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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



8010
Mishnah, Horayot, 3.3


חָטְאוּ עַד שֶׁלֹּא נִתְמַנּוּ וְאַחַר כָּךְ נִתְמַנּוּ, הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ כְהֶדְיוֹט. רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן אוֹמֵר, אִם נוֹדַע לָהֶם עַד שֶׁלֹּא נִתְמַנּוּ, חַיָּבִין. וּמִשֶּׁנִּתְמַנּוּ, פְּטוּרִין. וְאֵיזֶהוּ הַנָּשִׂיא, זֶה הַמֶּלֶךְ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא ד) וְעָשָׂה אַחַת מִכָּל מִצְוֹת ה' אֱלֹהָיו, נָשִׂיא שֶׁאֵין עַל גַּבָּיו אֶלָּא ה' אֱלֹהָיו:If they transgressed before they were appointed, and afterwards they were appointed, they are regarded as regular people. Rabbi Shimon said: if their sin came to their knowledge before they were appointed they are liable, but if after they were appointed they are exempt. Who is meant by a ruler? A king; for it says, “Any of all the commandments of the Lord his God” (Leviticus 4:22), a ruler (king) who has none above him save the Lord his God.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

12 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 17.17 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

17.17. וְלֹא יַרְבֶּה־לּוֹ נָשִׁים וְלֹא יָסוּר לְבָבוֹ וְכֶסֶף וְזָהָב לֹא יַרְבֶּה־לּוֹ מְאֹד׃ 17.17. Neither shall he multiply wives to himself, that his heart turn not away; neither shall he greatly multiply to himself silver and gold."
2. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 4.22-4.23, 4.25-4.26 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

4.22. אֲשֶׁר נָשִׂיא יֶחֱטָא וְעָשָׂה אַחַת מִכָּל־מִצְוֺת יְהוָה אֱלֹהָיו אֲשֶׁר לֹא־תֵעָשֶׂינָה בִּשְׁגָגָה וְאָשֵׁם׃ 4.23. אוֹ־הוֹדַע אֵלָיו חַטָּאתוֹ אֲשֶׁר חָטָא בָּהּ וְהֵבִיא אֶת־קָרְבָּנוֹ שְׂעִיר עִזִּים זָכָר תָּמִים׃ 4.25. וְלָקַח הַכֹּהֵן מִדַּם הַחַטָּאת בְּאֶצְבָּעוֹ וְנָתַן עַל־קַרְנֹת מִזְבַּח הָעֹלָה וְאֶת־דָּמוֹ יִשְׁפֹּךְ אֶל־יְסוֹד מִזְבַּח הָעֹלָה׃ 4.26. וְאֶת־כָּל־חֶלְבּוֹ יַקְטִיר הַמִּזְבֵּחָה כְּחֵלֶב זֶבַח הַשְּׁלָמִים וְכִפֶּר עָלָיו הַכֹּהֵן מֵחַטָּאתוֹ וְנִסְלַח לוֹ׃ 4.22. When a ruler sinneth, and doeth through error any one of all the things which the LORD his God hath commanded not to be done, and is guilty:" 4.23. if his sin, wherein he hath sinned, be known to him, he shall bring for his offering a goat, a male without blemish." 4.25. And the priest shall take of the blood of the sin-offering with his finger, and put it upon the horns of the altar of burnt-offering, and the remaining blood thereof shall he pour out at the base of the altar of burnt-offering." 4.26. And all the fat thereof shall he make smoke upon the altar, as the fat of the sacrifice of peace-offerings; and the priest shall make atonement for him as concerning his sin, and he shall be forgiven."
3. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 34.5 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

34.5. בְּשָׁלוֹם תָּמוּת וּכְמִשְׂרְפוֹת אֲבוֹתֶיךָ הַמְּלָכִים הָרִאשֹׁנִים אֲשֶׁר־הָיוּ לְפָנֶיךָ כֵּן יִשְׂרְפוּ־לָךְ וְהוֹי אָדוֹן יִסְפְּדוּ־לָךְ כִּי־דָבָר אֲנִי־דִבַּרְתִּי נְאֻם־יְהוָה׃ 34.5. thou shalt die in peace; and with the burnings of thy fathers, the former kings that were before thee, so shall they make a burning for thee; and they shall lament thee: ‘Ah lord! ’ for I have spoken the word, saith the LORD."
4. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 12.10, 12.12, 21.30, 34.24, 37.22, 37.24-37.25, 44.3 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

12.12. וְהַנָּשִׂיא אֲשֶׁר־בְּתוֹכָם אֶל־כָּתֵף יִשָּׂא בָּעֲלָטָה וְיֵצֵא בַּקִּיר יַחְתְּרוּ לְהוֹצִיא בוֹ פָּנָיו יְכַסֶּה יַעַן אֲשֶׁר לֹא־יִרְאֶה לַעַיִן הוּא אֶת־הָאָרֶץ׃ 34.24. וַאֲנִי יְהוָה אֶהְיֶה לָהֶם לֵאלֹהִים וְעַבְדִּי דָוִד נָשִׂיא בְתוֹכָם אֲנִי יְהוָה דִּבַּרְתִּי׃ 37.22. וְעָשִׂיתִי אֹתָם לְגוֹי אֶחָד בָּאָרֶץ בְּהָרֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וּמֶלֶךְ אֶחָד יִהְיֶה לְכֻלָּם לְמֶלֶךְ וְלֹא יהיה־[יִהְיוּ־] עוֹד לִשְׁנֵי גוֹיִם וְלֹא יֵחָצוּ עוֹד לִשְׁתֵּי מַמְלָכוֹת עוֹד׃ 37.24. וְעַבְדִּי דָוִד מֶלֶךְ עֲלֵיהֶם וְרוֹעֶה אֶחָד יִהְיֶה לְכֻלָּם וּבְמִשְׁפָּטַי יֵלֵכוּ וְחֻקֹּתַי יִשְׁמְרוּ וְעָשׂוּ אוֹתָם׃ 37.25. וְיָשְׁבוּ עַל־הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר נָתַתִּי לְעַבְדִּי לְיַעֲקֹב אֲשֶׁר יָשְׁבוּ־בָהּ אֲבוֹתֵיכֶם וְיָשְׁבוּ עָלֶיהָ הֵמָּה וּבְנֵיהֶם וּבְנֵי בְנֵיהֶם עַד־עוֹלָם וְדָוִד עַבְדִּי נָשִׂיא לָהֶם לְעוֹלָם׃ 44.3. וְרֵאשִׁית כָּל־בִּכּוּרֵי כֹל וְכָל־תְּרוּמַת כֹּל מִכֹּל תְּרוּמוֹתֵיכֶם לַכֹּהֲנִים יִהְיֶה וְרֵאשִׁית עֲרִסוֹתֵיכֶם תִּתְּנוּ לַכֹּהֵן לְהָנִיחַ בְּרָכָה אֶל־בֵּיתֶךָ׃ 44.3. אֶת־הַנָּשִׂיא נָשִׂיא הוּא יֵשֶׁב־בּוֹ לֶאֱכָול־לֶחֶם לִפְנֵי יְהוָה מִדֶּרֶךְ אֻלָם הַשַּׁעַר יָבוֹא וּמִדַּרְכּוֹ יֵצֵא׃ 12.10. Say thou unto them: Thus saith the Lord GOD: Concerning the prince, even this burden, in Jerusalem, and all the house of Israel among whom they are," 12.12. And the prince that is among them shall bear upon his shoulder, and go forth in the darkness; they shall dig through the wall to carry out thereby; he shall cover his face, that he see not the ground with his eyes." 21.30. And thou, O wicked one, that art to be slain, the prince of Israel, whose day is come, in the time of the iniquity of the end;" 34.24. And I the LORD will be their God, and My servant David prince among them; I the LORD have spoken." 37.22. and I will make them one nation in the land, upon the mountains of Israel, and one king shall be king to them all; and they shall be no more two nations, neither shall they be divided into two kingdoms any more at all;" 37.24. And My servant David shall be king over them, and they all shall have one shepherd; they shall also walk in Mine ordices, and observe My statutes, and do them." 37.25. And they shall dwell in the land that I have given unto Jacob My servant, wherein your fathers dwelt; and they shall dwell therein, they, and their children, and their children’s children, for ever; and David My servant shall be their prince for ever." 44.3. As for the prince, being a prince, he shall sit therein to eat bread before the LORD; he shall enter by the way of the porch of the gate, and shall go out by the way of the same.’"
5. Mishnah, Avodah Zarah, 1.3 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

1.3. These are the festivities of the idolaters: Kalenda, Saturnalia, Kratesis, the anniversary of accession to the throne and birthdays and anniversaries of deaths, according to Rabbi Meir. But the Sages say: a death at which burning [of articles of the dead] takes place is attended by idolatry, but where there is not such burning there is no idolatry. But the day of shaving ones beard and lock of hair, or the day of landing after a sea voyage, or the day of release from prison, or if an idolater holds a banquet for his son the prohibition only applies to that day and that particular person."
6. Mishnah, Avot, 4.13 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

4.13. Rabbi Judah said: be careful in study, for an error in study counts as deliberate sin. Rabbi Shimon said: There are three crowns: the crown of torah, the crown of priesthood, and the crown of royalty, but the crown of a good name supersedes them all."
7. Mishnah, Nazir, 3.6 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

3.6. If one vows a long naziriteship of and completes his naziriteship and afterwards comes to the land [of Israel]: Beth Shammai says that he is a nazirite for thirty days, But Beth Hillel says that his naziriteship begins again. It happened that Queen Helena, when her son went to war, said: “If my son returns in peace from the war, I shall be a nazirite for seven years.” Her son returned from the war, and she was a nazirite for seven years. At the end of the seven years, she went up to the land [of Israel] and Beth Hillel instructed her to be a nazirite for a further seven years. Towards the end of this seven years, she contracted ritual defilement, and so altogether she was a nazirite for twenty-one years. Rabbi Judah said: she was a nazirite only for fourteen years."
8. Mishnah, Sanhedrin, 2.5, 10.2 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

2.5. None may ride his horse and none may sit on his throne and none may make use of his scepter. No one may see him when his hair is being cut or when he is naked or when he is in the bath house, for it says, “You shall set a king upon yourself” (Deut. 17:15) that his awe should be over you." 10.2. Three kings and four commoners have no portion in the world to come:The three kings are Jeroboam, Ahab, and Manasseh. Rabbi Judah says: “Manasseh has a portion in the world to come, for it says, “He prayed to him, and He granted his prayer, and heard his plea and he restored him to Jerusalem, to his kingdom” (II Chronicles 33:13). They [the sages] said to him: “They restored him to his kingdom, but not to [his portion in] the world to come.” The four commoners are: Bilaam, Doeg, Ahitophel, and Gehazi."
9. Tosefta, Sanhedrin, 4.2-4.3, 4.5 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

10. Babylonian Talmud, Avodah Zarah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

11a. נתפרדה חבילה,אונקלוס בר קלונימוס איגייר שדר קיסר גונדא דרומאי אבתריה משכינהו בקראי איגיור הדר שדר גונדא דרומאי [אחרינא] אבתריה אמר להו לא תימרו ליה ולא מידי,כי הוו שקלו ואזלו אמר להו אימא לכו מילתא בעלמא ניפיורא נקט נורא קמי פיפיורא פיפיורא לדוכסא דוכסא להגמונא הגמונא לקומא קומא מי נקט נורא מקמי אינשי אמרי ליה לא אמר להו הקב"ה נקט נורא קמי ישראל דכתיב (שמות יג, כא) וה' הולך לפניהם יומם וגו' איגיור [כולהו],הדר שדר גונדא אחרינא אבתריה אמר להו לא תשתעו מידי בהדיה כי נקטי ליה ואזלי חזא מזוזתא [דמנחא אפתחא] אותיב ידיה עלה ואמר להו מאי האי אמרו ליה אימא לן את,אמר להו מנהגו של עולם מלך בשר ודם יושב מבפנים ועבדיו משמרים אותו מבחוץ ואילו הקב"ה עבדיו מבפנים והוא משמרן מבחוץ שנאמר (תהלים קכא, ח) ה' ישמר צאתך ובואך מעתה ועד עולם איגיור תו לא שדר בתריה,(בראשית כה, כג) ויאמר ה' לה שני גוים בבטנך אמר רב יהודה אמר רב אל תקרי גוים אלא גיים זה אנטונינוס ורבי שלא פסקו מעל שולחנם לא חזרת ולא קישות ולא צנון לא בימות החמה ולא בימות הגשמים דאמר מר צנון מחתך אוכל חזרת מהפך מאכל קישות מרחיב מעיים,והא תנא דבי רבי ישמעאל למה נקרא שמן קישואין מפני שקשין לגופו של אדם כחרבות לא קשיא הא ברברבי הא בזוטרי:,יום הלידה ויום המיתה: מכלל דר"מ סבר לא שנא מיתה שיש בה שריפה ולא שנא מיתה שאין בה שריפה פלחי בה לעבודת כוכבים אלמא שריפה לאו חוקה היא מכלל דרבנן סברי שריפה חוקה היא,והא תניא שורפין על המלכים ולא מדרכי האמורי ואי חוקה היא אנן היכי שרפינן והכתיב (ויקרא יח, ג) ובחוקותיהם לא תלכו,אלא דכ"ע שריפה לאו חוקה היא אלא חשיבותא היא והכא בהא קמיפלגי ר"מ סבר לא שנא מיתה שיש בה שריפה ולא שנא מיתה שאין בה שריפה פלחי בה לעבודת כוכבים ורבנן סברי מיתה שיש בה שריפה חשיבא להו ופלחי בה ושאין בה שריפה לא חשיבא ולא פלחי בה,גופא שורפין על המלכים ואין בו משום דרכי האמורי שנאמר (ירמיהו לד, ה) בשלום תמות ובמשרפות אבותיך המלכים וגו' וכשם ששורפין על המלכים כך שורפין על הנשיאים,ומה הם שורפין על המלכים מיטתן וכלי תשמישן ומעשה שמת ר"ג הזקן ושרף עליו אונקלוס הגר שבעים מנה צורי והאמרת מה הן שורפין עליהם מיטתן וכלי תשמישן אימא בשבעים מנה צורי,ומידי אחרינא לא והתניא עוקרין על המלכים ואין בו משום דרכי האמורי אמר רב פפא סוס שרכב עליו,ובהמה טהורה לא והתניא עיקור שיש בה טריפה אסור ושאין בה טריפה מותר ואיזהו עיקור שאין בה טריפה 11a. bThe bundle is separated. /b,§ The Gemara mentions other Romans who converted to Judaism. It relates: bOnkelos bar Kelonimos convertedto Judaism. The Roman bemperor sent a troop [ igunda /i] of Romansoldiers bafter himto seize Onkelos and bring him to the emperor. Onkelos bdrew themtoward him bwith versesthat he cited and learned with them, and bthey converted.The emperor bthen sent another troop of Romansoldiers bafter him,and bsaid to them: Do not say anything to him,so that he cannot convince you with his arguments. The troops followed this instruction, and took Onkelos with them., bWhen they were walking,Onkelos bsaid tothe troop of soldiers: bI will say a mere statement to you: A minor official [ inifyora /i] holds a torch before a high official [ iapifyora /i], the high officialholds a torch bfor a duke [ idukasa /i], a duke for the governor,and bthe governor for the ruler [ ikoma /i]. Does the ruler hold a torch beforethe common bpeople?The soldiers bsaid toOnkelos: bNo.Onkelos bsaid to them:Yet bthe Holy One, Blessed be He, holds a torch before the Jewish people, as it is written: “And the Lord went before them by dayin a pillar of cloud, to lead them the way, and by night in a pillar of fire, to give them light” (Exodus 13:21). bThey all converted. /b,The emperor bthen sent another troopof soldiers bafter him,to bring Onkelos, and bsaid to them: Do not converse with him at all.The troops followed this instruction, and took Onkelos with them. bWhile they grabbed him and were walking,Onkelos bsaw a imezuzathat was placed on the doorway. He placed his hand upon it and said tothe soldiers: bWhat is this? They said to him: You tell us. /b,Onkelos bsaid to them: Thestandard bpracticethroughout the bworldis that ba kingof bflesh and blood sits insidehis palace, band his servantsstand bguard,protecting bhim outside; butwith regard to bthe Holy One, Blessed be He, His servants,the Jewish people, sit binsidetheir homes band He guards over them outside. As it is stated: “The Lord shall guard your going out and your coming in, from now and forever”(Psalms 121:8). Upon hearing this, those soldiers also bconvertedto Judaism. After that, the emperor bsent no moresoldiers bafter him. /b,§ The Gemara returns to its discussion of Antoninus: When the matriarch Rebecca was pregt with Jacob and Esau, b“the Lord said to her: Two nations [ igoyim /i] are in your womb”(Genesis 25:23). bRav Yehuda saysthat bRav says: Do not readit as igoyim /i,meaning nations; bratherread it as igeyim /i,meaning proud ones. bThisverse was fulfilled in two prominent individuals who descended from Rebecca, bAntoninus and RabbiYehuda HaNasi, bwhose tables,due to their wealth, bnever lacked for lettuce, nor cucumbers, nor radish, neither in the summer nor in the rainy season,despite the fact that these foods do not grow year round. The reason they ensured that these items were always present at their tables is bthat the Master said: A radish breaks up food, lettuce stirs up food,and bcucumbers expand the intestines. /b,The Gemara asks: bBut isn’t it taughtin the bschool of Rabbi Yishmael: Why are they called cucumbers [ ikishuin /i]?It is bbecause they are as harmful [ ikashim /i] to a person’s body as swords.The Gemara answers: This is bnot difficult. Thisstatement, that they are harmful to the body, is referring bto largecucumbers, whereas bthatstatement, explaining why they were always present on the tables of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi and Antoninus, is referring bto small ones. /b,§ The mishna teaches that according to Rabbi Meir bthe birthdayof the king band the day of the deathof the king are considered gentile festivals, whereas the Rabbis hold that only a death that includes public burning is considered a festival that includes idol worship. The Gemara comments: bBy inference,this means bthat Rabbi Meir holdsthat bthere is no differencewhether it is ba death that includespublic bburning, and there is no differencewhether it is ba death that does not includepublic bburning;in either case, bthey engage in idol worship onthat occasion. bEvidently,Rabbi Meir holds that the bburningperformed at the death of the king bis notan idolatrous bcustom,as it is not the cause of the prohibition. The Gemara continues: From here, one can conclude bby inference that the Rabbis holdthat the bburningupon the death of the king bisan idolatrous bcustom. /b,The Gemara raises a difficulty: bBut isn’t it taughtin a ibaraita /i: bWe burnitems bupon thedeath of bkingsas an expression of grief, bandthis is bnot of the ways of the Amorites,but rather a Jewish custom? bAnd ifthis bisan idolatrous bcustom, how could weperform this public bburning? But isn’t it written: “And you shall not walk in their statutes”(Leviticus 18:3)?, bRather, everyoneagrees that the public bburningitself bis notan idolatrous bcustom. Rather, it isperformed due to the great bimportanceof the king who passed away. bAnd here,in the mishna, bthey disagree about this: Rabbi Meir holdsthat bthere is no differencewhether it is ba death that includespublic bburning and there is no differencewhether it is ba death that does not includepublic bburning;in either case, in practice bthey engage in idol worship onthat occasion. bAnd the Rabbis holdthat ba death that includespublic bburningis bimportant tothe gentiles, bandtherefore bthey engage inidol bworship onthat occasion, bbuta death bthat does not includepublic bburningis bnot importantto them, band they do not engage inidol bworship onthat occasion.,Having mentioned this ibaraita /i, the Gemara returns to discuss bthematter bitself.The ibaraitateaches: bOne burnsitems bdue to thedeath of bkingsas an expression of grief, bandthis bis not subject tothe prohibition of imitating bthe ways of the Amorites,since it is a Jewish custom. bAs it is statedthat Jeremiah prophesied to Zedekiah king of Judah: b“You shall die in peace; and with the burnings of your fathers, the former kingsthat were before you, so shall they make a burning for you” (Jeremiah 34:5). bAnd just as one burnsitems buponthe death of bthe kings, so too one burnsitems buponthe death of bthe heads of the Sanhedrin. /b, bAnd whatitems bdo they burn upon thedeath of bkings?They burn the kings’ bbeds and their utensils,so that no one else can make use of them. bAndthere was ban incident in which Rabban Gamliel the Elder died, and uponhis death bOnkelos the convert burned seven thousand dinarsin valuable bTyriancoinage. The Gemara asks: bBut didn’t you statein response to the question: bWhat do they burn uponthe death of kings, that they burn btheir beds and their utensils?Why, then, did Onkelos burn money? The Gemara answers: bSaythat Onkelos burned items that were valued bat seven thousand dinarsin bTyriancoinage.,The Gemara asks: bAndare bother items notdestroyed in order to accord honor to the deceased king, apart from his utensils? bBut isn’t it taughtin a ibaraitathat bwe detachthe hooves of livestock bupon thedeath of bkings, andthis bis not subject tothe prohibition of bthe ways of the Amorites? Rav Pappa says:That ibaraitais referring to bthe horse upon whichthe king brode.Since that animal was designated as the king’s personal item, it is therefore rendered unusable for anyone else, like his personal utensils.,The Gemara asks: bAnddid they bnotdetach the hooves of the king’s bkosher animals,which are not used by the king for riding? bBut isn’t it taughtin a ibaraita /i: If bremovingthe hooves of an animal would bentailthat it becomes ban animal with a wound that will cause it to die within twelve months [ itereifa /i],it is bprohibitedto do so. bAnd whendoing so would bnot entailrendering it ba itereifa /i,it is bpermitted. And what isa way of bremovinghooves bthat does not entailrendering the animal ba itereifa /i? /b
11. Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

52b. למה תלמיד חכם דומה לפני עם הארץ בתחלה דומה לקיתון של זהב סיפר הימנו דומה לקיתון של כסף נהנה ממנו דומה לקיתון של חרש כיון שנשבר שוב אין לו תקנה,אימרתא בת טלי בת כהן שזינתה הואי אקפה רב חמא בר טוביה חבילי זמורות ושרפה,אמר רב יוסף טעה בתרתי טעה בדרב מתנה וטעה בדתניא (דברים יז, ט) ובאת אל הכהנים הלוים ואל השופט אשר יהיה בימים ההם בזמן שיש כהן יש משפט בזמן שאין כהן אין משפט:,אמר רבי אלעזר ברבי צדוק מעשה בבת כהן שזינתה וכו': אמר רב יוסף בית דין של צדוקים הוה,הכי אמר להו והכי אהדרו ליה והתניא אמר רבי אלעזר ברבי צדוק זכורני כשהייתי תינוק ומורכב על כתיפו של אבא והביאו בת כהן שזינתה והקיפוה חבילי זמורות ושרפוה אמרו לו קטן היית ואין מביאין ראיה מן הקטן שני מעשים הוו,הי אמר להו ברישא אילימא הא קמייתא אמר להו ברישא א"ל כשהוא גדול ולא אשגחו ביה אמר להו כשהוא קטן ואשגחו ביה,אלא הא אמר להו ברישא ואמרו ליה קטן היית ואמר להו כשהוא גדול ואמרו ליה מפני שלא היה בית דין של אותה שעה בקי:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big מצות הנהרגין היו מתיזין את ראשו בסייף כדרך שהמלכות עושה רבי יהודה אומר ניוול הוא לו אלא מניחין את ראשו על הסדן וקוצץ בקופיץ אמרו לו אין מיתה מנוולת מזו:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big תניא אמר להן רבי יהודה לחכמים אף אני יודע שמיתה מנוולת היא אבל מה אעשה שהרי אמרה תורה (ויקרא יח, ג) ובחקותיהם לא תלכו,ורבנן כיון דכתיב סייף באורייתא לא מינייהו קא גמרינן,דאי לא תימא הכי הא דתניא שורפין על המלכים ולא מדרכי האמורי היכי שרפינן והכתיב ובחקותיהם לא תלכו אלא כיון דכתיב שריפה באורייתא דכתיב (ירמיהו לד, ה) ובמשרפות אבותיך וגו' לאו מינייהו קא גמרינן והכא נמי כיון דכתיב סייף באורייתא לאו מינייהו קא גמרינן,והא דתנן באידך פירקין אלו הן הנהרגין הרוצח ואנשי עיר הנדחת בשלמא עיר הנדחת כתיב בהו (דברים יג, טז) לפי חרב אלא רוצח מנלן,דתניא (שמות כא, כ) נקם ינקם נקימה זו איני יודע מה הוא כשהוא אומר (ויקרא כו, כה) והבאתי עליכם חרב נוקמת נקם ברית הוי אומר נקימה זו סייף,ואימא דבריז ליה מיברז לפי חרב כתיב,ואימא דעביד ליה גיסטרא אמר רב נחמן אמר רבה בר אבוה אמר קרא (ויקרא יט, יח) ואהבת לרעך כמוך ברור לו מיתה יפה,אשכחן דקטל עבדא בר חורין מנא לן,ולאו קל וחומר הוא קטל עבדא בסייף בר חורין בחנק,הניחא למאן דאמר חנק קל אלא למ"ד חנק חמור מאי איכא למימר,נפקא ליה מדתניא (דברים כא, ט) ואתה תבער הדם הנקי מקרבך הוקשו כל שופכי דמים לעגלה ערופה מה להלן בסייף ומן הצואר אף כאן בסייף ומן הצואר,אי מה להלן בקופיץ וממול עורף אף כאן בקופיץ וממול עורף אמר רב נחמן אמר רבה בר אבוה אמר קרא ואהבת לרעך כמוך ברור לו מיתה יפה:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big מצות הנחנקין היו משקעין אותו בזבל עד ארכובותיו ונותן סודר קשה לתוך הרכה וכורך על צוארו זה מושך אצלו וזה מושך אצלו עד שנפשו יוצאת:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big תנו רבנן (ויקרא כ, י) איש פרט לקטן (ויקרא כ, י) אשר ינאף את אשת איש פרט לאשת קטן (ויקרא כ, י) אשת רעהו פרט לאשת אחרים,(ויקרא כ, ב) מות יומת בחנק אתה אומר בחנק או אינו אלא באחת מכל מיתות האמורות בתורה אמרת כל מקום שנאמר מיתה בתורה סתם אין אתה רשאי למושכה להחמיר עליה אלא להקל עליה דברי רבי יאשיה,רבי יונתן אומר לא מפני שהיא קלה אלא כל מיתה האמורה בתורה סתם אינה אלא חנק,רבי אומר נאמר מיתה בידי שמים ונאמר מיתה בידי אדם מה מיתה האמורה בידי שמים מיתה שאין בה רושם אף מיתה האמורה בידי אדם מיתה שאין בה רושם,ואימא שריפה מדאמר רחמנא בת כהן בשריפה מכלל דהא לאו בת שריפה היא 52b. bTo what is a Torah scholar comparedwhen he is standing bbefore an ignoramus? At first,when he does not know him, the ignoramus considers him to be blike a goblet [ ilekiton /i] of gold.Once bhe has conversed with himconcerning mundane matters, he considers him to be blike a goblet of silver,i.e., the stature of the Torah scholar is downgraded in the eyes of the ignoramus. Once the scholar bhas received benefit fromthe ignoramus, bheconsiders him to be blike an earthenware goblet,which bonce broken cannot be fixed. /b,The Gemara relates: bImrata bat Talei was a priest’s daughter who committed adultery. Rav Ḥama bar Toviyya surrounded herwith bbundles of branches and burned her. /b, bRav Yosef says:Rav Ḥama bar Toviyya berred with regard to two ihalakhot /i. bHe erred with regard tothe ruling bof Rav Mattana,i.e., that burning is performed using a wick of lead, band he erred with regard to that which is taughtin a ibaraita /i: It is derived from the verse: b“And you shall come to the priests, the Levites, and to the judge that will be in those days”(Deuteronomy 17:9), that bat a time when there is a priestserving in the Temple, i.e., when the Temple is built, bthere is judgmentof capital cases. By inference, bat a time when there is no priest, there is no judgmentof capital cases.,§ The mishna teaches that bRabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Tzadok, said: An incidentoccurred bwith regard to a priest’s daughter who committed adultery,and she was executed by actual burn-ing, and the Sages said to him that the court at that time was not proficient in ihalakha /i. bRav Yosef says: It was a court of the Sadducees,who interpreted the verse according to its straightforward meaning.,The Gemara asks: bDidRabbi Elazar ben Tzadok bsay that tothe Sages, band didthe Sages banswer him in that manner? But isn’ta different version of the exchange btaughtin a ibaraita /i: bRabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Tzadok, says: I remember when I was a child, and was riding onmy bfather’s shoulders. And they brought a priest’s daughter who had committed adultery, and surrounded herwith bbundles of branches and burned her.The Sages bsaid to him: You were a minorat that time band one cannot bring proof fromthe testimony of ba minor,as perhaps you did not understand the proceedings properly. The two versions of this exchange do not accord with each other. The Gemara answers: bThere were twoseparate bincidents,and Rabbi Elazar ben Tzadok testified with regard to both.,The Gemara asks: bWhichincident bdid he tellthe Sages about bfirst? If we saythat bfirst he told themabout bthis firstincident, i.e., the one that is recounted in the mishna, this is unreasonable; if he first btoldthem about the incident that occurred bwhen he was an adult, and they paid no attention to him,but rejected his statement by responding that the court was not proficient in ihalakha /i, bwould he tellthem afterward about the incident that occurred bwhen he was a small child andthink that bthey would pay attention to him? /b, bRather,it is clear that bhe first told themabout bthatincident, i.e., the one recounted in the ibaraita /i, band they said to him: You were a minor,and one cannot bring proof from the testimony of a minor. bAndthen bhe told themabout the incident that occurred bwhen he was an adult, and they said to him:The court did so bbecause the court at that time was not proficientin ihalakha /i., strongMISHNA: /strong bThe mitzva of those who are killed,i.e., the process of execution by decapitation, is carried out in the following manner: The executioners bcut off his head with a sword, the way that the monarchy doeswhen a king sentences a person to death. bRabbi Yehuda says:This manner of execution is improper, as bit degrades him. Rather, they place the head ofthe condemned bon the block, and chopit off bwith a cleaver [ ibekofitz /i].The Rabbis bsaid to him:If you are concerned about his degradation, bthere is no deathpenalty more bdegrading than that.It is better for him to be executed in the manner described first., strongGEMARA: /strong bIt is taughtin a ibaraita( iTosefta9:3): bRabbi Yehuda said to the Rabbis: I too, know that it is a degrading death, but what shall I do, as the Torah states: “And you shall not follow their statutes”(Leviticus 18:3), i.e., it is prohibited to adopt the practices of the gentiles.,The Gemara asks: bAndhow do bthe Rabbisrespond to this claim? The Gemara answers: bSincedecapitation by the bsword is written in the Torah, it is not fromthe gentiles that bwe learnit. This is Torah law, and the custom of the gentiles is not taken into consideration. It is of no import that they have a corresponding type of execution., bAs, if you do not say so,that a Jewish custom is not forbidden even if the gentiles have the same custom, then bthat which is taughtin a ibaraitaposes a difficulty. The ibaraitateaches: bOne burnsvessels and clothes boverthe deaths of bkingsas an expression of grief, bandthis is bnotforbidden bforbeing bof the ways of the Amorites. How can we performthis bburning? But isn’t it written: “And you shall not follow their statutes”? Rather, since burningitems over the death of a king bis written in the Torah, as it is written: “And with the burnings of your fathers,the first kings who came before you, so shall they make a burning for you” (Jeremiah 34:5), it is bnot fromthe gentiles that bwe learnit. bAnd here too, sincedecapitation by the bsword is written in the Torah,it is bnot from themthat bwe learnit.,§ The Gemara asks: bAndwith regard to bthat which we learnedin a mishna bin another chapterof this tractate (76b): bThesetransgressors bare those who are killedby decapitation: bThe murderer and the people of an idolatrous city,there is a difficulty. bGranted,the people of ban idolatrous cityare executed in this manner, as bit is written concerning them:“You shall smite the inhabitants of that city bwith the edge of the sword”(Deuteronomy 13:16). bButwith regard to ba murderer, from where do wederive that he is executed by decapitation?,The Gemara answers that it is derived bas it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: It is stated in the verse: “And if a man smites his slave or his maidservant by the staff and he dies under his hand, bhe shall be avenged”(Exodus 21:20). Prima facie, bI do not know what this vengeance isreferring to. bWhen it says: “And I will bring upon you the sword avenging the vengeance of the covet”(Leviticus 26:25), byou must saythat bvengeance isdecapitation by the bsword. /b,The Gemara asks: bButwhy not bsay thatthe executioner bshould stab himwith a sword, rather than decapitate him? The Gemara answers: bIt is writtenwith regard to the people of an idolatrous city: b“With the edge of the sword,”indicating that the execution should be administered with the edge of the sword and not its point.,The Gemara asks: bBut say thatthe executioner bshould cut him in half [ igistera /i],down the middle of his body. The Gemara answers that bRav Naḥman saysthat bRabba bar Avuh says:The bverse states: “And you shall love your neighbor as yourself”(Leviticus 19:18), which teaches that even with regard to a condemned prisoner, one should bselect a good,i.e., a compassionate, bdeath for him.Cutting his body in half is not a compassionate manner of execution.,The Gemara asks: bWe have foundproof that one bwho killeda Canaanite bslaveis executed by decapitation. But bfrom where do wederive that one who kills ba freemanis executed in the same manner?,The Gemara answers: bBut is it notinferred ia fortiori /i?If one who bkilleda Canaanite bslaveis executed bbythe bsword,should one who killed ba freemanbe executed merely bby strangulation? /b,This Gemara rejects this answer: bThis works out well according to the one who saysthat bstrangulationis a more blenienttype of capital punishment than decapitation. bBut according to the one who saysthat bstrangulationis more bseverethan decapitation, bwhat can be said?It is possible that one who murdered a freeman is in fact executed by strangulation.,The Gemara answers: The mishna bderives it from that which is taughtin a ibaraita /i: It is derived from the verse: b“And so shall you put away the innocent blood from your midst”(Deuteronomy 21:9), that ball spillers of blood are compared to the heifer whose neck is brokenas atonement for an unresolved murder. bJust as there,the heifer is killed bbythe bsword and at the neck, so too here,murderers are executed bbythe bsword and at the neck. /b,The Gemara challenges: bIfso, perhaps it should be derived that bjust as there,the heifer is decapitated bwith a cleaver and at the nape of the neck, so too here,murderers should be decapitated bwith a cleaver and at the nape of the neck.The Gemara answers that bRav Naḥman saysthat bRabba bar Avuh says:The bverse states: “And you shall love your neighbor as yourself”(Leviticus 19:18), which teaches that even with regard to a condemned prisoner, one should bselect a good,i.e., a compassionate, bdeath for him.Although the type of capital punishment is derived from the heifer whose neck is broken, the most compassionate method of decapitation is selected., strongMISHNA: /strong bThe mitzva of those who are strangledis carried out in the following manner: The agents of the court bsubmergethe condemned one bin dung up to his kneesso he cannot move, bandone of them bplaces a rough scarf within a soft one, and wrapsit baround his neck. Thisone, i.e., one of the witnesses, bpullsthe scarf btoward him, and thatone, the other witness, bpullsit btoward him, until the soul ofthe condemned one bdeparts. /b, strongGEMARA: /strong bThe Sages taught:The verse states: “And a man who commits adultery with another man’s wife, even he who commits adultery with his neighbor’s wife, both the adulterer and the adulteress shall be put to death” (Leviticus 20:10). The term: b“A man,”is interpreted as bexcluding a minor boywho committed adultery before he came of age. The phrase: b“Who commits adultery with another man’s wife,”is interpreted as bexcluding the wife of a minor boy;marriage to a minor is not considered halakhic marriage. b“His neighbor’s wife” excludes the wife of another,i.e., a gentile, who is not referred to as “his neighbor.”, b“Shall be put to death”means death bby strangulation. Do you saythat his execution is bby strangulation, or is it rather by one of all theother types of bdeathpenalty bstated in the Torah? You must saythat it is by strangulation, as beverywhere thatthe bdeathpenalty bis stated in the Torah without specification you may not take it to be more stringent with regard to it,i.e., to mean that the sinner should be sentenced to ba severetype of execution; brather,you must take it bto be more lenient with regard to it,i.e., that a lenient type of execution should be applied. Consequently, the sinner is sentenced to be executed by strangulation, which is the least severe type of capital punishment. This is bthe statement of Rabbi Yoshiya. /b,The ibaraitacontinues: bRabbi Yonatan says: It is not becausestrangulation bisthe most blenienttype of capital punishment; brather,there is a principle that bevery deathpenalty bstated in the Torah without specification is nothing other than strangulation,whereas the other types of capital punishment must be stated explicitly in the verse., bRabbiYehuda HaNasi bsays,in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yonatan: bDeath at the hand of Heaven is statedin the Torah, band death at the hands of a person,i.e., court-imposed capital punishment, bis statedin the Torah. bJust asthe bdeath at the hand of Heaven that is statedin the Torah is ba death that leaves noexternal bmark, so too,the bdeath at the hands of a person that is statedin the Torah is ba death that leaves noexternal bmark,i.e., strangulation.,The Gemara asks: bButwhy not bsaythat perhaps it is referring to execution by bburning,which also leaves no external mark? The Gemara answers: bFromthe fact bthat the Merciful One statesexplicitly that ba priest’s daughterwho committed adultery is executed bby burningone can learn bby inference that thisother woman who committed adultery bis not liable tobe executed by bburning,but rather by a different type of execution that does not leave a mark, i.e., strangulation.
12. Babylonian Talmud, Sotah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

41b. מאתחלתא דמועד,וחזן הכנסת נוטל ס"ת ונותנו לראש הכנסת שמעת מינה חולקין כבוד לתלמיד במקום הרב אמר אביי כולה משום כבודו דמלך,והמלך עומד ומקבל וקורא יושב אגריפס המלך עמד וקיבל וקרא עומד עומד מכלל דיושב והאמר מר אין ישיבה בעזרה אלא למלכי בית דוד בלבד שנא' (שמואל ב ז, יח) ויבא המלך דוד וישב לפני ה' ויאמר וגו' כדאמר רב חסדא בעזרת נשים הכא נמי בעזרת נשים,ושבחוהו חכמים שבחוהו מכלל דשפיר עבד האמר רב אשי אפי' למ"ד נשיא שמחל על כבודו כבודו מחול מלך שמחל על כבודו אין כבודו מחול שנא' (דברים יז, טו) שום תשים עליך מלך שתהא אימתו עליך,מצוה שאני,וכשהגיע ללא תוכל לתת תנא משמיה דרבי נתן באותה שעה נתחייבו שונאי ישראל כלייה שהחניפו לו לאגריפס,אמר ר' שמעון בן חלפתא מיום שגבר אגרופה של חנופה נתעוותו הדינין ונתקלקלו המעשים ואין אדם יכול לומר לחבירו מעשי גדולים ממעשיך,דרש ר' יהודה בר מערבא ואיתימא ר' שמעון בן פזי מותר להחניף לרשעים בעולם הזה שנאמר (ישעיהו לב, ה) לא יקרא עוד לנבל נדיב ולכילי לא יאמר שוע מכלל דבעולם הזה שרי,ר' שמעון בן לקיש אמר מהכא (בראשית לג, י) כראות פני אלהים ותרצני,ופליגא דרבי לוי דאמר רבי לוי משל של יעקב ועשו למה הדבר דומה לאדם שזימן את חבירו והכיר בו שמבקש להורגו אמר לו טעם תבשיל זה שאני טועם כתבשיל שטעמתי בבית המלך אמר ידע ליה מלכא מיסתפי ולא קטיל ליה,אמר רבי אלעזר כל אדם שיש בו חנופה מביא אף לעולם שנא' (איוב לו, יג) וחנפי לב ישימו אף ולא עוד אלא שאין תפלתו נשמעת שנאמר (איוב לו, יג) לא ישועו כי אסרם,סימן א"ף עוב"ר גיהנ"ם ביד"ו ניד"ה גול"ה,ואמר רבי אלעזר כל אדם שיש בו חנופה אפילו עוברין שבמעי אמן מקללין אותו שנא' (משלי כד, כד) אומר לרשע צדיק אתה יקבוהו עמים יזעמוהו לאומים ואין קוב אלא קללה שנא' (במדבר כג, ח) לא קבה אל ואין לאום אלא עוברין שנא' (בראשית כה, כג) ולאום מלאום יאמץ,ואמר רבי אלעזר כל אדם שיש בו חנופה נופל בגיהנם שנא' (ישעיהו ה, כ) הוי האומרים לרע טוב ולטוב רע וגו' מה כתיב אחריו לכן כאכל קש לשון אש וחשש להבה ירפה וגו',ואמר רבי אלעזר כל המחניף לחבירו סוף נופל בידו ואם אינו נופל בידו נופל ביד בניו ואם אינו נופל ביד בניו נופל ביד בן בנו שנא' (ירמיהו כח, ה) ויאמר ירמיה לחנניה אמן כן יעשה ה' יקם ה' את דבריך וכתי' 41b. implying that the assembly takes place bat the beginning of the Festival,when the entire Jewish people comes to Jerusalem.,§ It is taught in the mishna: bAnd the synagogue attendant takes a Torah scroll and gives it to the head of the synagogue,until it is eventually passed to the king. The Gemara suggests: bYou can learn fromthe fact that all of these dignitaries receive the Torah scroll before the king that bhonor may be given to a student in the presence of the teacher. Abaye said:A proof may not be adduced from here, as the bentireprocess bis for the honor of the king,to show that he is removed from ordinary people by many ranks.,It is taught in the mishna: bAnd the king stands, and receivesthe Torah scroll, band readsfrom it while bsitting. King Agrippa arose, and receivedthe Torah scroll, band readfrom it while bstanding.The Gemara asks: bBy inference,until that point he had been bsitting. But didn’t the Master say( iTosefta /i, iSanhedrin4:4) that bsitting in theTemple bcourtyardis permitted bonly for kings from the house of David, as it is stated: “Then King David went in, and sat before the Lord; and he said:Who am I?” (II Samuel 7:18). The Gemara answers: bAs Rav Ḥisda saidin a similar context: This took place not in the Israelite courtyard, where the prohibition against sitting applies, but bin the women’s courtyard. Here too,the assembly was bin the women’s courtyard. /b,It is stated in the mishna that King Agrippa read from the Torah while standing, band the Sages praised himfor this. The Gemara asks: bFrom the factthat bthey praised him,can it be concluded bthat he acted appropriately? Didn’t Rav Ashi say: Even according to the one who sayswith regard to ba iNasiwho relinquishedthe bhonordue bhim, his honor is relinquished,i.e., he may do so, with regard to ba king who relinquishedthe bhonordue bhim, his honor is not relinquished, as it is stated: “You shall place a king over you”(Deuteronomy 17:15). This is interpreted to mean bthat his awe shall be upon you.The Torah establishes that awe is an essential component of kingship, and it is not the prerogative of the king to relinquish it.,The Gemara answers: Since he relinquished his honor for the sake of ba mitzva,this situation bis differentand does not dishonor him.,The mishna continues: bAnd whenAgrippa barrived atthe verse: b“You may not appointa foreigner over you” (Deuteronomy 17:15), tears flowed from his eyes because he was a descendant of the house of Herod and was not of Jewish origin. The entire nation said to him: You are our brother. It is btaught in the name of Rabbi Natan: At that moment the enemies of the Jewish people,a euphemism for the Jewish people, bwere sentenced to destruction for flattering Agrippa. /b, bRabbi Shimon ben Ḥalafta says: From the day that the power of flattery prevailed, the judgment has become corrupted, andpeople’s bdeeds have become corrupted, and a person cannot say to another: My deeds are greater than your deeds,as everyone flatters one another and people no longer know the truth., bRabbi Yehuda of the West,Eretz Yisrael, band some say Rabbi Shimon ben Pazi, taught: It is permitted to flatter wicked people in this world, as it is statedconcerning the future: b“The vile person shall no longer be called generous, nor shall the churl be said to be noble”(Isaiah 32:5). bBy inference,this indicates bthat in this world it is permittedto flatter them., bRabbi Shimon ben Lakish saidthat this can be proven bfrom here.Jacob said to Esau: “I have seen your face, bas one sees the face of angels, and you were pleased with me”(Genesis 33:10). Jacob flattered him by comparing seeing him to seeing a divine vision.,The Gemara notes: bAndRabbi Shimon ben Lakish, in interpreting Jacob’s statement, bdisagrees with Rabbi Levi, as Rabbi Levi says:With regard to the interaction between bJacob and Esau, to what is this matter comparable? To a person who invited anotherto his home bandthe guest brealized that he wants to kill him.The guest bsaid to him: The flavor of this dish that I taste is like a dish that I tasted in the king’s house.The host then bsaidto himself: bThe kingmust bknow him.Therefore, bhe was afraid and did not kill him.Similarly, when Jacob told Esau that his face is like the face of an angel, he intended to let him know that he had seen angels, in order to instill fear in him so that Esau would not seek to harm him., bRabbi Elazar says: Any person who has flattery in him brings wrath to the world, as it is stated: “But those with flattery in their hearts bring about wrath”(Job 36:13). bAnd moreover, his prayer is not heard, as it is statedin that same verse: b“They do not cry for help when He binds them.” /b,The Gemara cites ba mnemonicdevice for the statements of Rabbi Elazar: bWrath, fetus, Gehenna, in his hands, menstruating woman, exiled. /b, bAnd Rabbi Elazar says: Any person who has flattery in him, even fetuses in their mothers’ wombs curse him, as it is stated: “He who says to the wicked: You are righteous, peoples shall curse him [ iyikkevuhu /i], nations [ ileummim /i] shall execrate him”(Proverbs 24:24); band ikov /i,the linguistic root of the word iyikkevuhu /i, means bonly a curse, as it is stated:Balaam explained that he did not curse the Jewish people, as he said: “How can I curse [ iekkov /i] bwhom God has not cursed [ ikabbo /i]?”(Numbers 23:8). bAnd ile’om /iis homiletically interpreted to mean bonly fetuses, as it is statedwith regard to Jacob and Esau, when they were still in Rebecca’s womb: b“And one people [ ile’om /i] shall be stronger than the other people [ ile’om /i]”(Genesis 25:23)., bAnd Rabbi Elazar says: Any person who has flattery in him falls into Gehenna, as it is stated: “Woe to those who call evil good, and good evil”(Isaiah 5:20). bWhat is written afterward? “Therefore, as the tongue of fire devours straw, and as the chaff is consumed by the flame”(Isaiah 5:24), meaning that the people described in the earlier verse will end up burning like straw in the fires of Gehenna., bAnd Rabbi Elazar says: Anyone who flatters another ultimately falls into his hands. And if he does not fall into his hands, he falls into his children’s hands. And if he does not fall into his children’s hands, he falls into his grandchild’s hands, as it is stated: “Then the prophet Jeremiah said to Haiah…Amen, the Lord should do so, the Lord should perform your words”(Jeremiah 28:5–6). This was a form of flattery, as Jeremiah did not explicitly say that Haiah was a false prophet. bAnd it is written: /b


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
bar kochba Flatto, The Crown and the Courts (2021) 170
bar kokhba Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 308
honor Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 308
interpretation—see also midrash Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 331
israel, nan Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 308, 331
judiciary deposing the ruler, in rabbinic literature Flatto, The Crown and the Courts (2021) 170
kings, biblical Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 308, 331
kingship, mishnahs conception of Flatto, The Crown and the Courts (2021) 124, 125
law, biblical/rabbinic—see also, halakhah Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 308
mishnah conception of kingship Flatto, The Crown and the Courts (2021) 124, 125
mishnah horayot Flatto, The Crown and the Courts (2021) 124, 125
mishnah sanhedrin Flatto, The Crown and the Courts (2021) 125
monarchy, mishnah horayot Flatto, The Crown and the Courts (2021) 124, 125
nasi, as chief judge Flatto, The Crown and the Courts (2021) 170
nasi, in rabbinic literature Flatto, The Crown and the Courts (2021) 170
nasi, meaning of the term Flatto, The Crown and the Courts (2021) 170
nasi, referred to as king Flatto, The Crown and the Courts (2021) 124
pagans/paganism Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 308
patriarchate Flatto, The Crown and the Courts (2021) 170
patriarchs Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 308, 331
prayer Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 308, 331
priests/priesthood Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 331
prophets Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 331
qumran literature on, tannaitic literature Flatto, The Crown and the Courts (2021) 124, 125
rabbi ismael, mishnah horayot Flatto, The Crown and the Courts (2021) 124, 125
rabbi ismael, other mishnaic passages Flatto, The Crown and the Courts (2021) 125
rabbi ismael, royalty and judicial authority in Flatto, The Crown and the Courts (2021) 124, 125
rofe, alexander Flatto, The Crown and the Courts (2021) 170
sanhedrin Flatto, The Crown and the Courts (2021) 170
stern, sacha Flatto, The Crown and the Courts (2021) 170
tannaitic literature Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 308
tannaitic literature alternative juridical models, kingship and law in Flatto, The Crown and the Courts (2021) 124, 125
torah' Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 308
tosefta horayot Flatto, The Crown and the Courts (2021) 124, 125
urim and thummim Flatto, The Crown and the Courts (2021) 125