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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



8008
Mishnah, Gittin, 9.8


גֵּט שֶׁכְּתָבוֹ עִבְרִית וְעֵדָיו יְוָנִית, יְוָנִית וְעֵדָיו עִבְרִית, עֵד אֶחָד עִבְרִי וְעֵד אֶחָד יְוָנִי, כָּתַב סוֹפֵר וְעֵד, כָּשֵׁר. אִישׁ פְּלוֹנִי עֵד, כָּשֵׁר. בֶּן אִישׁ פְּלוֹנִי עֵד, כָּשֵׁר. אִישׁ פְּלוֹנִי בֶּן אִישׁ פְּלוֹנִי, וְלֹא כָתַב עֵד, כָּשֵׁר. וְכָךְ הָיוּ נְקִיֵּי הַדַּעַת שֶׁבִּירוּשָׁלַיִם עוֹשִׂין. כָּתַב חֲנִיכָתוֹ וַחֲנִיכָתָהּ, כָּשֵׁר. גֵּט מְעֻשֶּׂה, בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל, כָּשֵׁר. וּבְגוֹיִם, פָּסוּל. וּבְגוֹיִם, חוֹבְטִין אוֹתוֹ וְאוֹמְרִים לוֹ עֲשֵׂה מַה שֶּׁיִּשְׂרָאֵל אוֹמְרִים לְךָ, וְכָשֵׁר:A get which was written in Hebrew and whose signatures are in Greek, or was written in Greek and whose signatures are in Hebrew, or which has one Hebrew signature and one Greek signature, or which was written by a scribe and signed by one witness, is valid. [If a man signs], “So-and-so, witness,” it is valid. [If he signs,] “Son of so-and-so, witness, it is valid. [If he signs,] “So-and-so son of so-and-so” and he didn’t write “witness”, it is valid. If he wrote his own family name and hers, the get is valid. And this is how the scrupulous in Jerusalem would do. A get given imposed by court: in the case of a Jewish court is valid, and in the case of a Gentile court is invalid. And with regard to Gentiles, if they beat him and say to him, “Do what the Israelites say to you,” (and it is valid).


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

19 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 23.1-23.2, 23.4-23.9 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

23.1. לֹא־יִקַּח אִישׁ אֶת־אֵשֶׁת אָבִיו וְלֹא יְגַלֶּה כְּנַף אָבִיו׃ 23.1. כִּי־תֵצֵא מַחֲנֶה עַל־אֹיְבֶיךָ וְנִשְׁמַרְתָּ מִכֹּל דָּבָר רָע׃ 23.2. לֹא־תַשִּׁיךְ לְאָחִיךָ נֶשֶׁךְ כֶּסֶף נֶשֶׁךְ אֹכֶל נֶשֶׁךְ כָּל־דָּבָר אֲשֶׁר יִשָּׁךְ׃ 23.2. לֹא־יָבֹא פְצוּעַ־דַּכָּא וּכְרוּת שָׁפְכָה בִּקְהַל יְהוָה׃ 23.4. לֹא־יָבֹא עַמּוֹנִי וּמוֹאָבִי בִּקְהַל יְהוָה גַּם דּוֹר עֲשִׂירִי לֹא־יָבֹא לָהֶם בִּקְהַל יְהוָה עַד־עוֹלָם׃ 23.5. עַל־דְּבַר אֲשֶׁר לֹא־קִדְּמוּ אֶתְכֶם בַּלֶּחֶם וּבַמַּיִם בַּדֶּרֶךְ בְּצֵאתְכֶם מִמִּצְרָיִם וַאֲשֶׁר שָׂכַר עָלֶיךָ אֶת־בִּלְעָם בֶּן־בְּעוֹר מִפְּתוֹר אֲרַם נַהֲרַיִם לְקַלְלֶךָּ׃ 23.6. וְלֹא־אָבָה יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לִשְׁמֹעַ אֶל־בִּלְעָם וַיַּהֲפֹךְ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לְּךָ אֶת־הַקְּלָלָה לִבְרָכָה כִּי אֲהֵבְךָ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ׃ 23.7. לֹא־תִדְרֹשׁ שְׁלֹמָם וְטֹבָתָם כָּל־יָמֶיךָ לְעוֹלָם׃ 23.8. לֹא־תְתַעֵב אֲדֹמִי כִּי אָחִיךָ הוּא לֹא־תְתַעֵב מִצְרִי כִּי־גֵר הָיִיתָ בְאַרְצוֹ׃ 23.9. בָּנִים אֲשֶׁר־יִוָּלְדוּ לָהֶם דּוֹר שְׁלִישִׁי יָבֹא לָהֶם בִּקְהַל יְהוָה׃ 23.1. A man shall not take his father’s wife, and shall not uncover his father’s skirt." 23.2. He that is crushed or maimed in his privy parts shall not enter into the assembly of the LORD." 23.4. An Ammonite or a Moabite shall not enter into the assembly of the LORD; even to the tenth generation shall none of them enter into the assembly of the LORD for ever;" 23.5. because they met you not with bread and with water in the way, when ye came forth out of Egypt; and because they hired against thee Balaam the son of Beor from Pethor of Aram-naharaim, to curse thee." 23.6. Nevertheless the LORD thy God would not hearken unto Balaam; but the LORD thy God turned the curse into a blessing unto thee, because the LORD thy God loved thee." 23.7. Thou shalt not seek their peace nor their prosperity all thy days for ever." 23.8. Thou shalt not abhor an Edomite, for he is thy brother; thou shalt not abhor an Egyptian, because thou wast a stranger in his land." 23.9. The children of the third generation that are born unto them may enter into the assembly of the LORD."
2. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 21.2 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

21.2. כִּי תִקְנֶה עֶבֶד עִבְרִי שֵׁשׁ שָׁנִים יַעֲבֹד וּבַשְּׁבִעִת יֵצֵא לַחָפְשִׁי חִנָּם׃ 21.2. וְכִי־יַכֶּה אִישׁ אֶת־עַבְדּוֹ אוֹ אֶת־אֲמָתוֹ בַּשֵּׁבֶט וּמֵת תַּחַת יָדוֹ נָקֹם יִנָּקֵם׃ 21.2. If thou buy a Hebrew servant, six years he shall serve; and in the seventh he shall go out free for nothing."
3. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 9.25-9.26 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

9.25. וַיֹּאמֶר אָרוּר כְּנָעַן עֶבֶד עֲבָדִים יִהְיֶה לְאֶחָיו׃ 9.26. וַיֹּאמֶר בָּרוּךְ יְהֹוָה אֱלֹהֵי שֵׁם וִיהִי כְנַעַן עֶבֶד לָמוֹ׃ 9.25. And he said: Cursed be Canaan; a servant of servants shall he be unto his brethren." 9.26. And he said: Blessed be the LORD, the God of Shem; And let Canaan be their servant."
4. Mishnah, Avodah Zarah, 2.1 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

2.1. One should not place animals in inns of non-Jews, because they are suspected of bestiality. A woman should not be alone with them, because they are suspected of licentiousness; Nor should a man be alone with them, because they are suspected of shedding blood. A Jewish woman should not act as midwife to a non-Jewish woman, because she would be delivering a child for idolatry. But a non-Jewish woman may act as midwife to a Jewish woman. A Jewish woman should not suckle the child of a non-Jewish woman, But a non-Jewish woman may suckle the child of a Jewish woman in her premises."
5. Mishnah, Bava Qamma, 4.3 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

4.3. An ox of an Israelite that gored an ox belonging to the Temple, or an ox belonging to the Temple that gored an ox of an Israelite, the owner is exempt, as it says, “The ox belonging to his neighbor” (Exodus 21:35), and not an ox belonging to the Temple. An ox of an Israelite that gores an ox of a gentile, the owner is exempt. And an ox of a gentile that gores the ox of an Israelite, whether the ox is harmless or an attested danger, its owner pays full damages."
6. Mishnah, Gittin, 1.5, 2.5 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

1.5. Any document which has upon it the signature of a Samaritan is invalid, except for bills of divorce or a writ of emancipation. It happened that a bill of divorce was once brought before Rabban Gamaliel at Kefar Otnai and its witnesses were Samaritan, and he declared it valid. All documents which are accepted in the courts of non-Jew, even if those who signed on the documents are non-Jews, are valid except bills of divorce and of writs of emancipation. Rabbi Shimon says: these also are valid; they were only pronounced [to be invalid] when done by ordinary persons." 2.5. All are qualified to write a get, even a deaf-mute, an imbecile and a minor. A woman may write her own get and a man his own receipt [for the ketubah], since the document is upheld only by its signatures. All are qualified to bring a get except a deaf-mute, an imbecile, a minor, a blind person and a non-Jew."
7. Mishnah, Qiddushin, 1.1 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

8. Mishnah, Yevamot, 8.3, 16.7 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

8.3. An Ammonite and a Moabite are forbidden [to enter into the congregation of the Lord] and their prohibition is for ever. However, their women are permitted at once. An Egyptian and an Edomite are forbidden only until the third generation, whether they are males or females. Rabbi Shimon permits their women immediately. Said Rabbi Shimon: This is a kal vehomer: if where the males are forbidden for all time the females are permitted immediately, where the males are forbidden only until the third generation how much more should the females be permitted immediately. They said to him: If this is a halakhah, we shall accept it; but if it is only a logical reference, there is a refutation. He replied: This is not so, I am in fact saying a halakhah. Mamzerim and nethinim are forbidden, and their prohibition is forever, whether they be males or females." 16.7. Rabbi Akiva said: When I went down to Nehardea to intercalate the year, I met Nehemiah of Bet D’li who said to me, “I heard that in the land of Israel no one, permits a [married] woman to marry again on the evidence of one witness, except Rabbi Judah ben Bava”. “That is so”, I told him. He said to me, “Tell them in my name: ‘You know that this country is in confusion because of marauders. I have received a tradition from Rabban Gamaliel the Elder: that they allow a [married] woman to remarry on the evidence of one witness’”. And when I came and recounted the conversation in the presence of Rabban Gamaliel he rejoiced at my words and exclaimed, “We have found a match for Rabbi Judah ben Bava!” As a result of this talk Rabban Gamaliel remembered that some men were once killed at Tel Arza, and that Rabban Gamaliel the Elder had allowed their wives to marry again on the evidence of one witness, and the law was established that they allow a woman to marry again on the evidence of one witness, and on the testimony of one [who states that he has heard] from another witness, from a slave, from a woman or from a female slave. Rabbi Eliezer and Rabbi Joshua say: a woman is not be allowed to remarry on the evidence of one witness. Rabbi Akiva ruled: [a woman is not allowed to marry again] on the evidence of a woman, on that of a slave, on that of a female slave or on that of relatives. They said to him: It once happened that a number of Levites went to Tsoar, the city of palms, and one of them became ill on the way, and they left him in an inn. When they returned they asked the [female] innkeeper, “Where is our friend?” And she replied, “He is dead and I buried him”, and they allowed his wife to remarry. Should not then a priest’s wife [be believed at least as much] as an innkeeper!” He answered them: When she will [give such evidence] as the innkeeper [gave] she will be believed, for the innkeeper had brought out to them [the dead man’s] staff, his bag and the Torah scroll which he had with him."
9. Mishnah, Shekalim, 3.2 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

3.2. In three baskets each of [the capacity of] three seahs they make the appropriation [of shekels] from the chamber. And on them was inscribed: Aleph, Beth, Gimmel. Rabbi Ishmael says: Greek was inscribed on them, alpha, beta, gamla. The one who made the appropriation did not enter the chamber wearing either a bordered cloak or shoes or sandals or tefillin or an amulet, lest if he became poor people might say that he became poor because of a sin committed in the chamber, or if he became rich people might say that he became rich from the appropriation in the chamber. For it is one’s duty to seem be free of blame before others as before God, as it is said: “And you shall be guiltless before the Lord and before Israel” (Numbers 32:22), and it says: “And you will find favor and good understanding in the eyes of God and man” (Proverbs 3:4)."
10. Tosefta, Avodah Zarah, 3.3 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

11. Tosefta, Bava Qamma, 4.3 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

12. Tosefta, Gittin, 1.4 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

13. Tosefta, Peah, 4.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

14. Tosefta, Yevamot, 8.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

15. Anon., Leviticus Rabba, 5.6 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

5.6. דָּבָר אַחֵר, אִם הַכֹּהֵן הַמָּשִׁיחַ יֶחֱטָא, הַכֹּהֵן מָשִׁיחַ מְכַפֵּר וְצָרִיךְ כַּפָּרָה. תָּנֵי רַבִּי חִיָּא הוֹאִיל וּמָשִׁיחַ מְכַפֵּר וְצִבּוּר מִתְכַּפֵּר, מוּטָב שֶׁיַּקְדִּים מְכַפֵּר לְמִתְכַּפֵּר, דִּתְנַן (ויקרא טז, יא): וְכִפֶּר בַּעֲדוֹ וּבְעַד בֵּיתוֹ, בֵּיתוֹ זוֹ אִשְׁתּוֹ. דָּבָר אַחֵר, אִם הַכֹּהֵן הַמָּשִׁיחַ יֶחֱטָא, וְכֹהֵן הַמָּשִׁיחַ חוֹטֵא, אָמַר רַבִּי לֵוִי עֲלוּבָה הִיא מְדִינְתָּא דְאַסְיָא פּוֹדַגְרִיס, וּדְאִיקוּטָטָא בְּחָדָא עֵינָא, וְסָנֵיגוֹרְיָא מְקַטְרֵג בְּדִינֵי נְפָשׁוֹת. (ויקרא ד, ג): לְאַשְׁמַת הָעָם, לְאֵשׁ מֵת הָעָם, מָשָׁל לְשׁוֹשִׁיטָה שֶׁל דֹּב שֶׁהָיָה אוֹכֵל סְדוּרִים שֶׁל דֹּב, אָמַר הַמֶּלֶךְ הוֹאִיל וְהוּא אוֹכֵל סְדוּרִים שֶׁל דֹּב תֹּאכְלֶנּוּ הַדֹּב. כָּךְ אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא הוֹאִיל וְהוּא נֶהֱנֶה מִן הַהֶקְדֵּשׁוֹת תֹּאכְלֶנּוּ הָאֵשׁ. אָמַר רַבִּי אַיְבוּ מַעֲשֶׂה בְּטַבָּח אֶחָד בְּצִפּוֹרִי שֶׁהָיָה מַאֲכִיל אֶת יִשְׂרָאֵל נְבֵלוֹת וּטְרֵפוֹת, פַּעַם אַחַת עֶרֶב יוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים אָכַל וְשָׁתָה וְנִשְׁתַּכֵּר וְעָלָה לְרֹאשׁ הַגַּג וְנָפַל וּמֵת, הִתְחִילוּ הַכְּלָבִים מְלַקְּקִין אֶת דָּמוֹ, אָתוֹן וְשָׁיְילוּן לְרַבִּי חֲנִינָא מַהוּ לְאַעֲבָרָא יָתֵיהּ מִן קֳדָמֵיהוֹן, אֲמַר לְהוֹן כְּתִיב (שמות כב, ל): וְאַנְשֵׁי קֹדֶשׁ תִּהְיוּן לִי וּבָשָׂר בַּשָּׂדֶה טְרֵפָה לֹא תֹאכֵלוּ לַכֶּלֶב תַּשְׁלִיכוּן אֹתוֹ, זֶה שֶׁהָיָה גּוֹזֵל אֶת הַכְּלָבִים וּמַאֲכִיל אֶת יִשְׂרָאֵל נְבֵלוֹת וּטְרֵפוֹת, אַרְפּוּן לְהוֹן מִדִּידְהוֹן אִינוּן אָכְלִין. (ויקרא ד, ד): וְהֵבִיא אֶת הַפָּר אֶל פֶּתַח אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד, אָמַר רַבִּי יִצְחָק מָשָׁל לְאוֹהֲבוֹ שֶׁל מֶלֶךְ שֶׁכִּבְדוֹ בְּדוֹרוֹן וּבְקִלּוּסִין נָאֶה, אָמַר הַמֶּלֶךְ הַנִּיחוּ אוֹתוֹ עַל פֶּתַח פָּלָטִין, כָּל שֶׁיֵּצֵא וְנִכְנַס יְהֵא רוֹאֶה אוֹתוֹ, כָּךְ וְהֵבִיא אֶת הַפָּר אֶל פֶּתַח אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד.
16. Anon., Sifre Deuteronomy, 17, 16 (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

17. Anon., Sifre Numbers, 92, 118 (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

18. Babylonian Talmud, Rosh Hashanah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

18b. דאמר רב חנא בר ביזנא אמר ר"ש חסידא מאי דכתיב (זכריה ח, יט) כה אמר ה' צבאות צום הרביעי וצום החמישי וצום השביעי וצום העשירי יהיה לבית יהודה לששון ולשמחה קרי להו צום וקרי להו ששון ושמחה בזמן שיש שלום יהיו לששון ולשמחה אין שלום צום,אמר רב פפא הכי קאמר בזמן שיש שלום יהיו לששון ולשמחה יש גזרת המלכות צום אין גזרת המלכות ואין שלום רצו מתענין רצו אין מתענין,אי הכי ט"ב נמי אמר רב פפא שאני ט' באב הואיל והוכפלו בו צרות דאמר מר בט' באב חרב הבית בראשונה ובשניה ונלכדה ביתר ונחרשה העיר,תניא אמר ר"ש ארבעה דברים היה ר"ע דורש ואני אין דורש כמותו צום הרביעי זה ט' בתמוז שבו הובקעה העיר שנאמר (ירמיהו נב, ו) (ברביעי) בתשעה לחדש ויחזק הרעב בעיר ולא היה לחם לעם הארץ ותבקע העיר ואמאי קרי ליה רביעי רביעי לחדשים,צום החמישי זה תשעה באב שבו נשרף בית אלהינו ואמאי קרי ליה חמישי חמישי לחדשים צום השביעי זה ג' בתשרי שבו נהרג גדליה בן אחיקם ומי הרגו ישמעאל בן נתניה הרגו ללמדך ששקולה מיתתן של צדיקים כשריפת בית אלהינו ואמאי קרי ליה שביעי שביעי לחדשים,צום העשירי זה עשרה בטבת שבו סמך מלך בבל על ירושלים שנאמר (יחזקאל כד, א) ויהי דבר ה' אלי בשנה התשיעית בחדש העשירי בעשור לחדש לאמר בן אדם כתב לך את שם היום את עצם היום הזה סמך מלך בבל אל ירושלם ואמאי קרי ליה עשירי עשירי לחדשים והלא היה ראוי זה לכתוב ראשון ולמה נכתב כאן כדי להסדיר חדשים כתיקנן,ואני איני אומר כן אלא צום העשירי זה חמשה בטבת שבו באת שמועה לגולה שהוכתה העיר שנאמר (יחזקאל לג, כא) ויהי בשתי עשרה שנה בעשירי בחמשה לחדש לגלותנו בא אלי הפליט מירושלם לאמר הוכתה העיר ועשו יום שמועה כיום שריפה,ונראין דברי מדבריו שאני אומר על ראשון ראשון ועל אחרון אחרון והוא אומר על ראשון אחרון ועל אחרון ראשון אלא שהוא מונה לסדר חדשים ואני מונה לסדר פורעניות,איתמר רב ורבי חנינא אמרי בטלה מגילת תענית רבי יוחנן וריב"ל אמרי לא בטלה מגילת תענית,רב ורבי חנינא אמרי בטלה מגילת תענית הכי קאמר בזמן שיש שלום יהיו לששון ולשמחה אין שלום צום והנך נמי כי הני,רבי יוחנן ורבי יהושע בן לוי אמרי לא בטלה מגילת תענית הני הוא דתלינהו רחמנא בבנין בהמ"ק אבל הנך כדקיימי קיימי,מתיב רב כהנא מעשה וגזרו תענית בחנוכה בלוד וירד ר"א ורחץ ורבי יהושע וסיפר ואמרו להם צאו והתענו על מה שהתעניתם,א"ר יוסף שאני חנוכה דאיכא מצוה א"ל אביי ותיבטיל איהי ותיבטל מצותה,אלא אמר רב יוסף שאני חנוכה דמיפרסם ניסא,מותיב רב אחא בר הונא בתלתא בתשרי בטילת אדכרתא מן שטרייא שגזרה מלכות יון גזרה שלא להזכיר שם שמים על פיהם וכשגברה מלכות חשמונאי ונצחום התקינו שיהו מזכירין שם שמים אפילו בשטרות וכך היו כותבים בשנת כך וכך ליוחנן כהן גדול לאל עליון,וכששמעו חכמים בדבר אמרו למחר זה פורע את חובו ונמצא שטר מוטל באשפה וביטלום ואותו היום עשאוהו יו"ט ואי סלקא דעתך בטלה מגילת תענית קמייתא בטול אחרנייתא מוסיפין,הכא במאי עסקינן בזמן שבית המקדש קיים 18b. bAs Rav Ḥana bar Bizna saidthat bRabbi Shimon Ḥasida said: What isthe meaning of that bwhich is written: “Thus said the Lord of hosts: The fast of the fourth month, and the fast of the fifth, and fast of the seventh, and the fast of the tenth, shall become times of joy and gladness,and cheerful seasons, bto the house of Judah”(Zechariah 8:19). bIt calls themdays of b“fast” and it calls them“times of bjoy and gladness.”How so? bWhen there is peacein the world, bthey will betimes of bjoy and gladness,on which eulogies and fasting are forbidden; but when bthere is no peace,they are days of bfasting.In a time when there is no peace, why are messengers not sent out also for the fourth and tenth months, so that people can know when to observe the fasts?, bRav Pappa saidthat bthis is what it is saying: When there is peacein the world and the Temple is standing, these days bwill betimes of bjoy and gladness;when bthere is persecutionand troubles for the Jewish people, they are days of bfasting;and when bthere is no persecution butstill bno peace,neither particular troubles nor consolation for Israel, the ihalakhais as follows: If people bwish, they fast,and if bthey wish, they do not fast.Since there is no absolute obligation to fast, messengers are not sent out for these months.,The Gemara asks: bIf so, the Ninth of Avshould balsobe like the other fast days, that sometimes it is observed and sometimes not, depending upon the wishes of the community at the time. Why does the mishna state that messengers go out for the month of Av? bRav Pappa said: The Ninth of Av is different, since the calamitiesthat occurred on that day bwere multiplied. As the Master said: On the Ninth of Av the Temple was destroyed,both bthe firstone band the secondone; on this day the city of bBeitar was captured;and on this day bthe cityof Jerusalem bwas plowedover by the enemies of the Jewish people, as a sign that it would never be rebuilt. Consequently, the fast of the Ninth of Av is obligatory, and not optional like the other fasts. Messengers are consequently sent out so that people will know when to fast.,§ The Sages disagreed about the fasts alluded to in the words of the prophet, as bit is taughtin a ibaraita /i. bRabbi Shimon said: Rabbi Akiva would expound four verses, but I would not expoundthe texts bas he did.One of the disputes relates to the fasts mentioned by Zechariah. Rabbi Akiva would expound the verse as follows: b“The fast of the fourth,” this is the ninth of Tammuz, on which the cityof Jerusalem bwas breached, as it is stated: “And in the fourth month, on the ninth day of the month, the famine was severe in the city, so that there was no bread for the people of the land. Then the city was breached”(Jeremiah 52:6–7). bAnd why doesthe prophet bcall itthe fast of the bfourth?Because it is in Tammuz, bthe fourth of the monthswhen counting from Nisan., b“The fast of the fifth,” this is the Ninth of Av, on which the Temple of our Lord was burnt. And why does he call itthe fast of the bfifth?Because it falls in the bfifth of the months. “The fast of the seventh,” this is the third of Tishrei, on which Gedaliah, son of Ahikam, was killed. And who killed him? Ishmael, son of Nethaniah, killed him(see II Kings 25:25; Jeremiah, chapter 41). The Sages established a fast to commemorate Gedaliah’s death bto teach you that the death of the righteous is equivalent to the burning of the Temple of our Lord. And why didthe prophet bcall itthe fast of the bseventh?Because Tishrei is the bseventh of the months. /b, b“The fast of the tenth,” This is the tenth of Tevet, on which the king of Babylonia laid siege to Jerusalem, as it is stated: “And in the ninth year, in the tenth month, on the tenth day of the month, the word of the Lord came to me, saying: Son of man, write the name of the day, of this same day: The king of Babylonia has laid siege to Jerusalem on this very day”(Ezekiel 24:1–2). bAnd why did he call itthe fast of the btenth?Because it is in Tevet, which is bthe tenth of the months. Wouldn’t it have been fitting to writethis fast bfirst,as the series of events began with the laying of the siege. bWhy wasit bwritten hereat the end of the list? This was done bin order to list the months intheir bproperorder, as the prophet began with the fourth month and ended with the tenth month. This is the statement of Rabbi Akiva.,Rabbi Shimon disagreed and said: bI do not say this, but ratherI expound the verse as follows: b“The fast of the tenth,” this is the fifth of Tevet, on which the report reached the Diaspora that the city had been smitten, as it is stated: “And it came to pass in the twelfth year of our exile, in the tenth month, on the fifth day of the month, that one that had escaped out of Jerusalem came to me, saying: The city is smitten”(Ezekiel 33:21); band they made the day of the reportof the destruction blike the day of theactual bburningand decreed a fast on that day.,And Rabbi Shimon added: bAnd my statement seemsmore convincing bthan his statement, as I say about the firstfast mentioned by the prophet that it marks the event that took place bfirst, and about the lastfast that it marks the event that took place blast.According to Rabbi Shimon, the fasts are listed in accordance with the chronological order of the events. bBut he,Rabbi Akiva, bsays about the firstfast mentioned by the prophet that it marks the event that took place blast, and about the lastfast mentioned that it marks the event that took place bfirst, only that he liststhe fasts bin the order of the months, whereas I listthem also bin the order of the calamitiesthat they mark.,§ bIt was statedthat the Sages disagreed about the following matter: bRav and Rabbi Ḥaninaboth bsay: iMegillat Ta’anit /i,a listing of days on which fasting and eulogizing are forbidden, bhas been nullified,as in the present period of exile there is no reason to celebrate the joyous events that these days commemorate. bRabbi Yoḥa and Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi say: iMegillat Ta’anithas not been nullified. /b,The Gemara explains: bRav and Rabbi Ḥanina saythat iMegillat Ta’anithas been nullified. This is whatthe prophet bis saying: At a time when there is peacein the world, the dates listed bwill betimes of bjoy and gladness,on which eulogies and fasting are forbidden; but when bthere is no peace,they are days of bfasting. And thosedays mentioned in iMegillat Ta’anit bare also like thesedays of fasting, that is to say, the days of joy listed in iMegillat Ta’anitare also nullified when there is no peace., bRabbi Yoḥa and Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi saythat iMegillat Ta’anithas not been nullified,and they reason as follows: bIt was thosefast days mentioned in the Bible bthat the Merciful One makes contingent on the building of the Temple, but thesefestive days listed in iMegillat Ta’anit bremain as they wereand have not been nullified., bRav Kahana raised an objectionagainst Rav and Rabbi Ḥanina from a ibaraita /i: bThere was an incident andthe Sages bdecreed a fast on Hanukkah in Lod, and Rabbi Eliezer went downon that day band bathedin the bathhouse band Rabbi Yehoshua went down and cuthis hair to show that they did not accept the fast. Furthermore, these two Sages bsaid tothe others: bGo out and fastanother fast as an act of penitence bfor what you havealready bfasted,as the days of Hanukkah are days of joy, on which fasting is forbidden. Hanukkah is one of the Festivals listed in iMegillat Ta’anit /i. Even after the destruction of the Temple Hanukkah is celebrated, demonstrating that iMegillat Ta’anithas not been nullified., bRav Yosef said: Hanukkah is different, as there is the mitzvaof lighting candles, and so, unlike the other days listed in iMegillat Ta’anit /i, the festival of Hanukkah was not nullified. bAbaye said to him:What is this argument? bLetHanukkah bitself be nullified, and let its mitzvaof lighting candles bbe nullifiedwith it., bRather, Rav Yosefretracted his previous explanation and bsaid: Hanukkah is different, as its miracle is well known,and it has become so widely accepted by all the Jewish people that it would be inappropriate to nullify it., bRav Aḥa bar Huna raised an objection:It is stated in iMegillat Ta’anit /i: bOn the third of Tishrei theordice requiring the bmentionof God’s name binlegal bdocuments was abolished,and on that day fasting is forbidden. bFor the kingdom of Greece had issued a decreeagainst the Jews bforbidding them to mention the name of Heaven on their lips. When the Hasmonean kingdom became strong and defeatedthe Greeks, bthey instituted that people should mention the name of Heaven even in theirlegal bdocuments. And therefore they would write: In year such and such of Yoḥa the High Priest of the God Most High. /b, bAnd when the Sages heard about this they said: Tomorrow this one,the borrower, bwill repay his debt,the lender will no longer need to save the loan document, bthe document will be cast on a dunghill,and the name of Heaven written there will come to disgrace. bAndso bthey annulledthe ordice to mention God’s name in documents, band they made that day into a Festival. And if it enters your mindto say that iMegillat Ta’anithas been nullified,can you say that bthe firstprohibitions against fasting bthey annulled, andthen blaterones bwere added? /b,The Gemara answers: bWith what are we dealing here?This is referring to a time bwhen the Temple was standingand all the days listed in iMegillat Ta’anitwere in force. From time to time new days of commemoration were added. When the iamora’imstated that iMegillat Ta’anitwas nullified they were referring to the time after the destruction of the Temple.
19. Papyri, P.Yadin, 18, 28, 10



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
africa Price, Finkelberg and Shahar, Rome: An Empire of Many Nations: New Perspectives on Ethnic Diversity and Cultural Identity (2021) 267
agents Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 226
ammonites Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 286
animals Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 226
aqiba Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 115, 226
aquila Fraade, Multilingualism and Translation in Ancient Judaism: Before and After Babel (2023) 180
asherot Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 286
asia minor Price, Finkelberg and Shahar, Rome: An Empire of Many Nations: New Perspectives on Ethnic Diversity and Cultural Identity (2021) 267
authority Czajkowski et al., Law in the Roman Provinces (2020) 85
babatha Katzoff, Law in the Documents of the Judaean Desert (2005) 223
bar kokhba (revolt) Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 286
blind person Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 226
buying and/or selling Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 286
canaanite slaves Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 57, 286
children Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 57, 226
cohen, s.j.d. Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 226
court Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 57, 226, 286
damages (injury) Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 286
dangerous gentile Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 286
deaf-mute Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 226
divorce Czajkowski et al., Law in the Roman Provinces (2020) 85; Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 57, 226
divorce document Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 57, 226
edomites Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 286
egyptians Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 286
eleazar Katzoff, Law in the Documents of the Judaean Desert (2005) 223
emancipation-(writs) Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 226
greek Fraade, Multilingualism and Translation in Ancient Judaism: Before and After Babel (2023) 180
jews Czajkowski et al., Law in the Roman Provinces (2020) 85
judah Katzoff, Law in the Documents of the Judaean Desert (2005) 223
jurisdiction Czajkowski et al., Law in the Roman Provinces (2020) 85
khthousion Katzoff, Law in the Documents of the Judaean Desert (2005) 223
law, jewish Czajkowski et al., Law in the Roman Provinces (2020) 85
lieberman, saul Price, Finkelberg and Shahar, Rome: An Empire of Many Nations: New Perspectives on Ethnic Diversity and Cultural Identity (2021) 267
lod Price, Finkelberg and Shahar, Rome: An Empire of Many Nations: New Perspectives on Ethnic Diversity and Cultural Identity (2021) 267
masada Katzoff, Law in the Documents of the Judaean Desert (2005) 223
moses Fraade, Multilingualism and Translation in Ancient Judaism: Before and After Babel (2023) 180
murabba'at" '142.0_223.0@nahal hever Katzoff, Law in the Documents of the Judaean Desert (2005) 223
oral Fraade, Multilingualism and Translation in Ancient Judaism: Before and After Babel (2023) 180
palestine Price, Finkelberg and Shahar, Rome: An Empire of Many Nations: New Perspectives on Ethnic Diversity and Cultural Identity (2021) 267
r. akiva Katzoff, Law in the Documents of the Judaean Desert (2005) 224
rabbi judah the prince Price, Finkelberg and Shahar, Rome: An Empire of Many Nations: New Perspectives on Ethnic Diversity and Cultural Identity (2021) 267
rabbi ḥiyya Price, Finkelberg and Shahar, Rome: An Empire of Many Nations: New Perspectives on Ethnic Diversity and Cultural Identity (2021) 267
rabbinic courts, enforcement of decisions Cohen, The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism (2010) 288
rabbinic literature Czajkowski et al., Law in the Roman Provinces (2020) 85; Fraade, Multilingualism and Translation in Ancient Judaism: Before and After Babel (2023) 180
rabbis, tannaitic literature cases presenting rabbis as authority figures, range of authority' Cohen, The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism (2010) 288
rekem Katzoff, Law in the Documents of the Judaean Desert (2005) 223, 224
revolt, of bar kochba Czajkowski et al., Law in the Roman Provinces (2020) 85
romanization Czajkowski et al., Law in the Roman Provinces (2020) 85
sepphoris, butcher selling non-kosher meat Cohen, The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism (2010) 288
septimius severus Price, Finkelberg and Shahar, Rome: An Empire of Many Nations: New Perspectives on Ethnic Diversity and Cultural Identity (2021) 267
shimon Katzoff, Law in the Documents of the Judaean Desert (2005) 224
symmachus Fraade, Multilingualism and Translation in Ancient Judaism: Before and After Babel (2023) 180
theodotion Fraade, Multilingualism and Translation in Ancient Judaism: Before and After Babel (2023) 180
written Fraade, Multilingualism and Translation in Ancient Judaism: Before and After Babel (2023) 180
zoar Katzoff, Law in the Documents of the Judaean Desert (2005) 223