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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



8006
Mishnah, Eduyot, 5.3


רַבִּי יִשְׁמָעֵאל אוֹמֵר, שְׁלֹשָׁה דְבָרִים מִקֻּלֵּי בֵית שַׁמַּאי וּמֵחֻמְרֵי בֵית הִלֵּל. קֹהֶלֶת אֵינוֹ מְטַמֵּא אֶת הַיָּדַיִם, כְּדִבְרֵי בֵית שַׁמָּאי. וּבֵית הִלֵּל אוֹמְרִים, מְטַמֵּא אֶת הַיָּדָיִם. מֵי חַטָּאת שֶׁעָשׂוּ מִצְוָתָן, בֵּית שַׁמַּאי מְטַהֲרִין, וּבֵית הִלֵּל מְטַמְּאִין. הַקֶּצַח, בֵּית שַׁמַּאי מְטַהֲרִין וּבֵית הִלֵּל מְטַמְּאִין. וְכֵן לַמַּעַשְׂרוֹת:Rabbi Yishmael says: there are three instances of lenient rulings by Beth Shammai and strict rulings by Beth Hillel.The book of Ecclesiastes does not defile the hands, according to the opinion of Beth Shammai; But Beth Hillel say: it defiles the hands. Water of purification which has done its duty: Beth Shammai pronounces it pure, But Beth Hillel pronounces it impure. Black cumin: Beth Shammai pronounces it not liable to become impure, But Beth Hillel pronounces it liable to become impure. So, too, with regard to tithes.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

14 results
1. Anon., Jubilees, 2.23 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

2.23. And on the sixth day He created all the animals of the earth, and all cattle, and everything that moves on the earth.
2. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 49.8 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

49.8. It was Ezekiel who saw the vision of glory which God showed him above the chariot of the cherubim.
3. Josephus Flavius, Against Apion, 1.37-1.43 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.37. and this is justly, or rather necessarily done, because every one is not permitted of his own accord to be a writer, nor is there any disagreement in what is written; they being only prophets that have written the original and earliest accounts of things as they learned them of God himself by inspiration; and others have written what hath happened in their own times, and that in a very distinct manner also. 8. 1.38. For we have not an innumerable multitude of books among us, disagreeing from and contradicting one another [as the Greeks have], but only twenty-two books, which contain the records of all the past times; which are justly believed to be divine; 1.39. and of them five belong to Moses, which contain his laws and the traditions of the origin of mankind till his death. This interval of time was little short of three thousand years; 1.41. It is true, our history hath been written since Artaxerxes very particularly, but hath not been esteemed of the like authority with the former by our forefathers, because there hath not been an exact succession of prophets since that time; 1.42. and how firmly we have given credit to those books of our own nation, is evident by what we do; for during so many ages as have already passed, no one has been so bold as either to add any thing to them, to take any thing from them, or to make any change in them; but it becomes natural to all Jews, immediately and from their very birth, to esteem those books to contain divine doctrines, and to persist in them, and, if occasion be, willingly to die for them. 1.43. For it is no new thing for our captives, many of them in number, and frequently in time, to be seen to endure racks and deaths of all kinds upon the theatres, that they may not be obliged to say one word against our laws and the records that contain them;
4. Mishnah, Sanhedrin, 10.1 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

10.1. All Israel have a portion in the world to come, for it says, “Your people, all of them righteous, shall possess the land for ever; They are the shoot that I planted, my handiwork in which I glory” (Isaiah 60:2. And these are the ones who have no portion in the world to come: He who maintains that resurrection is not a biblical doctrine, that the torah was not divinely revealed, and an epikoros. Rabbi Akiva says: “Even one who reads non-canonical books and one who whispers [a charm] over a wound and says, “I will not bring upon you any of the diseases whichbrought upon the Egyptians: for I the lord am you healer” (Exodus 15:26). Abba Shaul says: “Also one who pronounces the divine name as it is spelled.”"
5. Mishnah, Yadayim, 3.5 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

3.5. A scroll on which the writing has become erased and eighty-five letters remain, as many as are in the section beginning, \"And it came to pass when the ark set forward\" (Numbers 11:35-36) defiles the hands. A single sheet on which there are written eighty-five letters, as many as are in the section beginning, \"And it came to pass when the ark set forward\", defiles the hands. All the Holy Scriptures defile the hands. The Song of Songs and Kohelet (Ecclesiastes) defile the hands. Rabbi Judah says: the Song of Songs defiles the hands, but there is a dispute about Kohelet. Rabbi Yose says: Kohelet does not defile the hands, but there is a dispute about the Song of Songs. Rabbi Shimon says: [the ruling about] Kohelet is one of the leniencies of Bet Shammai and one of the stringencies of Bet Hillel. Rabbi Shimon ben Azzai said: I have received a tradition from the seventy-two elders on the day when they appointed Rabbi Elazar ben Azariah head of the academy that the Song of Songs and Kohelet defile the hands. Rabbi Akiba said: Far be it! No man in Israel disputed that the Song of Songs [saying] that it does not defile the hands. For the whole world is not as worthy as the day on which the Song of Songs was given to Israel; for all the writings are holy but the Song of Songs is the holy of holies. If they had a dispute, they had a dispute only about Kohelet. Rabbi Yoha ben Joshua the son of the father-in-law of Rabbi Akiva said in accordance with the words of Ben Azzai: so they disputed and so they reached a decision."
6. Tosefta, Sanhedrin, 12.10 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

7. Tosefta, Yadayim, 2.14 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

8. Anon., Qohelet Rabba, 7.11 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

9. Anon., Genesis Rabba, 91.3 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

91.3. וַיָּבֹאוּ בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל לִשְׁבֹּר וגו' (בראשית מב, ה), וּמִנַּיִן לְעֵדָה שֶׁהִיא עֲשָׂרָה, רַבִּי אַבָּא בַּר כַּהֲנָא וְרַבִּי יוֹסֵי בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן, נֶאֱמַר כָּאן (במדבר לה, כד): עֵדָה, וְנֶאֱמַר לְהַלָּן (במדבר יד, כז): עַד מָתַי לָעֵדָה הָרָעָה, מָה עֵדָה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר לְהַלָּן עֲשָׂרָה, אַף עֵדָה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר כָּאן עֲשָׂרָה. אָמַר רַבִּי סִימוֹן, נֶאֱמַר כָּאן (ויקרא כב, לב): תּוֹךְ, וְנֶאֱמַר לְהַלָּן (בראשית מב, ה): תּוֹךְ, מַה תּוֹךְ שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר לְהַלָּן עֲשָׂרָה, אַף תּוֹךְ שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר הָכָא עֲשָׂרָה. אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹסֵי בַּר אָבוֹן אִם בְּתוֹךְ אֲפִלּוּ עַד כַּמָּה, אֶלָּא נֶאֱמַר כָּאן בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְנֶאֱמַר לְהַלָּן בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל, מַה בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר לְהַלָּן עֲשָׂרָה אַף בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר כָּאן עֲשָׂרָה. רַבִּי סִימוֹן בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בֶּן לֵוִי בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי אָמַר, תִּינוֹק עוֹשִׂין אוֹתוֹ סְנִיף לַעֲשָׂרָה, וְהָא תָּנֵי אֵין מְדַקְדְּקִין בְּקָטָן, אָמַר רַבִּי סִימוֹן בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בֶּן לֵוִי לִשְׁנֵי קְטַנִּים נִצְרְכָה, אֶחָד סָפֵק וְאֶחָד קָטָן עוֹשִׂין אֶת הַסָּפֵק עִקָּר וְאֶת הַקָּטָן לִסְנִיף. תָּנֵי קָטָן וְסֵפֶר תּוֹרָה, עוֹשִׂין אוֹתוֹ סְנִיף. אָמַר רַבִּי יוּדָן כֵּן הוּא מַתְנִיתִין, קָטָן לְסֵפֶר תּוֹרָה עוֹשִׂין אוֹתוֹ סְנִיף. מֵאֵימָתַי עוֹשִׂין אוֹתוֹ סְנִיף, רַבִּי אֲבוּנָא אָמַר אִתְפַּלְגוּן בְּהָא רַבִּי יוּדָן וְרַב הוּנָא תַּרְוֵיהוֹן בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל, חַד אֲמַר כְּדֵי שֶׁיְהֵא יוֹדֵעַ טִיב בְּרָכָה. וְאוֹחֲרָנָא אֲמַר כְּדֵי שֶׁיְהֵא יוֹדֵעַ לְמִי הוּא מְבָרֵךְ. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה בַּר פָּזִי בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי אַסֵּי תִּשְׁעָה נִרְאִים כַּעֲשָׂרָה מְזַמְּנִין, מַאי עָבֵיד מְסֻיָּמִין, אֶלָּא אֲפִלּוּ קָטָן בֵּינֵיהֶם. רַבִּי בֶּרֶכְיָה בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי יַעֲקֹב בַּר זַבְדִי בְּעָא קוֹמֵי רַבִּי יוֹסֵף, כְּשֵׁם שֶׁעוֹשִׂין אוֹתוֹ סְנִיף לַעֲשָׂרָה כָּךְ עוֹשִׂין אוֹתוֹ סְנִיף לִשְׁלשָׁה. אֲמַר לֵיהּ הֲדָא הִיא וְלֹא כָּל שֶׁכֵּן לְהַלָּן שֶׁהוּא מַזְכִּיר אֶת הַשֵּׁם עוֹשִׂין אוֹתוֹ סְנִיף, כָּאן שֶׁאֵינוֹ מַזְכִּיר אֶת הַשֵּׁם אֵין עוֹשִׂין אוֹתוֹ סְנִיף. אֲמַר לֵיהּ הֲדָא אָמְרָה עוֹשִׂין אוֹתוֹ סְנִיף בְּבִרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן אֲבָל לִקְרִיאַת שְׁמַע וְלִתְפִלָּה אֵין עוֹשִׂין אוֹתוֹ סְנִיף עַד שֶׁיָּבִיא שְׁתֵּי שְׂעָרוֹת: אֲמַר רַבִּי אַסֵּי זִמְנִין סַגִּיאִין אֲכָלִית עִם רַבִּי תַּחְלִיפָא וְזִמְנִין סַגִּיאִין אֲכָלִית עִם רַבִּי חֲנִינָא בַּר סִיסִי חֲבִיבִי וְלָא זָמְנִין עָלַי עַד שֶׁהֵבֵאתִי שְׁתֵּי שְׂעָרוֹת. וּמֵאֵימָתַי הוּא קוֹרֵא בַּתּוֹרָה, אֲמַר רַבִּי אֲבִינָא אִתְפַּלְגוּן רַב הוּנָא וְרַבִּי יְהוּדָה תַּרְוֵיהוֹן בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל, חַד אָמַר מִשֶּׁהוּא יוֹדֵעַ לְבָרֵךְ, וְאוֹחֲרָנָא אָמַר עַד שֶׁיּוֹדֵעַ טִיב בְּרָכָה שֶׁיּוֹדֵעַ לְמִי מְבָרְכִין. רַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל בַּר שִׁילַת בְּעָא קוֹמֵי רַב, וְאִית דְּאָמְרִין בְּעוֹן קַמֵּיהּ שְׁמוּאֵל בַּר שִׁילַת, תִּשְׁעָה פַּת וְאֶחָד יָרָק מַהוּ, אֲמַר לְהוֹן, מְזַמְּנִין. שְׁמוֹנָה פַּת וּשְׁנַיִם יָרָק, מְזַמְּנִין. שִׁבְעָה וְשִׁשָּׁה פַּת וְאַרְבָּעָה יָרָק מַהוּ, אֲמַר לֵיהּ מְזַמְּנִין. רַבִּי אֲבִינָא בְּעָא וּמֶחֱצָה עַל מֶחֱצָה מַהוּ, אֲמַר לֵיהּ רַבִּי זְעֵירָא עַד דַּאֲנָא תַּמָּן אִצְטְרָכִית לְמִשְׁאֲלֵיהּ וּמֵיצְרָי לִי מִינָהּ דְּלָא שְׁאִלְתִּיו. רַבִּי יִרְמְיָה בָּעֵי אוֹתוֹ שֶׁאָכַל יָרָק מַהוּ מְזַמְּנָא עֲלוֹהִי. תָּנֵי שְׁלשׁ מֵאוֹת נְזִירִין סָלְקִין בָּעֲיִין לִמְקָרְבָה תְּשַׁע מְאָה קוּרְבָּנִין בְּיוֹמֵי דְּשִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן שָׁטַח, לִמְאָה וְחַמְשִׁין מָצָא לָהֶם פֶּתַח וּמְאָה וְחַמְשִׁין לָא מָצָא פֶּתַח. סָלֵיק רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן שָׁטַח גַּבֵּי יַנַּאי מַלְכָּא, אֲמַר לֵיהּ תְּלַת מְאָה נְזִירִין סָלְקוּ בָּעֲיִין לִמְקָרְבָה תְּשַׁע מְאָה קוּרְבָּנִין וְלֵית לְהוֹן, אֶלָּא יְהֵיב אַתְּ פַּלְגָּא מִן דִּידָךְ וַאֲנָא פַּלְגָא מִן דִּידִי וְיֵזְלוּן וִיקָרְבוּן, יְהַב יַנַּאי מַלְכָּא פַּלְגָא מִן דִּילֵיהּ וַאֲזַלּוּן וְקָרְבוּן. אֲתוֹן וַאֲמָרִין לִשְׁנָא בִּישָׁא לְיַנַּאי מַלְכָּא עַל שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן שָׁטַח, תֶּהֱוֵי יְדַע דְּכָל מַה דְּקָרְבוּן מִדִּידָךְ קָרְבוּן, בְּרַם שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן שָׁטַח לָא יָהֵיב מִן דִּידֵיהּ כְּלוּם. כָּעַס יַנַּאי מַלְכָּא עַל שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן שָׁטַח. שְׁמַע דְּהוּא כָּעֵס עֲלוֹהִי, צְרַת [נסח אחר צרח] לֵיהּ וַעֲרַק, לְבָתַר יוֹמֵי הֲווֹן בְּנֵי אֱנָשָׁא רַבְרְבִין מִן מַלְכוּתָא דְּפַרְסָאֵי יַתְבִין נָגְסִין עַל פָּתוֹרָא דְּיַנַּאי מַלְכָּא, אֲמַרוּן לֵיהּ מָרִי מַלְכָּא נָהֲרִין אֲנַן דַּהֲוָה הָכָא חַד סַב וַהֲוָה אֲמַר לָן מִילֵי דְאוֹרָיְיתָא, אֲמַר לַאֲחָתֵיהּ שְׁלַחִי בַּתְרֵיהּ וְאַיְיתִיתֵיהּ. אֲמַרָה לֵיהּ הַב לִי מִלָּא וּשְׁלַח לֵיהּ עִזְקָתָךְ, וְהוּא אָתֵי. יְהַב לָהּ מִלָּא וּשְׁלַח לֵיהּ עִזְקָתֵיהּ וַאֲתָא. מִדַּאֲתָא יְתֵיב לֵיהּ בֵּין מַלְכָּא לְמַלְכְּתָא. אֲמַר לֵיהּ, לְמָה עֲרַקְתְּ, שְׁמָעִית דְּמָרִי מַלְכָּא כָּעֵיס עֲלַי וּצְרַח לִי מִינָךְ דְּלָא תִקְטְלַנִּי וְקַיְימַת הָדֵין קְרָיָא (ישעיה כו, כ): חֲבִי כִּמְעַט רֶגַע עַד יַעֲבָר זָעַם, אֲמַר לֵיהּ לְמָה אַפְלֵית בִּי. אֲמַר לֵיהּ חַס וְשָׁלוֹם לָא אַפְלֵית בָּךְ, אֶלָּא אַתְּ מִמָּמוֹנָךְ וַאֲנָא מִן אוֹרָיְיתָא, דִּכְתִיב (קהלת ז, יב): כִּי בְּצֵל הַחָכְמָה בְּצֵל הַכָּסֶף. אָמַר לוֹ וּלְמָה לָא אֲמַרְתְּ לִי, אֲמַר לֵיהּ אִי אֲמַרִית לָךְ לָא הֲוָה יַהֲבִית. אֲמַר לֵיהּ לְמָה יְתַבְתְּ לָךְ בֵּין מַלְכָּא לְמַלְכְּתָא. אֲמַר לֵיהּ בְּסֵפֶר בֶּן סִירָא כָּתוּב: סַלְסְלֶהָ וּתְרוֹמְמֶךּ וּבֵין נְגִידִים תּוֹשִׁיבֶךָּ. אֲמַר מְזוֹג לֵיהּ יְבָרֵךְ. אֲמַר בָּרוּךְ עַל הַמָּזוֹן שֶׁאָכַל יַנַּאי וַחֲבֵרָיו. אֲמַר עַד כַּדּוּן אַתְּ בְּקַשְׁיוּתָךְ, לָא שְׁמָעִית מִן יוֹמוֹי יַנַּאי בְּבִרְכְתָא. אֲמַר וּמָה אִית לִי לְמֵימַר, נְבָרֵךְ עַל שֶׁאָכַלְנוּ, וַאֲנִי לֹא אָכַלְתִּי. אֲמַר אַיְיתוֹן לֵיהּ וְיֵיכוּל. מִן דַּאֲכֵיל אֲמַר בָּרוּךְ שֶׁאָכַלְנוּ. אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן חֲלוּקִין עָלָיו עַל שְׁמוּעַת שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן שָׁטַח, רַבִּי אַבָּא אָמַר עַל הָרִאשׁוֹנָה, רַבִּי יִרְמְיָה אָמַר עַל הַשְּׁנִיָּה. מִחְלְפָא שִׁיטָתֵיהּ דְּרַבִּי יִרְמְיָה, תַּמָּן צְרִיכָה לֵיהּ, וְהָכָא פְּשִׁיטָא לֵיהּ. מַאן דִּצְרִיכָה לֵיהּ כְּרַבָּנָן, וּמַאן דִּפְשִׁיטָא לֵיהּ כְּרַבָּן שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן גַּמְלִיאֵל, דְּתָנֵי עֲלָהּ וְהֵסֵב עִמָּהֶן וְטִיבֵּל עִמָּהֶן אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹא אָכַל כַּזַּיִת דָּגָן מְזַמְּנִין עָלָיו, דִּבְרֵי חֲכָמִים. רַבִּי יַעֲקֹב בַּר אַחָא בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן אָמַר לְעוֹלָם אֵין מְזַמְּנִין עָלָיו עַד שֶׁאוֹכֵל כַּזַּיִת דָּגָן, וְהָא תָּנֵי שְׁנַיִם פַּת וְאֶחָד יָרָק מְזַמְּנִין. מַתְנִיתִין כְּרַבָּן שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן גַּמְלִיאֵל.
10. Babylonian Talmud, Berachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

48a. לאתויי קטן פורח.,ולית הלכתא ככל הני שמעתתא אלא כי הא דאמר רב נחמן קטן היודע למי מברכין מזמנין עליו,אביי ורבא הוו יתבי קמיה דרבה אמר להו רבה למי מברכין אמרי ליה לרחמנא ורחמנא היכא יתיב רבא אחוי לשמי טללא אביי נפק לברא אחוי כלפי שמיא אמר להו רבה תרווייכו רבנן הויתו היינו דאמרי אינשי בוצין בוצין מקטפיה ידיע:,א"ר יהודה בריה דרב שמואל בר שילת משמיה דרב תשעה אכלו דגן ואחד אכל ירק מצטרפין א"ר זירא בעאי מיניה מרב יהודה שמנה מהו שבעה מהו א"ל לא שנא ששה ודאי לא מיבעיא לי א"ל רבי ירמיה שפיר עבדת דלא איבעיא לך התם טעמא מאי משום דאיכא רובא הכא נמי איכא רובא ואיהו סבר רובא דמינכר בעינן.,ינאי מלכא ומלכתא כריכו ריפתא בהדי הדדי ומדקטל להו לרבנן לא הוה ליה איניש לברוכי להו אמר לה לדביתהו מאן יהיב לן גברא דמברך לן אמרה ליה אשתבע לי דאי מייתינא לך גברא דלא מצערת ליה אשתבע לה אייתיתיה לשמעון בן שטח אחוה אותביה בין דידיה לדידה אמר ליה חזית כמה יקרא עבדינא לך אמר ליה לאו את קא מוקרת לי אלא אורייתא היא דמוקרא לי דכתיב (משלי ד, ח) סלסלה ותרוממך תכבדך כי תחבקנה אמר ליה קא חזית דלא מקבל מרות,יהבו ליה כסא לברוכי אמר היכי אבריך ברוך שאכל ינאי וחביריו משלו שתייה לההוא כסא יהבו ליה כסא אחרינא ובריך,א"ר אבא בריה דרב חייא בר אבא (א"ר יוחנן) שמעון בן שטח דעבד לגרמיה הוא דעבד דהכי אמר ר' חייא בר אבא אר"י לעולם אינו מוציא את הרבים ידי חובתן עד שיאכל כזית דגן,מיתיבי רשב"ג אומר עלה והסיב עמהם אפילו לא טבל עמהם אלא בציר ולא אכל עמהם אלא גרוגרת אחת מצטרף,אצטרופי מצטרף אבל להוציא את הרבים ידי חובתן עד שיאכל כזית דגן,איתמר נמי אמר רב חנא בר יהודה משמיה דרבא אפי' לא 48a. bto include a mature minor?Explain the ibaraitaas follows: A minor who grew two hairs is included in a izimmun /i, and we are not exacting with regard to a minor to ascertain whether or not he has reached the age of majority.,The Gemara concludes: bThe ihalakhais not in accordance with all of these statements. Rather,the ihalakhais bin accordance with thisstatement bthat Rav Naḥman said: A minor who knows to Whom one recites a blessing is included in a izimmun /i. /b,The Gemara relates that bAbaye and Rava,when they were children, bwere seated before Rabba. Rabba said to them: To whom does one recite blessings? They said to him: ToGod, bthe All-Merciful.Rabba asked them: bAnd where does the All-Merciful reside? Rava pointed to the ceiling. Abaye went outside and pointed toward the heaven. Rabba said to them: You will both become Sages. It is as the popular saying goes: A cucumber can be recognized from its blossomingstage. Similarly, a great person can be recognized even from a young age., bRav Yehuda, son of Rav Shmuel bar Sheilat, said in the name of Rav:If bnine ate grain and one ate vegetables, they joinand form a izimmunof ten. bRabbi Zeira said: I raised a dilemma before Rav Yehuda: What isthe ruling if beightate grain and two ate vegetables? May they join together? bWhat isthe ruling if bsevenate grain? bHe said to me: There is no difference. I certainly had no dilemma with regard to six,as it was clear to me that six are insufficient to warrant a izimmun /i. bRabbi Yirmeya said to him: You did well that you had no dilemmawith regard to six, but for the opposite reason. bThere,in the case of seven or eight, bwhat is the reasonthat they form a izimmunof ten? bBecause there is a majorityof those dining who ate grain. bHere, too, there is a majority.Rabbi Zeira, however, bheld: We require an obvious majority.Therefore, contrary to the opinion of Rabbi Yirmeya, it was clear to him that six who ate grain are insufficient to form a izimmun /i.,The Gemara relates: bKing Yannai and the queen ate bread together. And sinceYannai bexecuted the Sages, there was no one to recite theGrace after Meals bblessing on their behalf. He said to his wife: Who will provide uswith ba man to recite the blessing on our behalf? She said to him: Swear to me that if I bring yousuch ba man, you will not harass him. He swore,and bshe brought her brother, Shimon ben Shataḥ. She sat him betweenthe King’s throne band hers.The King bsaid to him: Do you see how much honor I am according you? He responded:It is bnot you who honors me; rather, the Torah honors me, as it is written: “Extol her and she will exalt you; she will bring you to honor when you embrace her”(Proverbs 4:8). Yannai bsaid tohis wife: bYou see that he does not accept authority. /b, bThey gaveShimon ben Shataḥ ba cupof wine bover which to reciteGrace after Meals. bHe said: How shall I recite the blessing?Shall I say: bBlessed is He from Whom Yannai and his companions have eaten?I have not eaten anything. bHe drank that cupof wine. bThey gave him another cup, and he recited theGrace after Meals bblessing.By drinking the first cup he joined the other diners and was therefore eligible to recite Grace after Meals on their behalf.,With regard to this story, bRabbi Abba, son of Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba, said(that bRabbi Yoḥa said): That which Shimon ben Shataḥ did,reciting Grace after Meals on their behalf, bhe did on his own,and not in accordance with the accepted ihalakha /i, bas Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba saidthat bRabbi Yoḥa said as follows: Onewho recites Grace after Meals bcannot fulfill the obligation of othersto recite it buntil he eats an olive-bulk of grain. /b,The Gemara braises an objectionbased on what was taught in a ibaraita /i: bRabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: One who entered and reclined togetherwith those who were dining, beven if he only dipped with thema small bit of food binspicy bbrinethat was before them band ate with them only a single dry fig, he joins them.This ibaraitademonstrates that one need not necessarily eat grain to recite Grace after Meals on their behalf.,The Gemara responds: Indeed, bhe joins them, buthe cannot bsatisfy the obligation of the many unless he has eaten an olive-bulk of grain. /b,Similarly, this ihalakha bwas also stated: Rav Ḥana bar Yehuda said in the name of Rava: Even if he only /b
11. Babylonian Talmud, Hagigah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

13a. בבתי גואי הא בבתי בראי ואמר רב אחא בר יעקב עוד רקיע אחד יש למעלה מראשי החיות דכתיב (יחזקאל א, כב) ודמות על ראשי החיה רקיע כעין הקרח הנורא,עד כאן יש לך רשות לדבר מכאן ואילך אין לך רשות לדבר שכן כתוב בספר בן סירא במופלא ממך אל תדרוש ובמכוסה ממך אל תחקור במה שהורשית התבונן אין לך עסק בנסתרות תניא אמר רבן יוחנן בן זכאי מה תשובה השיבתו בת קול לאותו רשע בשעה שאמר (ישעיהו יד, יד) אעלה על במתי עב אדמה לעליון יצתה בת קול ואמרה לו רשע בן רשע בן בנו של נמרוד הרשע שהמריד כל העולם כולו עליו במלכותו,כמה שנותיו של אדם שבעים שנה שנאמר (תהלים צ, י) ימי שנותינו בהם שבעים שנה ואם בגבורות שמונים שנה והלא מן הארץ עד לרקיע מהלך חמש מאות שנה ועוביו של רקיע מהלך חמש מאות שנה וכן בין כל רקיע ורקיע,למעלה מהן חיות הקדש רגלי החיות כנגד כולם קרסולי החיות כנגד כולן שוקי החיות כנגד כולן רכובי החיות כנגד כולן ירכי החיות כנגד כולן גופי החיות כנגד כולן צוארי החיות כנגד כולן ראשי החיות כנגד כולן קרני החיות כנגד כולן למעלה מהן כסא כבוד רגלי כסא הכבוד כנגד כולן כסא הכבוד כנגד כולן מלך אל חי וקים רם ונשא שוכן עליהם ואתה אמרת אעלה על במתי עב אדמה לעליון אך אל שאול תורד אל ירכתי בור:,ולא במרכבה ביחיד: תני רבי חייא אבל מוסרין לו ראשי פרקים אמר רבי זירא אין מוסרין ראשי פרקים אלא לאב ב"ד ולכל מי שלבו דואג בקרבו איכא דאמרי והוא שלבו דואג בקרבו,אמר רבי אמי אין מוסרין סתרי תורה אלא למי שיש בו חמשה דברים (ישעיהו ג, ג) שר חמשים ונשוא פנים ויועץ וחכם חרשים ונבון לחש ואמר רבי אמי אין מוסרין דברי תורה לעובד כוכבים שנאמר (תהלים קמז, כ) לא עשה כן לכל גוי ומשפטים בל ידעום,א"ל רבי יוחנן לרבי אלעזר תא אגמרך במעשה המרכבה א"ל לא קשאי כי קש נח נפשיה דרבי יוחנן א"ל ר' אסי תא ואגמרך במעשה מרכבה א"ל אי זכאי גמירתא מר' יוחנן רבך,רב יוסף הוה גמיר מעשה המרכבה סבי דפומבדיתא הוו תנו במעשה בראשית אמרו ליה ליגמור לן מר מעשה מרכבה אמר להו אגמרון לי מעשה בראשית בתר דאגמרון אמרו ליה ליגמרון מר במעשה מרכבה אמר להו תנינא בהו (שיר השירים ד, יא) דבש וחלב תחת לשונך דברים המתוקין מדבש וחלב יהו תחת לשונך,ר' אבהו אמר מהכא (משלי כז, כו) כבשים ללבושך דברים שהן כבשונו של עולם יהיו תחת לבושך אמרו ליה תנינן בהו עד (יחזקאל ב, א) ויאמר אלי בן אדם אמר להו הן הן מעשה המרכבה,מיתיבי עד היכן מעשה המרכבה רבי אומר עד (יחזקאל א, כז) וארא בתרא ר' יצחק אומר עד החשמל עד וארא מגמרינן מכאן ואילך מסרינן ראשי פרקים איכא דאמרי עד וארא מסרינן ראשי פרקים מכאן ואילך אם הוא חכם מבין מדעתו אין אי לא לא,ומי דרשינן בחשמל והא ההוא ינוקא דדרש בחשמל ונפקא נורא ואכלתיה שאני ינוקא דלאו מטי זימניה,אמר רב יהודה ברם זכור אותו האיש לטוב וחנניה בן חזקיה שמו אלמלא הוא נגנז ספר יחזקאל שהיו דבריו סותרין דברי תורה מה עשה העלו לו ג' מאות גרבי שמן וישב בעלייה ודרשו,ת"ר מעשה בתינוק אחד שהיה קורא בבית רבו בספר יחזקאל והיה מבין בחשמל ויצאה אש מחשמל ושרפתו וביקשו לגנוז ספר יחזקאל אמר להם חנניה בן חזקיה אם זה חכם הכל חכמים הן,מאי חשמל אמר רב יהודה 13a. btothe binner houses,where there is only light; bthatsource, according to which He is surrounded by darkness, is referring btothe bouter houses. And Rav Aḥa bar Ya’akov said: There is one more firmamentabove these, which is babove the heads of the divine creatures, as it is written: “And over the heads of the divine creatures there was the likeness of a firmament, like the color of the terrible ice”(Ezekiel 1:22).,The Gemara comments: bUntil here, you have permission to speak; from thispoint bforward you do not have permission to speak, as it is written in the book of Ben Sira: Seek not things concealed from you, nor search those hidden from you. Reflect on that which is permitted to you; you have no business with secret matters. It is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bRabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai said: What response did the Divine Voice provide to that wicked man,Nebuchadnezzar, bwhen he said: “I will ascend above the heights of the clouds; I will be like the Most High”(Isaiah 14:14), thereby intending to rise to heaven? bA Divine Voice came and said to him: Wicked man, son of a wicked man, descendant,i.e., follower of the ways, bof Nimrod the wicked, who caused the entire world to rebel against Him duringthe time of bhis reign. /b, bHow many are the years of man? Seventy years, as it is stated: “The span of our life is seventy years, or if we are strong, eighty years”(Psalms 90:10). bNow isthere bnot from the earth to the firmament a walkingdistance bof five hundred years, and the thickness of the firmamentitself is ba walkingdistance bof five hundred years, and a similardistance exists bbetween each and every one of the firmaments? /b,And babove them,above all the firmaments, bare the divine creatures. The feet of the divine creatures correspondin distance bto allthe firmaments; bthe ankles of the animals correspond to all of them, the shins of the animals correspond to all of them, the knees of the animals correspond to all of them, the thighs of the animals correspond to all of them, the bodies of the animals correspond to all of them, the necks of the animals correspond to all of them, the heads of the animals correspond to all of them,and bthe horns of the animals correspond to all of them. Above themis the bThrone of Glory: The feet of the Throne of Glory correspond to all of them, the Throne of Glory corresponds to all of them,and the bliving, almighty, lofty, exalted King dwells above them. And you,Nebuchadnezzar, bsay: “I will ascend above the heights of the clouds; I will be like the Most High”(Isaiah 14:15), but the next verse states: b“Yet you shall be brought down to the netherworld, to the uttermost parts of the pit”(Isaiah 14:15).,§ It is taught in the mishna, according to the Gemara’s explanation: bNormay one expound btheDesign of the Divine bChariot to an individual. Rabbi Ḥiyya taught: But one may transmit to him,an individual, bthe outlinesof this topic, leaving him to comprehend the rest on his own. bRabbi Zeira said: One may transmit the outlinesof the Design of the Divine Chariot bonly to the president of the court,who needs to know them due to his wisdom and meritorious deeds, band to anyone whose heart inside him is concerned,i.e., one who is concerned about his sins and desires to achieve full repentance. bThere arethose bwho saythat this does not refer to two separate individuals, but to the president of the court, bwhose heart inside him is concerned. /b, bRabbi Ami said: The secrets of the Torah may be transmitted only to one who possessesthe following bfive characteristics: “The captain of fifty, and the man of favor, and the counselor, and the cunning charmer, and the skillful enchanter”(Isaiah 3:3). bAnd Rabbi Ami saidfurther: bThe words of Torah may not be transmitted to a gentile, as it is stated: “He has not dealt so with any nation, and as for His ordices, they have not known them”(Psalms 147:20).,§ The Gemara relates: bRabbi Yoḥa said to Rabbi Elazar: Come and I will teach you the Design of theDivine bChariot.Rabbi Elazar bsaid to him:I have bnotyet bagedsufficiently, as one must be very settled in one’s mind for these studies. bWhen he grew old, Rabbi Yoḥa hadalready bpassed away. Rabbi Asi said to him: Come and I will teach you the Design of theDivine bChariot. He said to him: Had I merited, I would have learnedit bfrom Rabbi Yoḥa, your teacher.It therefore appears that I am unworthy of studying it.,The Gemara relates: bRav Yosef would study the Design of theDivine bChariotand was familiar with the subject, whereas bthe Elders of Pumbedita would study the act of Creation. They said toRav Yosef: bLet the Master teach us the Design of theDivine bChariot. He said to them:You bteach me the act of Creation. After they taught himthat subject, bthey said to him: Let the Master teach us the Design of theDivine bChariot. He said to them: We learned with regard to themthe secrets of the Torah: b“Honey and milk are under your tongue”(Song of Songs 4:11), meaning that bmatters that are sweeter than honey and milk should remain under your tongue.In other words, one should not speak of such matters, and anyone who is familiar with them may not reveal them to others., bRabbi Abbahu said:It is derived from bhere,from the following verse: b“The lambs[ikevasim/b] bwill be for your clothing”(Proverbs 27:26), which he expounds as though it were written with the letter ishin /i, ikevashim /i, meaning concealed matters: bThings that constitute the concealed matters of the world should be under your clothing;you should not reveal them. When the Elders of Pumbedita saw that Rav Yosef was not going to teach them, bthey said to him: We have learned them,the verses concerning the Design of the Divine Chariot written in the book of Ezekiel, bup tothe verse b“And He said to me, son of man”(Ezekiel 2:1). bHe said to them:If so, btheseverses barethe very essence of the bDesign of theDivine bChariot,as they provide the main details of the topic.,The Gemara braises an objectionto this from a ibaraita /i: bUntil where is the Design of theDivine bChariotrelated? bRabbiYehuda HaNasi bsays: Until the latter “And I saw”(Ezekiel 1:27), not including the last verse. bRabbi Yitzḥak says: Untilthe word b“the electrum”(Ezekiel 1:27). Neither of these opinions accord with Rav Yosef’s opinion that the Design of the Divine Chariot continues until the end of the chapter. The Gemara answers: bUntil “And I saw,” we teachthose worthy of it; bfrom thispoint bforward,we btransmitonly the boutlines. There arethose bwho say: Until “And I saw,” we transmit the outlines; from thispoint bforward, if he is wiseand bcan understand of his own accord, yes,we teach him. bIf not,we do bnotteach him even the outlines.,The Gemara poses a question: bAnd may one teach about the electrumof the Design of the Divine Chariot at all? bBut wasn’t there a certain youthwho bexpounded the electrum, and fire came out and consumed him,showing that such study is highly dangerous? The Gemara answers: That byouth was different, for his timeto study such matters bhad notyet barrived.Therefore, he was punished., bRav Yehuda said: Indeed, that man is remembered for good, and Ḥaya ben Ḥizkiya was his name,because bwere it not for him, the book of Ezekiel would have been suppressed.Why did they wish to suppress it? Because they found bthat its words contradicted the words of Torah,as its later chapters contain many ihalakhotthat appear not to accord with those of the Torah. bWhat did he do? They brought up to him three hundred barrels of oil,for light and sustece, band he sat in an upper chamber and expounded it,to reconcile its teachings with those of the Torah., bThe Sages taught: An incidentoccurred binvolving a youth who was reading the book of Ezekiel in the house of his teacher, andhe bwasable to bcomprehend the electrum, and fire came out of the electrum and burned him. And they sought to suppress the book of Ezekieldue to the danger it posed. bḤaya ben Ḥizkiya said to them: If thisyouth happened to be bwise,are ballpeople bwiseenough to understand this book?,The Gemara asks: bWhat isthe belectrum? Rav Yehuda said: /b
12. Babylonian Talmud, Megillah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

7a. השנית ואיצטריך למיכתב בכל שנה ושנה דאי מבכל שנה ושנה הוה אמינא כי קושין קא משמע לן השנית ואי אשמועינן השנית הוה אמינא בתחילה בראשון ובשני קמ"ל בכל שנה ושנה,ורבי אליעזר בר' יוסי האי השנית מאי עביד ליה מיבעי ליה לכדרב שמואל בר יהודה דאמר רב שמואל בר יהודה בתחילה קבעוה בשושן ולבסוף בכל העולם כולו,אמר רב שמואל בר יהודה שלחה להם אסתר לחכמים קבעוני לדורות שלחו לה קנאה את מעוררת עלינו לבין האומות שלחה להם כבר כתובה אני על דברי הימים למלכי מדי ופרס,רב ורב חנינא ורבי יוחנן ורב חביבא מתנו בכוליה סדר מועד כל כי האי זוגא חלופי רבי יוחנן ומעייל רבי יונתן שלחה להם אסתר לחכמים כתבוני לדורות שלחו לה (משלי כב, כ) הלא כתבתי לך שלישים שלישים ולא רבעים,עד שמצאו לו מקרא כתוב בתורה (שמות יז, יד) כתב זאת זכרון בספר כתב זאת מה שכתוב כאן ובמשנה תורה זכרון מה שכתוב בנביאים בספר מה שכתוב במגלה,כתנאי כתב זאת מה שכתוב כאן זכרון מה שכתוב במשנה תורה בספר מה שכתוב בנביאים דברי רבי יהושע ר' אלעזר המודעי אומר כתב זאת מה שכתוב כאן ובמשנה תורה זכרון מה שכתוב בנביאים בספר מה שכתוב במגילה,אמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל אסתר אינה מטמאה את הידים,למימרא דסבר שמואל אסתר לאו ברוח הקודש נאמרה והאמר שמואל אסתר ברוח הקודש נאמרה נאמרה לקרות ולא נאמרה ליכתוב,מיתיבי רבי מאיר אומר קהלת אינו מטמא את הידים ומחלוקת בשיר השירים ר' יוסי אומר שיר השירים מטמא את הידים ומחלוקת בקהלת ר' שמעון אומר קהלת מקולי ב"ש ומחומרי ב"ה אבל רות ושיר השירים ואסתר מטמאין את הידים הוא דאמר כר' יהושע,תניא ר' שמעון בן מנסיא אומר קהלת אינו מטמא את הידים מפני שחכמתו של שלמה היא אמרו לו וכי זו בלבד אמר והלא כבר נאמר (מלכים א ה, יב) וידבר שלשת אלפים משל ואומר (משלי ל, ו) אל תוסף על דבריו,מאי ואומר וכי תימא מימר טובא אמר דאי בעי איכתיב ודאי בעי לא איכתיב תא שמע אל תוסף על דבריו,תניא ר' אליעזר אומר אסתר ברוח הקודש נאמרה שנאמר (אסתר ו, ו) ויאמר המן בלבו ר' עקיבא אומר אסתר ברוח הקודש נאמרה שנאמר (אסתר ב, טו) ותהי אסתר נשאת חן בעיני כל רואיה,ר"מ אומר אסתר ברוח הקודש נאמרה שנאמר (אסתר ב, כב) ויודע הדבר למרדכי רבי יוסי בן דורמסקית אומר אסתר ברוח הקודש נאמרה שנאמר (אסתר ט, י) ובבזה לא שלחו את ידם,אמר שמואל אי הואי התם הוה אמינא מלתא דעדיפא מכולהו שנאמר קימו וקבלו קימו למעלה מה שקיבלו למטה,אמר רבא לכולהו אית להו פירכא לבר מדשמואל דלית ליה פירכא דרבי אליעזר סברא הוא דלא הוה איניש דחשיב למלכא כוותיה והאי כי קא מפיש טובא ואמר אדעתיה דנפשיה קאמר,דר"ע דלמא כר' אלעזר דאמר מלמד שכל אחד ואחד נדמתה לו כאומתו,והא דרבי מאיר דלמא כרבי חייא בר אבא דאמר בגתן ותרש שני טרשיים היו,והא דרבי יוסי בן דורמסקית דלמא פריסתקי שדור דשמואל ודאי לית ליה פירכא אמר רבינא היינו דאמרי אינשי טבא חדא פלפלתא חריפתא ממלי צני קרי,רב יוסף אמר מהכא (אסתר ט, כח) וימי הפורים האלה לא יעברו מתוך היהודים רב נחמן בר יצחק אומר מהכא וזכרם לא יסוף מזרעם:,ומתנות לאביונים: תני רב יוסף ומשלוח מנות איש לרעהו שתי מנות לאיש אחד ומתנות לאביונים שתי מתנות לשני בני אדם,רבי יהודה נשיאה שדר ליה לרבי אושעיא אטמא דעיגלא תלתא וגרבא דחמרא שלח ליה 7a. the term: bThe second, and it wasalso bnecessary to writethe phrase: bIn each and every year;proof from one of the verses would have been insufficient. bAs, ifI had derived the ihalakhaonly bfromthe phrase: bIn each and every year, I would have saidmy conclusion baccording to our questionraised earlier: Why not celebrate Purim in the Adar adjacent to Shevat? bTherefore, it teaches ususing the term: bThe second. And had it taught usonly the term: bThe second, I would have saidthat Purim must be celebrated both bin the firstAdar band in the secondAdar, iab initio /i. Therefore, it teaches us: In each and every year,indicating that even in an intercalated year, just as in an ordinary year, Purim is to be celebrated only once.,The Gemara asks: bAnd Rabbi Eliezer, son of Rabbi Yosei, what does he do with thisterm: bThe second?Since he holds that the Megilla is read in the first Adar, what does he derive from the verse? The Gemara answers: bHe requiresthe term btoderive bthatstatement bof Rav Shmuel bar Yehuda, as Rav Shmuel bar Yehuda said: Initially, they establishedthe observance of Purim binthe city of bShushanalone, band ultimatelythey established it bthroughout the world,according to the second letter of Purim.,Apropos the statement of Rav Shmuel bar Yehuda with regard to the establishment of the holiday of Purim, the Gemara cites a related statement. bRav Shmuel bar Yehuda said: Esther sent to the Sages: Establish me forfuture bgenerations.Esther requested that the observance of Purim and the reading of the Megilla be instituted as an ordice for all generations. bThey sent to her: You willthereby barouse the wrath of the nations upon us,as the Megilla recounts the victory of the Jews over the gentiles, and it is best not to publicize that victory. bShe sentback bto them: I am already written in the chronicles of the kings of Media and Persia,and so the Megilla will not publicize anything that is not already known worldwide.,It was related that bRav and Rabbi Ḥanina and Rabbi Yoḥa and Rav Ḥaviva taughtthe statement cited below. The Gemara comments: bThroughout the order of iMoed /i, wherever thislatter bpairof Sages is mentioned, bexchange Rabbi Yoḥa and insert Rabbi Yonatanin his place. They said: bEsther sent to the Sages: Write me forfuture bgenerationsand canonize my book as part of the Bible. bThey sent to herthat it is written: b“Have I not written for you three times”(Proverbs 22:20), indicating that Israel’s battle with Amalek is to be mentioned bthree timesin the Bible band not four times?Since it is already mentioned three times (Exodus 17:8–16; Deuteronomy 25:17–19; I Samuel 15), there is no need to add a fourth source.,The Sages did not accede to Esther’s request buntil they found a verse written in the Torah: “Write this for a memorial in the book,and rehearse it in the ears of Joshua: That I will utterly blot out the remembrance of Amalek from under the heavens” (Exodus 17:14). The Sages interpreted the verse: b“Write this,” that which is writtenin the Torah bherein Exodus, band in Deuteronomy; “a memorial,” that which is written in the Prophets,i.e., in I Samuel, on this matter; b“in the book,” that which is written in the Megilla.The Megilla is the third mention of Amalek and not the fourth, as both mentions in the Torah pertaining to Amalek are considered one; therefore, Esther would be the third, not the fourth source.,The Gemara comments: This matter is bparallelto a dispute between bthe itanna’im /i,as it was taught in a ibaraita /i: b“Write this,” that which is written here,in the book of Exodus; b“a memorial,” that which is written in Deuteronomy; “in the book,” that which is written in the Prophets;this is bthe statement of Rabbi Yehoshua. Rabbi Elazar HaModa’idisagrees and bsays: “Write this,” that which is writtenin the Torah bherein Exodus, band in Deuteronomy; “a memorial,” that which is written in the Prophetson this matter; b“in the book,” that which is written in the Megilla.Here too, the itanna’imdisagreed whether or not the book of Esther has the same force and sanctity as that of the canonized books of the Bible., bRav Yehuda saidthat bShmuel said:The book of bEsther does not render the hands ritually impure.Although the Sages issued a decree that sacred scrolls render hands ritually impure, the book of Esther was not accorded the sanctity of sacred scrolls.,The Gemara asks: bIs this to say that Shmuel maintainsthat the book of bEsther was not stated withthe inspiration of bthe Divine Spirit? But didn’t Shmuelhimself bsayelsewhere that the book of bEsther was stated withthe inspiration of bthe Divine Spirit?The Gemara answers: bIt was statedwith the Divine Spirit that it is bto be readin public; bhowever, it was not statedthat it is bto be written.Therefore, the text was not accorded the sanctity of sacred scrolls., bThe Gemara raises an objectionfrom a ibaraita /i. bRabbi Meir says:The book of bEcclesiastes does not render the hands ritually impure,as it was not accorded the sanctity of sacred scrolls; bhowever, there is a dispute with regard towhether or not bthe Song of Songsrenders the hands impure. bRabbi Yosei says: The Song of Songs renders the hands ritually impure, but there is a dispute with regard tothe book of bEcclesiastes. Rabbi Shimon says:The ruling with regard to bEcclesiastes is among the leniencies of Beit Shammai and among the stringencies of Beit Hillel,as according to Beit Hillel it renders the hands impure and according to Beit Shammai it does not. bHowever,everyone agrees that the books of bRuth, and the Song of Songs, and Esther render the hands ritually impure,contrary to the opinion of Shmuel. The Gemara answers: It was Shmuel bwho statedhis opinion bin accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Yehoshuacited earlier that the book of Esther was not accorded the sanctity of sacred scrolls., bIt is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bRabbi Shimon ben Menasya says:The book of bEcclesiastes does not render the hands ritually impure because it is the wisdom of Solomon,and not divinely inspired. bThey said to him:It was certainly divinely inspired and that is the reason that the book of Ecclesiastes was added to the canon; bas was it this alone thatSolomon bsaid? Wasn’t it already stated: “And he spoke three thousand proverbs,and his poems were a thousand and five” (I Kings 5:12)? Solomon spoke many proverbs, but only a portion of them were canonized in the Bible. Apparently, what is unique about those in Ecclesiastes is that they were divinely inspired. bAnd it says: “Add you not unto his words”(Proverbs 30:6).,The Gemara asks: bWhatis added by the proof introduced with the phrase: bAnd it says?Why wasn’t the first proof sufficient? The Gemara answers: bAnd if you would saythat in terms of what bhe said, he said a great deal,with regard to bwhich, if heso bdesired, it was written, and if heso bdesired, it was not written;then that is why not all of his statements were preserved. Therefore, bcomeand bhear: Add you not unto his words.Apparently, the reason that it is prohibited to add to the proverbs is that the book of Ecclesiastes was divinely inspired., bIt is taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Eliezer says:The book of bEsther was said withthe inspiration of bthe Divine Spirit, as it is stated: “And Haman thought in his heart”(Esther 6:6). If the book of Esther was not divinely inspired, how was it known what Haman thought in his heart? bRabbi Akiva says:The book of bEsther was said withthe inspiration of bthe Divine Spirit, as it is stated: “And Esther obtained favor in the sight of all those who looked upon her”(Esther 2:15); this could have been known only through divine inspiration., bRabbi Meir says:The book of bEsther was said withthe inspiration of bthe Divine Spirit, as it is statedwith regard to the conspiracy of Bigtan and Teresh against Ahasuerus: b“And the thing became known to Mordecai”(Esther 2:22). This too could have been known only through divine inspiration. bRabbi Yosei ben Durmaskit says:The book of bEsther was said withthe inspiration of bthe Divine Spirit, as it is stated: “But they did not lay their hands on the plunder”(Esther 9:15). The only way that could have been stated with certainty is through divine inspiration., bShmuel said: Had I been thereamong the itanna’im /i, bI would have stated a matter that is superior to them all, as it is stated: “They confirmed, and took upon themselves”(Esther 9:27), which was interpreted to mean: bThey confirmed abovein heaven bwhat they took upon themselves belowon earth. Clearly, it is only through divine inspiration that this could have been ascertained., bRava said: There is a refutation for allof these proofs, bexcept forthe proof cited by bShmuel, for which there is no refutation.The Gemara elaborates. That bwhich Rabbi Eliezersaid with regard to knowledge of what Haman was thinking in his heart can be refuted, as bit isbased on blogical reasoningto conclude that this was his thinking. bThere was noother bperson as important to the king as hewas; bandthe fact is bthat when he elaborated extensively and said:“Let the royal apparel be brought” (Esther 6:8), bhe saidit bwith himself in mind. /b,That bwhich Rabbi Akivasaid with regard to the knowledge that Esther found favor in the eyes of all, bperhapsit can be understood and refuted bin accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Elazar, who said:This bteaches that she appeared to each and every one asone of bhis nation,and they expressed that sentiment aloud., bAnd that which Rabbi Meirsaid, i.e., that the divine inspiration of the book of Esther is clear from the fact that Mordecai exposed the conspiracy against Ahasuerus, bperhapsthis can be explained and refuted bin accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba, who said: Bigtan and Teresh were bothmembers of the bTarsipeople and conversed in their own language. Mordecai, who was a member of the Sanhedrin and therefore fluent in many languages, understood what they were saying., bAnd that which Rabbi Yosei ben Durmaskitsaid with regard to the knowledge that no spoils were taken, bperhapsthis can be explained and refuted by the fact that bthey dispatched messengerswho informed them of the situation. However, bwith regard to Shmuel’sproof from the fact that they confirmed above what they took upon themselves below, bthere is certainly no refutation. Ravina said: Thisexplains the folk saying bthat people say: One sharp pepper is better than a basketful of pumpkins,as the quality of the pepper’s taste is more significant than the quantity of the pumpkins., bRav Yosef said:Proof that the book of Esther was divinely inspired may be cited bfrom here: “And these days of Purim shall not cease from among the Jews”(Esther 9:28), an assertion that could have been made only with divine inspiration. bRav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak says:Proof may be cited bfrom here,at the end of that verse: b“Nor the memorial of them perish from their seed”(Esther 9:28).,The mishna mentions: bAnd giftsdistributed bto the poor. Rav Yosef taughta ibaraitathat the verse states: b“And of sending portions one to another”(Esther 9:22), indicating btwo portions to one person.The verse continues: b“And gifts to the poor”(Esther 9:22), indicating btwo gifts to two people. /b,The Gemara relates that, on Purim, bRabbi Yehuda Nesia sent to Rabbi Oshaya the leg of a third- /bborn bcalf and a jug of wine.Rabbi Oshaya bsent hima message of gratitude:
13. Babylonian Talmud, Shabbat, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

13b. ושימש תלמידי חכמים הרבה מפני מה מת בחצי ימיו ולא היה אדם מחזירה דבר פעם אחת נתארחתי אצלה והיתה מסיחה כל אותו מאורע ואמרתי לה בתי בימי נדותך מה הוא אצלך אמרה לי חס ושלום אפי' באצבע קטנה לא נגע [בי] בימי לבוניך מהו אצלך אכל עמי ושתה עמי וישן עמי בקירוב בשר ולא עלתה דעתו על דבר אחר ואמרתי לה ברוך המקום שהרגו שלא נשא פנים לתורה שהרי אמרה תורה (ויקרא יח, יט) ואל אשה בנדת טומאתה לא תקרב כי אתא רב דימי אמר מטה חדא הואי במערבא אמרי אמר רב יצחק בר יוסף סינר מפסיק בינו לבינה:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big ואלו מן ההלכות שאמרו בעליית חנניה בן חזקיה בן גרון שעלו לבקרו נמנו ורבו ב"ש על ב"ה וי"ח דברים גזרו בו ביום:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big א"ל אביי לרב יוסף אלו תנן או ואלו תנן ואלו תנן הני דאמרן או אלו תנן דבעינן למימר קמן תא שמע אין פולין לאור הנר ואין קורין לאור הנר ואלו מן ההלכות שאמרו בעליית חנניה בן חזקיה בן גרון ש"מ ואלו תנן ש"מ:,ת"ר מי כתב מגילת תענית אמרו חנניה בן חזקיה וסיעתו שהיו מחבבין את הצרות,אמר רשב"ג אף אנו מחבבין את הצרות אבל מה נעשה שאם באנו לכתוב אין אנו מספיקין,ד"א אין שוטה נפגע,ד"א אין בשר המת מרגיש באיזמל איני והאמר רב יצחק קשה רימה למת כמחט בבשר החי שנא' (איוב יד, כב) אך בשרו עליו יכאב ונפשו עליו תאבל אימא אין בשר המת שבחי מרגיש באיזמל,אמר רב יהודה אמר רב ברם זכור אותו האיש לטוב וחנניה בן חזקיה שמו שאלמלא הוא נגנז ספר יחזקאל שהיו דבריו סותרין דברי תורה מה עשה העלו לו ג' מאות גרבי שמן וישב בעלייה ודרשן:,ושמנה עשר דבר גזרו: מאי נינהו שמנה עשר דבר דתנן אלו פוסלין את התרומה האוכל אוכל ראשון והאוכל אוכל שני והשותה משקין טמאין והבא ראשו ורובו במים שאובין וטהור שנפלו על ראשו ורובו שלשה לוגין מים שאובין והספר והידים והטבול יום והאוכלים והכלים שנטמאו במשקין,מאן תנא האוכל אוכל ראשון והאוכל אוכל שני מפסל פסלי טמויי 13b. band served Torah scholars extensively, why did he die at half his days?Where is the length of days promised him in the verse? bNo one would respond to herastonishment bat all.Eliyahu said: bOne time I was a guest in herhouse, band she was relating that entire eventwith regard to the death of her husband. bAnd I said to her: My daughter, during the period of your menstruation, howdid bheact btoward you? She said to me: Heaven forbid, he did not touch me even withhis blittle finger.And I asked her: bIn the days of your whitegarments, after the menstrual flow ended, and you were just counting clean days, bhow did he act toward youthen? She said to me: bHe ate with me, and drank with me, and slept with me with bodily contact and,however, bit did not enter his mind about something else,i.e., conjugal relations. bAnd I said to her: Blessed is the Omnipresent who killed himfor this sin, basyour husband bdid not show respect to the Torah. The Torah said: “And to a woman in the separation of her impurity you should not approach”(Leviticus 18:19), even mere affectionate contact is prohibited. The Gemara relates that bwhen Rav Dimi camefrom Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia, bhe said:That student did not actually sleep with her with bodily contact; rather, bit wasin bone bedthat they slept without contact. bIn the West,in Eretz Yisrael, bthey saythat bRav Yitzḥak bar Yosef said:When they would sleep together in one bed, she wore ba belt [ isinar /i]from the waist down that bwould separate between him and her.Nevertheless, since the matter is prohibited, that student was punished., strongMISHNA: /strong bAnd these are among the ihalakhotthatthe Sages, bwho went up to visit him, said in the upper story of Ḥaya ben Ḥizkiya ben Garon.The precise nature of these ihalakhotwill be explained in the Gemara. These ihalakhotare considered one unit because they share a distinctive element. Since many Sages were there, among them most of the generation’s Torah scholars in Eretz Yisrael, they engaged in discussion of various ihalakhotof the Torah. It turned out that when the people expressing opinions bwere counted,the students of bBeit Shammai outnumberedthe students of bBeit Hillel, and they issued decreeswith regard to beighteen matters on that dayin accordance with the opinion of Beit Shammai., strongGEMARA: /strong With regard to the language that introduces our mishna, bAbaye said to Rav Yosef: Did we learnin our mishna: bThese areamong the ihalakhot /i, bor did we learnin our mishna: bAnd these areamong the ihalakhot /i? The difference is significant. bDid we learn: And these,and if so, the reference would be to bthose that we saidearlier, i.e., that those ihalakhotare included in the decrees? bOr did we learn: These,and if so the reference would be to bthose that we seek to mention below? Comeand bheara solution to this dilemma from the fact that these matters were taught together in a ibaraita /i: bOne may not shakegarments to rid them of lice bby the light of the lamp and one may not read by the light of the lamp; and these are among the ihalakhotthatthe Sages bsaid in the attic of Ḥaya ben Ḥizkiya ben Garon. Conclude from thisthat bwe learned: And thesein the mishna, and the reference is to the decrees mentioned earlier., bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraitawith regard to iMegillat Ta’anit /i, which is a list of days of redemption that were established as celebrations for generations: bWho wrote iMegillat Ta’anit /i?This scroll was written by bḤaya ben Ḥizkiyaben Garon band his faction, who held dearthe memory of bthe troublesthat befell Israel and their salvation from them., bRabban Shimon ben Gamliel said: We also hold dearthe memory of bthe troublesfrom which Israel was saved, bbut what can we do? If we came to writeall the days of that kind, bwe would not manage todo so, as the troubles that Israel experienced in every generation and era are numerous, and on each day there is an event worthy of commemoration., bAlternatively:Why do we not record the days of salvation from troubles? Just as ba crazy person is not hurt,as he is not aware of the troubles that befall him, so too, we cannot appreciate the magnitude of the calamities that befall us., bAlternatively: The flesh of a dead person does not feel the scalpel[iizemel/b] cutting into him, and we, too, are in such a difficult situation that we no longer feel the pains and troubles. With regard to the last analogy, the Gemara asks: bIs that so? Didn’t Rav Yitzḥak say: Thegnawing of bmaggots is as excruciating to the dead asthe stab of ba needle is to the flesh of the living,as bit is statedwith regard to the dead: b“But his flesh shall hurt him, and his soul mourns over him”(Job 14:22)? Rather, bsayand explain the matter: bThe dead fleshin parts of the body bof the living personthat are insensitive to pain bdoes not feel the scalpelthat cuts him., bRav Yehuda saidthat bRav said: Truly, that man is remembered for the good, and his name is Ḥaya ben Ḥizkiya, as if not for him, the book of Ezekiel would have been suppressed because its contents,in many details, bcontradict matters of Torah.The Sages sought to suppress the book and exclude it from the canon. bWhat did he,Ḥaya ben Ḥizkiya, bdo? They brought him three hundred jugs of oil,for light and food, bupto his upper story, band he satisolated bin the upper storyand did not move from there until bhe homiletically interpretedall of those verses in the book of Ezekiel that seemed contradictory, and resolved the contradictions.,We learned in the mishna that when the Sages went up to the upper story of the house of Ḥaya ben Ḥizkiya ben Garon, they were counted band issued eighteen decreesin accordance with the opinion of Beit Shammai. The Gemara asks: bWhat are those eighteen matters?The Gemara answers: bAs we learnedin a mishna, a list of the decrees that the Sages issued with regard to items whose level of impurity is such that if they come into contact with iterumathey disqualify it. By means of that contact, the iterumaitself becomes impure, but it does not transmit impurity to other items. bThese disqualify iteruma /i: One who eats foodwith bfirstdegree ritual impurity status acquired as a result of contact with a primary source of ritual impurity, e.g., a creeping animal; band one who eats foodwith bseconddegree ritual impurity status acquired as a result of contact with an item with first degree ritual impurity status; band one who drinks impure liquidsof any degree of impurity; band one whose head and most of hisbody bcome into drawn waterafter he immersed himself in a ritual bath to purify himself; band a ritually pure person that three ilog /iof bdrawn water fell on his head and most of hisbody; band a Torah scroll; and the handsof any person who did not purify himself for the purpose of handling iteruma /i; bandone bwho immersed himself during the day,i.e., one who was impure and immersed himself, and until evening he is not considered completely pure; band foods and vessels that became impure bycoming into contact with impure bliquids.Contact with any of these disqualifies the iteruma /i. The Gemara seeks to clarify these matters.,The Gemara asks first: bWho is the itanna /iwho holds that bone who eats foodwith bfirstdegree ritual impurity status, band one who eats foodwith bseconddegree ritual impurity status, bdisqualifythe iteruma,but
14. Eusebius of Caesarea, Ecclesiastical History, 4.26.14 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

4.26.14. Accordingly when I went East and came to the place where these things were preached and done, I learned accurately the books of the Old Testament, and send them to you as written below. Their names are as follows: of Moses, five books: Genesis, Exodus, Numbers, Leviticus, Deuteronomy; Jesus Nave, Judges, Ruth; of Kings, four books; of Chronicles, two; the Psalms of David, the Proverbs of Solomon, Wisdom also, Ecclesiastes, Song of Songs, Job; of Prophets, Isaiah, Jeremiah; of the twelve prophets, one book ; Daniel, Ezekiel, Esdras. From which also I have made the extracts, dividing them into six books. Such are the words of Melito.


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
ancient halakha Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 517
angelic sin, as epistemological transgression Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 134
animals Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 43
apion Visnjic, The Invention of Duty: Stoicism as Deontology (2021) 74
apocalyptic literature, and book of daniel Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 134
apocalyptic literature, history of scholarship on Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 134
apocrypha Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 134
aramaic Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 517
blood Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 43
byzantine period, emperor Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 517
canon, canonization, prehistory of Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 134
canonical consciousness Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 134
carrying Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 43
cheese Rosenblum, The Jewish Dietary Laws in the Ancient World (2016) 95
defi ling of the hands Goodman, Judaism in the Roman World: Collected Essays (2006) 72
ecclesiastes Goodman, Judaism in the Roman World: Collected Essays (2006) 72
enochic literary tradition, place of book of dreams in Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 134
genesis, and book of the watchers Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 134
hamiram Goodman, Judaism in the Roman World: Collected Essays (2006) 72
hillel, house of Goodman, Judaism in the Roman World: Collected Essays (2006) 72
intermarriage Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 134
ishmael, r. Goodman, Judaism in the Roman World: Collected Essays (2006) 72
josephus Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 134; Visnjic, The Invention of Duty: Stoicism as Deontology (2021) 74
knowledge, revealed Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 134
literary production Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 134
luke Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 517
moses Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 517
nest, of a bird Rosenblum, The Jewish Dietary Laws in the Ancient World (2016) 95
noah Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 134
ouranography, outside books Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 134
pharisees Goodman, Judaism in the Roman World: Collected Essays (2006) 72
pseudepigrapha Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 134
r. akiva Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 134
sadducees Goodman, Judaism in the Roman World: Collected Essays (2006) 72
shammai, house of Goodman, Judaism in the Roman World: Collected Essays (2006) 72
shammai Goodman, Judaism in the Roman World: Collected Essays (2006) 72
sirach Visnjic, The Invention of Duty: Stoicism as Deontology (2021) 74
synagogue Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 517
temple in jerusalem' Goodman, Judaism in the Roman World: Collected Essays (2006) 72
wisdom of solomon Visnjic, The Invention of Duty: Stoicism as Deontology (2021) 74
yose, r. Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 517