דברים בטלים אלא מתוך שמחה של מצוה,וכן לא יפטר אדם מחברו לא מתוך שיחה ולא מתוך שחוק ולא מתוך קלות ראש ולא מתוך דברים בטלים אלא מתוך דבר הלכה שכן מצינו בנביאים הראשונים שסיימו דבריהם בדברי שבח ותנחומים,וכן תנא מרי בר בריה דרב הונא בריה דר' ירמיה בר אבא אל יפטר אדם מחבירו אלא מתוך דבר הלכה שמתוך כך זוכרהו,כי הא דרב כהנא אלוייה לרב שימי בר אשי מפום נהרא עד בי צניתא דבבל כי מטא להתם א"ל מר ודאי דאמרי אינשי הני צניתא דבבל איתנהו מאדם הראשון ועד השתא,א"ל אדכרתן מילתא דרבי יוסי ברבי חנינא דאמר ר' יוסי ברבי חנינא מאי דכתיב (ירמיהו ב, ו) בארץ אשר לא עבר בה איש ולא ישב אדם שם וכי מאחר דלא עבר היאך ישב אלא לומר לך כל ארץ שגזר עליה אדם הראשון לישוב נתישבה וכל ארץ שלא גזר עליה אדם הראשון לישוב לא נתישבה,רב מרדכי אלוייה לרב שימי בר אשי מהגרוניא ועד בי כיפי ואמרי לה עד בי דורא:,ת"ר המתפלל צריך שיכוין את לבו לשמים אבא שאול אומר סימן לדבר (תהלים י, יז) תכין לבם תקשיב אזנך,תניא א"ר יהודה כך היה מנהגו של ר"ע כשהיה מתפלל עם הצבור היה מקצר ועולה מפני טורח צבור וכשהיה מתפלל בינו לבין עצמו אדם מניחו בזוית זו ומוצאו בזוית אחרת וכל כך למה מפני כריעות והשתחויות:,א"ר חייא בר אבא לעולם יתפלל אדם בבית שיש בו חלונות שנאמר (דניאל ו, יא) וכוין פתיחן ליה וגו',יכול יתפלל אדם כל היום כלו כבר מפורש על ידי דניאל (דניאל ו, יא) וזמנין תלתא וגו',יכול משבא לגולה הוחלה כבר נאמר (דניאל ו, יא) די הוא עבד מן קדמת דנא,יכול יתפלל אדם לכל רוח שירצה ת"ל (דניאל ו, יא) (לקבל) [נגד] ירושלם,יכול יהא כוללן בבת אחת כבר מפורש ע"י דוד דכתיב (תהלים נה, יח) ערב ובקר וצהרים וגו',יכול ישמיע קולו בתפלתו כבר מפורש על ידי חנה שנאמר (שמואל א א, יג) וקולה לא ישמע,יכול ישאל אדם צרכיו ואח"כ יתפלל כבר מפורש על ידי שלמה שנאמר (מלכים א ח, כח) לשמוע אל הרנה ואל התפלה רנה זו תפלה תפלה זו בקשה אין אומר דבר (בקשה) אחר אמת ויציב אבל אחר התפלה אפי' כסדר וידוי של יה"כ אומר איתמר,נמי אמר רב חייא בר אשי אמר רב אע"פ שאמרו שואל אדם צרכיו בשומע תפלה אם בא לומר אחר תפלתו אפילו כסדר יום הכפורים אומר:, אמר רב המנונא כמה הלכתא גברוותא איכא למשמע מהני קראי דחנה (שמואל א א, יג) וחנה היא מדברת על לבה מכאן למתפלל צריך שיכוין לבו רק שפתיה נעות מכאן למתפלל שיחתוך בשפתיו וקולה לא ישמע מכאן שאסור להגביה קולו בתפלתו ויחשבה עלי לשכורה מכאן ששכור אסור להתפלל,ויאמר אליה עלי עד מתי תשתכרין וגו' א"ר אלעזר מכאן לרואה בחברו 31a. bHe brought a valuable cup worth four hundred izuzand broke it before them and they became sad. /b,The Gemara also relates: bRav Ashi made a weddingfeast bfor his sonand bhe saw the Sages, who were excessively joyous. He brought a cup ofextremely valuable bwhite glass and broke it before them, and they became sad. /b,Similarly, the Gemara relates: bThe Sages said to Rav Hamnuna Zuti at the weddingfeast bof Mar, son of Ravina: Let the Master sing for us.Since he believed that the merriment had become excessive, bhe said to them,singing: bWoe unto us, for we shall die, woe unto us, for we shall die. They said to him: What shall we respond after you?What is the chorus of the song? bHe said to them,you should respond: bWhere is Torah and where is mitzva that protect us? /b,In a similar vein, bRabbi Yoḥa said in the name of Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai: One is forbidden to fill his mouth with mirth in this world,as long as we are in exile ( ige’onim /i), bas it is stated:“When the Lord returns the captivity of Zion we will be as dreamers” (Psalms 126:1). Only b“then will our mouths fill with laughter and our lips with song”(Psalms 126:2). bWhenwill that joyous era arrive? When b“they will say among nations, the Lord has done great things with these”(Psalms 126:2). bThey said about Reish Lakish that throughout his life he did not fill his mouth with laughter in this world once he heard thisstatement bfrom his teacher, Rabbi Yoḥa. /b,We learned in the mishna that it is appropriate to stand and begin to pray from an atmosphere of gravity. Regarding this, bthe Sages taught: Onemay bneither standand begin to pray, directly bfrominvolvement in bjudgment nordirectly bfromdeliberation over the ruling in a bmatter of ihalakha /i,as his preoccupation with the judgment or the halakhic ruling will distract him from prayer. bRatherit is appropriate to pray directly bfrominvolvement in the study of bauniversally accepted bconclusive ihalakha /ithat leaves no room for further deliberation and will not distract him during prayer., bAndthe Gemara asks: bWhat is an exampleof a bconclusive ihalakha /i? /b,The Gemara offers several examples: bAbaye said:One blike this ihalakha bof Rabbi Zeira,as bRabbi Zeira said: The daughters of Israel were stringent with themselves;to the extent bthat even if they see a drop of blood corresponding tothe size of ba mustardseed bshe sits seven cleandays bfor it.By Torah law, a woman who witnesses the emission of blood during the eleven days following her fixed menstrual period is not considered a menstruating woman; rather she immerses herself and is purified the next day. However, the women of Israel accepted the stringency upon themselves that if they see any blood whatsoever, they act as it if were the blood of a izava /i, which obligates her to count seven more clean days before becoming ritually pure (see Leviticus 15:25).,Citing an additional example of a conclusive ihalakha /i, bRava said:One blike this ihalakha bof Rav Hoshaya, as Rav Hoshaya said: A person may employ artificeto circumvent obligations incumbent buponhim in dealing with bhis grain and bring it intothe courtyard bin its chaff so that his animal will eatfrom it, bandthe grain bis exemptfrom btithes. iHalakhadictates that one is obligated to tithe grain that has been threshed and piled, regardless of the ultimate purpose for which the grain was intended. By Torah law, one is exempt from tithing grain that was not threshed and is therefore still in its chaff. By rabbinic law, one is prohibited from eating this grain in the framework of a meal. Feeding animals is permitted without first tithing that grain., bAnd if you wish, sayinstead yet another example of a conclusive ihalakha /i, which is the recommended prelude to prayer. One blike this ihalakha bof Rav Huna,as bRav Huna saidthat bRabbi Zeira said: One who lets blood from a consecrated animalthat was consecrated as a sacrifice; deriving bbenefitfrom that blood bis prohibited.Although blood of an offering that was sprinkled on the altar is not considered Temple property, nevertheless, deriving benefit from the blood of a living, consecrated animal is considered prohibited use of Temple property. In so doing, bone misusesproperty consecrated to the Temple, and as in any other case of misusing Temple property, if he did so unwittingly, he is liable to bring a guilt-offering.,It is related that bthe Sages acted in accordance withthe opinion of bour mishnaand rose to pray from an atmosphere of gravity; bRav Ashi acted in accordance withthe opinion of bthe ibaraita /iand preceded his prayer with a conclusive ihalakha /i.,On the topic of proper preparation for prayer, bthe Sages taught: One may neither stand to pray froman atmosphere of bsorrow nor froman atmosphere of blaziness, nor froman atmosphere of blaughter, nor froman atmosphere of bconversation, nor froman atmosphere of bfrivolity, nor froman atmosphere of bpurposeless matters. Rather,one should approach prayer bfroman atmosphere imbued with bthe joy of a mitzva. /b, bSimilarly, a person should neither take leave of another froman atmosphere of bconversation, nor froman atmosphere of blaughter, nor froman atmosphere of bfrivolity, nor froman atmosphere of bpurposeless matters. Rather,one should take leave of another bfrominvolvement in a bmatter of ihalakha /i. As we found inthe books of the Bible dealing with bthe early prophets, that they would conclude their talks with words of praise and consolation. /b, bAnd so Mari, the grandson of Rav Huna, son of Rabbi Yirmeya bar Abba, taught in a ibaraita /i: One should only take leave of another frominvolvement in a bmatter of ihalakha /i, so that, consequently, he will remember him;whenever he recalls the one from whom he took leave, he will think well of him because of the new ihalakhathat he taught him ( iEliyahu Zuta /i)., bAsin the incident related by the Gemara bthat Rav Kahana accompanied Rav Shimi bar Ashi fromthe town of bPum Nahara to the palm grovein bBabylonia. When he arrived there,Rav Kahana bsaid toRav Shimi bar Ashi: bMaster, what is meant by that which people say: These palm treesof bBabylonia have beenin this place from the time of bAdam the firstman buntil now? /b,Rav Shimi bar Ashi bsaid to him: You reminded me of something that Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Ḥanina,said, bas Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, said: What isthe meaning of bthat which is written: “In a land through which no man has passed and where no person [ iadam /i] has settled”(Jeremiah 2:6)? This verse is difficult; bsince it isa land through which bnoperson bhas passed, howcould anyone bhave settledthere permanently? The statement that “no person has settled there” is redundant. bRather,this verse comes bto teachthat bevery landthrough bwhich Adam the firstman passed and bdecreed that it would be settled was settled, and every landthrough bwhichAdam passed and bdecreed that it would not be settled was not settled.Based on this, what people say is true, and the palm trees of Babylonia are from the time of Adam, meaning that from the time of Adam this land was decreed to be suitable for growing palm trees ( iMe’iri /i). The Gemara cited an example of how one who parts from another with Torah learns something new.,Having mentioned the mitzva for a student to accompany his Rabbi, the Gemara relates that bRav Mordekhai accompaniedhis mentor, bRav Shimi bar Ashi,a great distance, bfromthe city of bHagronya to Bei Keifei; and some saythat he accompanied from Hagronya bto Bei Dura. /b,Returning to the topic of preparation for prayer, bthe Sages taughtin the iTosefta /i: bOne who prays must focus his heart toward Heaven. Abba Shaul says: An indication ofthe importance of this bmatteris stated in the verse: “The desire of the humble You have heard, Lord; bdirect their hearts, Your ear will listen”(Psalms 10:17). In other words, if one focuses his heart in prayer as a result of God directing his heart, his prayer will be accepted as God’s ear will listen.,With regard to one’s intent during prayer, bit was taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Yehuda said: This was the custom of Rabbi Akiva, when he would pray with the congregation he would shortenhis prayer band go up, due tohis desire to avoid being an bencumbrance on the congregationby making them wait for him to finish his prayer. bBut when he prayed by himselfhe would extend his prayers to an extent that ba person would leaveRabbi Akiva alone bin one cornerof the study hall bandlater bfind himstill praying bin another corner. And whywould Rabbi Akiva move about bso much? Because of his bows and prostrations.Rabbi Akiva’s enthusiasm in prayer was so great, that as a result of his bows and prostrations, he would unwittingly move from one corner to the other (Rav Hai Gaon).,Many ihalakhotare derived from evoking the prayers of biblical characters. bRabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba said: One should always pray in a house with windows, as it is statedregarding Daniel: “And when Daniel knew that the writing was signed, he went to his house. In his attic bthere were open windowsfacing Jerusalem, and three times a day he knelt upon his knees and prayed and gave thanks before his God, just as he had done before” (Daniel 6:11).,In the iTosefta /i, additional ihalakhotwere derived from Daniel’s prayer. I bmight havethought bthat one could prayas many times as he wishes bthroughout the entire day; it has already been articulated by Daniel,with regard to whom it is stated: b“And three timesa day he knelt upon his knees and prayed.” This teaches that there are fixed prayers., bI might have thought that thispractice of fixed prayer bbeganonly bwhen he came tothe Babylonian bexile; it was stated:“Just bas he had done before.” /b,Further, I bmight havethought bthat one may prayfacing bany direction he wishes; the verse states:The appropriate direction for prayer is b“facing Jerusalem.” /b,Daniel does not describe how these three prayers are distributed during the day. I bmight havethought bthat one may include allthree prayers bat one time; it has already been articulated by Davidthat one may not do so, bas it is written: “Evening and morning and noon,I pray and cry aloud and He hears my voice” (Psalms 55:18).,Furthermore, bI might havethought bthat one may make his voice heard in his iAmida bprayer; it has already been articulated by Hannahin her prayer, bas it is stated:“And Hannah spoke in her heart, only her lips moved band her voice could not be heard”(I Samuel 1:13)., iHalakhotregarding the order of the prayers were also learned from the prayers of biblical characters. I bmight havethought bthat one should request his own needs first, and afterwards recite prayersof thanksgiving and praise; bit has already been articulated by Solomonthat this is not so, as in Solomon’s prayer at the dedication of the Holy Temple bit is stated: “To hear the song and the prayerthat Your servant prays before You today” (I Kings 8:28). In this verse, bsong is prayerin the sense of thanks and praise, and bprayer isone’s brequestof his personal needs. Therefore, one who is praying bdoes not speak matters of request afterhe began to recite iemet veyatziv /iprior to the iAmidaprayer, which is the essence of prayer. Rather, he begins with praise in the first three blessings of the iAmidaprayer, and only thereafter does he include requests for his needs. bBut after the iAmida bprayerthere is no limit. If he desires to recite beven the equivalent of the order of the confession of Yom Kippur,he may breciteit.,This bwas also statedby an iamora /i; bRav Ḥiyya bar Ashi saidthat bRav said: Althoughthe Sages bsaidthat bone requests hispersonal bneeds inthe blessing: bWho listens to prayer,that is with regard to one who wishes to do so as part of the iAmidaprayer. bIf he comesto add band reciteadditional requests baftercompleting bhis iAmida bprayer, evenif his personal requests are bthe equivalent of the order of the confession of Yom Kippur,he may brecitethem., bRav Hamnuna said: How many significant ihalakhot bcan be derived from these versesof the prayer bof Hannah?As it says: “And Hannah spoke in her heart, only her lips moved and her voice could not be heard, so Eli thought her to be drunk” (I Samuel 1:13). The Gemara elaborates: bFromthat which is stated bhere: “And Hannah spoke in her heart,”the ihalakhathat bone who prays must focus his hearton his prayer is derived. And bfromthat which is stated bhere: “Only her lips moved,”the ihalakhathat bone who prays must enunciatethe words bwith his lips,not only contemplate them in his heart, is derived. bFromthat which is written bhere: “And her voice could not be heard,”the ihalakhathat bone is forbidden to raise his voice in his iAmida bprayeras it must be recited silently. bFromthe continuation of the verse bhere: “So Eli thought her to be drunk,”the ihalakhathat ba drunk person is forbidden to pray.That is why he rebuked her.,On the subject of Eli’s rebuke of Hannah, as it is stated: b“And Eli said to her: How long will you remain drunk?Remove your wine from yourself” (I Samuel 1:14); bRabbi Elazar said: From herethe ihalakhathat bone who sees in another /b
39. Babylonian Talmud, Megillah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

28b. ואין ניאותין בהם ואין מטיילין בהם ואין נכנסין בהן בחמה מפני החמה ובגשמים מפני הגשמים ואין מספידין בהן הספד של יחיד אבל קורין בהן ושונין בהן ומספידין בהן הספד של רבים,א"ר יהודה אימתי בישובן אבל בחורבנן מניחין אותן ועולין בהן עשבים ולא יתלוש מפני עגמת נפש,עשבים מאן דכר שמייהו חסורי מיחסרא והכי קתני ומכבדין אותן ומרביצין אותן כדי שלא יעלו בהן עשבים א"ר יהודה אימתי בישובן אבל בחורבנן מניחין אותן לעלות עלו בהם עשבים לא יתלוש מפני עגמת נפש,א"ר אסי בתי כנסיות שבבבל על תנאי הן עשויין ואעפ"כ אין נוהגין בהן קלות ראש ומאי ניהו חשבונות,אמר רב אסי בהכ"נ שמחשבין בו חשבונות מלינין בו את המת מלינין סלקא דעתך לא סגי דלאו הכי אלא לסוף שילינו בו מת מצוה:,ואין ניאותין בהן: אמר רבא חכמים ותלמידיהם מותרין דאמר ריב"ל מאי בי רבנן ביתא דרבנן:,ואין נכנסין בהן בחמה מפני החמה ובגשמים מפני הגשמים: כי הא דרבינא ורב אדא בר מתנה הוו קיימי ושאלי שאילתא מרבא אתא זילחא דמיטרא עיילי לבי כנישתא אמרי האי דעיילינן לבי כנישתא לאו משום מיטרא אלא משום דשמעתא בעא צילותא כיומא דאסתנא,א"ל רב אחא בריה דרבא לרב אשי אי אצטריך ליה לאיניש למיקרי גברא מבי כנישתא מאי א"ל אי צורבא מרבנן הוא לימא הלכתא ואי תנא הוא לימא מתני' ואי קרא הוא לימא פסוקא ואי לא לימא ליה לינוקא אימא לי פסוקיך א"נ נישהי פורתא וניקום:,ומספידין בהן הספד של רבים: ה"ד הספידא דרבים מחוי רב חסדא כגון הספידא דקאי ביה רב ששת מחוי רב ששת כגון הספידא דקאי ביה רב חסדא,רפרם אספדה לכלתיה בבי כנישתא אמר משום יקרא דידי ודמיתא אתו כוליה עלמא ר' זירא ספדיה לההוא מרבנן בבי כנישתא אמר אי משום יקרא דידי אי משום יקרא דידיה דמיתא אתו כולי עלמא,ריש לקיש ספדיה לההוא צורבא מרבנן דשכיח בארעא דישראל דהוי תני הלכתא בכ"ד שורתא אמר ווי חסרא ארעא דישראל גברא רבה,ההוא דהוי תני הלכתא סיפרא וסיפרי ותוספתא ושכיב אתו ואמרו ליה לרב נחמן ליספדיה מר אמר היכי נספדיה הי צנא דמלי סיפרי דחסר,תא חזי מה בין תקיפי דארעא דישראל לחסידי דבבל,תנן התם ודאשתמש בתגא חלף תני ריש לקיש זה המשתמש במי ששונה הלכות כתרה של תורה,ואמר עולא לשתמש איניש במאן דתני ארבעה ולא לשתמש במאן דמתני ארבעה כי הא דריש לקיש הוה אזיל באורחא מטא עורקמא דמיא אתא ההוא גברא ארכביה אכתפיה וקא מעבר ליה א"ל קרית אמר ליה קרינא תנית תנינא ארבעה סידרי משנה א"ל פסלת לך ארבעה טורי וטענת בר לקיש אכתפך שדי בר לקישא במיא,אמר ליה ניחא לי דאשמעינן למר אי הכי גמור מיני הא מלתא דאמר ר' זירא בנות ישראל הן החמירו על עצמן שאפילו רואות טיפת דם כחרדל יושבות עליו שבעה נקיים,תנא דבי אליהו כל השונה הלכות מובטח לו שהוא בן עולם הבא שנאמר (חבקוק ג, ו) הליכות עולם לו אל תקרי הליכות אלא הלכות,ת"ר 28b. band one may not adorn oneself inside them; nor may one wander about inside them; nor may one enter them in the sunfor protection bfrom the sun, or in the rainto find shelter bfrom the rain; nor may one offer a eulogy inside them for an individual,which is a private event. bHowever, one may readthe Bible binside them, and one may study ihalakhot binside them, and one may offer a eulogy inside them fora Torah scholar, if bthe publicattends the eulogy., bRabbi Yehuda said: Whendoes this apply? bWhenthe synagogues are boccupiedby the people using them. bBut when they are ina state of bruin, they should be left aloneso that bgrass will sprout up inside them. Andthat grass bshould not be pickedand removed, bdue tothe banguishthat it will bring to those who see it. It will remind them of the disrepair of the synagogue and the need to rebuild it.,The Gemara asks: Why did Rabbi Yehuda discuss the ihalakhaabout bgrass? Who mentionedanything babout it?The Gemara explains: The text of the ibaraita bis incomplete and is teaching the following: Andamong the other things that may be done in synagogues, bthey shouldalso be sure to bsweep them andto bsprinkletheir floors with water, bin order that grass not sprout up in them. Rabbi Yehuda said: Whendoes this apply? bWhenthe synagogues are boccupiedby the people using them, bbut when they are ina state of bruin, they should be left aloneso that grass bwill sprout up inside them.If bgrass did sprout up, it should not be removed, due tothe banguishthat this will bring to those who see it., bRav Asi said: Synagogues in Babylonia are builtfrom the outset bwith a stipulationthat they not have the full sanctity of a synagogue, in order that it be permitted to use them for the community’s general needs. bBut nevertheless,one bshould not act inside them with frivolity.The Gemara explains: bWhat ismeant by bthis?One should not make business bcalculationsin a synagogue., bRav Asi said:With regard to ba synagogue in whichpeople bmakebusiness bcalculations, they willeventually bkeep a corpse inside it overnight.The Gemara questions the wording of this dictum: bCan itreally benter your mindto say that bthey willever actually bkeep a corpse inside it overnight?Could it really be that bthere will not be any other alternative? Rather,Rav Asi means that as a punishment for acting with frivolity people in the community will die, including those who have no family, and so bultimately they willhave to bkeep a corpse with no one to bury it [ imet mitzva /i] overnightin the synagogue.,§ The ibaraitataught: bAnd one may not adorn oneself inside them. Rava said:The prohibition applies only to laypeople, but bTorah scholars and their disciples are permittedto do so, bas Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: Whatis the meaning of the term: iBeiof the Sages,which is used to describe a study hall? It is a shortened form of bhouse [ ibeita /i] of the Sages.In order to facilitate the constant presence of the Torah scholars in the study hall, it is permitted for them to use the hall as though it were their home.,The ibaraitacontinued: bAnd nor may one enter them in the sunfor protection bfrom the sun, or in the rainto find shelter bfrom the rain.The Gemara explains: This bis similar to thatcase of bRavina and Rav Adda bar Mattana. They were standing and asking a question of Rava,when ba shower [ izilḥa /i] of rain beganto fall upon them. bTheyall bentered the synagogue, saying: Our having entered the synagogue is not due to the rain,that we stay dry; brather, it is due tothe fact that bthe ihalakha /iwe were discussing brequires clarity like the day the north wind [ iistena /i]blows and the sky is perfectly clear. Therefore, we are entering the synagogue for the sake of studying Torah, which is certainly permitted., bRav Aḥa, son of Rava, said to Rav Ashi: If a person needs to summon an individual frominside ba synagogue, whatshould he do, since it is not permitted to enter a synagogue just for that purpose? Rav Ashi bsaid to him: If he is a young Torah scholar, let him recite a ihalakha /iupon entering the synagogue; band if he is a itanna /iwho memorizes large numbers of imishnayot /i, blet him recitevarious imishnayot /i; and if he is an expert inthe bBible, let him recite a verse; and ifhe is bnotable to do even this, blet him say to a child: Recite for me a versethat you have learned today. bAlternatively, he should remainin the synagogue bfor a shorttime bandonly afterward bstand upand leave.,The ibaraitacontinues: bAnd one may offer a eulogy inside them fora Torah scholar if bthe publicattends the eulogy. The Gemara asks: bWhat are the circumstances of a eulogy for the public? Rav Ḥisda depicteda case: bFor example, a eulogyfor a Torah scholar bat which Rav Sheshet is present.Owing to his presence, many people will come. bRav Sheshethimself bdepictedanother case: bFor example, a eulogy at which Rav Ḥisda is present. /b,The Gemara offers another example: bRaframonce beulogized his daughter-in-law inside a synagogue. He said: Due to my honor andthe honor bof the deceased, everyone will cometo the eulogy. It will consequently be a public event, and it is therefore permitted to hold it in a synagogue. Similarly, bRabbi Zeiraonce beulogized a certain Sage inside a synagogue. He said: Whether due to my honor, or whether due to the honor of the deceased, everyone will cometo the eulogy., bReish Lakishonce beulogized a certain young Torah scholar who was frequentlypresent bin Eretz Yisrael and who used to study ihalakhain the twenty-fourth rowof the study hall. He sat so far back because he was not one of the principal scholars. Nevertheless, when he died, Reish Lakish bsaid: Alas, Eretz Yisrael has lost a great man. /b,In contrast, there was ba certain man who used to study ihalakha /i, the iSifra /i, and the iSifrei /i, and the iTosefta /i, and he died.People bcame and said to Rav Naḥman: Let the Master eulogize him. He saidto them: bHow can I eulogize him?Should I say: bAlas, a basket filled with books is lost?This would not be true. Although the man studied many areas of Torah, he was not proficient in them.,The Gemara compares the conduct of Reish Lakish in Eretz Yisrael to that of Rav Naḥman in Babylonia. bComeand bsee whatthe difference is bbetween the harshscholars bof Eretz Yisrael and the saintly ones of Babylonia.Although Reish Lakish was known for his harsh nature, he was still more respectful than Rav Naḥman, who was known for his saintliness., bWe learnedin a mishna bthere( iAvot1:13): bAnd one who makes use of the crown [ itaga /i]of Torah learning bwill perishfrom the world. bReish Lakish taught: Thisis referring to bone whoallows himself to be bserved by one who studies ihalakhot /i,which is bthe crown of the Torah. /b, bAnd Ulla said:It is better that ba person should be served by one who studies fourorders of the Mishna, band he should notallow himself to bbe served by one who teachesto others bfourorders of the Mishna, bas in thatcase bof Reish Lakish. He was traveling along the roadwhen bhe reacheda deep bpuddle of water. A certain man cameand bplaced him upon his shoulders andbegan btransferring himto the other side. Reish Lakish bsaid to him: Have you readthe Bible? bHe said to him: I have readit. He then asked: bHave you studiedthe Mishna? He answered him: bI have studied four orders of the Mishna.Reish Lakish then bsaid to him: You have hewnthese bfour mountains andyet byou bear the weight of the son of Lakish upon your shoulders?It is inappropriate for you to carry me; bthrow the son of Lakish into the water. /b,The man bsaid toReish Lakish: bIt is pleasing for me to serve the Masterin this way. Reish Lakish said to him: bIf so, learn from me this matter that Rabbi Zeira said.In this way you will be considered my disciple, and it will then be appropriate for you to serve me. bJewish women were strict upon themselves in that even if they see a spot ofmenstrual bbloodthat is only the size bof a mustard seed they wait on its account seven cleandays before immersing themselves in a ritual bath to purify themselves., bThe school of Eliyahu taught: Anyone who studies ihalakhot /ievery day, bhe is guaranteed that he is destined for the World-to-Come, as it is stated: “His ways [ ihalikhot /i] are eternal”(Habakkuk 3:6): bDo not readthe verse as ihalikhot[ways]; rather,read it as ihalakhot /i.Consequently, the verse indicates that the study of the ihalakhotbrings one to eternal life., bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i:
40. Babylonian Talmud, Niddah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

13a. מתני׳ big strongכל /strong /big היד המרבה לבדוק בנשים משובחת ובאנשים תקצץ, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big מ"ש נשים ומאי שנא אנשים נשים לאו בנות הרגשה נינהו משובחות אנשים דבני הרגשה נינהו תקצץ,אי הכי מאי איריא מרבה כי לא מרבה נמי כי קתני מרבה אנשים,תנא בד"א לענין שכבת זרע אבל לענין זוב אף הוא משובח כנשים,ואפי' לענין שכבת זרע אם בא לבדוק בצרור או בחרס בודק,ובמטלית לא והתניא בודק עצמו במטלית ובכל דבר שרוצה כדאמר אביי במטלית עבה הכא נמי במטלית עבה,והיכא איתמר דאביי אהא דתנן היה אוכל בתרומה והרגיש שנזדעזעו איבריו אוחז באמתו ובולע את התרומה,אוחז והתניא רבי אליעזר אומר כל האוחז באמתו ומשתין כאילו מביא מבול לעולם אמר אביי במטלית עבה,רבא אמר אפילו תימא במטלית רכה כיון דעקר עקר ואביי חייש דלמא אתי לאוסופי ורבא לא חייש דלמא אתי לאוסופי, ולא והתניא הא למה זה דומה לנותן אצבע בעין שכל זמן שאצבע בעין עין מדמעת וחוזרת ומדמעת,ורבא כל אחמומי והדר אחמומי בשעתיה לא שכיח,גופא ר"א אומר כל האוחז באמה ומשתין כאילו מביא מבול לעולם אמרו לו לרבי אליעזר והלא נצוצות נתזין על רגליו ונראה ככרות שפכה ונמצא מוציא לעז על בניו שהן ממזרים,אמר להן מוטב שיוציא לעז על בניו שהן ממזרים ואל יעשה עצמו רשע שעה אחת לפני המקום,תניא אידך אמר להן רבי אליעזר לחכמים אפשר יעמוד אדם במקום גבוה וישתין או ישתין בעפר תיחוח ואל יעשה עצמו רשע שעה אחת לפני המקום,הי אמר להו ברישא אילימא קמייתא אמר להו ברישא בתר דאמר להו איסורא הדר אמר להו תקנתא,אלא הא אמר להו ברישא ואמרו ליה אין לו מקום גבוה ועפר תיחוח מאי אמר להן מוטב שיוציא לעז על בניו ואל יעשה עצמו רשע שעה אחת לפני המקום,וכל כך למה מפני שמוציא שכבת זרע לבטלה דא"ר יוחנן כל המוציא שכבת זרע לבטלה חייב מיתה שנאמר (בראשית לח, י) וירע בעיני ה' (את) אשר עשה וימת גם אותו,רבי יצחק ורבי אמי אמרי כאילו שופך דמים שנאמר (ישעיהו נז, ה) הנחמים באלים תחת כל עץ רענן שוחטי הילדים בנחלים תחת סעיפי הסלעים אל תקרי שוחטי אלא סוחטי,רב אסי אמר כאילו עובד עבודת כוכבים כתיב הכא תחת כל עץ רענן וכתיב התם (דברים יב, ב) על ההרים הרמים ותחת כל עץ רענן,רב יהודה ושמואל הוו קיימי אאיגרא דבי כנישתא דשף ויתיב בנהרדעא אמר ליה רב יהודה לשמואל צריך אני להשתין א"ל שיננא אחוז באמתך והשתן לחוץ,היכי עביד הכי והתניא ר"א אומר כל האוחז באמתו ומשתין כאילו מביא מבול לעולם,אמר אביי עשאו כבולשת דתנן בולשת שנכנס לעיר בשעת שלום חביות פתוחות אסורות סתומות מותרות בשעת מלחמה אלו ואלו מותרות לפי שאין להן פנאי לנסך אלמא דכיון דבעיתי לא אתי לנסוכי הכא נמי כיון דבעיתי לא אתי להרהורי,והכא מאי ביעתותא איכא איבעית אימא ביעתותא דליליא ודאיגרא ואיבעית אימא ביעתותא דרביה ואב"א ביעתותא דשכינה ואיבעית אימא אימתא דמריה עליה דקרי שמואל עליה אין זה ילוד אשה,ואיבעית אימא נשוי הוה דאמר רב נחמן אם היה נשוי מותר,ואיבעית אימא כי הא אורי ליה דתני אבא בריה דרבי בנימין בר חייא אבל מסייע בביצים מלמטה ואיבעית אימא כי הא אורי ליה דאמר רבי אבהו אמר רבי יוחנן גבול יש לו מעטרה ולמטה מותר 13a. strongMISHNA: /strong With regard to bany hand that is diligent to examinebodily emissions to ascertain ritual impurity, bamong womensuch a hand bis praiseworthy. But among mensuch a hand bshould be severed,as this action is apt to lead to a seminal emission for naught., strongGEMARA: /strong The Gemara asks: bWhat is differentabout bwomen and what is differentabout bmen,that women are praised for examining for bodily emissions while men are castigated for the same? The Gemara answers: bWomen are not susceptible tosexual barousalby this action, and therefore when a woman is diligent to examine herself she is considered bpraiseworthy;whereas bmen, who are susceptible tosexual barousaland may experience a seminal emission as a result of this contact, may not do so, and the hand of a man who conducts frequent examinations for emissions bshould be severed. /b,The Gemara asks: bIf so, whydoes the mishna state bspecificallyamong men that only the hand that is bdiligentto examine, i.e., that does so often, should be severed? Even bwhena man bis not diligentto examine, but does so occasionally, this action is balsoapt to cause a seminal emission. The Gemara answers: bWhenthe mishna bteaches:Any hand that is bdiligentto examine, it states this only bwith regard to women,as men should not examine even occasionally.,The Gemara continues to discuss the examination of men for seminal emissions. It is btaughtin a ibaraita /i: bIn whatcase bis this statement,that men should not examine themselves, bsaid?It is said bwith regard toan examination for bsemen. But with regard toa man who examines himself for gonorrhea-like bdischarge [ izov /i], he too is praiseworthyfor examining diligently, bas womenare. The reason is that a man who experiences two such discharges is ritually impure but is not obligated to bring an offering, whereas one who experiences three such emissions must bring an offering as a izav /i. Therefore, it is important for a man who experiences a gonorrhea-like discharge to examine and count his emissions carefully.,The ibaraitaadds: bAnd even with regard to semen, if one wants to examinehimself bwith a rock or witha piece of bearthenware,which are hard and will not warm the body, bhe may examinehimself in this manner.,The Gemara asks: bAndmay a man bnotexamine himself bwitha linen bcloth? But isn’t it taughtin a ibaraita /i: A man bmay examine himself with a cloth,to see if he has emitted semen, bor with anysimilar bitem that he wants?The Gemara answers: Just bas Abaye said,with regard to a different issue, that it is referring bto a coarse cloth,which will not warm one’s body, bhere too,the ibaraitais referring bto a coarse cloth,which will not lead to a seminal emission.,The Gemara asks: bAnd where wasthis statement bof Abaye stated?It was stated bwith regard to that which we learnedin a mishna (40a): If a priest bwas eating iterumaand he sensed that his limbs quaked,indicating that a seminal emission was imminent, he should firmly bhold his penisto prevent the emission from leaving his body, band swallow the iteruma /iwhile ritually pure.,A difficulty was raised with regard to this mishna: May he actually bholdhis penis? bBut isn’t it taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Eliezer says:With regard to banyone who holds his penis and urinates,it is considered bas though he is bringing a flood to the world,as masturbation was one of the sins that led to the flood ( iSanhedrin108b)? bAbaye saysin resolution of this difficulty that the mishna is referring to one who holds his penis bwith a coarse cloth. /b, bRava sayswith regard to that mishna: bYoumay beven saythat it is referring to a priest who holds his penis bwith a soft cloth,and the reason it is permitted is that boncethe semen bhasalready been buprootedfrom his body, it is buprooted,and his subsequent holding of the penis, even with a soft cloth, does not increase the emission of semen. bAnd Abayeprohibits the use of a soft cloth even here, as he is bconcernedthat bperhapsdue to the contact of this cloth one might bcome to increasethe emission of semen. bBut Rava is not concernedthat bperhapsone might bcome to increasethe emission.,The Gemara asks: bAndis Rava bnotconcerned for this possibility? bBut isn’t it taughtin a ibaraita /i: bTo what is thisrepeated examination of a man bcomparable? Toone who bplaces a finger inhis beye, for as long asthe bfingeris bin the eye,the beye will tear and continue to tear.Here too, the priest’s action will lead to an increased emission of semen.,The Gemara answers: bAnd Ravawould claim that if the priest’s limbs were not quaking and the semen was coming out in drops, there is indeed a concern that an examination might increase the emission. But when he feels his limbs quaking, this concern does not apply. The reason is that with regard to bany warmingof the body that leads to a seminal emission bandthat is bthenfollowed by another bwarming at the timewhen the semen is being uprooted, it is buncommonfor the latter warming to increase the emission. Consequently, in this case the priest may hold his penis even with a soft cloth.,The Gemara discusses bthematter bitself. Rabbi Eliezer says:With regard to banyone who holdshis bpenis and urinates,it is considered bas though he is bringing a flood to the world.The Rabbis bsaid to Rabbi Eliezer: Butif one does not hold his penis, bsmall drops are sprayed on his legs, and he appears as one whose penis has been severed.A man with that affliction is incapable of fathering children. People who see urine on his legs might suspect that he is suffering from that condition band as a resultthey will bcast aspersions about his childrenand say bthat they are children born from a forbidden relationship [ imamzerim /i]. /b,Rabbi Eliezer bsaid to them: It is preferable thatpeople bcast aspersions about his children that they are imamzerim /i, and he should not render himself wickedeven bone moment before the Omnipresent. /b,With regard to the same issue, it bis taughtin banother ibaraitathat bRabbi Eliezer said tothe other bRabbisin response: It is bpossiblefor one to avoid spraying urine on his legs. How so? bLet a person stand on an elevated place and urinatedownward, bor urinate intoan area where there is bloose soil,which absorbs the urine, so that it does not ricochet upward, band he should not render himself wickedeven bone moment before the Omnipresent. /b,The Gemara asks: bWhichof these replies bdidRabbi Eliezer bsay tothe Rabbis bfirst? If we saythat it was the bfirststatement, i.e., that one should not hold his penis even if people might cast aspersions about his children, that he bsaid tothe Rabbis bfirst,and subsequently he told them that there was a way to avoid urine being sprayed on his legs, this is difficult; bafter saying to themthat it is ba prohibition, would he then say to thema practical bremedy?By saying that one can avoid urine being sprayed on his legs, Rabbi Eliezer indicated that if one cannot do so he may hold his penis, which contradicts his other statement., bRather,clearly bhe said thispractical solution btothe Rabbis bfirst, and theythen bsaid to him:If bone does not have an elevated place or loose earthupon which he can urinate, bwhatshould he do? In response to this question, bhe said to them: It is preferablethat people bcast aspersions about his children that they are imamzerim /i, and he should not render himself wickedeven bone moment before the Omnipresent. /b,The Gemara asks: bAndwhy must one refrain bto that extentfrom holding his penis? bBecauseas the result of holding his penis bhemight bemit semen for naught. As Rabbi Yoḥa says: Anyone who emits semen for naught is liableto receive the punishment of bdeathat the hand of Heaven, bas it is statedwith regard to O, son of Judah: “And it came to pass, when he engaged in intercourse with his brother’s wife, that he spilled it on the ground, lest he should give seed to his brother. bAnd the thing that he did was evil in the eyes of the Lord, and He slew him also”(Genesis 38:9–10)., bRabbi Yitzḥak and Rabbi Ami say:One who emits semen for naught is considered bas though he sheds blood, as it is stated:“But draw near here, you sons of the sorceress, the seed of the adulterer and the harlot…Are you not children of transgression, a seed of falsehood, byou that inflame yourselves among the terebinths, under every leafy tree, that slay [ ishoḥatei /i] the children in the valleys, under the clefts of the rocks?”(Isaiah 57:3–5). bDo not readthis word as ishoḥatei /i; rather,read it as isoḥatei /i,i.e., one who squeezes out [ isoḥet /i] semen is considered to have shed the blood of the children who could have been born from that seed., bRav Asi says:It is considered bas though he worships idols,as bit is written here: “Under every leafy tree,” and it is written there,with regard to the mitzva of eradicating idols from Eretz Yisrael: “You shall destroy all the places, where the nations that you are to dispossess worshipped their gods, bupon the high mountains,and upon the hills, band under every leafy tree”(Deuteronomy 12:2).,§ With regard to the issue of holding one’s penis for the purpose of urinating, the Gemara relates that bRav Yehuda and Shmuel were standing on the roof of the synagogue that was destroyed and rebuilt in Neharde’a. Rav Yehuda said to Shmuel:What can I do? bI need to urinate.Shmuel bsaid to him: iShina /i, hold your penis,so that the water does not fall onto the synagogue roof, band urinate outward,away from the synagogue.,The Gemara asks: bHow couldRav Yehuda bdo so? But isn’t it taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Eliezer says:With regard to banyone who holds his penis and urinates,it is considered bas though he is bringing a flood to the world? /b, bAbaye says:The Sages brenderedthe halakhic status of this situation blikethat of ba troop of marauders, as we learnedin a mishna ( iAvoda Zara70b): With regard to ba troop of marauders that entered a town,if they did so bin a time of peace, open casksof wine bare forbidden,in case the marauders used the wine for libations in idol worship, whereas bsealedcasks bare permitted. In a time of war,both bthese and those are permitted, becausethe marauders bdo not have leisure to pour libations. Evidently, sincethese marauders bare afraid, they will not come to pour libations. Here too,in this incident involving Rav Yehuda, bsince he is afraid he will not come to havesexual bthoughts. /b,The Gemara asks: bAnd what fear is there here,in the case of Rav Yehuda? The Gemara explains: bIf you wish, saythat there is bthe fear of the night and of the roof,i.e., that he might fall. bAnd if you wish, saythat bthe awe of his teacher,Shmuel, is upon him. bAnd if you wish, saythat bthe awe of the Divine Presencethat dwells in the synagogue is upon Rav Yehuda. bAnd if you wish, saythat bthe awe of his Master,God, is upon him. Rav Yehuda was renowned for his fear of Heaven, bas Shmuel declared abouthim: bThis one is not born of a woman,but is like an angel., bAnd if you wish, saya different answer, that Rav Yehuda was allowed to hold his penis while urinating because he bwas married; as Rav Naḥman said: If one is married,it is bpermittedfor him to hold his penis while urinating, as his improper sexual urges are not as strong., bAnd if you wish, saythat Shmuel bruled forRav Yehuda bin accordance with this ibaraita /i, bwhich Abba, son of Rabbi Binyamin bar Ḥiyya, teaches:One may not hold the penis itself while urinating, bbuta man who wishes to urinate bmay assistthe process bbyholding the btesticles from below.Shmuel instructed Rav Yehuda to act in this manner. bAnd if you wish, saythat bShmuel ruledfor Rav Yehuda bin accordance with that which Rabbi Abbahu saidthat bRabbi Yoḥa says: There isa clear bdemarcationin the prohibition against holding one’s penis while urinating: bFrom the corona and below,toward the tip of the penis, it is bpermittedto hold, as this will not lead to arousal.
41. Babylonian Talmud, Qiddushin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

52b. והא מתניתין דגזל דידה וקאמר רב אינה מקודשת לא קשיא הא דשדיך הא דלא שדיך,ההיא איתתא דהוה קא משיא כרעא במשיכלא דמיא אתא ההוא גברא חטף זוזי מחבריה ושדא לה אמר לה מיקדשת לי אתא ההוא גברא לקמיה דרבא אמר לית דחש להא דר' שמעון דאמר סתם גזילה יאוש בעלים הוי,ההוא אריסא דקדיש במוזא דשמכי אתא לקמיה דרבא אמר ליה מאן אחלך והני מילי במוזא אבל כישא מצי אמר ליה אנא שקלי כישא שקיל את כישא כישא כי כישא,ההוא סרסיא דקדיש בפרומא דשיכרא אתא מריה דשיכרא אשכחיה אמר ליה אמאי לא תיתיב מהאי חריפא אתא לקמיה דרבא אמר לא אמרו כלך אצל יפות אלא לענין תרומה בלבד,דתניא כיצד אמרו תורם שלא מדעת תרומתו תרומה הרי שירד לתוך שדה חבירו וליקט ותרם שלא ברשות אם חושש משום גזל אין תרומתו תרומה ואם לאו תרומתו תרומה,ומנין היה יודע אם חושש משום גזל אם לאו הרי שבא בעל הבית ומצאו ואמר לו כלך אצל יפות אם נמצאו יפות מהם תרומתו תרומה ואם לאו אין תרומתו תרומה היו הבעלים מלקטים ומוסיפים בין כך ובין כך תרומתו תרומה,אבל הכא משום כיסופא הוא דעבד ואינה מקודשת, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big המקדש בחלקו בין קדשי קדשים בין קדשים קלים אינה מקודשת במעשר שני בין שוגג בין מזיד לא קידש דברי רבי מאיר רבי יהודה אומר בשוגג לא קידש במזיד קידש,ובהקדש במזיד קידש ובשוגג לא קידש דברי ר' מאיר רבי יהודה אומר בשוגג קידש במזיד לא קידש, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big נימא מתניתין דלא כרבי יוסי הגלילי דתניא (ויקרא ה, כא) ומעלה מעל בה' לרבות קדשים קלים שהן ממונו דברי ר' יוסי הגלילי,אפי' תימא ר' יוסי הגלילי כי קאמר ר' יוסי הגלילי מחיים אבל לאחר שחיטה לא מאי טעמא כי קא זכו משלחן גבוה קא זכו,דיקא נמי דקתני המקדש בחלקו בין קדשי קדשים ובין קדשים קלים לא קידש ש"מ,תנו רבנן לאחר פטירתו של ר' מאיר אמר להם רבי יהודה לתלמידיו אל יכנסו תלמידי רבי מאיר לכאן מפני שקנתרנים הם ולא ללמוד תורה הם באים אלא לקפחני בהלכות הם באים דחק סומכוס ונכנס אמר להם כך שנה לי ר' מאיר המקדש בחלקו בין קדשי קדשים ובין קדשים קלים לא קידש,כעס ר' יהודה עליהם אמר להם לא כך אמרתי לכם אל יכנסו מתלמידי ר"מ לכאן מפני שקנתרנים הם ולא ללמוד תורה הם באים אלא לקפחני בהלכות הם באים וכי אשה בעזרה מנין,אמר ר' יוסי יאמרו מאיר שכב יהודה כעס יוסי שתק דברי תורה מה תהא עליה וכי אין אדם עשוי לקבל קידושין לבתו בעזרה ואין אשה עשויה לעשות לה שליח לקבל קידושיה בעזרה ועוד דחקה ונכנסה מאי,תניא ר' יהודה אומר מקודשת ר' יוסי אומר אינה מקודשת אמר ר' יוחנן שניהם מקרא אחד דרשו (במדבר יח, ט) וזה יהיה לך מקדש הקדשים מן האש ר' יהודה סבר לך ולכל צרכיך ור' יוסי סבר כאש מה אש לאכילה אף הוא נמי לאכילה,אמר ר' יוחנן 52b. The Gemara questions this analysis: bButdoesn’t bthe mishnadeal bwitha case where the bstolen itemis bhers, andyet bRav says she is not betrothed.The Gemara answers: This is bnot difficult; thiscase, in the ibaraita /i, is referring to a situation bwhere he had arrangedto betroth her beforehand, which indicates that she has released him from his obligation to return it, but bthatcase, in the mishna, is referring to a situation bwhere he had not arrangedhis marriage with her, so it is stolen property and she is not betrothed.,The Gemara relates: There was ba certain woman who was washing her feet in a vessel of water. A certain man camealong, bgrabbeda few bdinars from anotherperson, band threwthem bto her,and bsaid to her: You are betrothed to me. That mansubsequently bcame before Rava,to inquire as to the status of the woman. Rava bsaid: There is notanyone bwho is concerned for thisopinion bof Rabbi Shimon, who said:In ban ordinarycase of brobberythe bowner has despairedof recovering the stolen item, and it belongs to the robber. Rather, the assumption is that the owner has not despaired of recovering the stolen item. In this case, since the stolen dinars do not belong to the man, his betrothal is of no effect.,The Gemara relates another incident: The was ba certain sharecropper who betrotheda woman bwith a handful [ ibemoza /i] of onions [ ideshamkhei /i]taken from the field where he worked. bHe came before Ravato ask about the status of the woman. Rava bsaid to him: Who relinquishedthese onions bto you?Since the owner did not allow you to take them, they are stolen property, and the woman is not betrothed. The Gemara comments: bAnd this matter appliesonly bto a handful, butif he took ba bundleof onions and betrothed a woman with them, the sharecropper bcan say tothe owner: bI took a bundle, you take a bundle; one bundle foranother bbundle.Since in any case they divide the crop between them, it is not considered theft.,The Gemara relates another incident: There was ba certain brewer [ isarseya /i]who was making date beer for someone, bwho betrotheda woman bwith sediment [ ibifruma /i] from the beer. The owner of the beer cameand bfound him.The owner bsaid to him: Why don’t you giveher the betrothal bfrom this,the bsharpsediments that are of better quality than the kind you chose? The brewer bcame before Ravato ask whether the owner’s comment indicated that he had relinquished his rights to the sediment, which would mean the woman is betrothed. Rava bsaidto him: The Sages bsaidthat if the owner discovers that someone has taken something of his without permission and says: bGo toand take btheitem of bbetterquality, that it is a sign he agrees with the man’s action bonly with regard to iterumaalone,and you did not have the right to use the sediment.,The Gemara explains the previous statement: bAs it is taughtin a ibaraita( iTosefta /i, iTerumot1:5): bWhen did they saythat in the case where bone separates iterumawithoutthe owner’s bconsent, his iterumaisconsidered iteruma /i?The ibaraitaclarifies: In a case where bthere wassomeone bwho entered another’s field and gatheredproduce from it, band separated iterumawithoutthe owner’s bpermission, ifthe owner is bconcerned abouthis actions and view it bas robbery, his iterumais not iteruma /i, but ifhe is bnotconcerned, bhis iterumais iteruma /i. /b,The ibaraitacontinues: bAnd from where wouldthe gatherer bknow whetherhe should be bconcernedthat the owner objects and views it bas robbery or not?If bthe owner came and found himseparating iteruma band said to him: Go totake btheproduce of bbetterquality and separate iterumafrom that, then bifproduce of bbetterquality bthanthe produce he had separated bis found, his iterumaisconsidered iteruma /i,since the owner is assumed to have been sincere and pleased that the other has separated iterumafrom his produce. bBut if not, his iterumais not iteruma /i,as it may be assumed that the owner was angry at him and was speaking sarcastically. The ibaraitaadds: If bthe owners were gathering and addingto the iterumahe had separated, indicating that they agree to his act of separation, beither way,whether or not better-quality produce was found, bhis iterumaisconsidered iteruma /i. /b,Rava concludes the explanation of his ruling: This ihalakhaapplies only to iteruma /i, which is a mitzva that the owner must in any case perform. bBut here,in the case of the brewer who betrothed a woman with sediment from the beer, the owner bacts because of embarrassment,and while he does not feel comfortable protesting, he did not in fact relinquish his rights to the sediment, band she is not betrothed. /b, strongMISHNA: /strong With regard to a priest bwho betrothsa woman bwith his portionof offerings, bwhetherhe did so with bofferings of the most sacred orderor bwhetherhe did so with bofferings of lesser sanctity, she is not betrothed.One who betroths a woman bwith second tithe, whether unwittinglyor bintentionally, has not betrothedher; this is bthe statement of Rabbi Meir. Rabbi Yehuda says:If he did so bunwittingly he has not betrothedher, but if he did so bintentionally he has betrothedher., bAndwith regard to one who betroths a woman bwith consecratedproperty belonging to the Temple treasury, if he does so bintentionally he has betrothedher, bandif he does so bunwittingly he has not betrothedher; this is bthe statement of Rabbi Meir. Rabbi Yehuda saysthe opposite: If he does so bunwittingly he has betrothedher, but if he does so bintentionally he has not betrothedher., strongGEMARA: /strong The Gemara suggests: bShall we saythat bthe mishna is not in accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Yosei HaGelili? As it is taughtin a ibaraitathat the verse states with regard to the obligation to bring an offering for taking a false oath concerning unlawful possession of the property of another: “If any one sin, band he commits a trespass against the Lord,and deal falsely with his neighbor in a matter of deposit, or of pledge, or of robbery, or have oppressed his neighbor” (Leviticus 5:21). As the verse is discussing property belonging to another, the phrase “a trespass against the Lord” serves bto includein the obligation of an offering a false oath with regard to possession of bofferings of lesser sanctityof another person, bwhich are the propertyof the owner; this is bthe statement of Rabbi Yosei HaGelili.According to Rabbi Yosei HaGelili, the portion of an offering of lesser sanctity that the priest receives belongs to him, so he should be able to betroth a woman with it.,The Gemara rejects this: bYoucan beven saythat the mishna is in accordance with the opinion of bRabbi Yosei HaGelili, as Rabbi Yosei HaGelili saysthat an offering of lesser sanctity belongs to its owner only bwhilethe animal is still balive, but afterits bslaughterit does bnotbelong to the priest who receives portions from it. bWhat is the reasonfor this? bWhenthe priests breceivetheir portion after the animal has been slaughtered bthey receivetheir portion bfrom the table of the Most High,and do not own the portion itself.,The Gemara adds: The language of the mishna bis also precise, as it teaches:With regard to a priest bwho betrothsa woman bwith his portionof offerings, bwhetherhe did so with bofferings of the most sacred order or whetherhe used bofferings of lesser sanctity, has not betrothedher. The mishna does not speak of a priest who betroths a woman with a living offering of lesser sanctity but of one who betroths with the portion of the slaughtered animal he has received. The Gemara concludes: bLearn from itthat it is only in this case that she is not betrothed., bThe Sages taught: After the death of Rabbi Meir, Rabbi Yehuda said to his students: Do not let the students of Rabbi Meir enter hereinto our house of study, bbecause they are vexatious [ ikanteranim /i]. And they do not come to study Torah,but brather they come to overwhelm me with ihalakhot /i. Sumakhos,a student of Rabbi Meir, bpushed and enteredanyway. bHe said to them: Thisis what bRabbi Meir taught me:With regard to a priest bwho betrothsa woman bwith his portionof the offerings, bwhetherhe did so with bofferings of the most sacred order or whetherhe used bofferings of lesser sanctity, he has not betrothedher.,Upon hearing this, bRabbi Yehuda became angry withhis students. bHe said to them: Didn’t I say this to you: Do not let the students of Rabbi Meir enter hereinto our house of study, bbecause they are vexatious? And they do not come to study Torah,but brather they come to overwhelm me with ihalakhot /i.Rabbi Yehuda explained his objection to the statement of Rabbi Meir: This ihalakhais not relevant, bas from wherewould ba womanappear bin theTemple bcourtyard?Women may not enter the area of the Temple courtyard where the priests eat the offerings of the most sacred order, so there is no reason to address an impossible scenario., bRabbi Yosei,who was present, bsaid: They will say: Meir died, Yehuda grew angry,and bYosei remained silent; what will become of the words of Torah?He said: In fact, this ihalakhais relevant; bbut isn’t it commonfor ba man to accept betrothal for his daughter in theTemple bcourtyard?There is no need to give the betrothal item directly to the woman; it can be given to her father. bAndadditionally, bisn’t it commonfor ba woman to designate an agent for herself to accept her betrothal in the courtyard? And furthermore: Whatwould be the ihalakhaif the woman bpushed and entered?Since it is possible for her to do so, the ihalakhain such a case must be determined., bIt is taughtin a ibaraitathat the Sages discussed the issue of a priest who betroths a woman with his portion of offerings of the most sacred order: bRabbi Yehuda says she is betrothed,and bRabbi Yosei says she is not betrothed. Rabbi Yoḥa says: Both of them derivedtheir opinions from bone verse,which states that the priests have a right to a portion of offerings of the most sacred order, but they explained it in different ways. The verse states: b“This shall be yours of the most holy things, reserved from the fire”(Numbers 18:9). bRabbi Yehuda holdsthat the term b“yours”indicates that the portion the priest receives is intended for you, i.e., a priest, band for all your needs,including betrothing a woman. bAnd Rabbi Yosei holdsthat the verse compares the priest’s portion bto the fireon the altar: bJust asthe portion burned on the bfireis bforthe fire’s bconsumption, so too,the priest’s portion bis also for consumptionalone, and not for any other purpose., bRabbi Yoḥa says: /b
42. Babylonian Talmud, Shabbat, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

32a. ראשית קראתי אתכם על עסקי ראשית הזהרתי אתכם נשמה שנתתי בכם קרויה נר על עסקי נר הזהרתי אתכם אם אתם מקיימים אותם מוטב ואם לאו הריני נוטל נשמתכם,ומ"ש בשעת לידתן אמר רבא נפל תורא חדד לסכינא אביי אמר תפיש תירוס אמתא בחד מחטרא ליהוי רב חסדא אמר שבקיה לרויא דמנפשיה נפיל מר עוקבא אמר רעיא חגרא ועיזי ריהטן אבב חוטרא מילי ואבי דרי חושבנא רב פפא אמר אבב חנואתא נפישי אחי ומרחמי אבב בזיוני לא אחי ולא מרחמי,וגברי היכא מיבדקי אמר ריש לקיש בשעה שעוברים על הגשר גשר ותו לא אימא כעין גשר רב לא עבר במברא דיתיב ביה עכו"ם אמר דילמא מיפקיד ליה דינא עליה ומתפיסנא בהדיה שמואל לא עבר אלא במברא דאית ביה עכו"ם אמר שטנא בתרי אומי לא שליט,ר' ינאי בדיק ועבר ר' ינאי לטעמיה דאמר לעולם אל יעמוד אדם במקום סכנה לומר שעושין לו נס שמא אין עושים לו נס ואם עושין לו נס מנכין לו מזכיותיו אמר רבי חנין מאי קראה (בראשית לב, יא) קטנתי מכל החסדים ומכל האמת רבי זירא ביומא דשותא לא נפיק לביני דיקלא,אמר ר' יצחק בריה דרב יהודה לעולם יבקש אדם רחמים שלא יחלה שאם יחלה אומרים לו הבא זכות והפטר אמר מר עוקבא מאי קראה (דברים כב, ח) כי יפול הנופל ממנו ממנו להביא ראיה תנא דבי רבי ישמעאל כי יפול הנופל ממנו (ממנו) ראוי זה ליפול מששת ימי בראשית שהרי לא נפל והכתוב קראו נופל אלא שמגלגלין זכות על ידי זכאי וחובה על ידי חייב.,ת"ר מי שחלה ונטה למות אומרים לו התודה שכן כל המומתין מתודין אדם יוצא לשוק יהי דומה בעיניו כמי שנמסר לסרדיוט חש בראשו יהי דומה בעיניו כמי שנתנוהו בקולר עלה למטה ונפל יהי דומה בעיניו כמו שהעלוהו לגרדום לידון שכל העולה לגרדום לידון אם יש לו פרקליטין גדולים ניצול ואם לאו אינו ניצול,ואלו הן פרקליטין של אדם תשובה ומעשים טובים ואפי' תשע מאות ותשעים ותשעה מלמדים עליו חובה ואחד מלמד עליו זכות ניצול שנאמר (איוב לג, כג) אם יש עליו מלאך מליץ אחד מני אלף להגיד לאדם ישרו ויחננו ויאמר פדעהו מרדת שחת וגו': ר' אליעזר בנו של ר' יוסי הגלילי אומר אפילו תשע מאות ותשעים ותשעה באותו מלאך לחובה ואחד לזכות ניצול שנאמר מליץ אחד מני אלף:,תנו רבנן על שלש עבירות נשים מתות יולדות רבי אלעזר אומר נשים מתות ילדות ר' אחא אומר בעון שמכבסות צואת בניהם בשבת וי"א על שקורין לארון הקודש ארנא.,תניא ר' ישמעאל בן אלעזר אומר בעון שני דברים עמי . הארצות מתים על שקורין לארון הקודש ארנא ועל שקורין לבית הכנסת בית עם תניא ר' יוסי אומר שלשה בדקי מיתה נבראו באשה ואמרי לה שלשה דבקי מיתה נדה וחלה והדלקת הנר חדא כר' אלעזר וחדא כרבנן,תניא רשב"ג אומר הלכות הקדש תרומות ומעשרות הן הן גופי תורה 32a. bI called you first,as it is stated: “Israel is the Lord’s hallowed portion, His first fruits of the increase” (Jeremiah 2:3) band I warned you about matters of the first:“of the first of your dough you shall set apart iḥallafor a gift” (Numbers 15:20). bThe soul that I have placed in you is called iner /i:“The spirit of man is the lamp [ iner /i] of the Lord” (Proverbs 20:27), and bI warned you about matters of theShabbat blamp. If you fulfill thesemitzvot, bfine, and if not, then I will take your soul. /b, bAnd,if so, bwhat is different during childbirth?Why does the divine attribute of judgment punish them for dereliction in fulfillment of these mitzvot specifically then? The Gemara cites several folk sayings expressing the concept that when a person is in danger, he is punished for his sins. bRava said:If bthe ox fell, sharpen the knifeto slaughter it. bAbaye said:If bthe maidservant’s insolence abounds, she will be struck by a single blowas punishment for all her sins. So too, when a woman is giving birth and her suffering is great due to Eve’s sin of eating from the Tree of Knowledge, all the punishments for her own sins are added to that suffering. bRav Ḥisda said: Leave the drunk, ashe bfalls on his own.Similarly, the time of birth is a time of danger, and if the Holy One, Blessed be He, does not come to her assistance at that time, that is sufficient to cause her death. bMar Ukva said: The shepherd is crippled, and the goats are running,and he cannot catch them. However, bnext to the gate,he speaks harsh bwords, and inside the penhe settles the baccount.Similarly, as long as a woman is in a healthy state, her sins are in abeyance, and she is not held accountable for them. However, when she is giving birth, which is a time of danger, she is held accountable for her sins and a calculation is made whether or not she is worthy of a miracle. bRav Pappa said: At the entrance to the stores,during a time of prosperity, bbrothers and loved ones abound.When a person is prospering ficially, everyone acts like his brother or friend. However, bat the gate of disgrace,during a time of loss and poverty, he has bno brothers and no loved ones;everyone abandons him.,And the Gemara asks: bAnd whereare bmen examined?When are men vulnerable to judgment and held accountable for their actions? bReish Lakish said: When they are crossing a bridge.The Gemara wonders: Only when they are crossing ba bridge and at no othertime? Rather, bsay:Anything blike a bridge,any place where danger is commonplace. On a similar note, the Gemara relates: bRav would not crossa river bin a ferry in which a gentile sat. He saidto himself: bPerhaps a judgment will be reckoned with him, and I will be caught together with himwhen he is punished. Whereas, bShmuel would only cross in a ferry if there was a gentile in it. He said: Satan does not have dominion over two nations.He settles his accounts with people from each nationality separately., bRabbi Yannai would examinethe ferry band cross.The Gemara comments that bRabbi Yannaiacted bin accordance with his reasoningstated elsewhere, as bhe said: A person should never stand in a place of danger saying that theyon High bwill perform a miracle for him, lestin the end bthey do not perform a miracle for him. And,moreover, even bif they do perform a miracle for him, they will deduct it from his merits. Rabbi Ḥanin said: What is the versethat alludes to this? When Jacob said: b“I am not worthy of all the mercies, and of all the truth,which You have shown unto Your servant” (Genesis 32:11), and he explains: Since You have bestowed upon me so much kindness and truth, my merits have been diminished. Similarly, the Gemara relates that bRabbi Zeira would not go outand walk bamong the palm trees on a day when there was a southern windblowing due to the fear that the trees might fall on him.,In a similar vein, bRav Yitzḥak, son of Rav Yehuda, said: A person should always pray that he will not become ill, as if he becomes ill they say to him: Bringproof of your bvirtue and exempt yourself.It is preferable for a person not to be forced to prove that he merits staying alive, as he might not be able to prove it. bMar Ukva said: What is the versethat alludes to this? As it says: “When you build a new house, then you shall make a parapet for your roof, that you bring not blood upon your house, bif the fallen falls imimenu /i”(Deuteronomy 22:8). He explains: iMimenu /i, from him proof must be brought.When one falls from his previous situation, it is his own responsibility to prove his innocence and emerge unharmed. bThe school of Rabbi Yishmael taught:What is the meaning of the phrase: bIf the fallen falls from it? Thisperson bwas destined to fallfrom that roof bfrom the six days of Creation,it was ingrained into nature. bAs,although bhe did notyet bfall, the verse calls him fallen. Nevertheless,the owner of the house is indicted for this, as bmerit is engendered by means ofthe binnocent and guilt by means ofthe bguilty. /b, bThe Sages taught: One who became ill and tended toward death, they say to him: Confess, as all those executedby the courts bconfess.Even if he is dying of natural causes, it is worthwhile for him to consider his death atonement for his sins. The Sages said: When ba person goes out to the marketplacewhere there are fights and disputes, bhe should consider himself as someone who has been handed over to a soldier [ iseradiyot /i].If bhis head hurt, he should consider it as if they placed him in a chain [ ikolar /i]around his neck. If bhe climbed into bed and fell ill, he should consider himself as if they took him up to the gallows to be judged, aswith regard to banyone who goes up to the gallows to be judged, if he has great advocates [ iperaklitin /i], he is spared, and if not, he is not spared. /b, bAndwith regard to divine judgment, bthese are a person’s advocates: Repentance and good deeds.The Gemara comments: bAnd evenif there are bnine hundred ninety-nine asserting his guilt andonly boneasserting his binnocence, he is spared,as bit is stated: “If there be for him an angel, an advocate, one among a thousand, to vouch for a man’s uprightness; then He is gracious unto him, and says: Deliver him from going down to the pit,I have found a ransom” (Job 33:23–24). bRabbi Eliezer, son of Rabbi Yosei HaGelili, says: Evenif there are bnine hundred ninety-nineportions bwithin that same angel accusinghim, band oneportion asserting bhis innocence, he is spared, as it stated: “An advocate, one among a thousand.”Even when the advocate who asserts his innocence finds only one-tenth of one percent of innocence in this man, even then, he is gracious unto him, and says: Deliver him from going down to the pit, I have found a ransom., bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: bFor three transgressions women die in childbirth [ iyoledot /i]. Rabbi Elazarhas a different version and bsaysthat bwomen diewhen they are byoung [ iyeladot /i].These transgressions are those enumerated in the mishna: The ihalakhotof a menstruating woman, iḥalla /i, and Shabbat lights. bRabbi Aḥa saysthey are punished bfor the sin of laundering their children’s fecesfrom clothing bon Shabbat. And some say: Because they call the Holy Arksimply bark. /b,Similarly, bwe learnedin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Yishmael ben Elazar says: On account of two sins, ignoramuses [ iamei ha /i’ iaretz /i] dieyoung (Rav Ya’akov Emden): bBecause they call the Holy Arksimply bark, and because they call the synagogue the house of the people. It was taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Yosei says: Three cruciblespotentially leading to bdeath were created in the woman, and some say: Three accelerants of death.They are: bMenstruation, iḥalla /i, and lighting the Shabbat lights.The Gemara explains that boneversion, accelerants of death, is bin accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Elazar,who said that women die young. bAndthe other bone,crucibles of death, is bin accordance withthe opinion of bthe Rabbis,who said that women die in childbirth.,Similarly, bit was taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Shimon ben Gamliel says: The ihalakhotof consecrated items, iterumot /i, and tithes are themselvesthe bessence of Torahand are extremely severe
43. Babylonian Talmud, Sukkah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

43b. תשבו תשבו לגזרה שוה נאמר כאן תשבו ונאמר במלואים (ויקרא ח, לה) תשבו מה להלן ימים ואפי' לילות אף כאן ימים ואפילו לילות:,ערבה שבעה כיצד: ערבה בשביעי מ"ט דחיא שבת א"ר יוחנן כדי לפרסמה שהיא מן התורה אי הכי לולב נמי לידחי כדי לפרסמו שהוא מן התורה,לולב גזרה משום דרבה אי הכי ערבה נמי נגזור ערבה שלוחי בית דין מייתי לה לולב לכל מסור,אי הכי כל יומא נמי לידחי אתי לפקפוקי בלולב ולידחי ביום טוב ראשון לא מוכחא מלתא אמרי לולב הוא דקא דחי,ולידחי בחד מהנך כיון דקא מפקת לה מראשון אוקמה אשביעי,אי הכי האידנא נמי לידחי אנן לא ידעינן בקיבועא דירחא,אינהו דידעי בקיבועא דירחא לידחי כי אתא בר הדיא אמר לא איקלע כי אתא רבין וכל נחותי אמרי איקלע ולא דחי,ואלא קשיא אמר רב יוסף מאן לימא לן דערבה בנטילה דלמא בזקיפה,איתיביה אביי לולב וערבה ששה ושבעה מאי לאו כלולב מה לולב בנטילה אף ערבה בנטילה מידי איריא הא כדאיתיה והא כדאיתיה,איתיביה אביי בכל יום מקיפין את המזבח פעם אחת ואותו היום שבע פעמים מאי לאו בערבה לא בלולב והא אמר רב נחמן אמר רבה בר אבוה בערבה א"ל הוא אמר לך בערבה ואנא אמינא בלולב אתמר ר' אלעזר אומר בלולב רב שמואל [בר נתן] אמר ר' חנינא בערבה וכן אמר רב נחמן אמר רבה בר אבוה בערבה,א"ל רבא לרב יצחק בריה דרבה בר בר חנה בר אוריא תא ואימא לך מלתא מעליתא דהוה אמר אבוך הא דתנן כל היום מקיפין את המזבח פעם אחת ואותו היום מקיפין את המזבח שבע פעמים הכי אמר אבוך משמיה דר' אלעזר בלולב,איתיביה לולב דוחה את השבת בתחלתו וערבה בסופו פעם אחת חל שביעי של ערבה להיות בשבת והביאו מרביות של ערבה מערב שבת והניחום בעזרה והכירו בהן בייתוסין ונטלום וכבשום תחת אבנים,למחר הכירו בהן עמי הארץ ושמטום מתחת האבנים והביאום הכהנים וזקפום בצידי המזבח לפי שאין בייתוסין מודים שחיבוט ערבה דוחה את השבת,אלמא בנטילה היא תיובתא,ואלא נדחו כיון דאנן לא דחינן אינהו נמי לא דחו והא יום טוב הראשון דלדידן לא דחי ולדידהו דחי 43b. b“You shall reside,” “you shall reside,”by means bof a verbal analogy. It is stated here,with regard to isukka /i: b“You shall residein isukkotseven days” (Leviticus 23:42), band it is stated with regard to the inaugurationof the Tabernacle: “And at the door of the Tent of Meeting byou shall resideday and night seven days” (Leviticus 8:35). bJust as there,with regard to the inauguration, the meaning is bdays and even nights, so too here,with regard to isukka /i, the meaning is bdays and even nights. /b,§ The mishna continues: The altar is encircled with the bwillow branchfor bsevendays. bHowso? If the seventh day of performing the mitzva of the willow branch occurs on Shabbat, since on that day the mitzva of the willow branch is a mitzva by Torah law, it overrides Shabbat and the mitzva of the willow branch is then performed seven days. The Gemara asks: With regard to the mitzva of the bwillow branch on the seventhday, bwhat is the reasonthat bit overrides Shabbat? Rabbi Yoḥa said:It is bin order to publicize that it isa mitzva that bapplies by Torahlaw, since it is not written explicitly in the Torah. The Gemara raises an objection: bIf so, ilulavtoo should overrideShabbat in the Temple on the other days of iSukkotas well and not only on the first day bin order to publicize that it isa mitzva bby Torahlaw all seven days, since that too is not written explicitly in the Torah.,The Gemara answers: One is prohibited from taking the ilulav /ion Shabbat by rabbinic bdecree due tothe concern expressed bby Rabba(42b) lest he take the ilulavin his hand and go to an expert to learn how to wave the ilulavand thereby carry it in the public domain. The Gemara objects: bIf so,with regard to the bwillow branch as well let us issue a decreedue to the same concern. The Gemara answers: The two cases are different. With regard to the bwillow branch, agents of the court bring itto the priests who perform the mitzva in the Temple, and they carefully prepare the willow branch prior to the onset of Shabbat and will not come to carry it in a prohibited manner on Shabbat. However, performance of the mitzva of ilulavis incumbent upon every individual.Therefore, there is concern lest one unwittingly perform the prohibited labor of carrying on Shabbat.,The Gemara objects: bIf so,i.e., because the willow branch is supplied by agents of the court there is no concern that Shabbat will be desecrated, bletthe mitzva of the willow branch boverrideShabbat on bevery dayof the Festival bas well.The Gemara answers: In that case people bwould come to raise doubts aboutthe significance of the mitzva of ilulav /i,as, unlike the mitzva of the willow branch, it would override Shabbat on only one day of the Festival and not on all seven. The Gemara asks: bAnd letthe mitzva of the willow branch boverrideShabbat bon the first day of the Festival,just as the mitzva of ilulavdoes, and not on the seventh day. The Gemara answers: bThe matterof publicizing that the mitzva of willow branch is a mitzva by Torah law bwould not be apparent,as people bwould saythat bit isreally the mitzva of ilulavthat overridesShabbat, and once ilulavis permitted the willow branch is permitted as well.,The Gemara asks: bAnd letthe mitzva of the willow branch boverrideShabbat bon one of theseother days of iSukkot /i; why specifically the seventh day? The Gemara answers: bOnce you moved it from the firstday, bestablish it on the seventhday, which is also a unique day of iSukkot /i, and not on one of the other intermediate days of iSukkot /i.,The Gemara asks: bIf so,i.e., if the mitzva of the willow branch is so significant that it overrides Shabbat, blet it overrideShabbat btoday as well,even though the Temple is not standing. The Gemara answers: bWe do not knowwhen precisely bthe establishment of the monthwas determined by the court. Therefore, it is possible that the day observed as the seventh day of iSukkotis not the seventh day at all. Certainly, one does not violate the rabbinic decree to fulfill a mitzva that is not definitely a mitzva by Torah law.,The Gemara asks: If so, with regard to the people of Eretz Yisrael, bwho know the establishment of the month, let them overrideShabbat for the mitzva of willow branch on the seventh day of iSukkoteven today. bWhen bar Hedya camefrom Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia bhe said:That is not a practical question, as the seventh day bdoes not coincidewith Shabbat, since the Sages fixed the calendar to avoid that possibility. bWhen Ravin and all thoseemissaries bwho descendedto Babylonia, or who originally left Babylonia for Eretz Yisrael and returned, bcame, they said: It does coincidewith Shabbat, bbut it does not overrideShabbat.,The Gemara asks: bButthen it is bdifficult;why doesn’t the mitzva of the willow branch override Shabbat on the seventh day today? bRav Yosef said: Who will say to usdefinitively bthatthe mitzva of bthe willow branchis performed bby takingit? bPerhaps it isperformed bby standingthe branches buprightagainst the altar. Since there is no altar today, the mitzva does not override Shabbat., bAbaye raised an objection toRav Yosef from the mishna, which states: The ilulav /iis taken bandthe altar is encircled with bthe willow brancheither bsix or sevendays. bWhat, is it notlearned from the juxtaposition of these mitzvot in the mishna that the mitzva of the willow branch is blikethe mitzva of ilulav /iin that bjust asthe mitzva of ilulav /iis performed bby takingit, bso too,the mitzva of the bwillow branchis performed bby takingit and not by standing it upright? He answered him: bAre the casesnecessarily bcomparable?Perhaps bthismitzva of ilulavis bas it is,by means of taking, band thismitzva of the willow branch is bas it is,by means of standing it upright., bAbaye raised an objection toRav Yosef from a mishna: bOn every daythe people bcircle the altar one time, andon bthat day,the seventh day of the willow branch, they circle it bseven times. What, isthe mishna bnotreferring to circling the altar bwith the willow branchin hand? He answered him: bNo,it is referring to circling the altar bwith a ilulav /i.Abaye objects: bBut didn’t Rav Naḥman saythat bRabba bar Avuh said:They would circle the altar bwith the willow branch?Rav Yosef bsaid to him: He said to you with the willow branch;however, my authority is no less than his, as we are both iamora’im /i, band I saythat they circle the altar bwith a ilulav /i. It was statedthat this was the subject of dispute between other iamora’imas well. bRabbi Elazar says:They circle the altar bwith a ilulav /i. Rav Shmuel bar Natan saidthat bRabbi Ḥanina said:They circle the altar bwith the willow branch. And likewise, Rav Naḥman saidthat bRabba bar Avuh said:They would circle the altar bwith the willow branch. /b, bRava said to Rav Yitzḥak, son of Rabba bar bar Ḥana: Son of Torah [ ibar urya /i], come and I will tell you an outstanding statement that your father would say.With regard to bthat which we learnedin a mishna: On bevery daythe people bcircle the altar one time, and on that day,the seventh day of the willow branch, bthey circle the altar seven times; thisis what byour father said in the name of Rabbi Elazar:They circle the altar bwith a ilulav /i. /b,Abaye braised an objection toRav Yosef from the iTosefta( iSukka3:1): The mitzva of ilulavoverrides Shabbat atthe bstartof the Festival, band the willow branchoverrides it batthe bendof the Festival. bOne time, the seventhday bofthe bwillow branch occurred on Shabbat, and they brought branches ofthe bwillowtree bon Shabbat eve,before Shabbat, band placed them in theTemple bcourtyardfor use on Shabbat. The bBoethusiansin the Temple, who disagreed with the Sages and held that there is no mitzva of the willow branch on the seventh day of the Festival, bnoticed them and took them and concealed them underthe bstones.This was an attempt to prevent fulfillment of the mitzva, as they knew that the Sages would prohibit moving the stones, which are set-aside on Shabbat., bThe next day,some of bthe ignoramuses noticedthe branches concealed under the stones. bAndsince the ignoramuses identified with the opinion of the Sages, and at the same time were ignorant of the details of the mitzvot, bthey extracted them from under the stones. And the priests brought them and stood them upright at the sides of the altar.This happened bbecausethe bBoethusians do not concede that waving the willow branch overrides Shabbat. /b, bApparently,based on the conclusion of the incident, the mitzva of the willow branch bisfulfilled bby takingit, as it is referring to waving the willow branch and not just standing it upright at the sides of the altar. The Gemara notes: Indeed, it is ba conclusive refutationof Rav Yosef’s opinion.,Given the refutation of Rav Yosef’s opinion, the original question is difficult: bRather, let themin Eretz Yisrael boverrideShabbat for the mitzva of the willow branch on the seventh day of iSukkotnowadays as well. The Gemara answers: bSince wein the Diaspora bdo not overrideShabbat for this purpose, btheyin Eretz Yisrael balso do not overrideit. The Gemara objects: bBut doesn’t the first day of the Festivalrefute that contention, as bfor usin the Diaspora it bdoes not overrideShabbat and we do not take the ilulav /i, band for themin Eretz Yisrael bit overridesShabbat and they take the ilulav /i?
44. Anon., Midrash Psalms, 17.5 (4th cent. CE - 9th cent. CE)

45. Anon., Letter of Aristeas, 84, 306

306. translating the particular passage upon which they were engaged, and I put the question to them, Why it was that they washed their hands before they prayed? And they explained that it was a token that they had done no evil (for every form of activity is wrought by means of the hands) since in their noble and holy way they regard everything as a symbol of righteousness and truth.
46. Epigraphy, Lscg, 110

47. Epigraphy, Lss, 56

48. Epigraphy, I. Lindos, 2.487

49. Epigraphy, Ogis, 598



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
altar Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 109
am haaretz Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 195
antiochus, iii Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 360, 371
aqiba Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 115
arbel, synagogue orientation Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 195
atonement Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 371
bath-house Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 276
berkowitz, beth Cohn, The Memory of the Temple and the Making of the Rabbis (2013) 177
bet am Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 195
bible (hebrew bible and/or new testament) Damm, Religions and Education in Antiquity (2018) 92
blood Poorthuis and Schwartz, A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity (2006) 119
bones Balberg, Purity, Body, and Self in Early Rabbinic Literature (2014) 227
buying and/or selling Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 276
canaanite slaves Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 63
cleanness/uncleanness Damm, Religions and Education in Antiquity (2018) 92
communitas Poorthuis and Schwartz, A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity (2006) 119
concentric Poorthuis and Schwartz, A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity (2006) 119
corpse(-uncleanness) Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 63, 276
cosmology Poorthuis and Schwartz, A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity (2006) 119
covenant Damm, Religions and Education in Antiquity (2018) 92
dangerous gentile Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 63
education, applications of, to address historical, religious or social issues Damm, Religions and Education in Antiquity (2018) 92
education, rabbinic Damm, Religions and Education in Antiquity (2018) 92
ejaculants/baal qeri Cohen, The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism (2010) 404
facades Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 195
festivals—see also calendar Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 534
food, im/purity of Balberg, Purity, Body, and Self in Early Rabbinic Literature (2014) 200
foreigner Nihan and Frevel, Purity and the Forming of Religious Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean World and Ancient Judaism (2013) 438
foreigners, excluded from sanctuaries Lupu, Greek Sacred Law: A Collection of New Documents (NGSL) (2005) 19
gentile/gentiles Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 534
gentile Poorthuis and Schwartz, A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity (2006) 119
hammat tiberias synagogue, basilical, mosaic floors Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 195
hands, impurity of, washing of Balberg, Purity, Body, and Self in Early Rabbinic Literature (2014) 200
handwashing Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 202
hebron, cave of the patriarchs Ben-Eliyahu, Identity and Territory: Jewish Perceptions of Space in Antiquity (2019) 116
high priest Nihan and Frevel, Purity and the Forming of Religious Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean World and Ancient Judaism (2013) 438
holiness Damm, Religions and Education in Antiquity (2018) 92; Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 534
holy sites Ben-Eliyahu, Identity and Territory: Jewish Perceptions of Space in Antiquity (2019) 116, 126
immersion Balberg, Purity, Body, and Self in Early Rabbinic Literature (2014) 200
impurity Poorthuis and Schwartz, A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity (2006) 119
incense Poorthuis and Schwartz, A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity (2006) 119
israel, nan Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 534
israel Damm, Religions and Education in Antiquity (2018) 92
jerusalem, temple Lupu, Greek Sacred Law: A Collection of New Documents (NGSL) (2005) 19
jerusalem Ben-Eliyahu, Identity and Territory: Jewish Perceptions of Space in Antiquity (2019) 126; Damm, Religions and Education in Antiquity (2018) 92; Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 534
judaism, as religio-cultural system Damm, Religions and Education in Antiquity (2018) 92
judaism, late second temple Damm, Religions and Education in Antiquity (2018) 92
judaism Damm, Religions and Education in Antiquity (2018) 92
knohl, i. Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 109
laity, the Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 534
levites Nihan and Frevel, Purity and the Forming of Religious Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean World and Ancient Judaism (2013) 438
lulav Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 109
lʿm Nihan and Frevel, Purity and the Forming of Religious Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean World and Ancient Judaism (2013) 438
menstruants/niddah, and the sacred Cohen, The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism (2010) 404
menstruants/niddah, social isolation Cohen, The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism (2010) 404
mishnah, judaism Damm, Religions and Education in Antiquity (2018) 92
mishnah Damm, Religions and Education in Antiquity (2018) 92
of the holy sepulcher, temple Ben-Eliyahu, Identity and Territory: Jewish Perceptions of Space in Antiquity (2019) 126
of the holy sepulcher, temple mount Ben-Eliyahu, Identity and Territory: Jewish Perceptions of Space in Antiquity (2019) 116
orientation of synagogue Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 195
pentateuch Nihan and Frevel, Purity and the Forming of Religious Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean World and Ancient Judaism (2013) 438
pharisees, the Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 534
pharisees Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 109
prayer Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 534
prayer (jewish/rabbinic) Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 202
priesthood Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 360, 371
priests/priesthood Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 534
procession Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 109
public domain, impurity in Balberg, Purity, Body, and Self in Early Rabbinic Literature (2014) 227
purity Damm, Religions and Education in Antiquity (2018) 92
qumran Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 109
qumran jews, exclusion of women from jerusalem Cohen, The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism (2010) 404
r. ishmael b. elazar Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 195
religion within a cultural system' Damm, Religions and Education in Antiquity (2018) 92
ritual baths (miqvaot) Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 202
ritual purity, maintained beyond the temple Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 202
ritual purity Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 360, 371
sabbath Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 109
sacrifice Nihan and Frevel, Purity and the Forming of Religious Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean World and Ancient Judaism (2013) 438; Poorthuis and Schwartz, A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity (2006) 119
sacrifices Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 109
sadducees, the Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 534
safrai, s. Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 109
samothrace Lupu, Greek Sacred Law: A Collection of New Documents (NGSL) (2005) 19
sanctity, jerusalem Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 195
sanctity of, columns, pillars Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 195
seleucid monarchy Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 360, 371
seleucids, privileges granted jews Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 360, 371
seminal emissions Balberg, Purity, Body, and Self in Early Rabbinic Literature (2014) 227
smith, jonathan z. Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 202
stone vessels Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 202
synagogues Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 202
temple, cult Poorthuis and Schwartz, A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity (2006) 119
temple, fines Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 371
temple, herodian warning inscription Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 360
temple, holy vessels of; the sancta Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 534
temple, purity Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 371
temple, purity required of entrants Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 360
temple, regulations Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 360, 371
temple, seleucid proclamation Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 360, 371
temple, structure Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 360
temple Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 109
temple in jerusalem Damm, Religions and Education in Antiquity (2018) 92
temple scroll, plan of temple Ganzel and Holtz, Contextualizing Jewish Temples (2020) 156
thought (mahshava), role of in purity system Balberg, Purity, Body, and Self in Early Rabbinic Literature (2014) 227
torah Damm, Religions and Education in Antiquity (2018) 92
tractate middot, as hierarchical in plan Ganzel and Holtz, Contextualizing Jewish Temples (2020) 156
tractate middot Ganzel and Holtz, Contextualizing Jewish Temples (2020) 156
visibility, implications of for im/purity Balberg, Purity, Body, and Self in Early Rabbinic Literature (2014) 227
women, barred from sanctuaries Lupu, Greek Sacred Law: A Collection of New Documents (NGSL) (2005) 19
zodiac Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 202