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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



8008
Mishnah, Gittin, 5.5


הֵעִיד רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן בֶּן גֻּדְגְּדָה עַל הַחֵרֶשֶׁת שֶׁהִשִּׂיאָהּ אָבִיהָ, שֶׁהִיא יוֹצְאָה בְגֵט. וְעַל קְטַנָּה בַת יִשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁנִּשֵּׂאת לְכֹהֵן, שֶׁאוֹכֶלֶת בַּתְּרוּמָה, וְאִם מֵתָה, בַּעְלָהּ יוֹרְשָׁהּ. וְעַל הַמָּרִישׁ הַגָּזוּל שֶׁבְּנָאוֹ בַבִּירָה, שֶׁיִּטֹּל אֶת דָּמָיו, מִפְּנֵי תַקָּנַת הַשָּׁבִים. וְעַל חַטָּאת הַגְּזוּלָה שֶׁלֹּא נוֹדְעָה לָרַבִּים, שֶׁהִיא מְכַפֶּרֶת, מִפְּנֵי תִקּוּן הַמִּזְבֵּחַ:Rabbi Nehunia ben Gudgada testified concerning a deaf-mute whose father had given her in marriage, that she could be sent away with a bill of divorcement; And concerning a minor, daughter of an Israelite who married a priest, that she could eat terumah, and if she died her husband inherited from her; And concerning a stolen beam that had been built into a palace, that it might be restored by the payment of its value, because of the enactment to encourage repentance. And concerning a sin-offering that had been stolen, and this was not known to many, that it caused atonement because of the welfare of the altar.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

13 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 22.10, 23.19 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

23.19. לֹא־תָבִיא אֶתְנַן זוֹנָה וּמְחִיר כֶּלֶב בֵּית יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לְכָל־נֶדֶר כִּי תוֹעֲבַת יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ גַּם־שְׁנֵיהֶם׃ 22.10. Thou shalt not plow with an ox and an ass together." 23.19. Thou shalt not bring the hire of a harlot, or the price of a dog, into the house of the LORD thy God for any vow; for even both these are an abomination unto the LORD thy God. ."
2. Hebrew Bible, Malachi, 1.13 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.13. וַאֲמַרְתֶּם הִנֵּה מַתְּלָאָה וְהִפַּחְתֶּם אוֹתוֹ אָמַר יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת וַהֲבֵאתֶם גָּזוּל וְאֶת־הַפִּסֵּחַ וְאֶת־הַחוֹלֶה וַהֲבֵאתֶם אֶת־הַמִּנְחָה הַאֶרְצֶה אוֹתָהּ מִיֶּדְכֶם אָמַר יְהוָה׃ 1.13. Ye say also: ‘Behold, what a weariness is it!’ And ye have snuffed at it, Saith the LORD of hosts; And ye have brought that which was taken by violence, And the lame, and the sick; Thus ye bring the offering; Should I accept this of your hand? Saith the LORD."
3. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 61.8 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

61.8. כִּי אֲנִי יְהוָה אֹהֵב מִשְׁפָּט שֹׂנֵא גָזֵל בְּעוֹלָה וְנָתַתִּי פְעֻלָּתָם בֶּאֱמֶת וּבְרִית עוֹלָם אֶכְרוֹת לָהֶם׃ 61.8. For I the LORD love justice, I hate robbery with iniquity; And I will give them their recompense in truth, And I will make an everlasting covet with them."
4. Mishnah, Bava Qamma, 10.2 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

10.2. If excise collectors took his donkey and gave him another donkey, or if bandits robbed a man of his coat and gave him another coat, they are his own, since the original owners gave up hope of recovering them. If a man saved something from a flood or from marauding troops or from bandits: if the owner gave up hope of recovering [the item], it belongs to him. So too with a swarm of bees: if the owner gave up hope of recovering [the swarm], it belongs to him. Rabbi Yocha ben Baroka said: “A woman or child may be believed if they say, ‘The swarm of bees went away from here.’” A man may go into his fellow’s field to save his swarm and if he causes damage he must pay for the damage that he has caused; but he may not cut off a branch of the tree [to save his swarm] even on condition that he pay its value. Rabbi Yishmael, the son of Rabbi Yocha ben Baroka, says: “He may even cut off [the branch] and repay the value.”"
5. Mishnah, Eduyot, 1.13, 7.9 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

1.13. Whoever is half a slave and half a free man should work one day for his master and one day for himself, according to Beth Hillel. Beth Shammai said to them: “You have set matters in order with regards to his master, but you have not set matters in order with regards to himself. He is not able to marry a slave-woman, nor is he able [to marry] a woman who is free. Is he to refrain [from marrying]? [How can he] for is it not the case that the world was created in order for people to be fruitful and multiply? For it is said, “He did not create it to be a waste; but formed it for inhabitation” (Isaiah 45:18). But for the rightful ordering of the world his master is compelled to make him free, and he writes out a bond for half his value.” Then Beth Hillel changed their mind and taught according to the opinion of Beth Shammai." 7.9. Rabbi Nehunia ben Gudgada testified concerning a deaf-mute whose father had given her in marriage, that she could be sent away with a bill of divorcement; And concerning a minor, daughter of an Israelite who married a priest, that she could eat terumah, and if she died her husband inherited from her; And concerning a stolen beam that had been built into a palace, that it might be restored by the payment of its value; And concerning a sin-offering that had been stolen, and this was not known to many, that it caused atonement because of the welfare of the altar."
6. Mishnah, Hagigah, 2.7 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

2.7. The garments of an am haaretz possess midras-impurity for Pharisees. The garments of Pharisees possess midras-impurity for those who eat terumah. The garments of those who eat terumah possess midras-impurity for [those who eat] sacred things. The garments of [those who eat] sacred things possess midras-impurity for [those who occupy themselves with the waters of] purification. Yose ben Yoezer was the most pious in the priesthood, yet his apron was [considered to possess] midras-impurity for [those who ate] sacred things. Yoha ben Gudgada all his life used to eat [unconsecrated food] in accordance with the purity required for sacred things, yet his apron was [considered to possess] midras-impurity for [those who occupied themselves with the water of] purification."
7. Mishnah, Middot, 4.6 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

4.6. The Hekhal was a hundred cubits by a hundred with a height of a hundred. The foundation was six cubits, then it rose forty, then a cubit for the ornamentation, two cubits for the guttering, a cubit for the ceiling and a cubit for the plastering. The height of the upper chamber was forty cubits, there was a cubit for its ornamentation, two cubits for the guttering, a cubit for the ceiling, a cubit for the plastering, three cubits for the parapet and a cubit for the spikes. Rabbi Judah says the spikes were not included in the measurement, but the parapet was four cubits."
8. Mishnah, Sukkah, 3.1, 3.4-3.5 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

3.1. A stolen or a dried up lulav is invalid. One [that came] from an asherah tree or from a condemned city is invalid. If its top was broken off or its leaves were detached, it is invalid. If its leaves are spread apart it is valid. Rabbi Judah says he should tie it at the top. The thorny palms of the iron mountain are valid. A lulav which is three handbreadths in length, long enough to wave, is valid." 3.4. Rabbi Ishmael says: three hadasim, two aravot, one lulav and one etrog, even if two [of the hadasim] have their tips broken off and [only] one is whole. Rabbi Tarfon says: even if all three have their tips broken off. Rabbi Akiva says: just as there is one lulav and one etrog, so too only one hadas and one aravah." 3.5. An etrog which is stolen or withered is invalid. One from an asherah or a condemned city is invalid. of orlah or of unclean terumah it is invalid. of clean terumah, he should not take it, but if he did take it, it is valid. of demai (doubtfully-tithed): Bet Shammai says it invalid, And Bet Hillel says it valid. of second tithe, it should not be taken [even] in Jerusalem, but if he took it, it is valid."
9. Tosefta, Sukkah, 4.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

4.1. Formerly when they were beholding the joy at the ceremony of the water drawing, the men were beholding it from within the Temple precincts and the women from without. But when the supreme court saw that they behaved in a frivolous manner they erected three balconies in the court, facing the three sides, that from them the women might behold the rejoicing at the ceremony. So when they were beholding the rejoicing at the ceremony the sexes were not mixed up together."
10. Tosefta, Kippurim, 4.5, 4.9 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

11. Tosefta, Shekalim, 2.14 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

12. Babylonian Talmud, Arakhin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

11b. על עסקי קול רב אשי אמר מהכא (דה"ב ה, יג) ויהי כאחד למחצצרים ולמשוררים להשמיע קול אחד,רבי יונתן אמר מהכא (במדבר יח, ג) ולא ימותו גם הם גם אתם מה אתם בעבודת מזבח אף הם בעבודת מזבח,תניא נמי הכי ולא ימותו גם הם גם אתם אתם בשלהם והם בשלכם במיתה הם בשלהם אינן במיתה אלא באזהרה,אמר אביי נקיטינן משורר ששיער בשל חבירו במיתה שנאמר (במדבר ג, לח) והחונים לפני המשכן קדמה לפני אהל מועד וגו' והזר הקרב יומת מאי זר אילימא זר ממש הכתיב חדא זימנא אלא לאו זר דאותה עבודה:,מיתיבי משורר ששיער ומשוער ששורר אינן במיתה אלא באזהרה,תנאי היא דתניא מעשה בר' יהושע בר חנניה שהלך לסייע בהגפת דלתות אצל ר' יוחנן בן גודגדא אמר לו בני חזור לאחוריך שאתה מן המשוררים ולא מן המשוערים,מאי לאו בהא קמיפלגי דמר סבר מיתה היא וגזרו בה רבנן ומ"ס אזהרה היא ולא גזרו בה,דכ"ע אזהרה היא מר סבר מסייע גזרו ביה רבנן ומר סבר לא גזרו ביה רבנן,בעי רבי אבין עולת נדבת ציבור טעונה שירה או אינה טעונה שירה {במדבר י } עולותיכם אמר רחמנא אחת עולת חובה ואחת עולת נדבה או דלמא עולותיכם דכולהו ישראל קאמר רחמנא,ת"ש (דה"ב כט, כז) ויאמר חזקיהו להעלות העולה (על המזבח) ובעת החל העולה החל שיר ה' והחצוצרות ע"י כלי (שיר) דוד מלך ישראל האי שירה מאי עבידתה אילימא דעולת חובה ל"ל אימלוכי אלא לאו דעולת נדבה,א"ר יוסף לא עולת ראש חודש הוה וקא מיבעיא להו מי הוקבע ר"ח בזמנו דליקרב או לא,אמר ליה אביי ומי מצית אמרת הכי והכתיב (דה"ב כט, יז) ביום ששה עשר לחדש הראשון וגו' ויאמר חזקיהו להעלות העולה (על המזבח),אלא אמר רמי בריה דרב ייבא כבש הבא עם העומר קמיבעיא להו מי קבע ר"ח בזמנו דליקריב או לא,מתקיף לה רב אויא וליחזי פסח היכי עביד מצה היכי אכיל,אלא אמר רב אשי מידי דהוה אשליחא דציבורא דממליך השתא דאתית להכי אפילו תימא עולת חובה מידי דהוה אשליחא דציבורא דממליך,ת"ש רבי יוסי אומר מגלגלין זכות ליום זכאי וחובה ליום חייב,אמרו כשחרב הבית בראשונה אותו היום תשעה באב היה ומוצאי שבת היה ומוצאי שביעית היתה ומשמרתו של יהויריב היתה והיו כהנים ולוים עומדים על דוכנן ואומרים שירה ומה שירה אמרו (תהלים צד, כג) וישב עליהם את אונם וברעתם יצמיתם ולא הספיקו לומר יצמיתם ה' אלהינו עד שבאו אויבים וכבשום וכן בשניה,האי שירה מאי עבידתיה אילימא דעולת חובה מי הואי בי"ז בתמוז בטל התמיד אלא לאו דעולת נדבה,ותסברא מ"ש דעולת חובה דלא הואי ומ"ש דעולת נדבה דהואי הא לא קשיא בן בקר אקראי בעלמא הוא דאיתרמיא להו,אמר רבא ואיתימא רב אשי ותסברא שירה דיומיה (תהלים כד, א) לה' הארץ ומלואה וישב עליהם את אונם בשיר דארבעה בשבת הוא אלא אילייא בעלמא הוא דנפל להו בפומייהו,והא עומדין על דוכנן קתני כדר"ל דאמר אומר שלא על הקרבן אי הכי בעולת נדבה נמי לימא נפיק מינה חורבא,מאי הוה עלה ת"ש דתני רב מרי בריה דרב כהנא (במדבר י, י) על עולותיכם ועל זבחי שלמיכם,מה עולה קודש קדשים אף שלמים קודש קדשים ומה שלמים קבוע להם זמן אף עולה קבוע לה זמן: 11b. This indicates that God responded to Moses, who was a Levite, by commanding him babout matterspertaining to the bvoice,i.e., that the Levites must accompany the sacrifices with song. bRav Ashi saysthat the obligation for the Levites to sing in the Temple is derived bfrom here: “It came to pass, when the trumpeters and singers were as one, to make one soundto be heard in praising and thanking the Lord” (II Chronicles 5:13). This indicates that just as there is a requirement for trumpets to be sounded during the sacrifice of communal offerings (see Numbers 10:10), there is likewise a requirement for the Levites to sing., bRabbi Yonatan saysthat the requirement for the Levites to sing in the Temple is derived bfrom here:The Torah commands the priests with regard to the Levites: “They shall not come near the altar, bthat they die not, neither they nor you”(Numbers 18:3). The verse equates the Levites with the priests, indicating that bjust as you,the priests, are obligated btoperform the bserviceon the baltar, so too they,the Levites, are obligated btoperform ba servicepertaining to the baltar,i.e., the song that accompanies the offerings.,A derivation of ihalakhotbased on the comparison between priests and Levites in bthisverse bis also taughtin a ibaraita /i: It is stated: b“That they die not, neither they nor you.”This indicates that if byou,the priests, perform btheirduties, i.e., the Levites’ duties, bor they,the Levites, perform byours,e.g., the sacrificial rites, the perpetrator is liable btoreceive bdeathat the hand of Heaven. But if bthey,the Levites, perform a function that belongs to a different group of Levites, but is nevertheless a duty of btheirs,i.e., the Levites in general, e.g., if Levites assigned to open and close the gates of the Temple decide instead to sing, bthey are notpunished bwith death; rather,they have merely violated ba prohibition. /b, bAbaye said: We holdthat a Levite designated to serve as ba singer whoinstead bserved in anotherLevite’s position bas a gatekeeperis liable to be put bto death, as it is stated: “And those that were to pitch tent before the Tabernacle eastward, before the Tent of Meetingtoward the sunrising, were Moses and Aaron and his sons, keeping the charge of the Sanctuary, for the charge of the children of Israel; band the stranger that drew near was to be put to death”(Numbers 3:38). bWhat isthe meaning of the term b“stranger”in this verse? bIf we sayit is referring to ban actual stranger,i.e., a non-Levite, bisn’t it writtenalready on banother occasionthat he is liable to be put to death (see Numbers 3:10)? bRather,this is bnotits meaning; instead, it is referring to one who is a Levite but is ba stranger to that service. /b,The Gemara braises an objectionto Abaye’s statement from a ibaraita /i: bA singer who served as a gatekeeper and a gatekeeper who sang are notpunished bwith death; rather,they have merely violated ba prohibition. /b,The Gemara explains that this matter bisa dispute between itanna’im /i, as it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: There was ban incident involving Rabbi Yehoshua bar Ḥaya,a Levite, bwho went to Rabbi Yoḥa ben Gudgeda,also a Levite, in order bto assist in closingthe bdoorsof the Temple. Rabbi Yoḥa ben Gudgeda bsaid to him: My son, go back, as you are among the singers and not among the gatekeepers. /b,The Gemara analyzes the ibaraita /i: bWhat, is it notthe case that these two Levite Sages bdisagree about this, thatone bSage,Rabbi Yoḥa ben Gudgeda, bholdsthat if a Levite who is a singer closes the gate by himself, bit isa prohibition punishable by bdeath, andtherefore bthe Sages decreedthat a Levite who is a singer should not even assist the gatekeepers in closing the gates; bandone bSage,Rabbi Yehoshua bar Ḥaya, bholdsthat bit is a prohibitionthat is not punishable by death, bandtherefore the Sages bdid not decreethat a Levite who is a singer should not assist the gatekeepers in closing the gates?,The Gemara responds: No, that is not necessarily the correct analysis of the ibaraita /i. Rather, beveryoneagrees that one Levite performing another Levite’s task by himself is ba prohibitionthat is not punishable by death. One bSage holdsthat bthe Sagesnevertheless bdecreedthat a Levite who is a singer should not even bassistthe gatekeepers, bandone bSage holdsthat bthe Sages did not decreethat a Levite who is a singer should not assist the gatekeepers in closing the gates.,§ bRabbi Avin raises a dilemma:Does ba communal voluntary burnt offering requirean accompanying bsong ordoes it bnot require song?He explains the two sides of the dilemma: bThe Merciful One statesin the Torah: “You shall blow with the trumpets bover your burnt offerings”(Numbers 10:10). Does the term “burnt offerings” include bboth an obligatory burnt offering and a voluntary burnt offering, or perhaps the Merciful One is sayingthat the trumpets and song must accompany bthe burnt offerings of the entire Jewish people,i.e., they must be burnt offerings that are an obligation of the people?,The Gemara suggests: bComeand bheara proof from a verse: b“And Hezekiah commanded to offer the burnt offering upon the altar, and when the burnt offering began, the song of the Lord began also, and the trumpets, together with the instruments of David king of Israel /b…And Hezekiah the king and the princes commanded the Levites to sing praises unto the Lord” (II Chronicles 29:27–30). The Gemara analyzes the description of this service: bThis song, what was its purpose? If we say thatit accompanied ban obligatory burnt offeringthat was brought on that day, bwhydid they have bto seek authorizationfrom Hezekiah? Why did Hezekiah need to issue a specific command that they should accompany this offering with song? bRather, is it notthe case bthatthis song served to accompany bthe voluntary burnt offeringthat Hezekiah brought on that day?, bRav Yosef said: No,that day was a New Moon, and bit was theadditional bburnt offering of the New Moon,an obligatory burnt offering, that was accompanied by the song. As for the need for Hezekiah’s approval, the explanation is as follows: It was the thirtieth day following the previous New Moon, band they were askinghim bif thecurrent bNew Moon was established in its time,i.e., on that day, so bthatthe burnt offering of the New Moon should bbe sacrificed, orif the New Moon had bnotbeen declared on that day. Hezekiah clarified that the court had declared the New Moon, and therefore they should sacrifice the offering., bAbaye said toRav Yosef: bAnd how can you saythat that day was the New Moon? bIsn’t it written: “On the sixteenth day of the first month”(II Chronicles 29:17), and later, in that context, it states: b“And Hezekiah commanded to offer the burnt offering upon the altar”? /b, bRather, Rami, son of Rav Yeiva, said:The question bthey were askingHezekiah referred to the obligatory, communal burnt offering blamb that comes with the iomer /i,i.e., the barley offering brought on the sixteenth of the first month, Nisan. They asked: bWas the New Moonof Nisan bestablished in itscorrect btime,which means bthatit is now in fact the sixteenth of Nisan and the iomeroffering and the lamb brought with it should bbe sacrificed, orwas it bnotreally the sixteenth of Nisan?, bRav Avya objects to thisexplanation: How is it possible that they were unsure whether it was the sixteenth of Nisan? bLet them see how the Paschal offering was performedon the fourteenth of Nisan and bhow imatzawas eatenthe following night. The day of the sixteenth of Nisan could easily be determined from when those mitzvot were performed., bRather, Rav Ashi said:They asked permission from Hezekiah before sacrificing the lamb that comes with the iomeroffering, bjust as it is withregard to ba prayer leader, who,as a gesture of respect, basks permissionfrom the congregation before leading them in prayer. Likewise, the people asked permission from Hezekiah as a formal gesture of respect, not because they required his advice. The Gemara notes: bNow that you have arrived at thisexplanation, byoumay beven saythat it was a common bobligatory burnt offering,e.g., the daily offering, and they asked permission of Hezekiah before sacrificing it, bjust as it is withregard to ba prayer leader, who asks permissionfrom the congregation before leading it in prayer.,The Gemara has still not proven whether or not a communal voluntary burnt offering must be accompanied with song. The Gemara suggests: bComeand bheara proof from the following ibaraita /i. bRabbi Yosei says: A fortunatematter bis brought about on an auspicious day, and a deleteriousmatter bon an inauspicious day. /b,As the Sages bsaid: When the Temple was destroyed for the firsttime, bthat day was the Ninth of Av,a date on which several calamities had already occurred; band it was the conclusion of Shabbat,i.e., it was on the day after Shabbat, a Sunday; band it was the year after a SabbaticalYear; band it was the week of the priestly watch of Jehoiarib; and the priests and Levites were standing on their platform and singing song. And what song were they singing?They were singing the verse: b“And He brought upon them their own iniquity, and He will cut them off in their own evil”(Psalms 94:23). bAnd they did not manage to recitethe end of that verse: b“The Lord our God will cut them off,” before gentiles came and conquered them. And likewise,the same happened bwhen the SecondTemple was destroyed.,The Gemara analyzes the ibaraita /i: bThis song, what was its purpose? If we say thatit accompanied ban obligatory burnt offering, was thereany obligatory communal burnt offering sacrificed at that time? bThe daily offering hadalready bceasedto be sacrificed, due to a lack of animals, bon the seventeenth of Tammuz,three weeks before the Ninth of Av. bRather, is it notcorrect to say bthatthis song accompanied ba voluntary burnt offering? /b,The Gemara asks: bAnd can you understandthis to be the case? bWhat is different about an obligatory burnt offering, which was notsacrificed at this time because they did not have animals to bring, band what is different about a voluntary burnt offering, that it wassacrificed? Just as there were no animals available for obligatory offerings, there were none available for voluntary burnt offerings either. The Gemara answers: bThatis bnot difficult. A young bull,which cannot be sacrificed as the daily offering, for which lambs are required, bhappened to come into theirpossession bmerely by coincidence,and they sacrificed it as a voluntary burnt offering. This indicates that the Levites are required to sing as an accompaniment to the sacrifice of a communal voluntary burnt offering., bRava said, and some say Rav Ashisaid: bAndhow can byou understandthe description of the destruction cited in the ibaraita /i? bThe song of the dayfor Sunday, which is when the ibaraitasays that the Temple was destroyed, is the psalm that begins: b“The earth is the Lord’s, and the fullness thereof”(Psalms 24:1). And yet the verse that the ibaraitasays that the Levites were singing, b“And He brought upon them their own iniquity,” is in the song for Wednesday,not the song for Sunday. bRather, it was merelya portentous blamentation[ieiliyya/b] bthat came into their mouths,not an actual song recited over an offering.,The Gemara asks: bBut isn’t it taughtin the ibaraitathat the Levites were bstanding on their platformnear the altar, which is where they stood when they sang to accompany offerings? The Gemara answers: This can be explained bin accordance withthe opinion of bReish Lakish, who says:The Levites are permitted to brecitesongs on the platform even when it is bnot for an offering.The Gemara asks: bIf so,if the Levites may recite songs on the platform at will, bletthem balso recitea song bfor a voluntary burnt offering,even if it is not required. The Gemara answers: That could bresult in a mishap,as the Levites might assume that just as singing for a voluntary burnt offering is optional, so too singing for an obligatory burnt offering is also optional.,The question of whether a song must be recited for a communal voluntary burnt offering has still not been resolved. The Gemara asks: bWhat came of it,i.e., what is the resolution to that question? The Gemara responds: bComeand bheara proof, bas Rav Mari, son of Rav Kahana, teachesthat the verse: “You shall blow with the trumpets bover your burnt offerings, and over the sacrifices of your peace offerings”(Numbers 10:10), juxtaposes burnt offerings to peace offerings, which indicates that there is a relevant comparison between them with regard to the sounding of trumpets, and, by extension, to song.,There are two conclusions that are to be drawn from this comparison: bJust asthe bburnt offering is an offering of the most sacred order, so too,the bpeace offeringthat must be accompanied by song is one that is ban offering of the most sacred order,and the only peace offering of this kind is the lambs that are brought together with the two loaves on iShavuot /i. bAnd just asthis bpeace offering has a set timewhen it must be brought, bso too,the bburnt offeringthat must be accompanied by song is one that bhas a set time,which excludes voluntary burnt offerings. Consequently, voluntary burnt offerings are not accompanied by song.
13. Babylonian Talmud, Sukkah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

51b. באבוקות של אור שבידיהן ואומרים לפניהם דברי שירות ותושבחות והלוים בכנורות ובנבלים ובמצלתים ובחצוצרות ובכלי שיר בלא מספר על חמש עשרה מעלות היורדות מעזרת ישראל לעזרת נשים כנגד חמש עשרה (מעלות) שבתהלים שעליהן לוים עומדין בכלי שיר ואומרים שירה,ועמדו שני כהנים בשער העליון שיורד מעזרת ישראל לעזרת נשים ושני חצוצרות בידיהן קרא הגבר תקעו והריעו ותקעו הגיעו למעלה עשירית תקעו והריעו ותקעו הגיעו לעזרה תקעו והריעו ותקעו,(הגיעו לקרקע תקעו והריעו ותקעו) היו תוקעין והולכין עד שמגיעין לשער היוצא ממזרח הגיעו לשער היוצא ממזרח הפכו פניהן ממזרח למערב ואמרו אבותינו שהיו במקום הזה אחוריהם אל ההיכל ופניהם קדמה ומשתחוים קדמה לשמש ואנו ליה עינינו ר' יהודה אומר היו שונין ואומרין אנו ליה וליה עינינו:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big ת"ר מי שלא ראה שמחת בית השואבה לא ראה שמחה מימיו מי שלא ראה ירושלים בתפארתה לא ראה כרך נחמד מעולם מי שלא ראה בהמ"ק בבנינו לא ראה בנין מפואר מעולם מאי היא אמר אביי ואיתימא רב חסדא זה בנין הורדוס,במאי בניה אמר (רבא) באבני שישא ומרמרא איכא דאמרי באבני שישא כוחלא ומרמרא אפיק שפה ועייל שפה כי היכי דלקבל סידא סבר למשעיין בדהבא אמרו ליה רבנן שבקיה דהכי שפיר טפי דמיתחזי כאדותא דימא,תניא רבי יהודה אומר מי שלא ראה דיופלוסטון של אלכסנדריא של מצרים לא ראה בכבודן של ישראל אמרו כמין בסילקי גדולה היתה סטיו לפנים מסטיו פעמים שהיו בה (ששים רבוא על ששים רבוא) כפלים כיוצאי מצרים והיו בה ע"א קתדראות של זהב כנגד ע"א של סנהדרי גדולה כל אחת ואחת אינה פחותה מעשרים ואחד רבוא ככרי זהב ובימה של עץ באמצעיתה וחזן הכנסת עומד עליה והסודרין בידו וכיון שהגיע לענות אמן הלה מניף בסודר וכל העם עונין אמן,ולא היו יושבין מעורבין אלא זהבין בפני עצמן וכספין בפני עצמן ונפחין בפני עצמן וטרסיים בפני עצמן וגרדיים בפני עצמן וכשעני נכנס שם היה מכיר בעלי אומנתו ונפנה לשם ומשם פרנסתו ופרנסת אנשי ביתו,אמר אביי וכולהו קטלינהו אלכסנדרוס מוקדן מ"ט איענשו משום דעברי אהאי קרא (דברים יז, טז) לא תוסיפון לשוב בדרך הזה עוד ואינהו הדור אתו,כי אתא אשכחינהו דהוו קרו בסיפרא (דברים כח, מט) ישא ה' עליך גוי מרחוק אמר מכדי ההוא גברא בעי למיתי ספינתא בעשרה יומי דליה זיקא ואתי ספינתא בחמשא יומי נפל עלייהו וקטלינהו:,במוצאי יום טוב כו': מאי תיקון גדול אמר רבי אלעזר כאותה ששנינו חלקה היתה בראשונה והקיפוה גזוזטרא והתקינו שיהו נשים יושבות מלמעלה ואנשים מלמטה,תנו רבנן בראשונה היו נשים מבפנים ואנשים מבחוץ והיו באים לידי קלות ראש התקינו שיהו נשים יושבות מבחוץ ואנשים מבפנים ועדיין היו באין לידי קלות ראש התקינו שיהו נשים יושבות מלמעלה ואנשים מלמטה,היכי עביד הכי והכתיב (דברי הימים א כח, יט) הכל בכתב מיד ה' עלי השכיל,אמר רב קרא אשכחו ודרוש 51b. bwith flaming torchesthat they would juggle bin their hands, and they would say before them passages of song and praiseto God. bAnd the Leviteswould play bon lyres, harps, cymbals, and trumpets, and countlessother bmusical instruments.The musicians would stand bon the fifteen stairs that descend from the Israelites’ courtyard to the Women’s Courtyard, corresponding to the fifteenSongs of the bAscents in Psalms,i.e., chapters 120–134, and bupon whichthe bLevites stand with musical instruments and recitetheir bsong. /b, bAndthis was the ceremony of the Water Libation: bTwo priests stood at the Upper Gate that descends from the Israelites’ courtyard to the Women’s Courtyard, with two trumpets in their hands.When bthe rooster crowedat dawn, bthey sounded a itekia /i, and sounded a iterua /i, and sounded a itekia /i.When btheywho would draw the water breached the tenth stairthe trumpeters bsounded a itekia /i, and sounded a iterua /i, and sounded a itekia /i,to indicate that the time to draw water from the Siloam pool had arrived. When bthey reached theWomen’s bCourtyardwith the basins of water in their hands, the trumpeters bsounded a itekia /i, and sounded a iterua /i, and sounded a itekia /i. /b,When bthey reached the groundof the Women’s Courtyard, the trumpeters bsounded a itekia /i, and sounded a iterua /i, and sounded a itekia /i. They continued soundingthe trumpets buntil they reached the gatethrough bwhichone bexits to the east,from the Women’s Courtyard to the eastern slope of the Temple Mount. When bthey reached the gatethrough bwhichone bexits to the east, they turned fromfacing beast tofacing bwest,toward the Holy of Holies, band said: Our ancestors who were in this placeduring the First Temple period who did not conduct themselves appropriately, stood b“with their backs toward the Sanctuary of the Lord, and their faces toward the east; and they worshipped the sun toward the east”(Ezekiel 8:16), band we, our eyes are to God. Rabbi Yehuda saysthat bthey would repeat and say: We are to God, and our eyes are to God. /b, strongGEMARA: /strong bThe Sages taught: One who did not see the Celebration of the Place of the Drawingof the Water, bnever saw celebration in his life. One who did not see Jerusalem in its glory, never saw a beautiful city. One who did not see the Temple in its constructedstate, bnever saw a magnificent structure.The Gemara asks: bWhat isthe Temple building to which the Sages refer? bAbaye said, and some saythat it was bRav Ḥisdawho said: bThisis referring to the magnificent bbuilding of Herod,who renovated the Second Temple.,The Gemara asks: bWith whatmaterials bdid he construct it? Rava said:It was bwith stones ofgreen-gray bmarble and white marble [ imarmara /i]. Some say:It was bwith stones of blue marble and white marble.The rows of stones were set with bone rowslightly bprotruded and one rowslightly bindented, so that the plaster would takebetter. bHe thought to platethe Temple bwith gold,but bthe Sages said to him: Leave itas is, and do not plate it, bas it is better this way, aswith the different colors and the staggered arrangement of the rows of stones, bit has the appearance of waves of the sea. /b, bIt is taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Yehuda says: One who did not see the great synagogue [ ideyofloston /i] of Alexandria of Egypt never saw the glory of Israel. They saidthat its structure bwas like a large basilica [ ibasileki /i],with ba colonnade within a colonnade. At times there were six hundred thousandmen bandanother bsix hundred thousandmen bin it, twice the number of those who left Egypt. In it there were seventy-one golden chairs [ ikatedraot /i], corresponding to the seventy-onemembers bof the Great Sanhedrin, each of whichconsisted of bno less than twenty-one thousand talents of gold. Andthere was ba wooden platform at the center. The sexton of the synagoguewould bstand on it, with the scarves in his hand. Andbecause the synagogue was so large and the people could not hear the communal prayer, bwhenthe prayer leader breachedthe conclusion of a blessing requiring the people bto answer amen,the sexton bwaved the scarf and all the peoplewould banswer amen. /b, bAndthe members of the various crafts bwould not sit mingled. Rather, the goldsmithswould sit bamong themselves, and the silversmiths among themselves, and the blacksmiths among themselves, and the coppersmiths among themselves, and the weavers among themselves. And when a poorstranger bentered there, he would recognize peoplewho plied bhis craft, and he would turn tojoin them bthere. And from therehe would secure bhis livelihoodas well as bthe livelihoodof the bmembers of his household,as his colleagues would find him work in that craft.,After depicting the glory of the synagogue, the Gemara relates that bAbaye said: All ofthe people who congregated in that synagogue bwere killed by Alexanderthe Great bof Macedonia.The Gemara asks: bWhat is the reasonthat bthey were punishedand killed? It is bdue tothe fact bthat they violatedthe prohibition with regard to Egypt in bthis verse: “You shall henceforth return no more that way”(Deuteronomy 17:16), band they returned.Since they established their permanent place of residence in Egypt, they were punished., bWhenAlexander barrived, he found them,and saw bthat they were readingthe verse bin theTorah bscroll: “The Lord will bring a nation against you from far,from the end of the earth, as the vulture swoops down; a nation whose tongue you shall not understand” (Deuteronomy 28:49). bHe said,referring to himself: bNow, since that man sought to come by ship in ten days,and ba wind carried it and the ship arrived inonly bfive days,apparently the verse referring a vulture swooping down is referring to me and heavenly forces are assisting me. Immediately, bhe set upon them and slaughtered them. /b,§ The mishna continues: bAt the conclusion ofthe first bFestivalday, etc., the priests and the Levites descended from the Israelites’ courtyard to the Women’s Courtyard, where they would introduce a significant repair. The Gemara asks: bWhatis this bsignificant repair? Rabbi Elazar saidthat bit is like that which we learned:The walls of the Women’s Courtyard bwere smooth,without protrusions, binitially.Subsequently, they affixed protrusions to the wall surrounding the Women’s Courtyard. Each year thereafter, for the Celebration of the Place of the Drawing of the Water, they placed wooden planks on these projections and bsurroundedthe courtyard bwith a balcony [ igezuztra /i]. And they instituted thatthe bwomen should sit above andthe bmen below. /b, bThe Sages taughtin the iTosefta /i: bInitially, women wouldstand bon the insideof the Women’s Courtyard, closer to the Sanctuary to the west, band the menwere bon the outsidein the courtyard and on the rampart. bAnd they would come toconduct themselves with inappropriate blevityin each other’s company, as the men needed to enter closer to the altar when the offerings were being sacrificed and as a result they would mingle with the women. Therefore, the Sages binstituted that the women should sit on the outside and the men on the inside, and still they would come toconduct themselves with inappropriate blevity.Therefore, bthey institutedin the interest of complete separation bthat the women would sit above and the men below. /b,The Gemara asks: bHow could one do so,i.e., alter the structure of the Temple? bBut isn’t it writtenwith regard to the Temple: b“All thisI give you bin writing,as bthe Lord has made me wise by His hand upon me,even all the works of this pattern” (I Chronicles 28:19), meaning that all the structural plans of the Temple were divinely inspired; how could the Sages institute changes?, bRav said: They found a verse, and interpreted it homileticallyand acted accordingly:


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
altar Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 137
atonement Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 191
atonement (kapparah) Balberg, Blood for Thought: The Reinvention of Sacrifice in Early Rabbinic Literature (2017) 38
day of atonement, and atonement/purification Balberg, Blood for Thought: The Reinvention of Sacrifice in Early Rabbinic Literature (2017) 38
epstein, jacob n. Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 308
intention, of giver/owner Balberg, Blood for Thought: The Reinvention of Sacrifice in Early Rabbinic Literature (2017) 38
josephus Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 137
maimonides, moses Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 193, 308
mind Balberg, Blood for Thought: The Reinvention of Sacrifice in Early Rabbinic Literature (2017) 38
neusner, j. Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 137
rabbinovicz, raphaelo Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 308
rashi Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 308
repentance Balberg, Blood for Thought: The Reinvention of Sacrifice in Early Rabbinic Literature (2017) 38
ritual narrative Balberg, Blood for Thought: The Reinvention of Sacrifice in Early Rabbinic Literature (2017) 38
ritual purity, of temple, according to rabbis Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 191, 192, 193
sacrifice, ownership of Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 192
simhat beit hashoeva Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 137
stowers, stanley Balberg, Blood for Thought: The Reinvention of Sacrifice in Early Rabbinic Literature (2017) 38
temple Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 137
theft Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 191, 192, 193, 308
will' Balberg, Blood for Thought: The Reinvention of Sacrifice in Early Rabbinic Literature (2017) 38