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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



8010
Mishnah, Horayot, 3.8


כֹּהֵן קוֹדֵם לְלֵוִי, לֵוִי לְיִשְׂרָאֵל, יִשְׂרָאֵל לְמַמְזֵר, וּמַמְזֵר לְנָתִין, וְנָתִין לְגֵר, וְגֵר לְעֶבֶד מְשֻׁחְרָר. אֵימָתַי, בִּזְמַן שֶׁכֻּלָּן שָׁוִין. אֲבָל אִם הָיָה מַמְזֵר תַּלְמִיד חָכָם וְכֹהֵן גָּדוֹל עַם הָאָרֶץ, מַמְזֵר תַּלְמִיד חָכָם קוֹדֵם לְכֹהֵן גָּדוֹל עַם הָאָרֶץ:A priest takes precedence over a levite, a levite over an israelite, an israelite over a mamzer, a mamzer over a natin, a natin over a convert, and a convert over a freed slave. When is this so? When all these were in other respects equal. However, if the mamzer was a scholar and the high priest an ignoramus, the scholar mamzer takes precedence over the ignorant high priest.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

31 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 17.14-17.20 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

17.14. כִּי־תָבֹא אֶל־הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ נֹתֵן לָךְ וִירִשְׁתָּהּ וְיָשַׁבְתָּה בָּהּ וְאָמַרְתָּ אָשִׂימָה עָלַי מֶלֶךְ כְּכָל־הַגּוֹיִם אֲשֶׁר סְבִיבֹתָי׃ 17.15. שׂוֹם תָּשִׂים עָלֶיךָ מֶלֶךְ אֲשֶׁר יִבְחַר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ בּוֹ מִקֶּרֶב אַחֶיךָ תָּשִׂים עָלֶיךָ מֶלֶךְ לֹא תוּכַל לָתֵת עָלֶיךָ אִישׁ נָכְרִי אֲשֶׁר לֹא־אָחִיךָ הוּא׃ 17.16. רַק לֹא־יַרְבֶּה־לּוֹ סוּסִים וְלֹא־יָשִׁיב אֶת־הָעָם מִצְרַיְמָה לְמַעַן הַרְבּוֹת סוּס וַיהוָה אָמַר לָכֶם לֹא תֹסִפוּן לָשׁוּב בַּדֶּרֶךְ הַזֶּה עוֹד׃ 17.17. וְלֹא יַרְבֶּה־לּוֹ נָשִׁים וְלֹא יָסוּר לְבָבוֹ וְכֶסֶף וְזָהָב לֹא יַרְבֶּה־לּוֹ מְאֹד׃ 17.18. וְהָיָה כְשִׁבְתּוֹ עַל כִּסֵּא מַמְלַכְתּוֹ וְכָתַב לוֹ אֶת־מִשְׁנֵה הַתּוֹרָה הַזֹּאת עַל־סֵפֶר מִלִּפְנֵי הַכֹּהֲנִים הַלְוִיִּם׃ 17.19. וְהָיְתָה עִמּוֹ וְקָרָא בוֹ כָּל־יְמֵי חַיָּיו לְמַעַן יִלְמַד לְיִרְאָה אֶת־יְהוָה אֱלֹהָיו לִשְׁמֹר אֶת־כָּל־דִּבְרֵי הַתּוֹרָה הַזֹּאת וְאֶת־הַחֻקִּים הָאֵלֶּה לַעֲשֹׂתָם׃ 17.14. When thou art come unto the land which the LORD thy God giveth thee, and shalt possess it, and shalt dwell therein; and shalt say: ‘I will set a king over me, like all the nations that are round about me’;" 17.15. thou shalt in any wise set him king over thee, whom the LORD thy God shall choose; one from among thy brethren shalt thou set king over thee; thou mayest not put a foreigner over thee, who is not thy brother." 17.16. Only he shall not multiply horses to himself, nor cause the people to return to Egypt, to the end that he should multiply horses; forasmuch as the LORD hath said unto you: ‘Ye shall henceforth return no more that way.’" 17.17. Neither shall he multiply wives to himself, that his heart turn not away; neither shall he greatly multiply to himself silver and gold." 17.18. And it shall be, when he sitteth upon the throne of his kingdom, that he shall write him a copy of this law in a book, out of that which is before the priests the Levites." 17.19. And it shall be with him, and he shall read therein all the days of his life; that he may learn to fear the LORD his God, to keep all the words of this law and these statutes, to do them;" 17.20. that his heart be not lifted up above his brethren, and that he turn not aside from the commandment, to the right hand, or to the left; to the end that he may prolong his days in his kingdom, he and his children, in the midst of Israel."
2. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 20.7, 21.10 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

20.7. וְהִתְקַדִּשְׁתֶּם וִהְיִיתֶם קְדֹשִׁים כִּי אֲנִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם׃ 20.7. Sanctify yourselves therefore, and be ye holy; for I am the LORD your God." 21.10. And the priest that is highest among his brethren, upon whose head the anointing oil is poured, and that is consecrated to put on the garments, shall not let the hair of his head go loose, nor rend his clothes;"
3. Mishnah, Avot, 1.1-1.2, 1.12, 4.13 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

1.1. Moses received the torah at Sinai and transmitted it to Joshua, Joshua to the elders, and the elders to the prophets, and the prophets to the Men of the Great Assembly. They said three things: Be patient in [the administration of] justice, raise many disciples and make a fence round the Torah." 1.2. Shimon the Righteous was one of the last of the men of the great assembly. He used to say: the world stands upon three things: the Torah, the Temple service, and the practice of acts of piety." 1.12. Hillel and Shammai received [the oral tradition] from them. Hillel used to say: be of the disciples of Aaron, loving peace and pursuing peace, loving mankind and drawing them close to the Torah." 4.13. Rabbi Judah said: be careful in study, for an error in study counts as deliberate sin. Rabbi Shimon said: There are three crowns: the crown of torah, the crown of priesthood, and the crown of royalty, but the crown of a good name supersedes them all."
4. Mishnah, Bikkurim, 1.4 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

1.4. These bring [bikkurim] but do not read the declaration:The convert, since he cannot say: “Which the Lord has sworn to our fathers, to give to us” (Deuteronomy 26:3). If his mother was an Israelite, then he brings bikkurim and recites. When he prays privately, he says: “God of the fathers of Israel,” but when he is in the synagogue, he should say: “The God of your fathers.” But if his mother was an Israelite, he says: “The God of our fathers’."
5. Mishnah, Horayot, 1.4 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

1.4. If the court ruled and one of them knew that they had erred and said to the others, “You are making a mistake”, or if the mufla of the court was not there, or if one of them was a proselyte or a mamzer or a nathin or an elder who did not have children, they are exempt, for it says here (Lev 4:13) “congregation” and it says later on (Num 35:24) “congregation”; just as the “congregation” further on must be fit to issue rulings, so too the “congregation” mentioned here must be fit to issue rulingsIf the court issued a [wrong] decision unwittingly and all the people acted unwittingly, they bring a bull. [If the court ruled wrong] intentionally and [the people] acted unwillingly, they bring a lamb or a goat. [If the court ruled] unwittingly and [the people] acted willingly accordingly, they are exempt."
6. Mishnah, Ketuvot, 1.2-1.3 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

1.2. A virgin her kethubah is two hundred [zuz], and a widow a maneh (100. A virgin, who is a widow, [or] divorced, or a halutzah from betrothal her kethubah is two hundred [zuz], and there is upon her a claim of non-virginity. A female proselyte, a woman captive, and a woman slave, who have been redeemed, converted, or freed [when they were] less than three years and one day old their kethubah is two hundred [zuz] there is upon them a claim of non-virginity." 1.3. When an adult has had sexual intercourse with a young girl, or when a small boy has had intercourse with an adult woman, or a girl who was injured by a piece of wood [in all these cases] their kethubah is two hundred [zuz], the words of Rabbi Meir. But the Sages say: a girl who was injured by a piece of wood her kethubah is a maneh."
7. Mishnah, Keritot, 6.9 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

6.9. Rabbi Shimon says: lambs are mentioned before goats in all places. You might think that it is because they are choicer, therefore Scripture states, “And if he brings a lamb as his offering,” (Leviticus 4:32) to teach that both are equal. Turtle-doves are mentioned before young pigeons in all places. You might think that it is because they are choicer, therefore Scripture states, “A young pigeon or a turtle-dove for a hatat,” (Leviticus 12:6) to teach that both are equal. The father comes before the mother in all places. You might think that it is because the honor due a father is greater than the honor due a mother, therefore Scripture states, “A man shall fear his mother and his father,” (Leviticus 19: to teach that both are equal. But the sages have said: the father comes before the mother in all places, because both a son and his mother are obligated to honor the father. And so it is also with the study of Torah; if the son has been worthy [to sit] before the teacher, the teacher comes before the father in all places, because both a man and his father are obligated to honor the teacher."
8. Mishnah, Maaser Sheni, 5.14 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

5.14. From here they said that Israelites and mamzerim may make the confession, but not converts, nor freed slaves, since they have no inheritance in the land. Rabbi Meir says: neither do priests and Levites since they did not take a share of the land. Rabbi Yose says: they have the Levitical cities."
9. Mishnah, Megillah, 3.3 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

3.3. Rabbi Judah said further: a synagogue that has fallen into ruins, they may not eulogize in it, nor twist ropes, nor to spread nets [to trap animals], nor to lay out produce on its roof [to dry], nor to use it as a short cut, as it says, “And I will desolate your holy places” (Leviticus 26:3 their holiness remains even when they are desolate. If grass comes up in it, it should not be plucked, [in order to elicit] melancholy."
10. Mishnah, Negaim, 3.1 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

3.1. Everyone can become impure from negaim, except for a non-Jew and a resident alien. All are qualified to inspect negaim, but only a priest may declare them unclean or clean. He is told, \"Say: 'unclean,'\" and he repeats \"unclean,\" or \"Say: 'clean,'\" and he repeats \"clean.\" Two negaim may not be inspected simultaneously whether in one man or in two men; rather he inspects one first and isolates him, certifies him as unclean or pronounces him clean, and then he inspects the second. One who is isolated may not be isolated again nor may one who is certified unclean be certified unclean again. One who is certified unclean may not be isolated nor may one who is isolated be certified unclean. But in the beginning, or at the end of a week, he may isolate on account of the one nega and isolate him on account of another one; he may certify him unclean on account of one sign and also certify him unclean on account of another sign; he may isolated the one sign and declare the other clean, or certify the one unclean and declare the other clean."
11. Mishnah, Peah, 2.6 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

2.6. It happened that Rabbi Shimon of Mitzpah planted his field [with two different kinds] and came before Rabban Gamaliel. They both went up to the Chamber of Hewn Stone and asked [about the law]. Nahum the scribe said: I have a tradition from Rabbi Meyasha, who received it from Abba, who received it from the pairs [of sage], who received it from the prophets, a halakhah of Moses from Sinai, that one who plants his field with two species of wheat, if he makes up of it one threshing-floor, he gives only one peah, but if two threshing-floors, he gives two peahs."
12. Mishnah, Qiddushin, 4.1, 4.3-4.4 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

13. Mishnah, Qinim, 3.6 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

3.6. If a woman says: \"I vow a pair of birds if I give birth to a male child,\" and she does give birth to a male child, then she must offer up two pairs one for her vow and one for her obligation. If [before she assigned them] she gave them to the priest, and the priest who ought to offer three birds above and one below does not do so, but offers two above and two below, and does not seek guidance, she must she bring another bird and offer that above. This is so if the birds were of the same kind. If they were of two kinds, then must she bring two others. If she had expressly defined her vow, then must she bring three other birds. This is so if the birds were of the same kind. If they were of two kinds, then must she bring four others. If she made a definite fixture at the time of her vow, then must she bring another five birds. This is so if the birds were of the same kind. If they were of two kinds, then must she bring six others. If she gave them to the priest and it is not known what she gave, and the priest performed the sacrifice, but it is not known how he performed it, then she must bring four other birds for her vow, and two for her obligation and one for her hatat. Ben Azzai says: [she must bring] two hatats. Rabbi Joshua said: This is what it meant when they said: \"When [the beast] is alive it possesses one sound, but when it is dead its sound is sevenfold.\" In what way is its sound sevenfold? Its two horns [are made into] two trumpets, its two leg-bones into two flutes, its hide into a drum, its entrails for lyres and its large intestines for harp strings; and there are some who add that its wool is used for the blue [pomegranates.] Rabbi Shimon ben Akashiah says: ignorant old people, the older they become, the more their intellect gets befuddled, as it is said: \"He removes the speech of men of trust and takes away the sense of the elders.\"But when it comes to aged scholars, it is not so. On the contrary, the older they get, the more their mind becomes composed, as it is said: \"With aged men comes wisdom, and understanding in length of days.\""
14. Mishnah, Sanhedrin, 2.2, 2.4-2.5, 4.3, 10.1, 10.3, 10.6 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

2.2. The king can neither judge nor be judged, he cannot testify and others cannot testify against him. He may not perform halitzah, nor may others perform halitzah for his wife. He may not contract levirate marriage nor may his brothers contract levirate marriage with his wife. Rabbi Judah says: “If he wished to perform halitzah or to contract levirate marriage his memory is a blessing.” They said to him: “They should not listen to him.” None may marry his widow. Rabbi Judah says: “The king may marry the widow of a king, for so have we found it with David, who married the widow of Saul, as it says, “And I gave you my master’s house and my master’s wives into your embrace” (II Samuel 12:8)." 2.4. He may send forth the people to a battle waged of free choice by the decision of the court of seventy one. He may break through [the private domain of any man] to make himself a road and none may protest him. The king’s road has no limit. Whatsoever the people take in plunder they must place before him, and he may take first. “And he shall not have many wives” (Deut. 17:17) eighteen only. Rabbi Judah says: “He may take many wives provided they don’t turn his heart away [from worshipping God]. Rabbi Shimon says: “Even one that might turn his heart away, he should not marry. Why then does it say, “He shall not have many wives”, even if they are like Avigayil. “He shall not keep many horses” (Deut. 17:16) enough for his chariot only. “Nor shall he amass silver and gold to excess” (Deut. 17:17) enough to pay his soldier’s wages. He must write a Torah scroll for himself; when he goes forth to battle he shall take it with him, and when he returns he shall bring it back with him; when he sits in judgement it shall be with him, and when he sits to eat it shall be with him, as it says, “Let it remain with him and let him read it all his life” (Deut. 17:19)" 2.5. None may ride his horse and none may sit on his throne and none may make use of his scepter. No one may see him when his hair is being cut or when he is naked or when he is in the bath house, for it says, “You shall set a king upon yourself” (Deut. 17:15) that his awe should be over you." 4.3. The Sanhedrin was arranged like the half of a round threshing-floor so that they all might see one another. Before them stood the two scribes of the judges, one to the right and one to the left, and they wrote down the words of them that favored acquittal and the words of them that favored conviction. Rabbi Judah says: “There were three: one wrote down the words of them that favored acquittal, and one wrote down the words of them that favored conviction, and the third wrote down the words of both them that favored acquittal and them that favored conviction." 10.1. All Israel have a portion in the world to come, for it says, “Your people, all of them righteous, shall possess the land for ever; They are the shoot that I planted, my handiwork in which I glory” (Isaiah 60:2. And these are the ones who have no portion in the world to come: He who maintains that resurrection is not a biblical doctrine, that the torah was not divinely revealed, and an epikoros. Rabbi Akiva says: “Even one who reads non-canonical books and one who whispers [a charm] over a wound and says, “I will not bring upon you any of the diseases whichbrought upon the Egyptians: for I the lord am you healer” (Exodus 15:26). Abba Shaul says: “Also one who pronounces the divine name as it is spelled.”" 10.3. The generation of the flood has no portion in the world to come, nor will they stand at the [last] judgment, as it says, “[And the Lord said,] my spirit will not always enter into judgment with man” (Genesis 6:3), [meaning] there will be neither judgment nor [my] spirit for them. The generation of the dispersion have no portion in the world to come, as it says, “So the Lord scattered them from there upon the face of all the earth” (Genesis 11:8): “So the lord scattered them”, refers to this world, “And from there the Lord scattered them” (Genesis 11:9), refers to the world to come. The men of Sodom have no portion in the world to come, as it says, “And the men of Sodom were wicked and great sinners before the Lord” (Genesis 13:1: “wicked” in this world, and “sinners” in the world to come; Yet will they stand at judgment. R. Nehemiah says: “Neither [the generation of the flood nor the men of Sodom] will stand at judgment, as it says, “Therefore the wicked shall not stand in judgment, nor sinners in the congregation of the righteous” (Psalms 1:5) “Therefore the wicked shall not stand in judgment”, refers to the generation of the flood; “nor sinners in the congregation of the righteous”, refers to the men of Sodom. They [the Sages] said to him: “They will not stand in the congregation of the righteous, but they will stand in the congregation of the wicked.” The spies have no portion in the world to come, as it says, “And those men that spread such calumnies about the land, died by the plague before the lord” (Numbers 14:37): “[they] died” in this world, “by the plague” in the world to come. The generation of the wilderness have no share in the world to come and will not stand at the [last] judgment, as it says, “In this wilderness they shall be consumed, and there they shall die” (Numbers 14:3, according to the words of Rabbi Akiba. Rabbi Eliezer says: “Concerning them it is said, ‘Bring in My devotees, who made a covet with Me over sacrifice” (Psalms 50:5). The congregation of Korah is not destined to ascend [from the earth], as it says, “And the earth closed upon them” in this world, “and they perished from among the congregation” (Numbers 16:33) in the world to come, according to the words of Rabbi Akiba. Rabbi Eliezer says: “Concerning them it is said, ‘The Lord kills and makes alive: He brings down to Sheol, and brings up” (I Samuel 2:6). The ten tribes will not return [to the Land of Israel], for it is said, “And He cast them into another land, as is this day” (Deuteronomy 29:2: just as the day goes and does not return, so they too went and will not return: according to the words of Rabbi Akiba. Rabbi Eliezer says: “‘As is this day’ just as the day darkens and then becomes light again, so the ten tribes even as it went dark for them, so will it in the future become light for them." 10.6. “And you shall gather all its spoil into the public square” (Deut. 13:17): if it had no public square, one is made for it; if the public square was outside of [the city], it is brought within it. “And you shall burn with fire the city, and all its spoil as a whole burnt offering for the Lord your God” (ibid.): “And all its spoil”, but not the spoil of heaven. From here they said, the holy objects in the city must be redeemed and the heave offerings (terumoth) allowed to rot; and the second tithe and the sacred writings hidden. “A whole burnt offering for the Lord your God”: Rabbi Shimon said: “The holy Blessed One declared, ‘If you execute judgment upon the seduced city, I will ascribe merit to you as though you had sacrificed to me a whole offering.’” “And it shall remain an everlasting ruin, never to be rebuilt”: it may not be made even into gardens and orchards, according to the words of Rabbi Yose the Galilean. Rabbi Akiva says: “Never to be rebuilt”: it may not be built as it was, but it may be made into gardens and orchards. “Let nothing that has been doomed stick to your hand, in order that the Lord may turn His blazing anger and show you compassion” (Deut. 13:18): as long as the wicked exist in the world, there is blazing anger in the world; when the wicked perish from the world, blazing anger disappears from the world.
15. Mishnah, Shabbat, 12.3 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

12.3. He who writes two letters, whether with his right hand or with his left hand, whether the same letter or two different letters or in two pigments, in any language, is liable. Rabbi Jose said: they made one liable for writing two letters only because [he makes] a mark, since this is how they would write on each board of the tabernacle, to know which its companion was. Rabbi Judah said: we find a short name [forming part] of a long name: “Shem” as part of “Shimon” or “Shmuel”, “Noah” as part of “Nahor”, “Dan” as part of “Daniel”, “Gad” as part of “Gaddiel”."
16. Mishnah, Sotah, 7.8 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

7.8. How was the procedure in connection with the portion read by the king?At the conclusion of the first day of the festival (Sukkot) in the eighth [year], at the end of the seventh year, they erect a wooden platform in the Temple court, and he sits upon it, as it is said, “At the end of seven years, in the set time” etc (Deuteronomy 31:10). The synagogue attendant takes a Torah scroll and hands it to the head of the synagogue, the head of the synagogue hands it to the deputy and he hands it to the high priest, and the high priest hands it to the king and the king stands and receives it, but reads it while sitting. King Agrippa stood and received it and read standing, and the sages praised him. When he reached, “You shall not place a foreigner over you” (ibid 17:15) his eyes ran with tears. They said to him, “Fear not, Agrippas, you are our brother, you are our brother!” [The king] reads from the beginning of “These are the words” (ibid 1:1) until the Shema ((ibid 6:4-9), and the Shema, and “It will come to pass if you hear” (ibid 11:13-21 the second part of the Shema), and “You shall surely tithe” (ibid 14:22-29), and “When you have finished tithing” (ibid 26:12-15) and the portion of the king (ibid 17:14-20) and the blessings and curses (ibid, until he finishes all the section. The blessings that the high priest recites, the king recites, except that he substitutes one for the festivals instead of one for the pardon of sin."
17. New Testament, 2 Corinthians, 6.14-6.18 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

18. Tosefta, Horayot, 2.10 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

19. Tosefta, Megillah, 2.5 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

20. Tosefta, Parah, 3.7-3.8 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

21. Tosefta, Sanhedrin, 4.1, 4.5, 13.2, 13.5, 13.12 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

22. Tosefta, Kippurim, 1.8 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

23. Tosefta, Yadayim, 2.16 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

24. Anon., Genesis Rabba, 55.7 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

55.7. וַיֹּאמֶר קַח נָא אֶת בִּנְךָ וגו' (בראשית כב, ב), אָמַר לוֹ בְבַקָּשָׁה מִמְּךָ קַח נָא אֶת בִּנְךָ, אָמַר לֵיהּ תְּרֵין בְּנִין אִית לִי אֵי זֶה בֵּן, אָמַר לוֹ: אֶת יְחִידְךָ. אָמַר לוֹ זֶה יָחִיד לְאִמּוֹ וְזֶה יָחִיד לְאִמּוֹ. אָמַר לוֹ: אֲשֶׁר אָהַבְתָּ. אָמַר לוֹ אִית תְּחוּמִין בִּמְעַיָא. אָמַר לוֹ: אֶת יִצְחָק. וְלָמָּה לֹא גִּלָּה לוֹ מִיָּד, כְּדֵי לְחַבְּבוֹ בְּעֵינָיו וְלִתֵּן לוֹ שָׂכָר עַל כָּל דִּבּוּר וְדִבּוּר, הִיא דַעְתֵּיהּ דְּרַבִּי יוֹחָנָן דְּאָמַר רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן (בראשית יב, א): לֶךְ לְךָ, זוֹ אִפַּרְכִיָה שֶׁלָּךְ (בראשית יב, א): וּמִמּוֹלַדְתְּךָ, זוֹ שְׁכוּנָתְךָ, (בראשית יב, א): מִבֵּית אָבִיךָ, זוֹ בֵּית אָבִיךָ, (בראשית יב, א): אֶל הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר אַרְאֶךָּ. וְלָמָּה לֹא גִלָּה לוֹ מִיָּד, כְּדֵי לְחַבְּבָהּ בְּעֵינָיו וְלִתֵּן לוֹ שָׂכָר עַל כָּל דִּבּוּר וְדִבּוּר וְעַל כָּל פְּסִיעָה וּפְסִיעָה. אָמַר רַבִּי לֵוִי בַּר חָיְתָא, שְׁנֵי פְּעָמִים כְּתִיב לֶךְ לְךָ, וְאֵין אָנוּ יוֹדְעִים אֵי זֶה חֲבִיבָה אִם הָרִאשׁוֹנָה אִם הַשְּׁנִיָּה, מִן מַה דִּכְתִיב וְלֶךְ לְךָ אֶל אֶרֶץ הַמֹּרִיָה, הֱוֵי שְׁנִיָּה חֲבִיבָה מִן הָרִאשׁוֹנָה. וְלֶךְ לְךָ אֶל אֶרֶץ הַמֹּרִיָּה, רַבִּי חִיָּא רַבָּה וְרַבִּי יַנַּאי, חַד אָמַר לַמָּקוֹם שֶׁהוֹרָאָה יָצְאָה לָעוֹלָם, וְאוֹחָרָנָא אָמַר לַמָּקוֹם שֶׁיִּרְאָה יָצְאָה לָעוֹלָם. דִּכְוָתָהּ דְּבִיר, רַבִּי חִיָּא וְרַבִּי יַנַּאי, חַד אָמַר מִמָּקוֹם שֶׁהַדִּבְּרוֹת יוֹצְאוֹת לָעוֹלָם, וְחַד אָמַר מִמָּקוֹם שֶׁהַדִּבּוּר יוֹצֵא לָעוֹלָם. דִּכְוָתָה אָרוֹן, רַבִּי חִיָּא וְרַבִּי יַנַּאי, חַד אָמַר לַמָּקוֹם שֶׁהָאוֹרָה יוֹצְאָה לָעוֹלָם, וְחַד אָמַר מָקוֹם שֶׁיִּרְאָה יוֹצֵא לָעוֹלָם. אָמַר רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בֶּן לֵוִי שֶׁמִּשָּׁם הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא מוֹרֶה לְאֻמּוֹת הָעוֹלָם וּמוֹרִידָם לְגֵיהִנֹּם. רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן יוֹחָאי אָמַר לַמָּקוֹם שֶׁהוּא רָאוּי כְּנֶגֶד בֵּית הַמִּקְדָּשׁ לְמַעְלָה. רַבִּי יוּדָן אָמַר לַמָּקוֹם שֶׁיְהֵא מָרְאֶה לָךְ. רַבִּי פִּינְחָס אָמַר לַאֲתַר מַרְוָתָא דְּעַָלְמָא. רַבָּנָן אָמְרֵי לַמָּקוֹם שֶׁהַקְּטֹרֶת קְרֵבִין, הֵיאךְ מָה דְאַתְּ אָמַר (שיר השירים ד, ו): אֵלֶךְ לִי אֶל הַר הַמּוֹר וְאֶל גִּבְעַת הַלְּבוֹנָה. (בראשית כב, ב): וְהַעֲלֵהוּ שָׁם לְעֹלָה, רַבִּי יוּדָן בַּר סִימוֹן אָמַר, אָמַר לְפָנָיו רִבּוֹן הָעוֹלָמִים יֵשׁ קָרְבָּן. בְּלֹא כֹהֵן, אָמַר לוֹ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא כְּבָר מִנִּיתִיךָ שֶׁתְּהֵא כֹהֵן, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (תהלים קי, ד): אַתָּה כֹהֵן לְעוֹלָם. (בראשית כב, ב): עַל אַחַד הֶהָרִים אֲשֶׁר אֹמַר אֵלֶיךָ, ַר רַבִּי הוּנָא מִשּׁוּם רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר בְּנוֹ שֶׁל רַבִּי יוֹסֵי הַגְּלִילִי הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא מַתְהֶא וּמַתְלֶה בְּעֵינֵיהֶם שֶׁל צַדִּיקִים וְאַחַר כָּךְ הוּא מְגַלֶּה לָהֶם טַעֲמוֹ שֶׁל דָּבָר (בראשית יב, א): אֶל הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר אַרְאֶךָּ. עַל אַחַד הֶהָרִים וגו'. דִּכְוָתָהּ (יונה ג, ב): וּקְרָא אֵלֶיהָ אֶת הַקְּרִיאָה אֲשֶׁר וגו', דִּכְוָתָהּ (יחזקאל ג, כב): קוּם צֵא אֶל הַבִּקְעָה וְשָׁם אֲדַבֵּר אוֹתָךְ. 55.7. And He said: Take, please, your son, etc. (22:2). Said God to him: ‘Take, I beg you\" — please —Your son.’ ‘Which son? I have two sons’ he said. ‘Your only son,’ replied He. ‘This one is the only one of his mother, and this one is the only one of his mother.’ \"The one you love\"—‘Is there a limit to the affections?’ \"Itzchak\" said He. And why did God not reveal it to him without delay? In order to make him [Itzchak] even more beloved in his eyes and reward him for each and every word spoken. This agrees with the opinion of Rabbi Yoha, who said: \"Get out of your country\" (Gen. 12:1) means from your province; “And from your kindred” (Gen. 12:1)—from your neighborhood; “And from your father’s house\"(Gen. 12:1)—literally your father’s house. “To the land that I will show you” (Gen. 12:1). Why did He not reveal it to him there and then? In order to make it more beloved in his eyes and to reward him for each and every word said, and for each and every step taken. Rabbi Levi b. Hayata said: ‘Get you’ is written twice, and we do not know which was more precious [in the eyes of God] the first or the second. But when it is written, “And get you to the land of Moriah” (22:2) it follows that the second occasion was more precious than the first. \"And go yourself to the land of Moriah\" Rabbi Chiya Raba and Rabbi Yanai [disagree]: one says to the place from which instruction (hora’ah) goes out to the world, and the other says to the place from which awe (yirah) goes out to the world. Similarly regarding the Holy of Holies (devir), Rabbi Chiya and Rabbi Yanai [disagree]: one says from the place from which the commandments (dibra’ot) go out to the world, and one says from the place from which speech (dibur) goes out to the world. Similarly regarding the ark (aron), Rabbi Chiya and Rabbi Yanai [disagree]: one says to the place from which the light (ha’orah) goes out to the world, and one says to the place where awe (yirah) goes out to the world. Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said that from there the Holy One instructs [mor'eh] the nations of the world and brings them down [moridam] to Gehinnom. Rabbi Shimon bar Yochai said, to the place which is aligned [ra'ui] with the Holy Temple above. Rabbi Yudan said, to the place where there will be an appearance [mar'eh] to you. Rabbi Pinchas said, to the place of the Master [marvatah] of the World. The Rabbis said, to the place where the incense is offered – this is what it says “…I will go to the mountain of myrrh and to the hill of frankincense.” (Shir HaShirim 4:6) \"And offer Him there as a burnt-offering (Gen. 22:2). Rabbi Yudan bar Simon said: He [Avraham] said to Him: ‘Master of the Universe! Can there be a sacrifice without a priest?’ The Holy One of Blessing replied ‘I have already appointed you to be a priest’ as it is written, ‘You are a priest for ever’ (Ps. 110:4). \"On one of the mountains which I will tell you of (Gen. 22:2). Rabbi Huna said in the name of Rabbi Eliezer the son of Rabbi Yosei HaGelili: The Holy One of Blessing first places the righteous in doubt and suspense, and then reveals to them the real meaning of the matter, as it is written \"to the land that I will show you (Gen. 12:1); \"On one of the mountains which I will tell you\"; \"And make to it the proclamation that I bid you (Jonah 3:2); similarly, \"Arise, go out into the plain and I will there speak with you (Ezek. 3:22)."
25. Babylonian Talmud, Berachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

53b. ואין מברכין על הנר עד שיאותו:,אמר רב יהודה אמר רב לא יאותו יאותו ממש אלא כל שאילו עומד בקרוב ומשתמש לאורה ואפילו ברחוק מקום וכן אמר רב אשי ברחוק מקום שנינו,מיתיבי היתה לו נר טמונה בחיקו או בפנס או שראה שלהבת ולא נשתמש לאורה או נשתמש לאורה ולא ראה שלהבת אינו מברך עד שיראה שלהבת וישתמש לאורה,בשלמא משתמש לאורה ולא ראה שלהבת משכחת לה דקיימא בקרן זוית אלא ראה שלהבת ולא נשתמש לאורה היכי משכחת לה לאו דמרחקא,לא כגון דעמיא ואזלא:,ת"ר גחלים לוחשות מברכין עליהן אוממות אין מברכין עליהן ה"ד לוחשות אמר רב חסדא כל שאילו מכניס לתוכן קיסם ודולקת מאיליה,איבעיא להו אוממות או עוממות,ת"ש דאמר רב חסדא בר אבדימי (יחזקאל לא, ח) ארזים לא עממוהו בגן אלהים,ורבא אמר יאותו ממש,וכמה אמר עולא כדי שיכיר בין איסר לפונדיון חזקיה אמר כדי שיכיר בין מלוזמא של טבריא למלוזמא של צפורי,רב יהודה מברך אדבי אדא דיילא רבא מברך אדבי גוריא בר חמא אביי מברך אדבי בר אבוה,אמר רב יהודה אמר רב אין מחזרין על האור כדרך שמחזרים על המצות א"ר זירא מריש הוה מהדרנא כיון דשמענא להא דרב יהודה אמר רב אנא נמי לא מהדרנא אלא אי מקלע לי ממילא מבריכנא:,מי שאכל וכו': אמר רב זביד ואיתימא רב דימי בר אבא מחלוקת בשכח אבל במזיד ד"ה יחזור למקומו ויברך,פשיטא ושכח תנן,מהו דתימא ה"ה אפילו במזיד והאי דקתני ושכח להודיעך כחן דב"ש קמ"ל,תניא אמרו להם ב"ה לב"ש לדבריכם מי שאכל בראש הבירה ושכח וירד ולא ברך יחזור לראש הבירה ויברך אמרו להן ב"ש לב"ה לדבריכם מי ששכח ארנקי בראש הבירה לא יעלה ויטלנה לכבוד עצמו הוא עולה לכבוד שמים לא כל שכן,הנהו תרי תלמידי חד עביד בשוגג כב"ש ואשכח ארנקא דדהבא וחד עביד במזיד כב"ה ואכליה אריא,רבה בב"ח הוה קאזל בשיירתא אכל ואשתלי ולא בריך אמר היכי אעביד אי אמינא להו אנשאי לברך אמרי לי בריך כל היכא דמברכת לרחמנא מברכת מוטב דאמינא להו אנשאי יונה דדהבא אמר להו אנטרו לי דאנשאי יונה דדהבא אזיל ובריך ואשכח יונה דדהבא,ומאי שנא יונה דמתילי כנסת ישראל ליונה דכתיב (תהלים סח, יד) כנפי יונה נחפה בכסף ואברותיה בירקרק חרוץ מה יונה אינה ניצולת אלא בכנפיה אף ישראל אינן ניצולין אלא במצות:,עד אימתי הוא וכו':,כמה שיעור עכול א"ר יוחנן כל זמן שאינו רעב וריש לקיש אמר כל זמן שיצמא מחמת אכילתו,א"ל רב יימר בר שלמיא למר זוטרא ואמרי לה רב יימר בר שיזבי למר זוטרא מי אמר ריש לקיש הכי והאמר רב אמי אמר ריש לקיש כמה שיעור עכול כדי להלך ארבע מילין,ל"ק כאן באכילה מרובה כאן באכילה מועטת:,בא להם יין וכו':,למימרא דישראל אע"ג דלא שמע כולה ברכה עונה וכי לא שמע היכי נפיק,אמר חייא בר רב בשלא אכל עמהן וכן אמר רב נחמן אמר רבה בר אבוה בשלא אכל עמהן א"ל רב לחייא בריה ברי חטוף ובריך וכן אמר רב הונא לרבה בריה חטוף ובריך,למימרא דמברך עדיף ממאן דעני אמן והתניא ר' יוסי אומר גדול העונה אמן יותר מן המברך,א"ל ר' נהוראי השמים כן הוא תדע שהרי גוליירין יורדין ומתגרין [במלחמה] וגבורים יורדין ומנצחין,תנאי היא דתניא אחד המברך ואחד העונה אמן במשמע אלא שממהרין למברך יותר מן העונה אמן,בעי מיניה שמואל מרב מהו לענות אמן אחר תינוקות של בית רבן אמר ליה אחר הכל עונין אמן חוץ מתינוקות של בית רבן הואיל ולהתלמד עשויין וה"מ בדלא עידן מפטרייהו אבל בעידן מפטרייהו עונין,ת"ר שמן מעכב את הברכה דברי רבי זילאי רבי זיואי אומר אינו מעכב רבי אחא אומר שמן טוב מעכב ר' זוהמאי אומר כשם שמזוהם פסול לעבודה כך ידים מזוהמות פסולות לברכה,אמר רב נחמן בר יצחק אנא לא זילאי ולא זיואי ולא זוהמאי ידענא אלא מתניתא ידענא דאמר רב יהודה אמר רב ואמרי לה במתניתא תנא (ויקרא כ, ז) והתקדשתם אלו מים ראשונים והייתם קדושים אלו מים אחרונים כי קדוש זה שמן אני יי' אלהיכם זו ברכה:, br br big strongהדרן עלך אלו דברים /strong /big br br
26. Babylonian Talmud, Nedarim, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

32b. השטן בחושבניה תלת מאה ושיתין וארבעה ואמר רמי בר אבא כתיב אברם, וכתיב אברהם בתחילה המליכו הקב"ה על מאתיים וארבעים ושלושה איברים ולבסוף המליכו על מאתיים וארבעים ושמונה איברים,אלו הן שתי עינים ושתי אזניים וראש הגוייה,ואמר רמי בר אבא מאי דכתיב עיר קטנה ואנשים וגו' (קהלת ט, יד) עיר קטנה זה הגוף ואנשים בה מעט אלו איברים ובא אליה מלך גדול וסבב אותה זה יצר הרע ובנה עליה מצודים וחרמים אלו עוונות,ומצא בה איש מסכן וחכם זה יצר טוב ומלט הוא את העיר בחכמתו זו תשובה ומעשים טובים ואדם לא זכר את האיש המסכן ההוא דבשעת יצר הרע לית דמדכר ליה ליצר טוב,החכמה תעוז לחכם מעשרה שליטים (קהלת ז, יט) החכמה תעוז לחכם זו תשובה ומעשים טובים מעשרה שליטים שתי עיניים ושתי אזניים ושתי ידיים ושתי רגליים וראש הגוייה ופה,אמר רבי זכריה משום רבי ישמעאל ביקש הקב"ה להוציא כהונה משֵם שנאמר והוא כהן לאל עליון (בראשית יד, יח) כיוון שהקדים ברכת אברהם לברכת המקום הוציאה מאברהם,שנאמר ויברכהו ויאמר ברוך אברם לאל עליון קונה שמים וארץ וברוך אל עליון (בראשית יד יט-כ) אמר לו אברהם וכי מקדימין ברכת עבד לברכת קונו מיד נתנה לאברהם שנאמר נאם ה' לאדני שב לימיני עד אשית אויביך הדום לרגליך (תהלים קי, א) ובתריה כתיב נשבע ה' ולא ינחם אתה כהן לעולם על דברתי מלכי צדק (תהלים קי, ד) על דיבורו של מלכי צדק,והיינו דכתיב והוא כהן לאל עליון הוא כהן ואין זרעו כהן, br br big strongהדרן עלך ארבעה נדרים /strong /big br br,מתני׳ big strongאין /strong /big בין המודר הנאה מחבירו למודר הימנו מאכל אלא דריסת הרגל וכלים שאין עושין בהם אוכל נפש,המודר מאכל מחבירו לא ישאילנו נפה וכברה וריחיים ותנור אבל משאיל לו חלוק וטבעת וטלית ונזמים, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big מאן תנא אמר רב אדא בר אהבה רבי אליעזר היא דתניא רבי אליעזר אומר אפילו ויתור אסור במודר הנאה,המודר מאכל מחבירו לא ישאילנו כו' 32b. The letters of the term bthe Satan [ ihaSatan /i] in numerical valueis b364,which equals the number of days of the year, except for Yom Kippur, during which he has no power. bAnd Rami bar Abba said: It is written “Abram,” andafter he was commanded to perform circumcision bit is written “Abraham”(Genesis 17:5). bInitially the Holy One, Blessed be He, enthroned himas ruler bover 243 limbs,which is the numerical equivalent of the letters of the word Abram. bAnd in the end,after he was circumcised, bHe enthroned himas ruler bover 248 limbs,which is the numerical equivalent of the letters of the word Abraham., bThese arethe additional limbs: bTwo eyes, and two ears, and the tip of the sex organ.Following his circumcision, he had total control over them, and they performed only according to his will., bAnd Rami bar Abba said: What isthe meaning of that bwhich is written: “There was a little city andfew bmenin it, and there came a great king against it, and besieged it, and built great bulwarks against it. Now there was found in it a man poor and wise, and he by his wisdom delivered the city; yet no man remembered that same poor man” (Ecclesiastes 9:14–15)? b“A little city,” thisis referring to bthe body; “and few men in it,” thisis referring to bthe limbs; “and there came a great king against it and besieged it,” thisis referring to bthe evil inclination; “and built great bulwarks against it,” theseare bsins. /b,The Gemara expounds on the next section of the verse: b“Now there was found in it a man poor and wise,” thisis referring to bthe good inclination; “and he by his wisdom delivered the city,” thisis referring to brepentance and good deedsthat are cause by the good inclination. b“Yet no man remembered that same poor man”means bthat when the evil inclinationovercomes the good inclination bno one remembers the good inclination. /b,The Gemara interprets the following verse in a similar homiletical manner: b“Wisdom is a stronghold to the wise man more than ten rulersthat are in a city” (Ecclesiastes 7:19). b“Wisdom is a stronghold to the wise man,” thisis referring to brepentance and good deeds. “More than ten rulers,”these are bthe two eyes, and two ears, and two hands, and two legs, and the tip of the sex organ, and the mouth,which are the limbs that are used by a person to interact with the world., bRabbi Zekharya said in the name of Rabbi Yishmael: The Holy One, Blessed be He, wanted the priesthood to emerge from Shem,so that his children would be priests, bas it is stated:“And Melchizedek king of Salem brought forth bread and wine; band he was priest of God the Most High”(Genesis 14:18). bOnceMelchizedek, traditionally identified as Shem, bplaced the blessing of Abraham before the blessing of the Omnipresent,He had the priesthood bemerge from Abrahamin particular, and not from any other descendant of Shem., bAs it is stated: “And he blessed him and said: Blessed be Abram of God Most High, Maker of heaven and earth, and blessed be God the Most High”(Genesis 14:19–20). bAbraham said to him: And does one place the blessing of the servant before the blessing of his master?You should have blessed God first. bImmediatelythe Holy One, Blessed be He, bgavethe priesthood bto Abraham, as it is stated: “The Lord says to my lord: Sit at My right hand, until I make your enemies your footstool”(Psalms 110:1), band afterward it is written: “The Lord has sworn, and will not repent: you shall be a priest forever, because you are a king of righteousness [ ial divrati malki tzedek /i]”(Psalms 110:4), which is explained homiletically to mean: bDue to theimproper bwords [ idivrati /i] of Melchizedek,the offspring of Abraham shall be priests of God forever.,The Gemara comments: bAnd this is as it is written: “And he was priest of God the Most High”(Genesis 14:18), which emphasizes that bhe,Melchizedek, bis a priest, but his childrenwill bnotbe bpriests. /b,, strongMISHNA: /strong bThe difference between one for whom benefit from another is forbidden by vow [ ihamuddar hana’a meḥaveiro /i] and one for whombenefit bfrom his food is forbidden by vowconcerns bonly setting footon the other person’s property bandborrowing from that person butensils that one does not usein bpreparation of foodbut for other purposes. Those two benefits are forbidden to the former but permitted to the latter.,Therefore, with regard to bone for whombenefit bfrom another’s food is forbidden by vow,that person bmay not lend himutensils used in the preparation of food, e.g., ba sieve, or a strainer, or a millstone, or an oven. However, he may lend him a garment, or a finger ring, or a cloak, or nose rings,as these are not used in the preparation of food. However, he may not lend them to one for whom benefit from him is forbidden by vow., strongGEMARA: /strong bWho is the itanna /iwho taught this mishna? bRav Adda bar Ahava said: It is Rabbi Eliezer, as it is taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Eliezer said: Even overlooking [ ivittur /i]a matter for which one is typically indifferent to the actions of others, e.g., people setting foot on one’s property, bis prohibited inthe case of bone prohibited by vow from deriving benefitfrom another.,§ We learned in the mishna: With regard to bone for whombenefit bfrom another’s food is forbidden by vow,that person bmay not lend himutensils used in the preparation of food.
27. Babylonian Talmud, Qiddushin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

70b. אין שואלין בשלום אשה על ידי בעלה אמר ליה הכי אמר שמואל אין שואלין בשלום אשה כלל שלחה ליה דביתהו שרי ליה תגריה דלא נישוויך כשאר עם הארץ,א"ל מאי שיאטיה דמר הכא אמר ליה טסקא דהזמנותא שדר מר אבתראי אמר ליה השתא שותא דמר לא גמירנא טסקא דהזמנותא משדרנא למר אפיק דיסקא דהזמנותא מבי חדיה ואחזי ליה אמר ליה הא גברא והא דסקא אמר ליה הואיל ואתא מר להכא לישתעי מיליה כי היכי דלא לימרו מחנפי רבנן אהדדי,אמר ליה מאי טעמא שמתיה מר לההוא גברא ציער שליחא דרבנן ונגדיה מר דרב מנגיד על מאן דמצער שלוחא דרבנן דעדיף מיניה עבדי ליה,מאי טעמא אכריז מר עליה דעבדא הוא אמר ליה דרגיל דקרי אינשי עבדי ותני כל הפוסל פסול ואינו מדבר בשבחא לעולם ואמר שמואל במומו פוסל אימר דאמר שמואל למיחש ליה לאכרוזי עליה מי אמר,אדהכי והכי (אתא ההוא בר דיניה מנהרדעי) א"ל ההוא בר דיניה לרב יהודה לדידי קרית לי עבדא דאתינא מבית חשמונאי מלכא אמר ליה הכי אמר שמואל כל דאמר מדבית חשמונאי קאתינא עבדא הוא,א"ל לא סבר לה מר להא דא"ר אבא אמר רב הונא אמר רב כל ת"ח שמורה הלכה ובא אם קודם מעשה אמרה שומעין לו ואם לאו אין שומעין לו אמר ליה הא איכא רב מתנה דקאי כוותי,רב מתנה לא חזייה לנהרדעא תליסר שני ההוא יומא אתא אמר ליה דכיר מר מאי אמר שמואל כי קאי חדא כרעא אגודא וחדא כרעא במברא א"ל הכי אמר שמואל כל דאמר מדבית חשמונאי מלכא קאתינא עבדא הוא דלא אישתיור מינייהו אלא ההיא רביתא דסלקא לאיגרא ורמיא קלא ואמרה כל דאמר מבית חשמונאי אנא עבדא הוא,נפלה מאיגרא ומיתה אכרוז עליה דעבדא הוא,ההוא יומא אקרען כמה כתובתא בנהרדעא כי קא נפיק נפקי אבתריה למירגמיה אמר להו אי שתיקו שתיקו ואי לא מגלינא עלייכו הא דאמר שמואל תרתי זרעייתא איכא בנהרדעא חדא מיקריא דבי יונה וחדא מיקריא דבי עורבתי וסימניך טמא טמא טהור טהור שדיוה לההוא ריגמא מידייהו וקם אטמא בנהר מלכא,מכריז רב יהודה בפומבדיתא אדא ויונתן עבדי יהודה בר פפא ממזירא בטי בר טוביה ברמות רוחא לא שקיל גיטא דחירותא מכריז רבא במחוזא בלאי דנאי טלאי מלאי זגאי כולם לפסול אמר רב יהודה גובאי גבעונאי דורנוניתא דראי נתינאי אמר רב יוסף האי בי כובי דפומבדיתא כולם דעבדי,אמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל ארבע מאות עבדים ואמרי לה ארבעת אלפים עבדים היו לו לפשחור בן אימר וכולם נטמעו בכהונה וכל כהן שיש בו עזות פנים אינו אלא מהם אמר אביי כולהו יתבן בשורא דבנהרדעא ופליגא דרבי אלעזר דאמר ר' אלעזר אם ראית כהן בעזות מצח אל תהרהר אחריו שנא' (הושע ד, ד) ועמך כמריבי כהן,אמר רבי אבין בר רב אדא אמר רב כל הנושא אשה שאינה הוגנת לו כשהקב"ה משרה שכינתו מעיד על כל השבטים ואין מעיד עליו שנאמר (תהלים קכב, ד) שבטי יה עדות לישראל אימתי הוי עדות לישראל בזמן שהשבטים שבטי יה,אמר ר' חמא ברבי חנינא כשהקב"ה משרה שכינתו אין משרה אלא על משפחות מיוחסות שבישראל שנא' (ירמיהו לא, א) בעת ההיא נאם ה' אהיה לאלהים לכל משפחות ישראל לכל ישראל לא נאמר אלא לכל משפחות,[והמה] יהיו לי לעם אמר רבה בר רב הונא זו מעלה יתירה יש בין ישראל לגרים דאילו בישראל כתיב בהו (יחזקאל לז, כז) והייתי להם לאלהים [והמה] יהיו לי לעם ואילו בגרים כתיב (ירמיהו ל, כא) מי הוא זה ערב את לבו לגשת אלי נאם ה' והייתם לי לעם ואנכי אהיה לכם לאלהים,אמר רבי חלבו קשים גרים לישראל כספחת שנאמר (ישעיהו יד, א) ונלוה הגר עליהם ונספחו על בית יעקב כתיב הכא ונספחו וכתיב התם (ויקרא יד, נו) לשאת ולספחת,אמר רבי חמא בר חנינא כשהקדוש ברוך הוא 70b. bOne may not send greetings to a womaneven with a messenger, as this may cause the messenger and the woman to relate to each other inappropriately. Rav Naḥman countered by suggesting that he send his greetings bwith her husband,which would remove all concerns. Rav Yehuda bsaid to him: This is what Shmuel says: One may not send greetings to a woman at all.Yalta, bhis wife,who overheard that Rav Yehuda was getting the better of the exchange, bsenta message bto him: Release himand conclude your business with him, bso that he not equate you with another ignoramus. /b,Desiring to release Rav Yehuda, Rav Naḥman bsaid to him: What is the reasonthat bthe Master is here?Rav Yehuda bsaid to him: The Master sent me a summons.Rav Naḥman bsaid to him: Nowthat bI have noteven blearned the Master’sform of bspeech,as you have demonstrated your superiority to me by reproving me even over such matters, bcould Ihave bsent a summons to the Master?Rav Yehuda bremoved the summons from his bosom and showed it to him.While doing so, Rav Yehuda bsaid to him: Here is the man and here is the document.Rav Naḥman bsaid to him: Since the Master has come here, let him present his statement, in order thatpeople bshould not say: The Sages flatter one anotherand do not judge each other according to the letter of the law.,Rav Naḥman commenced the deliberation, and bsaid to him: What is the reasonthat bthe Master excommunicated that man?Rav Yehuda replied: bHe caused discomfort to an agentof one bof the Sages,and therefore he deserved the punishment of one who causes discomfort to a Torah scholar. Rav Naḥman challenged this answer: If so, blet the Master flog him, as Rav would flog one who causes discomfort to an agent of the Sages.Rav Yehuda responded: bIpunished bhim more severely than that.Rabbi Yehuda held that excommunication is a more severe punishment than flogging.,Rav Naḥman further inquired: bWhat is the reasonthat bthe Master proclaimed about him that he is a slave?Rav Yehuda bsaid to him:Because he bis in the habit of calling people slaves, andit bis taught: Anyone who disqualifiesothers by stating that their lineage is flawed, that is a sign that he himself bisof bflawedlineage. Another indication of his lineage being flawed is that bhe never speaks in praiseof others. bAnd Shmuel said: He disqualifies with hisown bflaw.Rav Naḥman retorted: You can bsay that Shmuel saidthis ihalakhaonly btothe degree that one should bsuspect himof being of flawed lineage. But bdid heactually bsaythis btothe extent that one could bproclaim about himthat he is of flawed lineage?,The Gemara continues the story: bMeanwhile, that litigant arrived from Neharde’a. That litigant said to Rav Yehuda: You call me a slave? I, who come from the house of the Hasmonean kings?Rav Yehuda bsaid to him: This is what Shmuel says: Anyone who says: I come from the house of the Hasmoneankings, bis a slave.As will be explained, only slaves remained of their descendants.,Rav Naḥman, who heard this exchange, bsaid toRav Yehuda: bDoes the Master not hold in accordance with this ihalakha bthat Rabbi Abba saysthat bRav Huna saysthat bRav says:With regard to bany Torah scholar who proceeds to teacha ruling of ihalakha /iwith regard to a particular issue, bif he said it before an actionthat concerns himself occurred, btheyshould blisten to him,and his ruling is accepted. bBut if not,if he quoted the ihalakhaonly after he was involved in an incident related to the ihalakhahe is quoting, bthey do not listen to him,due to his personal involvement? Your testimony with regard to what Shmuel ruled should be ignored, as you stated it only after the incident. Rav Yehuda bsaid toRav Naḥman: bThere is Rav Mattana, who stands by myreport, since he has also heard this ruling of Shmuel.,The Gemara continues: bRav Mattana had not seenthe city of bNeharde’afor bthirteen years. Thatvery bday he arrived.Rav Yehuda bsaid to him:Does bthe Master remember what Shmuel said when he was standingwith bone foot on the bank and one foot on the ferry?Rav Mattana bsaid to him: This is what Shmuel saidat that time: bAnyone who says: I come from the house of the Hasmoneankings, bis a slave, as none remained of them except for that young girl who ascended to the roof and raised her voice and said:From now on, banyone who says: I come from the house of the Hasmoneankings, bis a slave.Other than this girl, the only members of the family who remained were descendants of Herod, and he was an Edomite slave.,The girl then bfell from the roof and died,leaving only slaves from the Hasmoneans. With the confirmation of the report of the statement of Shmuel, btheyalso bpublicizedin Neharde’a babout him,i.e., that man who claimed to come from the Hasmonean kings, bthat he was a slave. /b,The Gemara relates: On bthat day, several marriage contracts were torn up in Neharde’a,as many had their marriages annulled after having discovered that they had married slaves. bWhenRav Yehuda bwas leavingNeharde’a, bthey pursued him,seeking bto stone him,as because of him it was publicized that their lineage was flawed. Rav Yehuda bsaid to them: If you are silent,remain bsilent. And ifyou will bnotremain silent, bI will reveal about you thisstatement bthat Shmuel said: There are twolines of boffspring in Neharde’a. One is called the dove’s house, and one is called the raven’s house. And your mnemonicwith regard to lineage is: The bimpurebird, the raven, is bimpure,meaning flawed, and the bpureone, the dove, is bpure,meaning unflawed. Upon hearing this, bthey threwall bthosestones that they were intending bto stone himwith bfrom their hands,as they did not want him to reveal who had a flawed lineage. bAndas a result of all of the stones thrown into the river, ba dam arose in the Malka River. /b,§ The Gemara continues the discussion of those with a flawed lineage: bRav Yehuda proclaimed in Pumbedita: Adda and Yonatan,known residents of that town, are bslaves; Yehuda bar Pappais a imamzer /i; Bati bar Tuviyya, in his arrogance, did not accept a bill of manumissionand is still a slave. bRava proclaimed inhis city of bMeḥoza: Balla’ai, Danna’ai, Talla’ai, Malla’ai, Zagga’ai: Allthese families bareof bflawedlineage. bRav Yehudalikewise bsays: Gova’ai,the inhabitants of a place called Gova, are in fact bGibeonites,and their name has been corrupted. Similarly, those people known as bDorenunitaare from bthe village of Gibeonites,and they may not marry Jews with unflawed lineage. bRav Yosef says:With regard to bthisplace called bBei Kuvei of Pumbedita,its residents bare alldescendants bof slaves. /b, bRav Yehuda saysthat bShmuel says: Four hundred slaves, and some say four thousand slaves, were owned by Pashḥur ben Immer,a priest in the time of Jeremiah, banddue to their greatness bthey were assimilated into the priesthoodand became known as priests. bAnd any priest who hasthe trait of binsolence is only from them. Abaye said: They all sit in the rowsof honor bthat are inthe city of bNeharde’a.The Gemara comments: And this statement bdisagrees withthe statement bof Rabbi Elazar, as Rabbi Elazar says: If you see an insolent priest, do not speculate about himthat he may be of flawed lineage, bsince it is stated: “For your people are as those who strive with a priest”(Hosea 4:4), which indicates that priests had a reputation for being cantankerous.,§ The Gemara discusses an idea raised earlier. bRabbi Avin bar Rav Adda saysthat bRav says:Concerning banyone who marries a woman who is not suited for himto marry, bwhen the Holy One, Blessed be He, rests His Divine Presenceupon the Jewish people, bHe testifies with regard to all the tribesthat they are His people, bbut He does not testify with regard to hewho married improperly, bas it is stated: “The tribes of the Lord, as a testimony to Israel”(Psalms 122:4). bWhen is it a testimony to Israel? When the tribes are the tribes of the Lord,but not when their lineage is flawed., bRabbi Ḥama, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, says: When the Holy One, Blessed be He, rests His Divine Presence, He rests it only upon families ofunflawed lineage bamong Israel, as it is stated: “At that time, says the Lord, will I be the God of all the families of Israel”(Jeremiah 30:25). bof all Israel, is not stated, but “of all the families,”which includes only those of unflawed lineage, the renowned families of Israel.,The verse from Jeremiah ends with the words b“And they shall be my people.” Rabba bar Rav Huna says: This is a higher standardthat differentiates bbetweenthose born as bJews and converts, as with regard tothose born as bJews it is written about them: “And I will be their God, and they shall be My people”(Ezekiel 37:27), bwhereas with regard to converts it is written: “For who is he that has pledged his heart to approach unto Me? says the Lord. And you shall be My people, and I will be your God”(Jeremiah 30:21–22). This teaches that converts are not drawn close to God, as indicated by the words “And I will be your God,” until they first draw themselves near to God, as indicated by the subsequent phrase “And you shall be my people.”, bRabbi Ḥelbo says: Converts areas bdifficult for the Jewish people as a scab.The proof is bthat it is stated: “And the convert shall join himself with them, and they shall cleave [ ivenispeḥu /i] to the house of Jacob”(Isaiah 14:1). bIt is written here “ ivenispeḥu /i,” and it is written there,among the types of leprosy: b“And for a sore and for a scab [ isappaḥat /i]”(Leviticus 14:56). The use of a term with a similar root indicates that converts are like a scab for the Jewish people., bRabbi Ḥama bar Ḥanina says: When the Holy One, Blessed be He, /b
28. Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

110a. וסתרתה למזיה כל דאתא חזיה הדר אדהכי והכי אבלעו להו,איתתיה דקרח אמרה ליה חזי מאי קעביד משה איהו הוה מלכא לאחוה שוויה כהנא רבא לבני אחוהי שוינהו סגני דכהנא אי אתיא תרומה אמר תיהוי לכהן אי אתו מעשר דשקילתו אתון אמר הבו חד מי' לכהן ועוד דגייז ליה למזייכו ומיטלל לכו כי כופתא עינא יהב במזייכו אמר לה הא איהו נמי קא עביד אמרה ליה כיון דכולהו רבותא דידיה אמר איהו נמי (שופטים טז, ל) תמות נפשי עם פלשתים,ועוד דקאמר לכו עבדיתו תכלתא אי ס"ד תכלתא חשיבא [מצוה] אפיק גלימי דתכלתא וכסינהו לכולהו מתיבתך היינו דכתיב (משלי יד, א) חכמות נשים בנתה ביתה זו אשתו של און בן פלת ואולת בידה תהרסנה זו אשתו של קרח,(במדבר טז, ב) ויקומו לפני משה ואנשים מבני ישראל חמשים ומאתים מיוחדים שבעדה קריאי מועד שהיו יודעים לעבר שנים ולקבוע חדשים אנשי שם שהיה להם שם בכל העולם,(במדבר טז, ד) וישמע משה ויפול על פניו מה שמועה שמע אמר רבי שמואל בר נחמני א"ר יונתן שחשדוהו מאשת איש שנאמר (תהלים קו, טז) ויקנאו למשה במחנה א"ר שמואל בר יצחק מלמד שכל אחד ואחד קנא את אשתו ממשה שנאמר (שמות לג, ז) ומשה יקח את האהל ונטה לו מחוץ למחנה,(במדבר טז, כה) ויקם משה וילך אל דתן ואבירם אמר ר"ל מכאן שאין מחזיקין במחלוקת דאמר רב כל המחזיק במחלוקת עובר בלאו שנאמר (במדבר יז, ה) ולא יהיה כקרח וכעדתו,רב אשי אמר ראוי ליצטרע כתיב הכא ביד משה לו וכתיב התם (שמות ד, ו) ויאמר ה' לו עוד הבא נא ידך בחיקך,אמר ר' יוסי כל החולק על מלכות בית דוד ראוי להכישו נחש כתיב הכא (מלכים א א, ט) ויזבח אדוניהו צאן ובקר ומריא עם אבן הזוחלת וכתיב התם (דברים לב, כד) עם חמת זוחלי עפר,אמר רב חסדא כל החולק על רבו כחולק על השכינה שנאמר (במדבר כו, ט) בהצותם על ה' א"ר חמא ברבי חנינא כל העושה מריבה עם רבו כעושה עם שכינה שנאמר (במדבר כ, יג) המה מי מריבה אשר רבו בני ישראל (על) [את] ה',א"ר חנינא בר פפא כל המתרעם על רבו כאילו מתרעם על השכינה שנאמר (שמות טז, ח) לא עלינו תלונותיכם כי (אם) על ה' א"ר אבהו כל המהרהר אחר רבו כאילו מהרהר אחר שכינה שנאמר (במדבר כא, ה) וידבר העם באלהים ובמשה,(קהלת ה, יב) עושר שמור לבעליו לרעתו אמר ר"ל זה עושרו של קרח (דברים יא, ו) ואת כל היקום אשר ברגליהם א"ר אלעזר זה ממונו של אדם שמעמידו על רגליו ואמר רבי לוי משוי ג' מאות פרדות לבנות היו מפתחות של בית גנזיו של קרח וכולהו אקלידי וקילפי דגילדא,א"ר חמא ברבי חנינא ג' מטמוניות הטמין יוסף במצרים אחת נתגלתה לקרח ואחת נתגלתה לאנטונינוס בן אסוירוס ואחת גנוזה לצדיקים לעתיד לבא,וא"ר יוחנן קרח לא מן הבלועים ולא מן השרופין לא מן הבלועין דכתיב (במדבר טז, לב) ואת כל האדם אשר לקרח ולא קרח ולא מן השרופים דכתיב (במדבר כו, י) באכול האש את חמשים ומאתים איש ולא קרח,במתניתא תנא קרח מן השרופין ומן הבלועין מן הבלועים דכתיב (במדבר כו, י) ותבלע אותם ואת קרח מן השרופין דכתיב (במדבר טז, לה) (ותצא אש מלפני ה') [ואש יצאה מאת ה'] ותאכל את חמשים ומאתים איש וקרח בהדייהו,אמר רבא מאי דכתיב (חבקוק ג, יא) שמש ירח עמד זבולה לאור חציך יהלכו מלמד שעלו שמש וירח לזבול אמרו לפניו רבש"ע אם אתה עושה דין לבן עמרם נצא ואם לאו לא נצא עד שזרק בהם חצים אמר להן בכבודי לא מחיתם בכבוד בשר ודם מחיתם והאידנא לא נפקי עד דמחו להו,דרש רבא מאי דכתיב (במדבר טז, ל) ואם בריאה יברא ה' ופצתה האדמה את פיה אמר משה לפני הקב"ה אם בריאה גיהנם מוטב ואם לאו יברא ה' למאי אילימא למבריה ממש והא (קהלת א, ט) אין כל חדש תחת השמש אלא לקרובי פיתחא,(במדבר כו, יא) ובני קרח לא מתו תנא משום רבינו אמרו מקום נתבצר להם בגיהנם וישבו עליו ואמרו שירה אמר רבה בר בר חנה זימנא חדא הוה קאזלינא באורחא אמר לי ההוא טייעא תא ואחוי לך בלועי דקרח אזיל חזא תרי בזעי דהוה קא נפק קיטרא מנייהו שקל גבבא דעמרא אמשיי' מיא ואותביה בריש רומחיה ואחלפי' התם איחרך א"ל אצית מה שמעת ושמעית דהוו קאמרי הכי משה ותורתו אמת והן בדאים 110a. band exposed her hairas though she were bathing. bAnyone who cameand bsaw herstepped bback. In the meantimethe assembly of Korah bwas swallowedinto the ground, and On, son of Peleth, was spared., bKorah’s wife said to him: See what Moses is doing. He is the king, he appointed his brother High Priest,and bhe appointed his brother’s sons deputy priests. If iterumacomes, he says: Let it be for the priest; ifthe first btithe comes, which youas Levites btake, he says: Give one tenth to the priest. And furthermore, he shears your hair and waves youas if you are as insignificant bas excrement(see Numbers 8:5–11), as though bhe sethis bsights on your hairand wishes you to be shaven and unsightly. Korah bsaid to her: But didn’t he also do so;he shaved his hair like the rest of the Levites? bShe said to him: Since it is alldone bfor his own prominence, he also saidmetaphorically: b“Let me die with the Philistines”(Judges 16:30); he was willing to humiliate himself in order to humiliate you.,She said to him: bAnd furthermore,with regard to that bwhich he said to you, to prepare sky-blue dyefor your ritual fringes, one could respond to him: bIf it enters your mind,Moses, that using bsky-blue dye is considered a mitzva, take out robesthat are made entirely bofmaterial colored with bsky-blue dye, and dress allthe students bof your academyin sky-blue robes without ritual fringes; why could one not fulfill the mitzva in that manner? Clearly, Moses is fabricating all this. bThis isthe meaning of that bwhich is written: “The wisdom of women builds her house”(Proverbs 14:1); bthisis referring to bthe wife of On, son of Peleth.And: b“Folly plucks it down with her hands”(Proverbs 14:1); bthisis referring to bthe wife of Korah. /b,It is written: b“And they arose before Moses, with men from the children of Israel, two hundred and fiftyprinces of the congregation, the elect men of the assembly, men of renown” (Numbers 16:2). These men were bthe distinctive people of the assembly. “The elect men of the assembly [ ikeri’ei moed /i]”is referring to those bwho knewhow bto intercalate the years and establish the monthsin order to determine the time for each Festival [ imoed /i]. b“Men of renown [ ishem /i],”is referring to those bwho had a reputation [ ishem /i] throughout the world. /b,With regard to the verse: b“And Moses heard and he fell on his face”(Numbers 16:4), the Gemara asks: bWhat report did he hearthat elicited that reaction? bRabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani saysthat bRabbi Yonatan says:He heard bthat they suspected himof adultery bwith a married woman, as it is stated: “And they were jealous of Moses in the camp”(Psalms 106:16). bRabbi Shmuel bar Yitzḥak says:This bteaches that each and everyman bwarned his wifeto distance herself bfrom Mosesand not enter into seclusion with him, bas it is stated: “And Moses would take the tent and pitch it outside the camp”(Exodus 33:7). It was due to this slander that he withdrew from the camp.,§ With regard to the verse: b“And Moses arose and went to Dathan and Abiram”(Numbers 16:25), bReish Lakish says: From herewe derive bthat one may not perpetuate a dispute, as Rav says: Anyone who perpetuates a dispute violates a prohibition, as it is stated: “And he will not be like Korah and his assembly,as the Lord spoke by the hand of Moses to him” (Numbers 17:5). Even the aggrieved party must seek to end the dispute. Dathan and Abiram accused Moses and by right should have initiated the reconciliation. Nevertheless, Moses was not insistent on this; he went to them., bRav Ashi says:One who perpetuates a dispute bis fit to be afflicted with leprosy. It is written here: “By the hand of Moses to him,” and it is written there: “And the Lord said furthermore to him: Put now your hand into your bosom.And he put his hand into his bosom; and when he took it out, behold, his hand was leprous, as white as snow” (Exodus 4:6). Based on the verbal analogy based on the term “to him” written in both verses, it is derived that the punishment for perpetuating a dispute is leprosy.,Apropos the prohibition of perpetuating a dispute, bRabbi Yosei says:With regard to banyone who disputes the reign of the house of David, it is fitting for a snake to bite him.As bit is written here: “And Adonijah slaughtered sheep and cattle and fatlings by the stone of Zoheleth”(I Kings 1:9); band it is written there: “With the poison of crawling things [ izoḥalei /i] of the dust”(Deuteronomy 32:24). Adonijah, who rebelled against his father, King David, was fit to be bitten by a snake., bRav Ḥisda says: Anyone who disagrees with his teacher is like one who disagrees with the Divine Presence, as it is statedwith regard to Dathan and Abiram: b“When they strove against the Lord”(Numbers 26:9), although their dispute was with Moses. bRabbi Ḥama, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, says: Anyone who initiates a quarrel [ imeriva /i] with his teacher is like one who initiates a quarrel with the Divine Presence, as it is stated: “These are the waters of Meribah, where the children of Israel quarreled with the Lord”(Numbers 20:13), although their quarrel was with Moses., bRabbi Ḥanina bar Pappa says: Anyone who expresses resentment against his teacherfor wronging him, bit is as though he is expressing resentment against the Divine Presence, as it is stated: “Your murmurings are not against us, but against the Lord”(Exodus 16:8). bRabbi Abbahu says: Anyone who suspects his teacherof wrongdoing, bit is as though he suspects the Divine Presence, as it is stated: “And the people spoke against God, and against Moses”(Numbers 21:5). The verse likens God and Moses with regard to this matter.,§ With regard to the verse: b“Wealth is kept for the owner to his detriment”(Ecclesiastes 5:12), bReish Lakish says: Thisis referring to bthe wealth of Korah,which was of no use to him. The fact that Korah was wealthy is derived from the verse: b“And all the substance that was at their feet”(Deuteronomy 11:6), as bRabbi Elazar says: Thisis referring to ba person’s property, which stands him on his feet. And Rabbi Levi says: The keysalone bto Korah’s treasury were a burdenrequiring bthree hundred white mulesto transport them, bandmoreover, ball the keys [ iaklidei /i] and locks were of leather.This conveys the vastness of his wealth., bRabbi Ḥama, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, says: Joseph concealed three buried treasures in Egyptthat he accumulated from the sale of grain during the years of famine. The location of bone was revealed to Korah, andthe location of bone was revealed to Antoninus, son of Asveirus,emperor of Rome, band oneremains bhidden for the righteous in the future,i.e., in the messianic era., bAnd Rabbi Yoḥa says: Korah was neither among the swallowed nor among the burned;he died in a plague. He was bneither among the swallowed, as it is written:“And the earth opened its mouth and swallowed them and their houses band all the men who were with Korah”(Numbers 16:32), from which it is inferred: bBut not Korahhimself. bNorwas he bamong the burned, as it is written: “When the fire consumed two hundred and fifty men”(Numbers 26:10), bbut not Korah. /b,It bwas taught in a ibaraita /i: Korah wasboth bamong the burned and among the swallowed.He was bamong the swallowed, as it is written:“And the earth opened its mouth band swallowed them with Korah”(Numbers 26:10). He was bamong the burned, as it is written: “And fire came forth from the Lord, and devoured the two hundred and fifty menthat burned the incense” (Numbers 16:35), band Korah was with them. /b, bRava says: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “The sun and moon stand still in their habitation [ izevula /i], at the light of Your arrows as they go”(Habakkuk 3:11)? This bteaches that the sun and moon ascended to izevul /i,one of the seven firmaments, in which the upper Temple stands. bThey said beforeGod: bMaster of the Universe, if You perform justice forMoses, bthe son of Amram,and prove his righteousness, bwe will emergeand illuminate the world. bAnd if not, we will not emerge.They did not emerge buntilGod bfired arrows at themand bsaid to them: You did not protest with regard to My honor,as people would see the sun and the moon each day and worship them, but byou protested for the honor of flesh and blood? And today,the sun and the moon bdo not emerge until they are struck,as in deference to God they hesitate to emerge., bRava taught: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “But if the Lord creates a new creation and the earth opens its mouth”(Numbers 16:30)? bMoses said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: If Gehenna isalready bcreated, good, but if not, God should createit now. The Gemara asks: bFor whatwas Moses asking? bIf we saythat his request was for God bto actually createGehenna, bbut isn’tit written: b“There is nothing new under the sun”(Ecclesiastes 1:9)? There are no new creations after the six days of Creation. bRather,Moses asked God bto bring the openingof Gehenna bcloseto there, so that the assembly of Korah would be buried alive.,With regard to the verse: b“And the sons of Korah did not die”(Numbers 26:11), it is btaughtin a ibaraitathat bin the name of our teacher,the Sages bsaid: A place was fortified for them in Gehenna and they sat upon it and recited songsof praise. bRabba bar bar Ḥana said: One time I was walking on the path,and ba certain Arab said to me: Come and I will show you thosefrom the assembly bof Korahwho were bswallowed. I wentand bI saw two fissuresin the ground bfrom which smoke was emerging.That Arab btook a woolen fleeceand bdampened it with water and placed it on the tip of his spear and passedit over the fissures bthere.The fleece bwas singed,indicating the level of heat there. bHe said to me: Listen; what do you hear? And I heard that thisis what bthey were saying: Moses and his Torah are truth, and they,referring to themselves, bare liars. /b
29. Babylonian Talmud, Sotah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

41b. מאתחלתא דמועד,וחזן הכנסת נוטל ס"ת ונותנו לראש הכנסת שמעת מינה חולקין כבוד לתלמיד במקום הרב אמר אביי כולה משום כבודו דמלך,והמלך עומד ומקבל וקורא יושב אגריפס המלך עמד וקיבל וקרא עומד עומד מכלל דיושב והאמר מר אין ישיבה בעזרה אלא למלכי בית דוד בלבד שנא' (שמואל ב ז, יח) ויבא המלך דוד וישב לפני ה' ויאמר וגו' כדאמר רב חסדא בעזרת נשים הכא נמי בעזרת נשים,ושבחוהו חכמים שבחוהו מכלל דשפיר עבד האמר רב אשי אפי' למ"ד נשיא שמחל על כבודו כבודו מחול מלך שמחל על כבודו אין כבודו מחול שנא' (דברים יז, טו) שום תשים עליך מלך שתהא אימתו עליך,מצוה שאני,וכשהגיע ללא תוכל לתת תנא משמיה דרבי נתן באותה שעה נתחייבו שונאי ישראל כלייה שהחניפו לו לאגריפס,אמר ר' שמעון בן חלפתא מיום שגבר אגרופה של חנופה נתעוותו הדינין ונתקלקלו המעשים ואין אדם יכול לומר לחבירו מעשי גדולים ממעשיך,דרש ר' יהודה בר מערבא ואיתימא ר' שמעון בן פזי מותר להחניף לרשעים בעולם הזה שנאמר (ישעיהו לב, ה) לא יקרא עוד לנבל נדיב ולכילי לא יאמר שוע מכלל דבעולם הזה שרי,ר' שמעון בן לקיש אמר מהכא (בראשית לג, י) כראות פני אלהים ותרצני,ופליגא דרבי לוי דאמר רבי לוי משל של יעקב ועשו למה הדבר דומה לאדם שזימן את חבירו והכיר בו שמבקש להורגו אמר לו טעם תבשיל זה שאני טועם כתבשיל שטעמתי בבית המלך אמר ידע ליה מלכא מיסתפי ולא קטיל ליה,אמר רבי אלעזר כל אדם שיש בו חנופה מביא אף לעולם שנא' (איוב לו, יג) וחנפי לב ישימו אף ולא עוד אלא שאין תפלתו נשמעת שנאמר (איוב לו, יג) לא ישועו כי אסרם,סימן א"ף עוב"ר גיהנ"ם ביד"ו ניד"ה גול"ה,ואמר רבי אלעזר כל אדם שיש בו חנופה אפילו עוברין שבמעי אמן מקללין אותו שנא' (משלי כד, כד) אומר לרשע צדיק אתה יקבוהו עמים יזעמוהו לאומים ואין קוב אלא קללה שנא' (במדבר כג, ח) לא קבה אל ואין לאום אלא עוברין שנא' (בראשית כה, כג) ולאום מלאום יאמץ,ואמר רבי אלעזר כל אדם שיש בו חנופה נופל בגיהנם שנא' (ישעיהו ה, כ) הוי האומרים לרע טוב ולטוב רע וגו' מה כתיב אחריו לכן כאכל קש לשון אש וחשש להבה ירפה וגו',ואמר רבי אלעזר כל המחניף לחבירו סוף נופל בידו ואם אינו נופל בידו נופל ביד בניו ואם אינו נופל ביד בניו נופל ביד בן בנו שנא' (ירמיהו כח, ה) ויאמר ירמיה לחנניה אמן כן יעשה ה' יקם ה' את דבריך וכתי' 41b. implying that the assembly takes place bat the beginning of the Festival,when the entire Jewish people comes to Jerusalem.,§ It is taught in the mishna: bAnd the synagogue attendant takes a Torah scroll and gives it to the head of the synagogue,until it is eventually passed to the king. The Gemara suggests: bYou can learn fromthe fact that all of these dignitaries receive the Torah scroll before the king that bhonor may be given to a student in the presence of the teacher. Abaye said:A proof may not be adduced from here, as the bentireprocess bis for the honor of the king,to show that he is removed from ordinary people by many ranks.,It is taught in the mishna: bAnd the king stands, and receivesthe Torah scroll, band readsfrom it while bsitting. King Agrippa arose, and receivedthe Torah scroll, band readfrom it while bstanding.The Gemara asks: bBy inference,until that point he had been bsitting. But didn’t the Master say( iTosefta /i, iSanhedrin4:4) that bsitting in theTemple bcourtyardis permitted bonly for kings from the house of David, as it is stated: “Then King David went in, and sat before the Lord; and he said:Who am I?” (II Samuel 7:18). The Gemara answers: bAs Rav Ḥisda saidin a similar context: This took place not in the Israelite courtyard, where the prohibition against sitting applies, but bin the women’s courtyard. Here too,the assembly was bin the women’s courtyard. /b,It is stated in the mishna that King Agrippa read from the Torah while standing, band the Sages praised himfor this. The Gemara asks: bFrom the factthat bthey praised him,can it be concluded bthat he acted appropriately? Didn’t Rav Ashi say: Even according to the one who sayswith regard to ba iNasiwho relinquishedthe bhonordue bhim, his honor is relinquished,i.e., he may do so, with regard to ba king who relinquishedthe bhonordue bhim, his honor is not relinquished, as it is stated: “You shall place a king over you”(Deuteronomy 17:15). This is interpreted to mean bthat his awe shall be upon you.The Torah establishes that awe is an essential component of kingship, and it is not the prerogative of the king to relinquish it.,The Gemara answers: Since he relinquished his honor for the sake of ba mitzva,this situation bis differentand does not dishonor him.,The mishna continues: bAnd whenAgrippa barrived atthe verse: b“You may not appointa foreigner over you” (Deuteronomy 17:15), tears flowed from his eyes because he was a descendant of the house of Herod and was not of Jewish origin. The entire nation said to him: You are our brother. It is btaught in the name of Rabbi Natan: At that moment the enemies of the Jewish people,a euphemism for the Jewish people, bwere sentenced to destruction for flattering Agrippa. /b, bRabbi Shimon ben Ḥalafta says: From the day that the power of flattery prevailed, the judgment has become corrupted, andpeople’s bdeeds have become corrupted, and a person cannot say to another: My deeds are greater than your deeds,as everyone flatters one another and people no longer know the truth., bRabbi Yehuda of the West,Eretz Yisrael, band some say Rabbi Shimon ben Pazi, taught: It is permitted to flatter wicked people in this world, as it is statedconcerning the future: b“The vile person shall no longer be called generous, nor shall the churl be said to be noble”(Isaiah 32:5). bBy inference,this indicates bthat in this world it is permittedto flatter them., bRabbi Shimon ben Lakish saidthat this can be proven bfrom here.Jacob said to Esau: “I have seen your face, bas one sees the face of angels, and you were pleased with me”(Genesis 33:10). Jacob flattered him by comparing seeing him to seeing a divine vision.,The Gemara notes: bAndRabbi Shimon ben Lakish, in interpreting Jacob’s statement, bdisagrees with Rabbi Levi, as Rabbi Levi says:With regard to the interaction between bJacob and Esau, to what is this matter comparable? To a person who invited anotherto his home bandthe guest brealized that he wants to kill him.The guest bsaid to him: The flavor of this dish that I taste is like a dish that I tasted in the king’s house.The host then bsaidto himself: bThe kingmust bknow him.Therefore, bhe was afraid and did not kill him.Similarly, when Jacob told Esau that his face is like the face of an angel, he intended to let him know that he had seen angels, in order to instill fear in him so that Esau would not seek to harm him., bRabbi Elazar says: Any person who has flattery in him brings wrath to the world, as it is stated: “But those with flattery in their hearts bring about wrath”(Job 36:13). bAnd moreover, his prayer is not heard, as it is statedin that same verse: b“They do not cry for help when He binds them.” /b,The Gemara cites ba mnemonicdevice for the statements of Rabbi Elazar: bWrath, fetus, Gehenna, in his hands, menstruating woman, exiled. /b, bAnd Rabbi Elazar says: Any person who has flattery in him, even fetuses in their mothers’ wombs curse him, as it is stated: “He who says to the wicked: You are righteous, peoples shall curse him [ iyikkevuhu /i], nations [ ileummim /i] shall execrate him”(Proverbs 24:24); band ikov /i,the linguistic root of the word iyikkevuhu /i, means bonly a curse, as it is stated:Balaam explained that he did not curse the Jewish people, as he said: “How can I curse [ iekkov /i] bwhom God has not cursed [ ikabbo /i]?”(Numbers 23:8). bAnd ile’om /iis homiletically interpreted to mean bonly fetuses, as it is statedwith regard to Jacob and Esau, when they were still in Rebecca’s womb: b“And one people [ ile’om /i] shall be stronger than the other people [ ile’om /i]”(Genesis 25:23)., bAnd Rabbi Elazar says: Any person who has flattery in him falls into Gehenna, as it is stated: “Woe to those who call evil good, and good evil”(Isaiah 5:20). bWhat is written afterward? “Therefore, as the tongue of fire devours straw, and as the chaff is consumed by the flame”(Isaiah 5:24), meaning that the people described in the earlier verse will end up burning like straw in the fires of Gehenna., bAnd Rabbi Elazar says: Anyone who flatters another ultimately falls into his hands. And if he does not fall into his hands, he falls into his children’s hands. And if he does not fall into his children’s hands, he falls into his grandchild’s hands, as it is stated: “Then the prophet Jeremiah said to Haiah…Amen, the Lord should do so, the Lord should perform your words”(Jeremiah 28:5–6). This was a form of flattery, as Jeremiah did not explicitly say that Haiah was a false prophet. bAnd it is written: /b
30. Anon., Avot Derabbi Nathan A, 18 (6th cent. CE - 8th cent. CE)

31. Anon., Challah, 2.9



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
academies, rabbinic, hierarchy in Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 91
academies, rabbinic, leaders of Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 91
academies, rabbinic, lineage in Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 91
aggada in mishna, sacred history, emphasizing sinai Hayes, The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning (2022) 511
am ha-arets Hayes, The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning (2022) 511
apocalyptic(ism) (see also dualism) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 600
attention Balberg, Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture (2023) 247
attentional monitoring Balberg, Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture (2023) 247
authority, against competing claims Hayes, The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning (2022) 511
christianity Reif, Problems with Prayers: Studies in the Textual History of Early Rabbinic Liturgy (2006) 99
converts/proselytes, ranking below native jews in matrimonial law Cohen, The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism (2010) 362
converts/proselytes, treatment under homicide and tort law Cohen, The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism (2010) 362
devotion Balberg, Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture (2023) 247
dualism, dualist(ic) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 600
elders/council of elders Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 327
eleazar, r. Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 199
elite, elitism Balberg, Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture (2023) 247
eschatology/eschatological Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 304
festivals—see also calendar Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 304
gentiles Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 199
ger' Cohen, The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism (2010) 362
hebrew bible Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 304, 327
hierarchy, academic Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 91
hierarchy, and lineage Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 91
high (chief) priest Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 600
hillel, school of Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 600
honor Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 304, 327
honor (kavod), and lineage Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 91
intellectual skill, as sharpness, Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 91
intellectual skill, vs. lineage Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 91
interpretation—see also midrash Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 304, 327
israel, nan Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 304
israelites Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 91
josephus Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 600
kings, biblical Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 304, 327
law, biblical/rabbinic—see also, halakhah Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 304
laws, ritual Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 48
levites Reif, Problems with Prayers: Studies in the Textual History of Early Rabbinic Liturgy (2006) 99; Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 91
lineage (yihus), and academic hierarchy Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 91
lineage (yihus), and rank Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 91
lineage (yihus), vs. knowledge Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 91
lineage (yihus) Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 91
meir, r., and lineage Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 91
metaphors, of sharpness Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 91
midrash/midrashim Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 327
mishna, and lineage Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 91
moses Balberg, Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture (2023) 247
nasi, office of, and lineage Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 91
natan, r., and lineage Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 91
patriarchs Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 327
paul (saul) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 600
persia Reif, Problems with Prayers: Studies in the Textual History of Early Rabbinic Liturgy (2006) 99
pharisees Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 48
prayer Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 304, 327
priest, priests Balberg, Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture (2023) 247
priest, purity laws of Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 48
priest, temple sacrifice and Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 48
priesthood Reif, Problems with Prayers: Studies in the Textual History of Early Rabbinic Liturgy (2006) 99
priests/priesthood Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 304, 327
priests (kohanim), and lineage Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 91
qumran community Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 600
qumran texts, tora scholarship as value Hayes, The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning (2022) 511
rabbi (yehuda hanasi) Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 91
rabbis Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 600
rank, and lineage Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 91
redaction/writing of mishna Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 600
repetition Balberg, Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture (2023) 247
rumania Reif, Problems with Prayers: Studies in the Textual History of Early Rabbinic Liturgy (2006) 99
sacred history Hayes, The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning (2022) 511
sadducees Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 600
scribes, rabbinic Jaffee, Torah in the Mouth: Writing and Oral Tradition in Palestinian Judaism 200 BCE - 400 CE (2001) 183
self-defence Maccoby, Philosophy of the Talmud (2002) 137
sexual unions Balberg, Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture (2023) 247
shammai, school Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 600
shimon b. gamaliel, rabban, and lineage Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 91
shimon b. yohai, r. Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 199
stammaitic period, lineage in Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 91
sukkah Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 48
tabernacle Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 48
tannaim (early rabbis), tannaic Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 600
tannaitic literature Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 304
temple Reif, Problems with Prayers: Studies in the Textual History of Early Rabbinic Liturgy (2006) 99
temple sacrifice, priest and Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 48
temple ~ Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 600
torah, oral and written Jaffee, Torah in the Mouth: Writing and Oral Tradition in Palestinian Judaism 200 BCE - 400 CE (2001) 183
torah Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 304, 327
torah and torah study Reif, Problems with Prayers: Studies in the Textual History of Early Rabbinic Liturgy (2006) 99
works of law Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 600
yehuda b. betera, r. Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 199
yehuda b. r. ilai, r. Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 199
yohanan, r., and gentiles Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 199
zeira, r. Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 199