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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



8004
Mishnah, Berachot, 9.5


חַיָּב אָדָם לְבָרֵךְ עַל הָרָעָה כְּשֵׁם שֶׁהוּא מְבָרֵךְ עַל הַטּוֹבָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים ו) וְאָהַבְתָּ אֵת יְיָ אֱלֹהֶיךָ בְּכָל לְבָבְךָ וּבְכָל נַפְשְׁךָ וּבְכָל מְאֹדֶךָ. בְּכָל לְבָבְךָ, בִּשְׁנֵי יְצָרֶיךָ, בְּיֵצֶר טוֹב וּבְיֵצֶר רָע. וּבְכָל נַפְשְׁךָ, אֲפִלּוּ הוּא נוֹטֵל אֶת נַפְשֶׁךָ. וּבְכָל מְאֹדֶךָ, בְּכָל מָמוֹנֶךָ. דָּבָר אַחֵר בְּכָל מְאֹדֶךָ, בְּכָל מִדָּה וּמִדָּה שֶׁהוּא מוֹדֵד לְךָ הֱוֵי מוֹדֶה לוֹ בִּמְאֹד מְאֹד. לֹא יָקֵל אָדָם אֶת רֹאשׁוֹ כְּנֶגֶד שַׁעַר הַמִּזְרָח, שֶׁהוּא מְכֻוָּן כְּנֶגֶד בֵּית קָדְשֵׁי הַקָּדָשִׁים. לֹא יִכָּנֵס לְהַר הַבַּיִת בְּמַקְלוֹ, וּבְמִנְעָלוֹ, וּבְפֻנְדָּתוֹ, וּבְאָבָק שֶׁעַל רַגְלָיו, וְלֹא יַעֲשֶׂנּוּ קַפַּנְדַּרְיָא, וּרְקִיקָה מִקַּל וָחֹמֶר. כָּל חוֹתְמֵי בְרָכוֹת שֶׁהָיוּ בַמִּקְדָּשׁ, הָיוּ אוֹמְרִים מִן הָעוֹלָם. מִשֶּׁקִּלְקְלוּ הַמִּינִין, וְאָמְרוּ, אֵין עוֹלָם אֶלָּא אֶחָד, הִתְקִינוּ שֶׁיְּהוּ אוֹמְרִים, מִן הָעוֹלָם וְעַד הָעוֹלָם. וְהִתְקִינוּ, שֶׁיְּהֵא אָדָם שׁוֹאֵל אֶת שְׁלוֹם חֲבֵרוֹ בַּשֵּׁם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (רות ב) וְהִנֵּה בֹעַז בָּא מִבֵּית לֶחֶם, וַיֹּאמֶר לַקּוֹצְרִים יְיָ עִמָּכֶם, וַיֹּאמְרוּ לוֹ, יְבָרֶכְךָ יְיָ. וְאוֹמֵר (שופטים ו) יְיָ עִמְּךָ גִּבּוֹר הֶחָיִל. וְאוֹמֵר (משלי כג) אַל תָּבוּז כִּי זָקְנָה אִמֶּךָ. וְאוֹמֵר (תהלים קיט) עֵת לַעֲשׂוֹת לַייָ הֵפֵרוּ תוֹרָתֶךָ. רַבִּי נָתָן אוֹמֵר, הֵפֵרוּ תוֹרָתֶךָ עֵת לַעֲשׂוֹת לַייָ:One must bless [God] for the evil in the same way as one blesses for the good, as it says, “And you shall love the Lord your God with all your heart, with all your soul and with all your might” (Deuteronomy 6:5). “With all your heart,” with your two impulses, the evil impulse as well as the good impulse. “With all your soul” even though he takes your soul [life] away from you. “With all your might” with all your money. Another explanation, “With all your might” whatever treatment he metes out to you. One should not show disrespect to the Eastern Gate, because it is in a direct line with the Holy of Holies. One should not enter the Temple Mount with a staff, or with shoes on, or with a wallet, or with dusty feet; nor should one make it a short cut, all the more spitting [is forbidden]. All the conclusions of blessings that were in the Temple they would say, “forever [lit. as long as the world is].” When the sectarians perverted their ways and said that there was only one world, they decreed that they should say, “for ever and ever [lit. from the end of the world to the end of the world]. They also decreed that a person should greet his fellow in God’s name, as it says, “And behold Boaz came from Bethlehem and said to the reapers, ‘May the Lord be with you.’ And they answered him, “May the Lord bless you’” (Ruth 2:. And it also says, “The Lord is with your, you valiant warrior” (Judges 6:12). And it also says, “And do not despise your mother when she grows old” (Proverbs 23:22). And it also says, “It is time to act on behalf of the Lord, for they have violated Your teaching” (Psalms 119:126). Rabbi Natan says: [this means] “They have violated your teaching It is time to act on behalf of the Lord.”


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

81 results
1. Septuagint, Tobit, 9.6 (10th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

9.6. In the morning they both got up early and came to the wedding feast. And Gabael blessed Tobias and his wife.
2. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 5.5, 6.4-6.5, 6.8, 13.14-13.18, 14.21, 15.7-15.11, 22.1-22.3, 31.10-31.13, 32.41 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

5.5. אָנֹכִי עֹמֵד בֵּין־יְהוָה וּבֵינֵיכֶם בָּעֵת הַהִוא לְהַגִּיד לָכֶם אֶת־דְּבַר יְהוָה כִּי יְרֵאתֶם מִפְּנֵי הָאֵשׁ וְלֹא־עֲלִיתֶם בָּהָר לֵאמֹר׃ 6.4. שְׁמַע יִשְׂרָאֵל יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵינוּ יְהוָה אֶחָד׃ 6.5. וְאָהַבְתָּ אֵת יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ בְּכָל־לְבָבְךָ וּבְכָל־נַפְשְׁךָ וּבְכָל־מְאֹדֶךָ׃ 6.8. וּקְשַׁרְתָּם לְאוֹת עַל־יָדֶךָ וְהָיוּ לְטֹטָפֹת בֵּין עֵינֶיךָ׃ 13.14. יָצְאוּ אֲנָשִׁים בְּנֵי־בְלִיַּעַל מִקִּרְבֶּךָ וַיַּדִּיחוּ אֶת־יֹשְׁבֵי עִירָם לֵאמֹר נֵלְכָה וְנַעַבְדָה אֱלֹהִים אֲחֵרִים אֲשֶׁר לֹא־יְדַעְתֶּם׃ 13.15. וְדָרַשְׁתָּ וְחָקַרְתָּ וְשָׁאַלְתָּ הֵיטֵב וְהִנֵּה אֱמֶת נָכוֹן הַדָּבָר נֶעֶשְׂתָה הַתּוֹעֵבָה הַזֹּאת בְּקִרְבֶּךָ׃ 13.16. הַכֵּה תַכֶּה אֶת־יֹשְׁבֵי הָעִיר ההוא [הַהִיא] לְפִי־חָרֶב הַחֲרֵם אֹתָהּ וְאֶת־כָּל־אֲשֶׁר־בָּהּ וְאֶת־בְּהֶמְתָּהּ לְפִי־חָרֶב׃ 13.17. וְאֶת־כָּל־שְׁלָלָהּ תִּקְבֹּץ אֶל־תּוֹךְ רְחֹבָהּ וְשָׂרַפְתָּ בָאֵשׁ אֶת־הָעִיר וְאֶת־כָּל־שְׁלָלָהּ כָּלִיל לַיהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ וְהָיְתָה תֵּל עוֹלָם לֹא תִבָּנֶה עוֹד׃ 13.18. וְלֹא־יִדְבַּק בְּיָדְךָ מְאוּמָה מִן־הַחֵרֶם לְמַעַן יָשׁוּב יְהוָה מֵחֲרוֹן אַפּוֹ וְנָתַן־לְךָ רַחֲמִים וְרִחַמְךָ וְהִרְבֶּךָ כַּאֲשֶׁר נִשְׁבַּע לַאֲבֹתֶיךָ׃ 14.21. לֹא תֹאכְלוּ כָל־נְבֵלָה לַגֵּר אֲשֶׁר־בִּשְׁעָרֶיךָ תִּתְּנֶנָּה וַאֲכָלָהּ אוֹ מָכֹר לְנָכְרִי כִּי עַם קָדוֹשׁ אַתָּה לַיהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לֹא־תְבַשֵּׁל גְּדִי בַּחֲלֵב אִמּוֹ׃ 15.7. כִּי־יִהְיֶה בְךָ אֶבְיוֹן מֵאַחַד אַחֶיךָ בְּאַחַד שְׁעָרֶיךָ בְּאַרְצְךָ אֲשֶׁר־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ נֹתֵן לָךְ לֹא תְאַמֵּץ אֶת־לְבָבְךָ וְלֹא תִקְפֹּץ אֶת־יָדְךָ מֵאָחִיךָ הָאֶבְיוֹן׃ 15.8. כִּי־פָתֹחַ תִּפְתַּח אֶת־יָדְךָ לוֹ וְהַעֲבֵט תַּעֲבִיטֶנּוּ דֵּי מַחְסֹרוֹ אֲשֶׁר יֶחְסַר לוֹ׃ 15.9. הִשָּׁמֶר לְךָ פֶּן־יִהְיֶה דָבָר עִם־לְבָבְךָ בְלִיַּעַל לֵאמֹר קָרְבָה שְׁנַת־הַשֶּׁבַע שְׁנַת הַשְּׁמִטָּה וְרָעָה עֵינְךָ בְּאָחִיךָ הָאֶבְיוֹן וְלֹא תִתֵּן לוֹ וְקָרָא עָלֶיךָ אֶל־יְהוָה וְהָיָה בְךָ חֵטְא׃ 15.11. כִּי לֹא־יֶחְדַּל אֶבְיוֹן מִקֶּרֶב הָאָרֶץ עַל־כֵּן אָנֹכִי מְצַוְּךָ לֵאמֹר פָּתֹחַ תִּפְתַּח אֶת־יָדְךָ לְאָחִיךָ לַעֲנִיֶּךָ וּלְאֶבְיֹנְךָ בְּאַרְצֶךָ׃ 22.1. לֹא־תִרְאֶה אֶת־שׁוֹר אָחִיךָ אוֹ אֶת־שֵׂיוֹ נִדָּחִים וְהִתְעַלַּמְתָּ מֵהֶם הָשֵׁב תְּשִׁיבֵם לְאָחִיךָ׃ 22.1. לֹא־תַחֲרֹשׁ בְּשׁוֹר־וּבַחֲמֹר יַחְדָּו׃ 22.2. וְאִם־לֹא קָרוֹב אָחִיךָ אֵלֶיךָ וְלֹא יְדַעְתּוֹ וַאֲסַפְתּוֹ אֶל־תּוֹךְ בֵּיתֶךָ וְהָיָה עִמְּךָ עַד דְּרֹשׁ אָחִיךָ אֹתוֹ וַהֲשֵׁבֹתוֹ לוֹ׃ 22.2. וְאִם־אֱמֶת הָיָה הַדָּבָר הַזֶּה לֹא־נִמְצְאוּ בְתוּלִים לנער [לַנַּעֲרָה׃] 22.3. וְכֵן תַּעֲשֶׂה לַחֲמֹרוֹ וְכֵן תַּעֲשֶׂה לְשִׂמְלָתוֹ וְכֵן תַּעֲשֶׂה לְכָל־אֲבֵדַת אָחִיךָ אֲשֶׁר־תֹּאבַד מִמֶּנּוּ וּמְצָאתָהּ לֹא תוּכַל לְהִתְעַלֵּם׃ 31.11. בְּבוֹא כָל־יִשְׂרָאֵל לֵרָאוֹת אֶת־פְּנֵי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ בַּמָּקוֹם אֲשֶׁר יִבְחָר תִּקְרָא אֶת־הַתּוֹרָה הַזֹּאת נֶגֶד כָּל־יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּאָזְנֵיהֶם׃ 31.12. הַקְהֵל אֶת־הָעָם הָאֲנָשִׁים וְהַנָּשִׁים וְהַטַּף וְגֵרְךָ אֲשֶׁר בִּשְׁעָרֶיךָ לְמַעַן יִשְׁמְעוּ וּלְמַעַן יִלְמְדוּ וְיָרְאוּ אֶת־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם וְשָׁמְרוּ לַעֲשׂוֹת אֶת־כָּל־דִּבְרֵי הַתּוֹרָה הַזֹּאת׃ 31.13. וּבְנֵיהֶם אֲשֶׁר לֹא־יָדְעוּ יִשְׁמְעוּ וְלָמְדוּ לְיִרְאָה אֶת־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם כָּל־הַיָּמִים אֲשֶׁר אַתֶּם חַיִּים עַל־הָאֲדָמָה אֲשֶׁר אַתֶּם עֹבְרִים אֶת־הַיַּרְדֵּן שָׁמָּה לְרִשְׁתָּהּ׃ 32.41. אִם־שַׁנּוֹתִי בְּרַק חַרְבִּי וְתֹאחֵז בְּמִשְׁפָּט יָדִי אָשִׁיב נָקָם לְצָרָי וְלִמְשַׂנְאַי אֲשַׁלֵּם׃ 5.5. I stood between the LORD and you at that time, to declare unto you the word of the LORD; for ye were afraid because of the fire, and went not up into the mount—saying: ." 6.4. HEAR, O ISRAEL: THE LORD OUR GOD, THE LORD IS ONE." 6.5. And thou shalt love the LORD thy God with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy might." 6.8. And thou shalt bind them for a sign upon thy hand, and they shall be for frontlets between thine eyes." 13.14. ’Certain base fellows are gone out from the midst of thee, and have drawn away the inhabitants of their city, saying: Let us go and serve other gods, which ye have not known’;" 13.15. then shalt thou inquire, and make search, and ask diligently; and, behold, if it be truth, and the thing certain, that such abomination is wrought in the midst of thee;" 13.16. thou shalt surely smite the inhabitants of that city with the edge of the sword, destroying it utterly, and all that is therein and the cattle thereof, with the edge of the sword." 13.17. And thou shalt gather all the spoil of it into the midst of the broad place thereof, and shall burn with fire the city, and all the spoil thereof every whit, unto the LORD thy God; and it shall be a heap for ever; it shall not be built again." 13.18. And there shall cleave nought of the devoted thing to thy hand, that the LORD may turn from the fierceness of His anger, and show thee mercy, and have compassion upon thee, and multiply thee, as He hath sworn unto thy fathers;" 14.21. Ye shall not eat of any thing that dieth of itself; thou mayest give it unto the stranger that is within thy gates, that he may eat it; or thou mayest sell it unto a foreigner; for thou art a holy people unto the LORD thy God. Thou shalt not seethe a kid in its mother’s milk." 15.7. If there be among you a needy man, one of thy brethren, within any of thy gates, in thy land which the LORD thy God giveth thee, thou shalt not harden thy heart, nor shut thy hand from thy needy brother;" 15.8. but thou shalt surely open thy hand unto him, and shalt surely lend him sufficient for his need in that which he wanteth." 15.9. Beware that there be not a base thought in thy heart, saying: ‘The seventh year, the year of release, is at hand’; and thine eye be evil against thy needy brother, and thou give him nought; and he cry unto the LORD against thee, and it be sin in thee." 15.10. Thou shalt surely give him, and thy heart shall not be grieved when thou givest unto him; because that for this thing the LORD thy God will bless thee in all thy work, and in all that thou puttest thy hand unto." 15.11. For the poor shall never cease out of the land; therefore I command thee, saying: ‘Thou shalt surely open thy hand unto thy poor and needy brother, in thy land.’" 22.1. Thou shalt not see thy brother’s ox or his sheep driven away, and hide thyself from them; thou shalt surely bring them back unto thy brother." 22.2. And if thy brother be not nigh unto thee, and thou know him not, then thou shalt bring it home to thy house, and it shall be with thee until thy brother require it, and thou shalt restore it to him." 22.3. And so shalt thou do with his ass; and so shalt thou do with his garment; and so shalt thou do with every lost thing of thy brother’s, which he hath lost, and thou hast found; thou mayest not hide thyself." 31.10. And Moses commanded them, saying: ‘At the end of every seven years, in the set time of the year of release, in the feast of tabernacles," 31.11. when all Israel is come to appear before the LORD thy God in the place which He shall choose, thou shalt read this law before all Israel in their hearing." 31.12. Assemble the people, the men and the women and the little ones, and thy stranger that is within thy gates, that they may hear, and that they may learn, and fear the LORD your God, and observe to do all the words of this law;" 31.13. and that their children, who have not known, may hear, and learn to fear the LORD your God, as long as ye live in the land whither ye go over the Jordan to possess it.’" 32.41. If I whet My glittering sword, And My hand take hold on judgment; I will render vengeance to Mine adversaries, And will recompense them that hate Me."
3. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 2.24, 15.18, 15.26, 19.19, 20.2, 20.15 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

2.24. וַיִּשְׁמַע אֱלֹהִים אֶת־נַאֲקָתָם וַיִּזְכֹּר אֱלֹהִים אֶת־בְּרִיתוֹ אֶת־אַבְרָהָם אֶת־יִצְחָק וְאֶת־יַעֲקֹב׃ 15.18. יְהוָה יִמְלֹךְ לְעֹלָם וָעֶד׃ 15.26. וַיֹּאמֶר אִם־שָׁמוֹעַ תִּשְׁמַע לְקוֹל יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ וְהַיָּשָׁר בְּעֵינָיו תַּעֲשֶׂה וְהַאֲזַנְתָּ לְמִצְוֺתָיו וְשָׁמַרְתָּ כָּל־חֻקָּיו כָּל־הַמַּחֲלָה אֲשֶׁר־שַׂמְתִּי בְמִצְרַיִם לֹא־אָשִׂים עָלֶיךָ כִּי אֲנִי יְהוָה רֹפְאֶךָ׃ 19.19. וַיְהִי קוֹל הַשּׁוֹפָר הוֹלֵךְ וְחָזֵק מְאֹד מֹשֶׁה יְדַבֵּר וְהָאֱלֹהִים יַעֲנֶנּוּ בְקוֹל׃ 20.2. אָנֹכִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ אֲשֶׁר הוֹצֵאתִיךָ מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם מִבֵּית עֲבָדִים׃ 20.2. לֹא תַעֲשׂוּן אִתִּי אֱלֹהֵי כֶסֶף וֵאלֹהֵי זָהָב לֹא תַעֲשׂוּ לָכֶם׃ 20.15. וְכָל־הָעָם רֹאִים אֶת־הַקּוֹלֹת וְאֶת־הַלַּפִּידִם וְאֵת קוֹל הַשֹּׁפָר וְאֶת־הָהָר עָשֵׁן וַיַּרְא הָעָם וַיָּנֻעוּ וַיַּעַמְדוּ מֵרָחֹק׃ 2.24. And God heard their groaning, and God remembered His covet with Abraham, with Isaac, and with Jacob." 15.18. The LORD shall reign for ever and ever." 15.26. and He said: ‘If thou wilt diligently hearken to the voice of the LORD thy God, and wilt do that which is right in His eyes, and wilt give ear to His commandments, and keep all His statutes, I will put none of the diseases upon thee, which I have put upon the Egyptians; for I am the LORD that healeth thee.’" 19.19. And when the voice of the horn waxed louder and louder, Moses spoke, and God answered him by a voice." 20.2. I am the LORD thy God, who brought thee out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of bondage." 20.15. And all the people perceived the thunderings, and the lightnings, and the voice of the horn, and the mountain smoking; and when the people saw it, they trembled, and stood afar off."
4. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 1.11, 2.7, 8.1, 27.33 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.11. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים תַּדְשֵׁא הָאָרֶץ דֶּשֶׁא עֵשֶׂב מַזְרִיעַ זֶרַע עֵץ פְּרִי עֹשֶׂה פְּרִי לְמִינוֹ אֲשֶׁר זַרְעוֹ־בוֹ עַל־הָאָרֶץ וַיְהִי־כֵן׃ 2.7. וַיִּיצֶר יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הָאָדָם עָפָר מִן־הָאֲדָמָה וַיִּפַּח בְּאַפָּיו נִשְׁמַת חַיִּים וַיְהִי הָאָדָם לְנֶפֶשׁ חַיָּה׃ 8.1. וַיָּחֶל עוֹד שִׁבְעַת יָמִים אֲחֵרִים וַיֹּסֶף שַׁלַּח אֶת־הַיּוֹנָה מִן־הַתֵּבָה׃ 8.1. וַיִּזְכֹּר אֱלֹהִים אֶת־נֹחַ וְאֵת כָּל־הַחַיָּה וְאֶת־כָּל־הַבְּהֵמָה אֲשֶׁר אִתּוֹ בַּתֵּבָה וַיַּעֲבֵר אֱלֹהִים רוּחַ עַל־הָאָרֶץ וַיָּשֹׁכּוּ הַמָּיִם׃ 27.33. וַיֶּחֱרַד יִצְחָק חֲרָדָה גְּדֹלָה עַד־מְאֹד וַיֹּאמֶר מִי־אֵפוֹא הוּא הַצָּד־צַיִד וַיָּבֵא לִי וָאֹכַל מִכֹּל בְּטֶרֶם תָּבוֹא וָאֲבָרֲכֵהוּ גַּם־בָּרוּךְ יִהְיֶה׃ 1.11. And God said: ‘Let the earth put forth grass, herb yielding seed, and fruit-tree bearing fruit after its kind, wherein is the seed thereof, upon the earth.’ And it was so." 2.7. Then the LORD God formed man of the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living soul." 8.1. And God remembered Noah, and every living thing, and all the cattle that were with him in the ark; and God made a wind to pass over the earth, and the waters assuaged;" 27.33. And Isaac trembled very exceedingly, and said: ‘Who then is he that hath taken venison, and brought it me, and I have eaten of all before thou camest, and have blessed him? yea, and he shall be blessed.’"
5. Hebrew Bible, Hosea, 3.2, 3.5 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

3.2. וָאֶכְּרֶהָ לִּי בַּחֲמִשָּׁה עָשָׂר כָּסֶף וְחֹמֶר שְׂעֹרִים וְלֵתֶךְ שְׂעֹרִים׃ 3.5. אַחַר יָשֻׁבוּ בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וּבִקְשׁוּ אֶת־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיהֶם וְאֵת דָּוִד מַלְכָּם וּפָחֲדוּ אֶל־יְהוָה וְאֶל־טוּבוֹ בְּאַחֲרִית הַיָּמִים׃ 3.2. So I bought her to me for fifteen pieces of silver and a homer of barley, and a half-homer of barley;" 3.5. afterward shall the children of Israel return, and seek the LORD their God, and David their king; and shall come trembling unto the LORD and to His goodness in the end of days."
6. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 5.2, 7.21, 7.24, 18.5, 19.18, 22.8, 24.22, 26.42, 26.45 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

5.2. וַיְדַבֵּר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה לֵּאמֹר׃ 5.2. אוֹ נֶפֶשׁ אֲשֶׁר תִּגַּע בְּכָל־דָּבָר טָמֵא אוֹ בְנִבְלַת חַיָּה טְמֵאָה אוֹ בְּנִבְלַת בְּהֵמָה טְמֵאָה אוֹ בְּנִבְלַת שֶׁרֶץ טָמֵא וְנֶעְלַם מִמֶּנּוּ וְהוּא טָמֵא וְאָשֵׁם׃ 7.21. וְנֶפֶשׁ כִּי־תִגַּע בְּכָל־טָמֵא בְּטֻמְאַת אָדָם אוֹ בִּבְהֵמָה טְמֵאָה אוֹ בְּכָל־שֶׁקֶץ טָמֵא וְאָכַל מִבְּשַׂר־זֶבַח הַשְּׁלָמִים אֲשֶׁר לַיהוָה וְנִכְרְתָה הַנֶּפֶשׁ הַהִוא מֵעַמֶּיהָ׃ 7.24. וְחֵלֶב נְבֵלָה וְחֵלֶב טְרֵפָה יֵעָשֶׂה לְכָל־מְלָאכָה וְאָכֹל לֹא תֹאכְלֻהוּ׃ 18.5. וּשְׁמַרְתֶּם אֶת־חֻקֹּתַי וְאֶת־מִשְׁפָּטַי אֲשֶׁר יַעֲשֶׂה אֹתָם הָאָדָם וָחַי בָּהֶם אֲנִי יְהוָה׃ 19.18. לֹא־תִקֹּם וְלֹא־תִטֹּר אֶת־בְּנֵי עַמֶּךָ וְאָהַבְתָּ לְרֵעֲךָ כָּמוֹךָ אֲנִי יְהוָה׃ 22.8. נְבֵלָה וּטְרֵפָה לֹא יֹאכַל לְטָמְאָה־בָהּ אֲנִי יְהוָה׃ 24.22. מִשְׁפַּט אֶחָד יִהְיֶה לָכֶם כַּגֵּר כָּאֶזְרָח יִהְיֶה כִּי אֲנִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם׃ 26.42. וְזָכַרְתִּי אֶת־בְּרִיתִי יַעֲקוֹב וְאַף אֶת־בְּרִיתִי יִצְחָק וְאַף אֶת־בְּרִיתִי אַבְרָהָם אֶזְכֹּר וְהָאָרֶץ אֶזְכֹּר׃ 26.45. וְזָכַרְתִּי לָהֶם בְּרִית רִאשֹׁנִים אֲשֶׁר הוֹצֵאתִי־אֹתָם מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם לְעֵינֵי הַגּוֹיִם לִהְיֹת לָהֶם לֵאלֹהִים אֲנִי יְהוָה׃ 5.2. or if any one touch any unclean thing, whether it be the carcass of an unclean beast, or the carcass of unclean cattle, or the carcass of unclean swarming things, and be guilty, it being hidden from him that he is unclean;" 7.21. And when any one shall touch any unclean thing, whether it be the uncleanness of man, or an unclean beast, or any unclean detestable thing, and eat of the flesh of the sacrifice of peace-offerings, which pertain unto the LORD, that soul shall be cut off from his people." 7.24. And the fat of that which dieth of itself, and the fat of that which is torn of beasts, may be used for any other service; but ye shall in no wise eat of it." 18.5. Ye shall therefore keep My statutes, and Mine ordices, which if a man do, he shall live by them: I am the LORD." 19.18. Thou shalt not take vengeance, nor bear any grudge against the children of thy people, but thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself: I am the LORD." 22.8. That which dieth of itself, or is torn of beasts, he shall not eat to defile himself therewith: I am the LORD." 24.22. Ye shall have one manner of law, as well for the stranger, as for the home-born; for I am the LORD your God.’" 26.42. then will I remember My covet with Jacob, and also My covet with Isaac, and also My covet with Abraham will I remember; and I will remember the land." 26.45. But I will for their sakes remember the covet of their ancestors, whom I brought forth out of the land of Egypt in the sight of the nations, that I might be their God: I am the LORD."
7. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 5.6-5.8, 5.22, 25.1-25.9 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

5.6. דַּבֵּר אֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אִישׁ אוֹ־אִשָּׁה כִּי יַעֲשׂוּ מִכָּל־חַטֹּאת הָאָדָם לִמְעֹל מַעַל בַּיהוָה וְאָשְׁמָה הַנֶּפֶשׁ הַהִוא׃ 5.7. וְהִתְוַדּוּ אֶת־חַטָּאתָם אֲשֶׁר עָשׂוּ וְהֵשִׁיב אֶת־אֲשָׁמוֹ בְּרֹאשׁוֹ וַחֲמִישִׁתוֹ יֹסֵף עָלָיו וְנָתַן לַאֲשֶׁר אָשַׁם לוֹ׃ 5.8. וְאִם־אֵין לָאִישׁ גֹּאֵל לְהָשִׁיב הָאָשָׁם אֵלָיו הָאָשָׁם הַמּוּשָׁב לַיהוָה לַכֹּהֵן מִלְּבַד אֵיל הַכִּפֻּרִים אֲשֶׁר יְכַפֶּר־בּוֹ עָלָיו׃ 5.22. וּבָאוּ הַמַּיִם הַמְאָרְרִים הָאֵלֶּה בְּמֵעַיִךְ לַצְבּוֹת בֶּטֶן וְלַנְפִּל יָרֵךְ וְאָמְרָה הָאִשָּׁה אָמֵן אָמֵן׃ 25.1. וַיְדַבֵּר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה לֵּאמֹר׃ 25.1. וַיֵּשֶׁב יִשְׂרָאֵל בַּשִּׁטִּים וַיָּחֶל הָעָם לִזְנוֹת אֶל־בְּנוֹת מוֹאָב׃ 25.2. וַתִּקְרֶאןָ לָעָם לְזִבְחֵי אֱלֹהֵיהֶן וַיֹּאכַל הָעָם וַיִּשְׁתַּחֲוּוּ לֵאלֹהֵיהֶן׃ 25.3. וַיִּצָּמֶד יִשְׂרָאֵל לְבַעַל פְּעוֹר וַיִּחַר־אַף יְהוָה בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 25.4. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה קַח אֶת־כָּל־רָאשֵׁי הָעָם וְהוֹקַע אוֹתָם לַיהוָה נֶגֶד הַשָּׁמֶשׁ וְיָשֹׁב חֲרוֹן אַף־יְהוָה מִיִּשְׂרָאֵל׃ 25.5. וַיֹּאמֶר מֹשֶׁה אֶל־שֹׁפְטֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל הִרְגוּ אִישׁ אֲנָשָׁיו הַנִּצְמָדִים לְבַעַל פְּעוֹר׃ 25.6. וְהִנֵּה אִישׁ מִבְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל בָּא וַיַּקְרֵב אֶל־אֶחָיו אֶת־הַמִּדְיָנִית לְעֵינֵי מֹשֶׁה וּלְעֵינֵי כָּל־עֲדַת בְּנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל וְהֵמָּה בֹכִים פֶּתַח אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד׃ 25.7. וַיַּרְא פִּינְחָס בֶּן־אֶלְעָזָר בֶּן־אַהֲרֹן הַכֹּהֵן וַיָּקָם מִתּוֹךְ הָעֵדָה וַיִּקַּח רֹמַח בְּיָדוֹ׃ 25.8. וַיָּבֹא אַחַר אִישׁ־יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶל־הַקֻּבָּה וַיִּדְקֹר אֶת־שְׁנֵיהֶם אֵת אִישׁ יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאֶת־הָאִשָּׁה אֶל־קֳבָתָהּ וַתֵּעָצַר הַמַּגֵּפָה מֵעַל בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 25.9. וַיִּהְיוּ הַמֵּתִים בַּמַּגֵּפָה אַרְבָּעָה וְעֶשְׂרִים אָלֶף׃ 5.6. Speak unto the children of Israel: When a man or woman shall commit any sin that men commit, to commit a trespass against the LORD, and that soul be guilty;" 5.7. then they shall confess their sin which they have done; and he shall make restitution for his guilt in full, and add unto it the fifth part thereof, and give it unto him in respect of whom he hath been guilty." 5.8. But if the man have no kinsman to whom restitution may be made for the guilt, the restitution for guilt which is made shall be the LORD’S, even the priest’s; besides the ram of the atonement, whereby atonement shall be made for him." 5.22. and this water that causeth the curse shall go into thy bowels, and make thy belly to swell, and thy thigh to fall away’; and the woman shall say: ‘Amen, Amen.’" 25.1. And Israel abode in Shittim, and the people began to commit harlotry with the daughters of Moab." 25.2. And they called the people unto the sacrifices of their gods; and the people did eat, and bowed down to their gods." 25.3. And Israel joined himself unto the Baal of Peor; and the anger of the LORD was kindled against Israel." 25.4. And the LORD said unto Moses: ‘Take all the chiefs of the people, and hang them up unto the LORD in face of the sun, that the fierce anger of the LORD may turn away from Israel.’" 25.5. And Moses said unto the judges of Israel: ‘Slay ye every one his men that have joined themselves unto the Baal of Peor.’" 25.6. And, behold, one of the children of Israel came and brought unto his brethren a Midianitish woman in the sight of Moses, and in the sight of all the congregation of the children of Israel, while they were weeping at the door of the tent of meeting." 25.7. And when Phinehas, the son of Eleazar, the son of Aaron the priest, saw it, he rose up from the midst of the congregation, and took a spear in his hand." 25.8. And he went after the man of Israel into the chamber, and thrust both of them through, the man of Israel, and the woman through her belly. So the plague was stayed from the children of Israel." 25.9. And those that died by the plague were twenty and four thousand."
8. Hebrew Bible, Proverbs, 23.22 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

23.22. שְׁמַע לְאָבִיךָ זֶה יְלָדֶךָ וְאַל־תָּבוּז כִּי־זָקְנָה אִמֶּךָ׃ 23.22. Hearken unto thy father that begot thee, And despise not thy mother when she is old."
9. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 17.14, 74.8, 119.126, 119.176 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

17.14. מִמְתִים יָדְךָ יְהוָה מִמְתִים מֵחֶלֶד חֶלְקָם בַּחַיִּים וצפינך [וּצְפוּנְךָ] תְּמַלֵּא בִטְנָם יִשְׂבְּעוּ בָנִים וְהִנִּיחוּ יִתְרָם לְעוֹלְלֵיהֶם׃ 74.8. אָמְרוּ בְלִבָּם נִינָם יָחַד שָׂרְפוּ כָל־מוֹעֲדֵי־אֵל בָּאָרֶץ׃ 119.126. עֵת לַעֲשׂוֹת לַיהוָה הֵפֵרוּ תּוֹרָתֶךָ׃ 119.176. תָּעִיתִי כְּשֶׂה אֹבֵד בַּקֵּשׁ עַבְדֶּךָ כִּי מִצְוֺתֶיךָ לֹא שָׁכָחְתִּי׃ 17.14. From men, by Thy hand, O LORD, From men of the world, whose portion is in this life, And whose belly Thou fillest with Thy treasure; Who have children in plenty, And leave their abundance to their babes." 74.8. They said in their heart: 'Let us make havoc of them altogether'; They have burned up all the meeting-places of God in the land." 119.126. It is time for the LORD to work; They have made void Thy law." 119.176. I have gone astray like a lost sheep; seek Thy servant; For I have not forgotten Thy commandments."
10. Hebrew Bible, Ruth, 2.4 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

2.4. וְהִנֵּה־בֹעַז בָּא מִבֵּית לֶחֶם וַיֹּאמֶר לַקּוֹצְרִים יְהוָה עִמָּכֶם וַיֹּאמְרוּ לוֹ יְבָרֶכְךָ יְהוָה׃ 2.4. And, behold, Boaz came from Beth-lehem, and said unto the reapers: ‘The LORD be with you.’ And they answered him: ‘The LORD bless thee.’"
11. Hebrew Bible, 1 Kings, 12.20-12.21, 12.32 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

12.21. ויבאו [וַיָּבֹא] רְחַבְעָם יְרוּשָׁלִַם וַיַּקְהֵל אֶת־כָּל־בֵּית יְהוּדָה וְאֶת־שֵׁבֶט בִּנְיָמִן מֵאָה וּשְׁמֹנִים אֶלֶף בָּחוּר עֹשֵׂה מִלְחָמָה לְהִלָּחֵם עִם־בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל לְהָשִׁיב אֶת־הַמְּלוּכָה לִרְחַבְעָם בֶּן־שְׁלֹמֹה׃ 12.32. וַיַּעַשׂ יָרָבְעָם חָג בַּחֹדֶשׁ הַשְּׁמִינִי בַּחֲמִשָּׁה־עָשָׂר יוֹם לַחֹדֶשׁ כֶּחָג אֲשֶׁר בִּיהוּדָה וַיַּעַל עַל־הַמִּזְבֵּחַ כֵּן עָשָׂה בְּבֵית־אֵל לְזַבֵּחַ לָעֲגָלִים אֲשֶׁר־עָשָׂה וְהֶעֱמִיד בְּבֵית אֵל אֶת־כֹּהֲנֵי הַבָּמוֹת אֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה׃ 12.20. And it came to pass, when all Israel heard that Jeroboam was returned, that they sent and called him unto the congregation, and made him king over all Israel; there was none that followed the house of David, but the tribe of Judah only." 12.21. And when Rehoboam was come to Jerusalem, be assembled all the house of Judah, and the tribe of Benjamin, a hundred and fourscore thousand chosen men that were warriors, to fight against the house of Israel, to bring the kingdom back to Rehoboam the son of Solomon." 12.32. And Jeroboam ordained a feast in the eighth month, on the fifteenth day of the month, like unto the feast that is in Judah, and he went up unto the altar; so did he in Beth-el, to sacrifice unto the calves that he had made; and he placed in Beth-el the priests of the high places that he had made."
12. Hebrew Bible, 1 Samuel, 9.3 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

9.3. וַתֹּאבַדְנָה הָאֲתֹנוֹת לְקִישׁ אֲבִי שָׁאוּל וַיֹּאמֶר קִישׁ אֶל־שָׁאוּל בְּנוֹ קַח־נָא אִתְּךָ אֶת־אַחַד מֵהַנְּעָרִים וְקוּם לֵךְ בַּקֵּשׁ אֶת־הָאֲתֹנֹת׃ 9.3. And the asses of Qish Sha᾽ul’s father were lost. And Qish said to Sha᾽ul his son, Take now one of the servants with thee, and arise, go seek the asses."
13. Hebrew Bible, 2 Kings, 23.25 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

23.25. וְכָמֹהוּ לֹא־הָיָה לְפָנָיו מֶלֶךְ אֲשֶׁר־שָׁב אֶל־יְהוָה בְּכָל־לְבָבוֹ וּבְכָל־נַפְשׁוֹ וּבְכָל־מְאֹדוֹ כְּכֹל תּוֹרַת מֹשֶׁה וְאַחֲרָיו לֹא־קָם כָּמֹהוּ׃ 23.25. And like unto him was there no king before him, that turned to the LORD with all his heart, and with all his soul, and with all his might, according to all the law of Moses; neither after him arose there any like him."
14. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 27.13, 33.14, 44.6, 60.22 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

27.13. וְהָיָה בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא יִתָּקַע בְּשׁוֹפָר גָּדוֹל וּבָאוּ הָאֹבְדִים בְּאֶרֶץ אַשּׁוּר וְהַנִּדָּחִים בְּאֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם וְהִשְׁתַּחֲווּ לַיהוָה בְּהַר הַקֹּדֶשׁ בִּירוּשָׁלִָם׃ 33.14. פָּחֲדוּ בְצִיּוֹן חַטָּאִים אָחֲזָה רְעָדָה חֲנֵפִים מִי יָגוּר לָנוּ אֵשׁ אוֹכֵלָה מִי־יָגוּר לָנוּ מוֹקְדֵי עוֹלָם׃ 44.6. כֹּה־אָמַר יְהוָה מֶלֶךְ־יִשְׂרָאֵל וְגֹאֲלוֹ יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת אֲנִי רִאשׁוֹן וַאֲנִי אַחֲרוֹן וּמִבַּלְעָדַי אֵין אֱלֹהִים׃ 60.22. הַקָּטֹן יִהְיֶה לָאֶלֶף וְהַצָּעִיר לְגוֹי עָצוּם אֲנִי יְהוָה בְּעִתָּהּ אֲחִישֶׁנָּה׃ 27.13. And it shall come to pass in that day, That a great horn shall be blown; And they shall come that were lost in the land of Assyria, And they that were dispersed in the land of Egypt; And they shall worship the LORD in the holy mountain at Jerusalem." 33.14. The sinners in Zion are afraid; Trembling hath seized the ungodly: ‘Who among us shall dwell with the devouring fire? Who among us shall dwell with everlasting burnings?’" 44.6. Thus saith the LORD, the King of Israel, And his Redeemer the LORD of hosts: I am the first, and I am the last, And beside Me there is no God." 60.22. The smallest shall become a thousand, And the least a mighty nation; I the LORD will hasten it in its time."
15. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 2.2, 50.6 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

2.2. הָלֹךְ וְקָרָאתָ בְאָזְנֵי יְרוּשָׁלִַם לֵאמֹר כֹּה אָמַר יְהוָה זָכַרְתִּי לָךְ חֶסֶד נְעוּרַיִךְ אַהֲבַת כְּלוּלֹתָיִךְ לֶכְתֵּךְ אַחֲרַי בַּמִּדְבָּר בְּאֶרֶץ לֹא זְרוּעָה׃ 2.2. כִּי מֵעוֹלָם שָׁבַרְתִּי עֻלֵּךְ נִתַּקְתִּי מוֹסְרֹתַיִךְ וַתֹּאמְרִי לֹא אעבד [אֶעֱבוֹר] כִּי עַל־כָּל־גִּבְעָה גְּבֹהָה וְתַחַת כָּל־עֵץ רַעֲנָן אַתְּ צֹעָה זֹנָה׃ 50.6. צֹאן אֹבְדוֹת היה [הָיוּ] עַמִּי רֹעֵיהֶם הִתְעוּם הָרִים שובבים [שׁוֹבְבוּם] מֵהַר אֶל־גִּבְעָה הָלָכוּ שָׁכְחוּ רִבְצָם׃ 2.2. Go, and cry in the ears of Jerusalem, saying: Thus saith the LORD: I remember for thee the affection of thy youth, the love of thine espousals; how thou wentest after Me in the wilderness, in a land that was not sown." 50.6. My people hath been lost sheep; Their shepherds have caused them to go astray, They have turned them away on the mountains; They have gone from mountain to hill, They have forgotten their resting-place."
16. Hebrew Bible, Judges, 6.12 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

6.12. וַיֵּרָא אֵלָיו מַלְּאַךְ יְהוָה וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלָיו יְהוָה עִמְּךָ גִּבּוֹר הֶחָיִל׃ 6.12. And the angel of the Lord appeared to him, and said to him, The Lord is with thee, thou mighty man of valour."
17. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 34.4, 34.16 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

34.4. אֶת־הַנַּחְלוֹת לֹא חִזַּקְתֶּם וְאֶת־הַחוֹלָה לֹא־רִפֵּאתֶם וְלַנִּשְׁבֶּרֶת לֹא חֲבַשְׁתֶּם וְאֶת־הַנִּדַּחַת לֹא הֲשֵׁבֹתֶם וְאֶת־הָאֹבֶדֶת לֹא בִקַּשְׁתֶּם וּבְחָזְקָה רְדִיתֶם אֹתָם וּבְפָרֶךְ׃ 34.16. אֶת־הָאֹבֶדֶת אֲבַקֵּשׁ וְאֶת־הַנִּדַּחַת אָשִׁיב וְלַנִּשְׁבֶּרֶת אֶחֱבֹשׁ וְאֶת־הַחוֹלָה אֲחַזֵּק וְאֶת־הַשְּׁמֵנָה וְאֶת־הַחֲזָקָה אַשְׁמִיד אֶרְעֶנָּה בְמִשְׁפָּט׃ 34.4. The weak have ye not strengthened, neither have ye healed that which was sick, neither have ye bound up that which was broken, neither have ye brought back that which was driven away, neither have ye sought that which was lost; but with force have ye ruled over them and with rigour." 34.16. I will seek that which was lost, and will bring back that which was driven away, and will bind up that which was broken, and will strengthen that which was sick; and the fat and the strong I will destroy, I will feed them in justice."
18. Hebrew Bible, Ecclesiastes, 10.1 (5th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

10.1. אִם־קֵהָה הַבַּרְזֶל וְהוּא לֹא־פָנִים קִלְקַל וַחֲיָלִים יְגַבֵּר וְיִתְרוֹן הכשיר [הַכְשֵׁר] חָכְמָה׃ 10.1. זְבוּבֵי מָוֶת יַבְאִישׁ יַבִּיעַ שֶׁמֶן רוֹקֵחַ יָקָר מֵחָכְמָה מִכָּבוֹד סִכְלוּת מְעָט׃ 10.1. Dead flies make the ointment of the perfumer fetid and putrid; So doth a little folly outweigh wisdom and honour."
19. Septuagint, Tobit, 9.6 (4th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

9.6. In the morning they both got up early and came to the wedding feast. And Gabael blessed Tobias and his wife.
20. Dead Sea Scrolls, Damascus Covenant, 9.8-9.10, 12.10, 14.3 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

21. Dead Sea Scrolls, (Cairo Damascus Covenant) Cd-A, 9.8-9.10, 12.10, 14.3 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

22. Dead Sea Scrolls, Community Rule, 1.2, 2.1, 2.18, 3.13-4.26 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

23. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 7.30, 17.31, 50.1-50.6 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

17.31. What is brighter than the sun? Yet its light fails. So flesh and blood devise evil. 50.1. The leader of his brethren and the pride of his people was Simon the high priest, son of Onias,who in his life repaired the house,and in his time fortified the temple. 50.1. like an olive tree putting forth its fruit,and like a cypress towering in the clouds. 50.2. He laid the foundations for the high double walls,the high retaining walls for the temple enclosure. 50.2. Then Simon came down, and lifted up his hands over the whole congregation of the sons of Israel,to pronounce the blessing of the Lord with his lips,and to glory in his name; 50.3. In his days a cistern for water was quarried out,a reservoir like the sea in circumference. 50.4. He considered how to save his people from ruin,and fortified the city to withstand a seige. 50.5. How glorious he was when the people gathered round him as he came out of the inner sanctuary!
24. Philo of Alexandria, On The Special Laws, 1.84 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

1.84. But the high priest is commanded to wear a similar dress when he goes into the holy of holies to offer incense, because linen is not made of any animal that dies, as woollen garments are. He is also commanded to wear another robe also, having very beautiful embroidery and ornament upon it, so that it may seem to be a copy and representation of the world. And the description of the ornament is a clear proof of this;
25. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 10.277-10.278, 12.145-12.146, 13.297, 18.9, 18.16 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

10.277. All these things did this man leave in writing, as God had showed them to him, insomuch that such as read his prophecies, and see how they have been fulfilled, would wonder at the honor wherewith God honored Daniel; and may thence discover how the Epicureans are in an error 10.278. who cast Providence out of human life, and do not believe that God takes care of the affairs of the world, nor that the universe is governed and continued in being by that blessed and immortal nature, but say that the world is carried along of its own accord, without a ruler and a curator; 12.145. 4. And these were the contents of this epistle. He also published a decree through all his kingdom in honor of the temple, which contained what follows: “It shall be lawful for no foreigner to come within the limits of the temple round about; which thing is forbidden also to the Jews, unless to those who, according to their own custom, have purified themselves. 12.146. Nor let any flesh of horses, or of mules, or of asses, he brought into the city, whether they be wild or tame; nor that of leopards, or foxes, or hares; and, in general, that of any animal which is forbidden for the Jews to eat. Nor let their skins be brought into it; nor let any such animal be bred up in the city. Let them only be permitted to use the sacrifices derived from their forefathers, with which they have been obliged to make acceptable atonements to God. And he that transgresseth any of these orders, let him pay to the priests three thousand drachmae of silver.” 13.297. but of these matters we shall speak hereafter. What I would now explain is this, that the Pharisees have delivered to the people a great many observances by succession from their fathers, which are not written in the laws of Moses; and for that reason it is that the Sadducees reject them, and say that we are to esteem those observances to be obligatory which are in the written word, but are not to observe what are derived from the tradition of our forefathers. 18.9. Such were the consequences of this, that the customs of our fathers were altered, and such a change was made, as added a mighty weight toward bringing all to destruction, which these men occasioned by their thus conspiring together; for Judas and Sadduc, who excited a fourth philosophic sect among us, and had a great many followers therein, filled our civil government with tumults at present, and laid the foundations of our future miseries, by this system of philosophy, which we were before unacquainted withal 18.9. 3. But Vitellius came into Judea, and went up to Jerusalem; it was at the time of that festival which is called the Passover. Vitellius was there magnificently received, and released the inhabitants of Jerusalem from all the taxes upon the fruits that were bought and sold, and gave them leave to have the care of the high priest’s vestments, with all their ornaments, and to have them under the custody of the priests in the temple, which power they used to have formerly 18.16. 4. But the doctrine of the Sadducees is this: That souls die with the bodies; nor do they regard the observation of any thing besides what the law enjoins them; for they think it an instance of virtue to dispute with those teachers of philosophy whom they frequent: 18.16. o she undertook to repay it. Accordingly, Alexander paid them five talents at Alexandria, and promised to pay them the rest of that sum at Dicearchia [Puteoli]; and this he did out of the fear he was in that Agrippa would soon spend it. So this Cypros set her husband free, and dismissed him to go on with his navigation to Italy, while she and her children departed for Judea.
26. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 2.119-2.166 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.119. 2. For there are three philosophical sects among the Jews. The followers of the first of which are the Pharisees; of the second, the Sadducees; and the third sect, which pretends to a severer discipline, are called Essenes. These last are Jews by birth, and seem to have a greater affection for one another than the other sects have. 2.121. They do not absolutely deny the fitness of marriage, and the succession of mankind thereby continued; but they guard against the lascivious behavior of women, and are persuaded that none of them preserve their fidelity to one man. 2.122. 3. These men are despisers of riches, and so very communicative as raises our admiration. Nor is there anyone to be found among them who hath more than another; for it is a law among them, that those who come to them must let what they have be common to the whole order,—insomuch that among them all there is no appearance of poverty, or excess of riches, but every one’s possessions are intermingled with every other’s possessions; and so there is, as it were, one patrimony among all the brethren. 2.123. They think that oil is a defilement; and if anyone of them be anointed without his own approbation, it is wiped off his body; for they think to be sweaty is a good thing, as they do also to be clothed in white garments. They also have stewards appointed to take care of their common affairs, who every one of them have no separate business for any, but what is for the use of them all. 2.124. 4. They have no one certain city, but many of them dwell in every city; and if any of their sect come from other places, what they have lies open for them, just as if it were their own; and they go in to such as they never knew before, as if they had been ever so long acquainted with them. 2.125. For which reason they carry nothing at all with them when they travel into remote parts, though still they take their weapons with them, for fear of thieves. Accordingly, there is, in every city where they live, one appointed particularly to take care of strangers, and to provide garments and other necessaries for them. 2.126. But the habit and management of their bodies is such as children use who are in fear of their masters. Nor do they allow of the change of garments, or of shoes, till they be first entirely torn to pieces or worn out by time. 2.127. Nor do they either buy or sell anything to one another; but every one of them gives what he hath to him that wanteth it, and receives from him again in lieu of it what may be convenient for himself; and although there be no requital made, they are fully allowed to take what they want of whomsoever they please. 2.128. 5. And as for their piety towards God, it is very extraordinary; for before sunrising they speak not a word about profane matters, but put up certain prayers which they have received from their forefathers, as if they made a supplication for its rising. 2.129. After this every one of them are sent away by their curators, to exercise some of those arts wherein they are skilled, in which they labor with great diligence till the fifth hour. After which they assemble themselves together again into one place; and when they have clothed themselves in white veils, they then bathe their bodies in cold water. And after this purification is over, they every one meet together in an apartment of their own, into which it is not permitted to any of another sect to enter; while they go, after a pure manner, into the dining-room, as into a certain holy temple 2.131. but a priest says grace before meat; and it is unlawful for anyone to taste of the food before grace be said. The same priest, when he hath dined, says grace again after meat; and when they begin, and when they end, they praise God, as he that bestows their food upon them; after which they lay aside their [white] garments, and betake themselves to their labors again till the evening; 2.132. then they return home to supper, after the same manner; and if there be any strangers there, they sit down with them. Nor is there ever any clamor or disturbance to pollute their house, but they give every one leave to speak in their turn; 2.133. which silence thus kept in their house appears to foreigners like some tremendous mystery; the cause of which is that perpetual sobriety they exercise, and the same settled measure of meat and drink that is allotted to them, and that such as is abundantly sufficient for them. 2.134. 6. And truly, as for other things, they do nothing but according to the injunctions of their curators; only these two things are done among them at everyone’s own free will, which are to assist those that want it, and to show mercy; for they are permitted of their own accord to afford succor to such as deserve it, when they stand in need of it, and to bestow food on those that are in distress; but they cannot give any thing to their kindred without the curators. 2.135. They dispense their anger after a just manner, and restrain their passion. They are eminent for fidelity, and are the ministers of peace; whatsoever they say also is firmer than an oath; but swearing is avoided by them, and they esteem it worse than perjury for they say that he who cannot be believed without [swearing by] God is already condemned. 2.136. They also take great pains in studying the writings of the ancients, and choose out of them what is most for the advantage of their soul and body; and they inquire after such roots and medicinal stones as may cure their distempers. 2.137. 7. But now, if anyone hath a mind to come over to their sect, he is not immediately admitted, but he is prescribed the same method of living which they use, for a year, while he continues excluded; and they give him also a small hatchet, and the fore-mentioned girdle, and the white garment. 2.138. And when he hath given evidence, during that time, that he can observe their continence, he approaches nearer to their way of living, and is made a partaker of the waters of purification; yet is he not even now admitted to live with them; for after this demonstration of his fortitude, his temper is tried two more years; and if he appear to be worthy, they then admit him into their society. 2.139. And before he is allowed to touch their common food, he is obliged to take tremendous oaths, that, in the first place, he will exercise piety towards God, and then that he will observe justice towards men, and that he will do no harm to any one, either of his own accord, or by the command of others; that he will always hate the wicked, and be assistant to the righteous; 2.141. that he will be perpetually a lover of truth, and propose to himself to reprove those that tell lies; that he will keep his hands clear from theft, and his soul from unlawful gains; and that he will neither conceal anything from those of his own sect, nor discover any of their doctrines to others, no, not though anyone should compel him so to do at the hazard of his life. 2.142. Moreover, he swears to communicate their doctrines to no one any otherwise than as he received them himself; that he will abstain from robbery, and will equally preserve the books belonging to their sect, and the names of the angels [or messengers]. These are the oaths by which they secure their proselytes to themselves. 2.143. 8. But for those that are caught in any heinous sins, they cast them out of their society; and he who is thus separated from them does often die after a miserable manner; for as he is bound by the oath he hath taken, and by the customs he hath been engaged in, he is not at liberty to partake of that food that he meets with elsewhere, but is forced to eat grass, and to famish his body with hunger, till he perish; 2.144. for which reason they receive many of them again when they are at their last gasp, out of compassion to them, as thinking the miseries they have endured till they came to the very brink of death to be a sufficient punishment for the sins they had been guilty of. 2.145. 9. But in the judgments they exercise they are most accurate and just, nor do they pass sentence by the votes of a court that is fewer than a hundred. And as to what is once determined by that number, it is unalterable. What they most of all honor, after God himself, is the name of their legislator [Moses], whom, if anyone blaspheme, he is punished capitally. 2.146. They also think it a good thing to obey their elders, and the major part. Accordingly, if ten of them be sitting together, no one of them will speak while the other nine are against it. 2.147. They also avoid spitting in the midst of them, or on the right side. Moreover, they are stricter than any other of the Jews in resting from their labors on the seventh day; for they not only get their food ready the day before, that they may not be obliged to kindle a fire on that day, but they will not remove any vessel out of its place, nor go to stool thereon. 2.148. Nay, on theother days they dig a small pit, a foot deep, with a paddle (which kind of hatchet is given them when they are first admitted among them); and covering themselves round with their garment, that they may not affront the Divine rays of light, they ease themselves into that pit 2.149. after which they put the earth that was dug out again into the pit; and even this they do only in the more lonely places, which they choose out for this purpose; and although this easement of the body be natural, yet it is a rule with them to wash themselves after it, as if it were a defilement to them. 2.151. They are long-lived also, insomuch that many of them live above a hundred years, by means of the simplicity of their diet; nay, as I think, by means of the regular course of life they observe also. They condemn the miseries of life, and are above pain, by the generosity of their mind. And as for death, if it will be for their glory, they esteem it better than living always; 2.152. and indeed our war with the Romans gave abundant evidence what great souls they had in their trials, wherein, although they were tortured and distorted, burnt and torn to pieces, and went through all kinds of instruments of torment, that they might be forced either to blaspheme their legislator, or to eat what was forbidden them, yet could they not be made to do either of them, no, nor once to flatter their tormentors, or to shed a tear; 2.153. but they smiled in their very pains, and laughed those to scorn who inflicted the torments upon them, and resigned up their souls with great alacrity, as expecting to receive them again. 2.154. 11. For their doctrine is this: That bodies are corruptible, and that the matter they are made of is not permanent; but that the souls are immortal, and continue forever; and that they come out of the most subtile air, and are united to their bodies as to prisons, into which they are drawn by a certain natural enticement; 2.155. but that when they are set free from the bonds of the flesh, they then, as released from a long bondage, rejoice and mount upward. And this is like the opinions of the Greeks, that good souls have their habitations beyond the ocean, in a region that is neither oppressed with storms of rain or snow, or with intense heat, but that this place is such as is refreshed by the gentle breathing of a west wind, that is perpetually blowing from the ocean; while they allot to bad souls a dark and tempestuous den, full of never-ceasing punishments. 2.156. And indeed the Greeks seem to me to have followed the same notion, when they allot the islands of the blessed to their brave men, whom they call heroes and demigods; and to the souls of the wicked, the region of the ungodly, in Hades, where their fables relate that certain persons, such as Sisyphus, and Tantalus, and Ixion, and Tityus, are punished; which is built on this first supposition, that souls are immortal; and thence are those exhortations to virtue, and dehortations from wickedness collected; 2.157. whereby good men are bettered in the conduct of their life by the hope they have of reward after their death; and whereby the vehement inclinations of bad men to vice are restrained, by the fear and expectation they are in, that although they should lie concealed in this life, they should suffer immortal punishment after their death. 2.158. These are the Divine doctrines of the Essenes about the soul, which lay an unavoidable bait for such as have once had a taste of their philosophy. 2.159. 12. There are also those among them who undertake to foretell things to come, by reading the holy books, and using several sorts of purifications, and being perpetually conversant in the discourses of the prophets; and it is but seldom that they miss in their predictions. 2.161. However, they try their spouses for three years; and if they find that they have their natural purgations thrice, as trials that they are likely to be fruitful, they then actually marry them. But they do not use to accompany with their wives when they are with child, as a demonstration that they do not marry out of regard to pleasure, but for the sake of posterity. Now the women go into the baths with some of their garments on, as the men do with somewhat girded about them. And these are the customs of this order of Essenes. 2.162. 14. But then as to the two other orders at first mentioned: the Pharisees are those who are esteemed most skillful in the exact explication of their laws, and introduce the first sect. These ascribe all to fate [or providence], and to God 2.163. and yet allow, that to act what is right, or the contrary, is principally in the power of men, although fate does cooperate in every action. They say that all souls are incorruptible, but that the souls of good men only are removed into other bodies,—but that the souls of bad men are subject to eternal punishment. 2.164. But the Sadducees are those that compose the second order, and take away fate entirely, and suppose that God is not concerned in our doing or not doing what is evil; 2.165. and they say, that to act what is good, or what is evil, is at men’s own choice, and that the one or the other belongs so to every one, that they may act as they please. They also take away the belief of the immortal duration of the soul, and the punishments and rewards in Hades. 2.166. Moreover, the Pharisees are friendly to one another, and are for the exercise of concord, and regard for the public; but the behavior of the Sadducees one towards another is in some degree wild, and their conversation with those that are of their own party is as barbarous as if they were strangers to them. And this is what I had to say concerning the philosophic sects among the Jews.
27. Mishnah, Avodah Zarah, 2.3 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

2.3. The following things belonging to non-Jews are forbidden [for Jews to use] and the prohibition extends to any benefit that may be derived from them: wine, or a non-Jew’s vinegar that was formerly wine, Hadrianic earthenware, skins pierced at the animal’s heart. Rabban Shimon Gamaliel says: when its tear is round, [the skin] is forbidden, but if oblong it is permitted. Meat which is being brought into a place of idol worship is permitted, but that which is brought out is forbidden, because it is like a sacrifice to the dead, this is the opinion of Rabbi Akiba. With non-Jews going on a pilgrimage [to worship idols] it is forbidden to have any business transactions, but with those returning it is permitted.
28. Mishnah, Avot, 1.4, 2.11 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

1.4. Yose ben Yoezer (a man) of Zeredah and Yose ben Yoha [a man] of Jerusalem received [the oral tradition] from them [i.e. Shimon the Righteous and Antigonus]. Yose ben Yoezer used to say: let thy house be a house of meeting for the Sages and sit in the very dust of their feet, and drink in their words with thirst." 2.11. Rabbi Joshua said: an evil eye, the evil inclination, and hatred for humankind put a person out of the world."
29. Mishnah, Bava Qamma, 8.6 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

8.6. If a man boxed the ear of his fellow, he must pay him a sela (four. Rabbi Judah says in the name of Rabbi Yose the Galilean: “A maneh (one hundred.” If he slapped him he must pay 200 zuz. If with the back of his hand, he must pay him 400 zuz. If he tore at his ear, plucked out his hair, spat at him and his spit touched him, or pulled his cloak from off him, or loosed a woman’s hair in the street, he must pay 400 zuz. This is the general rule: all is in accordance with the person’s honor. Rabbi Akiva said: “Even the poor in Israel are regarded as free people who have lost their possessions, for they are the children of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob. It once happened that a man unloosed a woman’s hair in the street and she came before Rabbi Akiva and he condemned him to pay her 400 zuz. He said, “Rabbi, give me time”. And he gave him time. He caught her standing at the entrance to her courtyard, and he broke a jug of one issar’s worth of oil in front of her. She unloosed her hair and scooped up the oil in her hand and laid her hand on her head. He had set up witnesses up against her and he came before Rabbi Akiva and said to him, “Rabbi, should I give one such as this 400 zuz?” He answered, “You have said nothing.” If a man injures himself, even though he has no right to do so, is not liable. But others who injure him are liable. If a man cuts down his own saplings, even though he has no right to do so, is not liable. But, if others cut them down, they are liable."
30. Mishnah, Berachot, 1.5, 5.3 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

1.5. They mention the Exodus from Egypt at night. Rabbi Elazar ben Azaryah said: \"Behold, I am almost a seventy-year old man and I have not succeeded in [understanding why] the Exodus from Egypt should be mentioned at night, until Ben Zoma explained it from a verse (Deuteronomy 16:3): ‘In order that you may remember the day you left Egypt all the days of your life.’ ‘The days of your life’ refers to the days. ‘All the days of your life’ refers to the nights. And the sages say: ‘the days of your life’ refers to this world. ‘All the days of your life’ includes the days of the Messiah." 5.3. The one who says, “On a bird’s nest may Your mercy be extended,” [or] “For good may Your name be blessed” or “We give thanks, we give thanks,” they silence him. One who was passing before the ark and made a mistake, another should pass in his place, and he should not be as one who refuses at that moment. Where does he begin? At the beginning of the blessing in which the other made a mistake."
31. Mishnah, Gittin, 4.3 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

4.3. A widow is paid back [her kethubah] from the property of orphans only by taking an oath. [When the court] refrained from imposing an oath on her, Rabban Gamaliel the Elder established that she could take any vow which the orphans wanted and collect her kethubah. Witnesses sign their names on a get because of tikkun olam. Hillel instituted the prosbul because of tikkun olam."
32. Mishnah, Hagigah, 2.1 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

2.1. They may not expound upon the subject of forbidden relations in the presence of three. Nor the work of creation in the presence of two. Nor [the work of] the chariot in the presence of one, unless he is a sage and understands of his own knowledge. Whoever speculates upon four things, it would have been better had he not come into the world: what is above, what is beneath, what came before, and what came after. And whoever takes no thought for the honor of his creator, it would have been better had he not come into the world."
33. Mishnah, Hulin, 2.7-2.10 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

2.7. If one slaughtered for a non-Jew, the slaughtering is valid. Rabbi Eliezer declares it invalid. Rabbi Eliezer said: even if one slaughtered a beast with the intention that a non-Jew should eat [only] its liver, the slaughtering is invalid, for the thoughts of a non-Jew are usually directed towards idolatry. Rabbi Yose said: is there not a kal vehomer argument? For if in the case of consecrated animals, where a wrongful intention can render invalid, it is established that everything depends solely upon the intention of him who performs the service, how much more in the case of unconsecrated animals, where a wrongful intention cannot render invalid, is it not logical that everything should depend solely upon the intention of him who slaughters!" 2.8. If one slaughtered [an animal] as a sacrifice to mountains, hills, seas, rivers, or deserts, the slaughtering is invalid. If two persons held a knife and slaughtered [an animal], one intending it as a sacrifice to one of these things and the other for a legitimate purpose, the slaughtering is invalid." 2.9. One may not slaughter [so that the blood runs] into the sea or into rivers, or into vessels, But one may slaughter into a pool (or vessel) of water. And when on board a ship on to vessels. One may not slaughter at all into a hole, but one may dig a hole in his own house for the blood to run into. In the street, however, he should not do so as not to follow the ways of the heretics." 2.10. If one slaughtered [an unconsecrated animal outside the Temple court] for it to be an olah or a shelamim or an asham for a doubtful sin or as a Pesah or a todah, the slaughtering is invalid. But Rabbi Shimon declares it valid. If two persons held one knife and slaughtered [an unconsecrated animal outside the Temple court], one declaring it to be one of the above and the other intending it for a legitimate purpose, the slaughtering is invalid. If one slaughtered [an unconsecrated animal outside the Temple court] for it to be a hatat or an asham or a first-born or the tithe [of cattle] or a substitute offering, the slaughtering is valid. This is the general rule: if one slaughtered an animal declaring it to be a sacrifice which can be brought either as a voluntary or a freewill-offering it is invalid, but if he declares it to be a sacrifice which cannot be brought either as a votive or a freewill-offering it is valid."
34. Mishnah, Kelim, 1.6-1.9 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

1.6. There are ten grades of holiness: the land of Israel is holier than all other lands. And what is the nature of its holiness? That from it are brought the omer, the firstfruits and the two loaves, which cannot be brought from any of the other lands." 1.7. Cities that are walled are holier, for metzoras must be sent out of them and a corpse, though it may be carried about within them as long as it is desired, may not be brought back once it has been taken out." 1.8. The area within the wall [of Jerusalem] is holier, for it is there that lesser holy things and second tithe may be eaten. The Temple Mount is holier, for zavim, zavot, menstruants and women after childbirth may not enter it. The chel is holier, for neither non-Jews nor one who contracted corpse impurity may enter it. The court of women is holier, for a tevul yom may not enter it, though he is not obligated a hatat for doing so. The court of the Israelites is holier, for a man who has not yet offered his obligatory sacrifices may not enter it, and if he enters he is liable for a hatat. The court of the priests is holier, for Israelites may not enter it except when they are required to do so: for laying on of the hands, slaying or waving." 1.9. The area between the porch (ulam) and the altar is holier, for [priests] who have blemishes or unkempt hair may not enter it. The Hekhal is holier, for no one whose hands or feet are unwashed may enter it. The Holy of Holies is holier, for only the high priest, on Yom Kippur, at the time of the service, may enter it. Rabbi Yose said: in five respects the area between the porch and the altar is equal to the Hekhal, for those afflicted with blemishes or with a wild growth of hair, or who have drunk wine or whose hands or feet are unwashed may not enter there, and the people must keep away from the area between the porch and the altar when the incense is being burned."
35. Mishnah, Megillah, 4.8-4.9 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

4.8. If one says, “I will not pass before the ark in colored clothes,” even in white clothes he may not pass before it. [If one says], “I will not pass before it in shoes,” even barefoot he may not pass before it. One who makes his tefillin [for the head] round, it is dangerous and has no religious value. If he put them on his forehead or on the palm of his hand, behold this is the way of heresy. If he overlaid them with gold or put [the one for the hand] on his sleeve, behold this is the manner of the outsiders." 4.9. If one says “May the good bless you,” this is the way of heresy. [If one says], “May Your mercy reach the nest of a bird,” “May Your name be mentioned for the good,” “We give thanks, we give thanks,” they silence him. One who uses euphemisms in the portion dealing with forbidden marriages, he is silenced. If he says, [instead of] “And you shall not give any of your seed to be passed to Moloch,” (Leviticus 18:21) “You shall not give [your seed] to pass to a Gentile woman,” he silenced with a rebuke."
36. Mishnah, Menachot, 10.5 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

10.5. After the omer was offered they used to go out and find the market of Jerusalem already full of flour and parched grain [of the new produce]; This was without the approval of the rabbis, the words of Rabbi Meir. Rabbi Judah says: it was with the approval of the rabbis. After the omer was offered the new grain was permitted immediately, but for those that lived far off it was permitted only after midday. After the Temple was destroyed Rabbi Yoha ben Zakkai decreed that it should be forbidden throughout the day of the waving. Rabbi Judah said: is it not so forbidden by the law of the Torah, for it is said, “Until this very day?” Why was it permitted for those that lived far away from midday? Because they know that the court would not be negligent with it."
37. Mishnah, Parah, 3.3 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

3.3. They arrived at the Temple Mount and got down. Beneath the Temple Mount and the courts was a hollow which served as a protection against a grave in the depths. And at the entrance of the courtyard there was the jar of the ashes of the sin-offerings. They would bring a male from among the sheep and tie a rope between its horns, and a stick or a bushy twig was tied at the other end of the rope, and this was thrown into the jar. They then struck the male [sheep] was so that it started backwards. And [a child] took the ashes and put it [enough] so that it could be seen upon the water. Rabbi Yose said: do not give the Sadducees an opportunity to rule! Rather, [a child] himself took it and mixed it."
38. Mishnah, Rosh Hashanah, 2.1 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

2.1. If they don’t know him [the one who came to testify], they send another with him to testify concerning [his reliability]. Originally testimony concerning the new moon was accepted from anyone. When the minim disrupted this, it was decreed that testimony should be received only from persons known [to the court]."
39. Mishnah, Sanhedrin, 4.5, 7.6, 10.1-10.3, 10.6 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

4.5. How did they admonish witnesses in capital cases? They brought them in and admonished them, [saying], “Perhaps you will say something that is only a supposition or hearsay or secondhand, or even from a trustworthy man. Or perhaps you do not know that we shall check you with examination and inquiry? Know, moreover, that capital cases are not like non-capital cases: in non-capital cases a man may pay money and so make atonement, but in capital cases the witness is answerable for the blood of him [that is wrongfully condemned] and the blood of his descendants [that should have been born to him] to the end of the world.” For so have we found it with Cain that murdered his brother, for it says, “The bloods of your brother cry out” (Gen. 4:10). It doesn’t say, “The blood of your brother”, but rather “The bloods of your brother” meaning his blood and the blood of his descendants. Another saying is, “The bloods of your brother” that his blood was cast over trees and stones. Therefore but a single person was created in the world, to teach that if any man has caused a single life to perish from Israel, he is deemed by Scripture as if he had caused a whole world to perish; and anyone who saves a single soul from Israel, he is deemed by Scripture as if he had saved a whole world. Again [but a single person was created] for the sake of peace among humankind, that one should not say to another, “My father was greater than your father”. Again, [but a single person was created] against the heretics so they should not say, “There are many ruling powers in heaven”. Again [but a single person was created] to proclaim the greatness of the Holy Blessed One; for humans stamp many coins with one seal and they are all like one another; but the King of kings, the Holy Blessed One, has stamped every human with the seal of the first man, yet not one of them are like another. Therefore everyone must say, “For my sake was the world created.” And if perhaps you [witnesses] would say, “Why should we be involved with this trouble”, was it not said, “He, being a witness, whether he has seen or known, [if he does not speak it, then he shall bear his iniquity] (Lev. 5:1). And if perhaps you [witnesses] would say, “Why should we be guilty of the blood of this man?, was it not said, “When the wicked perish there is rejoicing” (Proverbs 11:10).]" 7.6. He who engages in idol-worship [is executed]. This includes the one whoserves it, sacrifices, offers incense, makes libations, bows to it, accepts it as a god, or says to it, “You are my god.” But he who embraces, kisses it, sweeps or sprinkles the ground before it, washes it, anoints it, clothes it, or puts shoes on it, he transgresses a negative commandment [but is not executed]. He who vows or swears by its name, violates a negative commandment. He who uncovers himself before Baal-Peor [is guilty and is to be stoned for] this is how it is worshipped. He who casts a stone on Merculis [is guilty and is to be stoned for] this is how it is worshipped." 10.1. All Israel have a portion in the world to come, for it says, “Your people, all of them righteous, shall possess the land for ever; They are the shoot that I planted, my handiwork in which I glory” (Isaiah 60:2. And these are the ones who have no portion in the world to come: He who maintains that resurrection is not a biblical doctrine, that the torah was not divinely revealed, and an epikoros. Rabbi Akiva says: “Even one who reads non-canonical books and one who whispers [a charm] over a wound and says, “I will not bring upon you any of the diseases whichbrought upon the Egyptians: for I the lord am you healer” (Exodus 15:26). Abba Shaul says: “Also one who pronounces the divine name as it is spelled.”" 10.2. Three kings and four commoners have no portion in the world to come:The three kings are Jeroboam, Ahab, and Manasseh. Rabbi Judah says: “Manasseh has a portion in the world to come, for it says, “He prayed to him, and He granted his prayer, and heard his plea and he restored him to Jerusalem, to his kingdom” (II Chronicles 33:13). They [the sages] said to him: “They restored him to his kingdom, but not to [his portion in] the world to come.” The four commoners are: Bilaam, Doeg, Ahitophel, and Gehazi." 10.3. The generation of the flood has no portion in the world to come, nor will they stand at the [last] judgment, as it says, “[And the Lord said,] my spirit will not always enter into judgment with man” (Genesis 6:3), [meaning] there will be neither judgment nor [my] spirit for them. The generation of the dispersion have no portion in the world to come, as it says, “So the Lord scattered them from there upon the face of all the earth” (Genesis 11:8): “So the lord scattered them”, refers to this world, “And from there the Lord scattered them” (Genesis 11:9), refers to the world to come. The men of Sodom have no portion in the world to come, as it says, “And the men of Sodom were wicked and great sinners before the Lord” (Genesis 13:1: “wicked” in this world, and “sinners” in the world to come; Yet will they stand at judgment. R. Nehemiah says: “Neither [the generation of the flood nor the men of Sodom] will stand at judgment, as it says, “Therefore the wicked shall not stand in judgment, nor sinners in the congregation of the righteous” (Psalms 1:5) “Therefore the wicked shall not stand in judgment”, refers to the generation of the flood; “nor sinners in the congregation of the righteous”, refers to the men of Sodom. They [the Sages] said to him: “They will not stand in the congregation of the righteous, but they will stand in the congregation of the wicked.” The spies have no portion in the world to come, as it says, “And those men that spread such calumnies about the land, died by the plague before the lord” (Numbers 14:37): “[they] died” in this world, “by the plague” in the world to come. The generation of the wilderness have no share in the world to come and will not stand at the [last] judgment, as it says, “In this wilderness they shall be consumed, and there they shall die” (Numbers 14:3, according to the words of Rabbi Akiba. Rabbi Eliezer says: “Concerning them it is said, ‘Bring in My devotees, who made a covet with Me over sacrifice” (Psalms 50:5). The congregation of Korah is not destined to ascend [from the earth], as it says, “And the earth closed upon them” in this world, “and they perished from among the congregation” (Numbers 16:33) in the world to come, according to the words of Rabbi Akiba. Rabbi Eliezer says: “Concerning them it is said, ‘The Lord kills and makes alive: He brings down to Sheol, and brings up” (I Samuel 2:6). The ten tribes will not return [to the Land of Israel], for it is said, “And He cast them into another land, as is this day” (Deuteronomy 29:2: just as the day goes and does not return, so they too went and will not return: according to the words of Rabbi Akiba. Rabbi Eliezer says: “‘As is this day’ just as the day darkens and then becomes light again, so the ten tribes even as it went dark for them, so will it in the future become light for them." 10.6. “And you shall gather all its spoil into the public square” (Deut. 13:17): if it had no public square, one is made for it; if the public square was outside of [the city], it is brought within it. “And you shall burn with fire the city, and all its spoil as a whole burnt offering for the Lord your God” (ibid.): “And all its spoil”, but not the spoil of heaven. From here they said, the holy objects in the city must be redeemed and the heave offerings (terumoth) allowed to rot; and the second tithe and the sacred writings hidden. “A whole burnt offering for the Lord your God”: Rabbi Shimon said: “The holy Blessed One declared, ‘If you execute judgment upon the seduced city, I will ascribe merit to you as though you had sacrificed to me a whole offering.’” “And it shall remain an everlasting ruin, never to be rebuilt”: it may not be made even into gardens and orchards, according to the words of Rabbi Yose the Galilean. Rabbi Akiva says: “Never to be rebuilt”: it may not be built as it was, but it may be made into gardens and orchards. “Let nothing that has been doomed stick to your hand, in order that the Lord may turn His blazing anger and show you compassion” (Deut. 13:18): as long as the wicked exist in the world, there is blazing anger in the world; when the wicked perish from the world, blazing anger disappears from the world.
40. Mishnah, Shabbat, 6.4 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

6.4. A man may not go out with a sword, bow, shield, club, or spear, and if he does go out, he incurs a sin-offering. Rabbi Eliezer says: they are ornaments for him. But the sages say, they are nothing but a disgrace, as it is said, “And they shall beat their swords into plowshares, and their spears into pruning hooks: nation shall not lift up sword against nation, neither shall they learn war any more” (Isaiah 2:4). A garter is clean, and they go out [wearing] it on Shabbat. Knee-bands are unclean, and they may not go out with them on Shabbat."
41. Mishnah, Sotah, 7.6-7.8, 9.15 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

7.6. How was the priestly blessing [pronounced]?In the province (outside of the Temple) it was said as three blessings, but in the Temple as one blessing. In the Temple the name was uttered as it is written, but in the province in its substituted name. In the province the priests raise their hands at the height of their shoulders, but in the Temple above their heads, except the high priest who does not raise his hands higher than the frontlet (on his forehead). Rabbi Judah says: even the high priest raises his hands higher than the frontlet, as it says, “And Aaron lifted up his hands toward the people and blessed them” (Leviticus 9:22)." 7.7. How were the benedictions of the high priest [performed]?The hazzan of the synagogue takes the Torah scroll and gives it to the president of the synagogue; the vice-president of the synagogue gives it to the high priest, and the high priest stands, receives [the scroll] and reads [the following portions]: “After the death” (Leviticus 16:1-34), and “But on the tenth day” (Leviticus 23:26-32). Then he rolls the Torah (scroll), places it in his bosom and exclaims, “More than I have read before you is written here!” [The portion], “On the tenth day” (Numbers 29:7-11), which is in the book of Numbers, he reads by heart. And he blesses upon it eight benedictions: “For the Torah”, “For the Temple service”, “For thanksgiving”, “For the pardon of sin”, “For the Temple”, “For Israel”, “For the priests”, viii) and the rest of the prayer." 7.8. How was the procedure in connection with the portion read by the king?At the conclusion of the first day of the festival (Sukkot) in the eighth [year], at the end of the seventh year, they erect a wooden platform in the Temple court, and he sits upon it, as it is said, “At the end of seven years, in the set time” etc (Deuteronomy 31:10). The synagogue attendant takes a Torah scroll and hands it to the head of the synagogue, the head of the synagogue hands it to the deputy and he hands it to the high priest, and the high priest hands it to the king and the king stands and receives it, but reads it while sitting. King Agrippa stood and received it and read standing, and the sages praised him. When he reached, “You shall not place a foreigner over you” (ibid 17:15) his eyes ran with tears. They said to him, “Fear not, Agrippas, you are our brother, you are our brother!” [The king] reads from the beginning of “These are the words” (ibid 1:1) until the Shema ((ibid 6:4-9), and the Shema, and “It will come to pass if you hear” (ibid 11:13-21 the second part of the Shema), and “You shall surely tithe” (ibid 14:22-29), and “When you have finished tithing” (ibid 26:12-15) and the portion of the king (ibid 17:14-20) and the blessings and curses (ibid, until he finishes all the section. The blessings that the high priest recites, the king recites, except that he substitutes one for the festivals instead of one for the pardon of sin." 9.15. When Rabbi Meir died, the composers of fables ceased. When Ben Azzai died, the diligent students [of Torah] ceased. When Ben Zoma died, the expounders ceased. When Rabbi Joshua died, goodness ceased from the world. When Rabban Shimon ben Gamaliel died, locusts come and troubles multiplied. When Rabbi Elazar ben Azaryah died, the sages ceased to be wealthy. When Rabbi Akiba died, the glory of the Torah ceased. When Rabbi Hanina ben Dosa died, men of wondrous deeds ceased. When Rabbi Yose Katnuta died, the pious men (hasidim) ceased and why was his name called Katnuta? Because he was the youngest of the pious men. When Rabban Yoha ben Zakkai died, the splendor of wisdom ceased. When Rabban Gamaliel the elder died, the glory of the torah ceased, and purity and separateness perished. When Rabbi Ishmael ben Fabi died, the splendor of the priesthood ceased. When Rabbi died, humility and fear of sin ceased. Rabbi Phineas ben Yair says: when Temple was destroyed, scholars and freemen were ashamed and covered their head, men of wondrous deeds were disregarded, and violent men and big talkers grew powerful. And nobody expounds, nobody seeks, and nobody asks. Upon whom shall we depend? Upon our father who is in heaven. Rabbi Eliezer the Great says: from the day the Temple was destroyed, the sages began to be like scribes, scribes like synagogue-attendants, synagogue-attendants like common people, and the common people became more and more debased. And nobody seeks. Upon whom shall we depend? Upon our father who is in heaven. In the footsteps of the messiah insolence (hutzpah) will increase and the cost of living will go up greatly; the vine will yield its fruit, but wine will be expensive; the government will turn to heresy, and there will be no one to rebuke; the meeting-place [of scholars] will be used for licentiousness; the Galilee will be destroyed, the Gablan will be desolated, and the dwellers on the frontier will go about [begging] from place to place without anyone to take pity on them; the wisdom of the learned will rot, fearers of sin will be despised, and the truth will be lacking; youths will put old men to shame, the old will stand up in the presence of the young, “For son spurns father, daughter rises up against mother, daughter-in-law against mother-in-law a man’s own household are his enemies” (Micah 7:6). The face of the generation will be like the face of a dog, a son will not feel ashamed before his father. Upon whom shall we depend? Upon our father who is in heaven. Rabbi Pinchas ben Yair says, “Heedfulness leads to cleanliness, cleanliness leads to purity, purity leads to separation, separation leads to holiness, holiness leads to modesty, modesty leads to fear of sin, fear of sin leads to piety, piety leads to the Holy Spirit, The Holy Spirit leads to the resurrection of the dead, and the resurrection of the dead comes from Elijah, blessed be his memory, Amen.”"
42. Mishnah, Taanit, 2.2-2.3 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

2.2. [When] they stand up to pray they bring down before the ark an old man conversant [with the prayers], one who has children and whose house is empty [of food], so that his heart is complete prayer. He recites before them twenty-four benedictions, the eighteen recited daily, to which he adds six." 2.3. These are they [the six additional benedictions:Zikhronot,“If there is famine in the land, if there is pestilence” (I Kings 8:37). Shofarot,“The word of the Lord which came to Jeremiah concerning the droughts” (Jeremiah. “In my distress I called to the Lord and He answered me” (Psalm. “I turn my eyes to the mountains” (Psalm. “Out of the depths I call you, O Lord” (Psalm. “A prayer of lowly man when he is faint” (Psalm. Rabbi Judah says: he need not recite the zikhronot and shofarot, but instead he should recite [the following]: And he ends each [of the additional six] sections with its appropriate concluding benediction."
43. Mishnah, Tamid, 7.2 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

7.2. They went and stood on the steps of the Sanctuary. The first ones stood at the south side of their fellow priests with five vessels in their hands: one held the teni, the second the kuz, the third the firepan, the fourth the dish, and the fifth the spoon and its covering. They blessed the people with a single blessing, except in the country they recited it as three blessings, in the Temple as one. In the Temple they pronounced the divine name as it is written, but in the country by its substitute. In the country the priests raised their hands as high as their shoulders, but in the Temple above their heads, except the high priest, who did not raise his hands above the diadem. Rabbi Judah says: the high priest also raised his hands above the diadem, since it says, “And Aaron lifted up his hands toward the people and blessed them” (Leviticus 9:22)."
44. Mishnah, Yoma, 2.2, 3.8, 4.2, 6.2, 7.1 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

2.2. Section one: It once happened that two were even as they ran up the ramp, and one of them pushed his fellow who fell and broke his leg. When the court saw that they incurred danger, they decreed that they would remove the ashes from only by a count. Section two: There were four counts. This is the first count." 3.8. He came to his bull and his bull was standing between the Ulam and the altar, its head to the south and its face to the west. And the priest stands on the eastside facing the west. And he lays both his hands upon it and confesses. And thus he would say: “Please, ‘Hashem’! I have done wrong, I have transgressed, I have sinned before You, I and my house. Please, ‘Hashem’! Forgive the wrongdoings, the transgressions, the sins which I have committed and transgressed and sinned before You, I and my house, as it is written in the torah of Moses Your servant: “For on this day shall atonement be made for you [to cleanse you of all your sins; you shall be clean before the Lord”] (Leviticus 16:30). And they answered after him: “Blessed be the name of His glorious kingdom for ever and ever!”" 4.2. He bound a thread of crimson wool on the head of the goat which was to be sent away, and he placed it at the gate where it was later to be sent away, and on the goat that was to be slaughtered [he placed a thread of crimson wool on its neck] at the place of the slaughtering. He came to his bull a second time, pressed his two hands upon it and made confession. And thus he would say: “Please, ‘Hashem’! I have done wrong, I have transgressed, I have sinned before You, I and my house and the sons of Aaron Your holy people. Please, ‘Hashem’! Forgive the wrongdoings, the transgressions, the sins which I have committed and transgressed and sinned before You, I and my house and the sons of Aaron Your holy people, as it is written in the torah of Moses Your servant: “For on this day shall atonement be made for you [to cleanse you of all your sins; you shall be clean before the Lord”] (Leviticus 16:30). And they answered after him: “Blessed be the name of His glorious kingdom for ever and ever!”" 6.2. He then came to the scapegoat and laid his two hands upon it and he made confession. And thus he would say: “Please, ‘Hashem’! They have done wrong, they have transgressed, they have sinned before You, Your people the House of Israel. Please, in the name of Hashem (Bashem)! Forgive the wrongdoings, the transgressions, the sins which your people, the House of Israel, have committed and transgressed and sinned before You, as it is written in the torah of Moses Your servant: “For on this day shall atonement be made for you [to cleanse you of all your sins; you shall be clean before the Lord”] (Leviticus 16:30). And the priests and the people standing in the courtyard, when they would hear God’s name explicated coming out of the high priest’s mouth, would bend their knees, bow down and fall on their faces and say “Blessed be the name of His glorious kingdom for ever and ever!”" 7.1. The high priest [then] came to read. If he wished to read in linen garments, he reads, and if not he reads in his own white cloak. The synagogue attendant would take a Torah scroll and give it to the head of the synagogue, and the head of the synagogue gives it to deputy high priest, and the deputy high priest gives it to the high priest, and the high priest stands and receives it, and reads, [section] beginning] “After the death …” (Leviticus 16:1-34) and “But on the tenth…” (Leviticus 23:26-32). Then he would roll up the Torah scroll and put it in his bosom and say, “More than what I have read out before you is written here.” And “On the tenth …” (Numbers 29:7-11) which is in the Book of Numbers he recites by heart. And he recites on it eight benedictions: “For the law”, “For the Temple service,” “For thanksgiving,” “For the forgiveness of sins” and “For the Temple” on its own, and “For Israel” on its own and “For Jerusalem” on its own, “For the priests” on their own and “For the rest of the prayer.”"
45. Mishnah, Yadayim, 4.8 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

4.8. A Galilean min said: I complain against you Pharisees, that you write the name of the ruler and the name of Moses together on a divorce document. The Pharisees said: we complain against you, Galilean min, that you write the name of the ruler together with the divine name on a single page [of Torah]? And furthermore that you write the name of the ruler above and the divine name below? As it is said, \"And Pharoah said, Who is the Lord that I should hearken to his voice to let Israel go?\" (Exodus 5:2) But when he was smitten what did he say? \"The Lord is righteous\" (Exodus 9:27)."
46. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 13 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

47. New Testament, Acts, 10.10, 23.8 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

10.10. He became hungry and desired to eat, but while they were preparing, he fell into a trance. 23.8. For the Sadducees say that there is no resurrection, neither angel, nor spirit; but the Pharisees confess all of these.
48. New Testament, John, 2.16, 18.20 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.16. To those who sold the doves, he said, "Take these things out of here! Don't make my Father's house a marketplace! 18.20. Jesus answered him, "I spoke openly to the world. I always taught in synagogues, and in the temple, where the Jews always meet. I said nothing in secret.
49. New Testament, Luke, 1.68, 20.34-20.35, 23.34 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.68. Blessed be the Lord, the God of Israel, For he has visited and worked redemption for his people; 20.34. Jesus said to them, "The sons of this age marry, and are given in marriage. 20.35. But those who are considered worthy to attain to that age and the resurrection from the dead, neither marry, nor are given in marriage. 23.34. Jesus said, "Father, forgive them, for they don't know what they are doing."Dividing his garments among them, they cast lots.
50. New Testament, Mark, 5.42, 6.6, 11.15-11.17, 12.18-12.27, 14.49 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

5.42. Immediately the young lady rose up, and walked, for she was twelve years old. They were amazed with great amazement. 6.6. He marveled because of their unbelief. He went around the villages teaching. 11.15. They came to Jerusalem, and Jesus entered into the temple, and began to throw out those who sold and those who bought in the temple, and overthrew the tables of the money-changers, and the seats of those who sold the doves. 11.16. He would not allow anyone to carry a container through the temple. 11.17. He taught, saying to them, "Isn't it written, 'My house will be called a house of prayer for all the nations?' But you have made it a den of robbers! 12.18. There came to him Sadducees, who say that there is no resurrection. They asked him, saying 12.19. Teacher, Moses wrote to us, 'If a man's brother dies, and leaves a wife behind him, and leaves no children, that his brother should take his wife, and raise up offspring for his brother.' 12.20. There were seven brothers. The first took a wife, and dying left no offspring. 12.21. The second took her, and died, leaving no children behind him. The third likewise; 12.22. and the seven took her and left no children. Last of all the woman also died. 12.23. In the resurrection, when they rise, whose wife will she be of them? For the seven had her as a wife. 12.24. Jesus answered them, "Isn't this because you are mistaken, not knowing the Scriptures, nor the power of God? 12.25. For when they will rise from the dead, they neither marry, nor are given in marriage, but are like angels in heaven. 12.26. But about the dead, that they are raised; haven't you read in the book of Moses, about the Bush, how God spoke to him, saying, 'I am the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob?' 12.27. He is not the God of the dead, but of the living. You are therefore badly mistaken. 14.49. I was daily with you in the temple teaching, and you didn't arrest me. But this is so that the Scriptures might be fulfilled.
51. New Testament, Matthew, 5.39-5.40, 5.46-5.48 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

5.39. But I tell you, don't resist him who is evil; but whoever strikes you on your right cheek, turn to him the other also. 5.40. If anyone sues you to take away your coat, let him have your cloak also. 5.46. For if you love those who love you, what reward do you have? Don't even the tax collectors do the same? 5.47. If you only greet your friends, what more do you do than others? Don't even the tax collectors do the same? 5.48. Therefore you shall be perfect, just as your Father in heaven is perfect.
52. Tosefta, Bava Metzia, 2.33 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

53. Tosefta, Berachot, 3.25, 6.7 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

3.25. Eighteen Berachot (blessings) that the Sages have established [for the prayer of Shemoneh Esreh have been established] corresponding to eighteen mentionings [of God’s name] that are in [the chapter of Tehillim that begins with] “Ascribe to God, children of princes…” (Tehillim 29) And [a person] should include [the Beracha against] the heretics into [the Beracha] for the Rabbinical Jews, and [the Beracha] for the converts into [the Beracha] for the elders, and [the Beracha] for [King] David into [the Beracha] for [the rebuilding of] Jerusalem. But if he said each one of them separately he has fulfilled his obligation [of praying Shemoneh Esreh]." 6.7. [A person] that sees beautiful people and beautiful trees says [the following Beracha (blessing):] Baruch [Ata Hashem Eloheinu Melech Haolam] Mi Shekacha Lo Beriot Naot (Blessed are You Hashem, our God, King of the world, Who has such beautiful creations [in His world])."
54. Tosefta, Hulin, 1.1, 2.18-2.19, 2.21-2.24 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

55. Tosefta, Parah, 3.3 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

56. Tosefta, Rosh Hashanah, 1.15, 2.9 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

57. Tosefta, Sanhedrin, 8.7, 12.9-13.12, 12.10, 13.5 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

58. Tosefta, Shabbat, 13.5 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

59. Tosefta, Taanit, 1.10 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

60. Tosefta, Yadayim, 2.9, 2.13 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

61. Anon., Genesis Rabba, 63.13 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

63.13. וַיֹּאמֶר יַעֲקֹב מִכְרָה כַיּוֹם (בראשית כה, לא), אָמַר לוֹ זַבֵּין לִי חַד יוֹם מִן דִּידָךְ, אָמַר רַבִּי אַחָא כָּל מִי שֶׁהוּא יוֹדֵעַ לְחַשֵּׁב יְמֵי הַגָּלוּת, יִמְצָא שֶׁיּוֹם אֶחָד יָשַׁב יַעֲקֹב בְּשַׁלְוָה בְּצִלּוֹ שֶׁל עֵשָׂו. (בראשית כב, לב): וַיֹּאמֶר עֵשָׂו הִנֵּה אָנֹכִי הוֹלֵךְ לָמוּת, רֵישׁ לָקִישׁ אָמַר הִתְחִיל מְחָרֵף וּמְגַדֵּף, לָמָּה לִי אֵין כְּתִיב כָּאן, אֶלָּא (בראשית כב, לב): לָמָּה זֶּה לִי, מְלַמֵּד שֶׁכָּפַר בְּזֶה אֵלִי (שמות טו, ב). דָּבָר אַחֵר, הִנֵּה אָנֹכִי הוֹלֵךְ לָמוּת, שֶׁהָיָה נִמְרוֹד מְבַקֵּשׁ לְהָמִית אוֹתוֹ בִּשְׁבִיל אוֹתוֹ הַבֶּגֶד שֶׁהָיָה לְאָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן, שֶׁבְּשָׁעָה שֶׁהָיָה לוֹבְשׁוֹ וְיוֹצֵא לַשָּׂדֶה הָיוּ בָּאִים כָּל חַיָּה וָעוֹף שֶׁבָּעוֹלָם וּמִתְקַבְּצִין אֶצְלוֹ. (בראשית כה, לג): וַיֹּאמֶר הִשְּׁבְעָה לִי, מָה רָאָה אָבִינוּ יַעֲקֹב שֶׁנָּתַן נַפְשׁוֹ עַל הַבְּכוֹרָה, דִּתְנֵינַן עַד שֶׁלֹא הוּקַם הַמִּשְׁכָּן הָיוּ הַבָּמוֹת מֻתָּרוֹת וַעֲבוֹדָה בַּבְּכוֹרִים, מִשֶּׁהוּקַם הַמִּשְׁכָּן נֶאֶסְרוּ הַבָּמוֹת וַעֲבוֹדָה בַּכֹּהֲנִים, אָמַר יִהְיֶה רָשָׁע זֶה עוֹמֵד וּמַקְרִיב, לְפִיכָךְ נָתַן נַפְשׁוֹ עַל הַבְּכוֹרָה, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (יחזקאל לה, ו): כִּי לְדָם אֶעֶשְׂךָ וְדָם יִרְדֳּפֶךָ אִם לֹא דָם שָׂנֵאתָ וְדָם יִרְדֳּפֶךָ, וְעֵשָׂו הוּא שׂוֹנֵא אֶת הַדָּם. רַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל בַּר נַחְמָן אָמַר זֶה דַּם בְּכוֹרָה וְקָרְבָּנוֹת. רַבִּי לֵוִי אָמַר זֶה דַּם שֶׁל מִילָה. רַבָּנָן אָמְרֵי שָׂנֵאתָ דָּמוֹ שֶׁל אָדָם בְּגוּפוֹ, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (תהלים קט, יז): וַיֶּאֱהַב קְלָלָה וַתְּבוֹאֵהוּ. רַבִּי לֵוִי בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי חָמָא אָמַר לֹא חָפֵץ בִּבְרָכָה וְלֹא חָפֵץ בְּכוֹרָה. רַבִּי הוּנָא אָמַר זֶה דַּם הַקָּרְבָּנוֹת שֶׁהוּא קָרוּי בְּרָכָה, הֵיךְ מָה דְאַתְּ אָמַר (שמות כ, כד): מִזְבַּח אֲדָמָה תַּעֲשֶׂה לִי.
62. Anon., Leviticus Rabba, 13.5 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

13.5. אָמַר רַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל בַּר נַחְמָן כָּל הַנְּבִיאִים רָאוּ הַמַּלְכֻיּוֹת בְּעִסּוּקָן, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (בראשית ב, י): וְנָהָר יֹצֵא מֵעֵדֶן לְהַשְׁקוֹת וגו', רַבִּי תַּנְחוּמָא וְאַמְרֵי לָהּ רַבִּי מְנַחֲמָא בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בֶּן לֵוִי אָמַר עָתִיד הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לְהַשְׁקוֹת כּוֹס הַתַּרְעֵלָה לְאֻמּוֹת הָעוֹלָם לֶעָתִיד לָבוֹא, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב: וְנָהָר יֹצֵא מֵעֵדֶן, מָקוֹם שֶׁהַדִּין יוֹצֵא, (בראשית ב, י): וּמִשָּׁם יִפָּרֵד וְהָיָה לְאַרְבָּעָה רָאשִׁים, אֵלּוּ אַרְבָּעָה נְהָרוֹת, (בראשית ב, יא): שֵׁם הָאֶחָד פִּישׁוֹן, זֶה בָּבֶל, עַל שֵׁם (חבקוק א, ח): וּפָשׁוּ פָּרָשָׁיו. (בראשית ב, יא): הוּא הַסֹּבֵב אֵת כָּל אֶרֶץ הַחֲוִילָה, נְבוּכַדְנֶצַּר הָרָשָׁע שֶׁעָלָה וְהִקִּיף אֶת כָּל אֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁמְּיַחֶלֶת לְהַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (תהלים מב, ו): הוֹחִלִי לֵאלֹהִים. (בראשית ב, יא): אֲשֶׁר שָׁם הַזָּהָב, אֵלּוּ דִּבְרֵי תוֹרָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים יט, יא): הַנֶּחֱמָדִים מִזָּהָב וּמִפָּז רָב. (בראשית ב, יב): וּזֲהַב הָאָרֶץ הַהִוא טוֹב, מְלַמֵּד שֶׁאֵין תּוֹרָה כְּתוֹרַת אֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאֵין חָכְמָה כְּחָכְמַת אֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל, (בראשית ב, יב): שָׁם הַבְּדֹלַח וְאֶבֶן הַשֹּׁהַם, מִקְרָא מִשְׁנָה תַּלְמוּד הֲלָכוֹת וְאַגָּדוֹת. (בראשית ב, יג): וְשֵׁם הַנָּהָר הַשֵּׁנִי גִיחוֹן, זֶה מָדַי, שֶׁהֶעֱמִידָה אֶת הָמָן הָרָשָׁע שֶׁמָּשַׁךְ עִסָּה כַּנָּחָשׁ, עַל שׁוּם (בראשית ג, יד): עַל גְּחֹנְךָ תֵלֵךְ. (בראשית ב, יג): הוּא הַסּוֹבֵב אֶת כָּל אֶרֶץ כּוּשׁ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (אסתר א, א): מֵהוֹדוּ וְעַד כּוּשׁ. (בראשית ב, יד): וְשֵׁם הַנָּהָר הַשְּׁלִישִׁי חִדֶּקֶל, זוֹ יָוָן, שֶׁהִיא חַדָּה וְקַלָּה בִּגְזֵרוֹתֶיהָ עַל יִשְׂרָאֵל, וְאוֹמֵר לָהֶם כִּתְבוּ עַל קֶרֶן הַשּׁוֹר שֶׁאֵין לְיִשְׂרָאֵל חֵלֶק בֵּאלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל. (בראשית ב, יד): הַהֹלֵךְ קִדְמַת אַשּׁוּר, אָמַר רַב הוּנָא כָּל הַמַּלְכֻיּוֹת נִקְרְאוּ עַל שֵׁם אַשּׁוּר, שֶׁהָיוּ מְאַשְׁרִין עַצְמָן מִיִּשְׂרָאֵל. אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹסֵי בְּרַבִּי חֲנִינָא, כָּל הַמַּלְכֻיּוֹת נִקְרְאוּ עַל שֵׁם מִצְרַיִם, עַל שֵׁם שֶׁהָיוּ מְצֵירִין לְיִשְׂרָאֵל. (בראשית ב, יד): וְהַנָּהָר הָרְבִיעִי הוּא פְרָת, הוּא אֱדוֹם שֶׁפָּרָת וְרָבָת בִּתְפִלָּתוֹ שֶׁל זָקֵן. דָּבָר אַחֵר, שֶׁפָּרָת וְרָבָת וְהֵצֵירָה לְעוֹלָמוֹ שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל. דָּבָר אַחֵר, שֶׁפָּרָת וְרָבָת וְהֵצֵירָה לִבְנוֹ. דָּבָר אַחֵר, שֶׁפָּרָת וְרָבָת וְהֵצֵירָה לְבֵיתוֹ. דָּבָר אַחֵר, פָּרָת עַל שׁוּם סוֹפָהּ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ישעיה סג, ג): פּוּרָה דָרַכְתִּי לְבַדִּי. אַבְרָהָם רָאָה הַמַּלְכֻיּוֹת בְּעִסּוּקָן (בראשית טו, יב): וְהִנֵּה אֵימָה, זוֹ בָּבֶל עַל שֵׁם (דניאל ג, יט): נְבוּכַדְנֶצַּר הִתְמְלִי חֱמָא. (בראשית טו, יב): חֲשֵׁכָה, זוֹ מָדַי, שֶׁהֶחֱשִׁיכָה בִּגְזֵרוֹתֶיהָ אֶת יִשְׂרָאֵל, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (אסתר ג, יג): לְהַשְׁמִיד לַהֲרֹג וּלְאַבֵּד. (בראשית טו, יב): גְּדֹלָה, זוֹ יָוָן, אָמַר רַב נַחְמָן מְלַמֵּד שֶׁהָיְתָה מַלְכוּת יָוָן מַעֲמֶדֶת מֵאָה וְשִׁבְעִים וְאֶחָד אִפַּרְכִין, מֵאָה וְעֶשְׂרִים וְשִׁבְעָה אִסְטְרָטָלִיטוּן, וְרַבָּנָן אָמְרִין שִׁשִּׁים שִׁשִׁים, וְרַבִּי בֶּרֶכְיָה וְרַבִּי חָנִין עַל הֲדָא דְרַבָּנָן (דברים ח, טו): הַמּוֹלִיכְךָ בַּמִּדְבָּר הַגָּדֹל וְהַנּוֹרָא נָחָשׁ שָׂרָף וְעַקְרָב, נָחָשׁ זֶה בָּבֶל. שָׂרָף, זֶה מָדַי. עַקְרָב, זֶה יָוָן, מָה עַקְרָב זֶה מַשְׁרֶצֶת שִׁשִּׁים שִׁשִּׁים, כָּךְ הָיְתָה מַלְכוּת יָוָן מַעֲמֶדֶת שִׁשִּׁים שִׁשִּׁים. (בראשית טו, יב): נֹפֶלֶת, זוֹ אֱדוֹם, עַל שֵׁם (ירמיה מט, כא): מִקּוֹל נִפְלָם רָעֲשָׁה הָאָרֶץ. וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִים אֵימָה, זוֹ אֱדוֹם, עַל שֵׁם (דניאל ז, ז): דְּחִילָה וְאֵימְתָנִי. חֲשֵׁכָה, זוֹ יָוָן. גְּדֹלָה, זוֹ מָדַי, עַל שֵׁם (אסתר ג, א): גִּדַּל הַמֶּלֶךְ אֲחַשְׁוֵרוֹשׁ. נֹפֶלֶת, זוֹ בָּבֶל, עַל שֵׁם (ישעיה כא, ט): נָפְלָה נָפְלָה בָּבֶל. רָאָה דָּנִיֵּאל אֶת הַמַּלְכֻיּוֹת בְּעִסּוּקָן, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (דניאל ז, ב ג): חָזֵה הֲוֵית בְּחֶזְוִי עִם לֵילְיָא וַאֲרוּ אַרְבַּע רוּחֵי שְׁמַיָא מְגִיחָן לְיַמָּא רַבָּא, וְאַרְבַּע חֵיוָן רַבְרְבָן סָלְקָן מִן יַמָּא, אִם זְכִיתֶם מִן יַמָּא וְאִם לָאו מִן חוֹרְשָׁא, הֲדָא חֵיוְתָא דְיַמָּא כִּי סָלְקָא מִן יַמָּא הִיא מִמַּכְיָא, סָלְקָא מִן חוֹרְשָׁא לֵית הִיא מִמַּכְיָא, דְכַוָּותָא (תהלים פ, יד): יְכַרְסְמֶנָּה חֲזִיר מִיָּעַר, עַיִ"ן תְּלוּיָה, אִם זְכִיתֶם מִן הַיְאוֹר וְאִם לָאו מִן הַיַּעַר, הֲדָא חֵיוְתָא כִּי סָלְקָא מִן נַהֲרָא הִיא מִמַּכְיָא, סָלְקָא מִן חוֹרְשָׁא לֵית הִיא מִמַּכְיָא, (דניאל ז, ג): שָׁנְיָן דָּא מִן דָּא, אַל תִּקְרֵי שָׁנְיָן אֶלָּא סָנְיָן דָּא מִן דָּא, מְלַמֵּד שֶׁכָּל אֻמָּה שֶׁשּׁוֹלֶטֶת בָּעוֹלָם הִיא שׂוֹנְאָה לְיִשְׂרָאֵל וּמְשַׁעְבְּדָא בָּהֶן. (דניאל ז, ד): קַדְמָיְתָא כְאַרְיֵה, זוֹ בָּבֶל, יִרְמְיָה רָאָה אוֹתָהּ אֲרִי וְרָאָה אוֹתָהּ נֶשֶׁר, דִּכְתִיב (ירמיה ד, ז): עָלָה אַרְיֵה מִסֻּבְּכוֹ (ירמיה מט, כב): הִנֵּה כַנֶּשֶׁר יַעֲלֶה וְיִדְאֶה, אָמְרִין לְדָנִיֵּאל אַתּ מָה חָמֵית לְהוֹן, אָמַר לְהוֹן חָמֵיתִי אַפִּין כְּאַרְיֵה וְגַפִּין דִּי נְשַׁר, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (דניאל ז, ד): קַדְמָיְתָא כְאַרְיֵה וְגַפִּין דִּי נְשַׁר לַהּ חָזֵה הֲוֵית עַד דִּי מְּרִיטוּ גַּפֵּיהּ וּנְטִילַת מִן אַרְעָא. רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר וְרַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל בַּר נַחְמָן, רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר אוֹמֵר כָּל אוֹתוֹ אֲרִי לָקָה וְלִבּוֹ לֹא לָקָה, דִּכְתִיב (דניאל ז, ד): וּלְבַב אֱנָשׁ יְהִיב לַהּ. וְרַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל בַּר נַחְמָן אָמַר אַף לִבּוֹ לָקָה, דִּכְתִיב (דניאל ד, יג): לִבְבֵהּ מִן אֲנָשָׁא יְשַׁנּוֹן. חָזֵה הֲוֵית (דניאל ז, ה): וַאֲרוּ חֵיוָה אָחֳרֵי תִנְיָנָא דָמְיָא לְדֹב, לְדב כְּתִיב זֶה מָדַי, הוּא דַעְתֵּיהּ דְּרַבִּי יוֹחָנָן דְּאָמַר רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן (ירמיה ה, ו): עַל כֵּן הִכָּם אַרְיֵה מִיַּעַר, זוֹ בָּבֶל. (ירמיה ה, ו): זְאֵב עֲרָבוֹת יְשָׁדְדֵם, זוֹ מָדַי. (ירמיה ה, ו): נָמֵר שֹׁקֵד עַל עָרֵיהֶם, זוֹ יָוָן. (ירמיה ה, ו): כָּל הַיּוֹצֵא מֵהֵנָּה יִטָּרֵף, זוֹ אֱדוֹם, לָמָּה, (ירמיה ה, ו): כִּי רַבּוּ פִּשְׁעֵיהֶם עָצְמוּ מְשֻׁבוֹתֵיהֶם. (דניאל ז, ו): חָזֵה הֲוֵית וַאֲרוּ אָחֳרִי כִּנְמַר, זוֹ יָוָן, שֶׁהָיְתָה מַעֲמֶדֶת בִּגְזֵרוֹתֶיהָ וְאוֹמֶרֶת לְיִשְׂרָאֵל כִּתְבוּ עַל קֶרֶן הַשּׁוֹר שֶׁאֵין לָכֶם חֵלֶק לָעוֹלָם הַבָּא. (דניאל ז, ז): בָּאתַר דְּנָא חָזֵה הֲוֵית בְּחֶזְוֵי לֵילְיָא וַאֲרוּ חֵיוָה רְבִיעָאָה דְּחִילָה וְאֵימְתָנִי וְתַקִּיפָא יַתִּירָה, זוֹ אֱדוֹם, דָּנִיֵּאל רָאָה שְׁלָשְׁתָּן בְּלַיְלָה אֶחָד וְלָזוֹ בְּלַיְלָה אֶחָד, לָמָּה, רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן וְרַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן לָקִישׁ, רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן אָמַר שֶׁשְּׁקוּלָה כְּנֶגֶד שְׁלָשְׁתָּן, רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן לָקִישׁ אָמַר יַתִּירָה. מָתִיב רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן לְרַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן לָקִישׁ (יחזקאל כא, יט): בֶּן אָדָם הִנָּבֵא וְהַךְ כַּף אֶל כָּף, דָּא מָה עָבַד לָהּ רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן לָקִישׁ (יחזקאל כא, יט): וְתִכָּפֵל. משֶׁה רָאָה אֶת הַמַּלְכֻיּוֹת בְּעִסּוּקָן, (ויקרא יא, ד): אֶת הַגָּמָל, זוֹ בָּבֶל, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים קלז, ח): אַשְׁרֵי שֶׁיְשַׁלֶּם לָךְ אֶת גְּמוּלֵךְ שֶׁגָּמַלְתְּ לָנוּ. (ויקרא יא, ה): אֶת הַשָּׁפָן, זוֹ מָדַי. רַבָּנָן וְרַבִּי יְהוּדָה בְּרַבִּי סִימוֹן, רַבָּנָן אָמְרֵי מַה הַשָּׁפָן הַזֶּה יֵשׁ בּוֹ סִימָנֵי טֻמְאָה וְסִימָנֵי טָהֳרָה, כָּךְ הָיְתָה מַלְכוּת מָדַי מַעֲמֶדֶת צַדִּיק וְרָשָׁע. אָמַר רַבִּי יְהוּדָה בְּרַבִּי סִימוֹן דָּרְיָוֶשׁ הָאַחֲרוֹן בְּנָהּ שֶׁל אֶסְתֵּר הָיָה, טָהוֹר מֵאִמּוֹ וְטָמֵא מֵאָבִיו. (ויקרא יא, ו): וְאֶת הָאַרְנֶבֶת, זוֹ יָוָן, אִמּוֹ שֶׁל תַּלְמַי אַרְנֶבֶת שְׁמָהּ. (ויקרא יא, ז): וְאֶת הַחֲזִיר, זוֹ פָּרַס, משֶׁה נָתַן שְׁלָשְׁתָּם בְּפָסוּק אֶחָד, וְלָזוֹ בְּפָסוּק אֶחָד, וְלָמָּה, רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן וְרַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן לָקִישׁ, רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן אָמַר שֶׁשְּׁקוּלָה כְּנֶגֶד שְׁלָשְׁתָּן, רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן לָקִישׁ אָמַר (דניאל ז, ז): יַתִּירָה. מָתִיב רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן לְרַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן לָקִישׁ בֶּן אָדָם הִנָּבֵא וְהַךְ כַּף אֶל כָּף, דָּא מָה עָבַד לֵיהּ רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן לָקִישׁ וְתִכָּפֵל. רַבִּי פִּנְחָס וְרַבִּי חִלְקִיָּה בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי סִימוֹן מִכָּל הַנְּבִיאִים לֹא פִּרְסְמוּהָ אֶלָּא שְׁנַיִם אָסָף וּמשֶׁה, אָסָף אָמַר (תהלים פ, יד): יְכַרְסְמֶנָּה חֲזִיר מִיָּעַר. משֶׁה אָמַר (ויקרא יא, ז): וְאֶת הַחֲזִיר כִּי מַפְרִיס פַּרְסָה, לָמָּה נִמְשְׁלָה לַחֲזִיר, לוֹמַר לָךְ מָה חֲזִיר בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁהוּא רוֹבֵץ מוֹצִיא טְלָפָיו וְאוֹמֵר רְאוּ שֶׁאֲנִי טָהוֹר, כָּךְ מַלְכוּת אֱדוֹם מִתְגָּאָה וְחוֹמֶסֶת וְגוֹזֶלֶת וְנִרְאֵית כְּאִלּוּ מַצַּעַת בִּימָה. מַעֲשֶׂה בְּשִׁלְטוֹן אֶחָד שֶׁהָיָה הוֹרֵג הַגַּנָּבִים וְהַמְנָאֲפִים וְהַמְכַשְּׁפִים, גָּחִין וְאָמַר לַסַּנְקְלִיטִין, שְׁלָשְׁתָּן עָשִׂיתִי בְּלַיְלָה אֶחָד. דָּבָר אַחֵר, (ויקרא יא, ד): אֶת הַגָּמָל, זוֹ בָּבֶל, (ויקרא יא, ד): כִּי מַעֲלֶה גֵרָה הוּא, שֶׁמְקַלֶּסֶת לְהַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא. רַבִּי בֶּרֶכְיָה וְרַבִּי חֶלְבּוֹ בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי יִשְׁמָעֵאל בַּר נַחְמָן, כָּל מַה שֶּׁפָּרַט דָּוִד כָּלַל אוֹתוֹ רָשָׁע בְּפָסוּק אֶחָד, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דניאל ד, לד): כְּעַן אֲנָה נְבֻכַדְנֶצַּר מְשַׁבַּח וּמְרוֹמֵם וּמְהַדַּר לְמֶלֶךְ שְׁמַיָא. מְשַׁבַּח (תהלים קמז, יב): שַׁבְּחִי יְרוּשָׁלַיִם אֶת ה'. וּמְרוֹמֵם (תהלים ל, ב): אֲרוֹמִמְךָ ה'. וּמְהַדַּר (תהלים קד, א): ה' אֱלֹהַי גָדַלְתָּ מְאֹד הוֹד וְהָדָר לָבָשְׁתָּ. (דניאל ד, לד): דִּי כָל מַעֲבָדוֹהִי קְשֹׁט (תהלים קלח, ב): עַל חַסְדְּךָ וְעַל אֲמִתֶּךָ. (דניאל ד, לד): וְאֹרְחָתֵהּ דִּין (תהלים צו, י): יָדִין עַמִּים בְּמֵישָׁרִים. (דניאל ד, לד): וְדִי מַהְלְכִין בְּגֵוָה (תהלים צג, א): ה' מָלָךְ גֵּאוּת לָבֵשׁ. (דניאל ד, לד): יָכִל לְהַשְׁפָּלָה (תהלים עה, יא): וְכָל קַרְנֵי רְשָׁעִים אֲגַדֵּעַ. (ויקרא יא, ה): וְאֶת הַשָּׁפָן, זוֹ מָדַי, (ויקרא יא, ה): כִּי מַעֲלֵה גֵרָה הוּא, שֶׁמְקַלֶּסֶת לְהַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (עזרא א, ב): כֹּה אָמַר כֹּרֶשׁ מֶלֶךְ פָּרַס. (ויקרא יא, ו): וְאֶת הָאַרְנֶבֶת, זוֹ יָוָן, (ויקרא יא, ו): כִּי מַעֲלַת גֵּרָה הִוא, שֶׁמְּקַלֶּסֶת לְהַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא. אֲלֶכְּסַנְדְּרוֹס מוֹקְדוֹן כַּד הֲוָה חָמֵי לְרַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן הַצַּדִּיק, אוֹמֵר בָּרוּךְ ה' אֱלֹהֵי שֶׁל שִׁמְעוֹן הַצַּדִּיק. (ויקרא יא, ז): וְאֶת הַחֲזִיר, זֶה אֱדוֹם, (ויקרא יא, ז): וְהוּא גֵרָה לֹא יִגָּר, שֶׁאֵינָהּ מְקַלֶּסֶת לְהַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, וְלֹא דַּיָּן שֶׁאֵינָהּ מְקַלֶּסֶת אֶלָּא מְחָרֶפֶת וּמְגַדֶּפֶת וְאוֹמֶרֶת (תהלים עג, כה): מִי לִי בַשָּׁמָיִם. דָּבָר אַחֵר, אֶת הַגָּמָל, זוֹ בָּבֶל, כִּי מַעֲלֶה גֵרָה הוּא, שֶׁמְגַדֶּלֶת אֶת דָּנִיֵּאל, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דניאל ב, מט): וְדָנִיֵּאל בִּתְרַע מַלְכָּא. וְאֶת הַשָּׁפָן, זוֹ מָדַי, כִּי מַעֲלֵה גֵרָה הוּא, שֶׁמְגַדֶּלֶת אֶת מָרְדְּכַי, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (אסתר ב, יט): וּמָרְדֳּכַי ישֵׁב בְּשַׁעַר הַמֶּלֶךְ. וְאֶת הָאַרְנֶבֶת, זוֹ יָוָן, כִּי מַעֲלַת גֵּרָה הִוא, שֶׁמְגַדֶּלֶת הַצַּדִּיקִים. אֲלֶכְּסַנְדְּרוֹס כַּד הֲוָה חָמֵי לְשִׁמְעוֹן הַצַּדִּיק הֲוָה קָאֵים עַל רַגְלֵיהּ, אָמְרִין לֵיהּ מִינָאֵי, מִן קֳדָם יְהוּדָאי אַתְּ קָאֵים, אָמַר לָהֶם בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁאֲנִי יוֹצֵא לְמִלְחָמָה דְּמוּתוֹ אֲנִי רוֹאֶה וְנוֹצֵחַ. וְאֶת הַחֲזִיר, זוֹ אֱדוֹם, וְהוּא גֵרָה לֹא יִגָּר, שֶׁאֵינָה מְגַדֶּלֶת הַצַּדִּיקִים, וְלֹא דַי שֶׁאֵינָה מְגַדֶּלֶת אֶלָּא שֶׁהוֹרֶגֶת אוֹתָם. הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (ישעיה מז, ו): קָצַפְתִּי עַל עַמִּי חִלַּלְתִּי נַחֲלָתִי וגו', נַחֲלָתִי רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא וַחֲבֵרָיו. דָּבָר אַחֵר, אֶת הַגָּמָל, זוֹ בָּבֶל, כִּי מַעֲלֶה גֵרָה, שֶׁגָּרְרָה מַלְכוּת אַחֲרֶיהָ. וְאֶת הַשָּׁפָן, זוֹ מָדַי כִּי מַעֲלֵה גֵרָה הוּא, שֶׁגָּרְרָה מַלְכוּת אַחֲרֶיהָ, וְאֶת הָאַרְנֶבֶת, זוֹ יָוָן, כִּי מַעֲלַת גֵרָה הִוא, שֶׁגָּרְרָה מַלְכוּת אַחֲרֶיהָ. וְאֶת הַחֲזִיר, זוֹ אֱדוֹם, וְהוּא גֵרָה לֹא יִגָּר, שֶׁאֵינָה גוֹרֶרֶת מַלְכוּת אַחֲרֶיהָ, וְלָמָּה נִקְרָא שְׁמָהּ חֲזִיר, שֶׁמַּחֲזֶרֶת עֲטָרָה לִבְעָלֶיהָ, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (עובדיה א, כא): וְעָלוּ מוֹשִׁיעִים בְּהַר צִיּוֹן לִשְׁפֹּט אֶת הַר עֵשָׂו וְהָיְתָה לַה' הַמְּלוּכָה.
63. Anon., Sifre Deuteronomy, 317, 32, 320, 331, 48, 218 (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

64. Anon., Sifre Numbers, 115, 143, 16, 39, 43, 112 (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

65. Hermas, Mandates, 12.1.1-12.1.2, 12.2.4 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

66. Justin, Dialogue With Trypho, 96.2, 137.2 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

67. Babylonian Talmud, Avodah Zarah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

27b. סבר שיולי משאיל לו כי היכי דמשאיל לו משאיל לאיניש אחרינא ואתא ההוא גברא לאורועי נפשיה,אמר רבא א"ר יוחנן ואמרי לה אמר רב חסדא אמר ר' יוחנן ספק חי ספק מת אין מתרפאין מהן ודאי מת מתרפאין מהן,מת האיכא חיי שעה לחיי שעה לא חיישינן,ומנא תימרא דלחיי שעה לא חיישינן דכתיב (מלכים ב ז, ד) אם אמרנו נבוא העיר והרעב בעיר ומתנו שם והאיכא חיי שעה אלא לאו לחיי שעה לא חיישינן,מיתיבי לא ישא ויתן אדם עם המינין ואין מתרפאין מהן אפילו לחיי שעה,מעשה בבן דמא בן אחותו של ר' ישמעאל שהכישו נחש ובא יעקב איש כפר סכניא לרפאותו ולא הניחו ר' ישמעאל וא"ל ר' ישמעאל אחי הנח לו וארפא ממנו ואני אביא מקרא מן התורה שהוא מותר ולא הספיק לגמור את הדבר עד שיצתה נשמתו ומת,קרא עליו ר' ישמעאל אשריך בן דמא שגופך טהור ויצתה נשמתך בטהרה ולא עברת על דברי חביריך שהיו אומרים (קהלת י, ח) ופורץ גדר ישכנו נחש,שאני מינות דמשכא דאתי למימשך בתרייהו,אמר מר לא עברת על דברי חביריך שהיו אומרים ופורץ גדר ישכנו נחש איהו נמי חויא טרקיה חויא דרבנן דלית ליה אסותא כלל,ומאי ה"ל למימר (ויקרא יח, ה) וחי בהם ולא שימות בהם,ור' ישמעאל הני מילי בצינעא אבל בפרהסיא לא דתניא היה רבי ישמעאל אומר מנין שאם אומרים לו לאדם עבוד עבודת כוכבים ואל תהרג שיעבוד ואל יהרג ת"ל וחי בהם ולא שימות בהם יכול אפילו בפרהסיא ת"ל (ויקרא כב, לב) ולא תחללו את שם קדשי,אמר רבה בר בר חנה אמר רבי יוחנן כל מכה שמחללין עליה את השבת אין מתרפאין מהן ואיכא דאמרי אמר רבה בר בר חנה אמר ר"י כל 27b. The Gemara explains the rationale for this leniency: The gentile bthinksto himself that the Jew bis asking himfor his opinion, and bjust as he is asking him, hewill also bask other people. Andthe gentile further reasons that if the Jew understands that the gentile provided him with bad advice, bthat man,i.e., the gentile, bwill bring harm to himselfby damaging his own reputation. It is therefore assumed that the gentile will provide good advice in order to avoid sullying his reputation.,§ The Gemara analyzes a situation in which one may receive medical attention from gentiles. bRava saysthat bRabbi Yoḥa says, and some saythat it was bRav Ḥisdawho bsaysthat bRabbi Yoḥa says:If there is buncertaintyas to whether a patient will blivethrough his ailment bor diefrom it, the patient bmay not be treated bygentile doctors, due to the concern that a gentile doctor may kill him. But if it is bcertainthat he will bdiefrom his affliction if he does not receive medical attention, the patient bis treated by them,as it is possible that a gentile physician will save him.,The Gemara challenges: Even if it is certain that the patient will bdieif he is not treated, bnevertheless, there isvalue in btemporal life,i.e., it is preferable for the Jew to live as long as his ailment permits rather than risking a premature death at the hands of a gentile physician. The Gemara explains: bWe are not concerned withthe value of btemporal lifewhen there is a possibility of permanent recovery, and therefore it is preferable to receive medical attention from a gentile despite the risk involved.,The Gemara asks: bAnd from where do you say that we are not concerned withthe value of btemporal life? As it is writtenwith regard to the discussion held by four lepers left outside a besieged city: b“If we say: We will enter into the city, then the famine is in the city, and we shall die there;and if we sit still here, we also die. Now therefore come, and let us fall unto the host of the Arameans; if they save us alive, we shall live; and if they kill us, we shall but die” (II Kings 7:4). The starving lepers decided to risk premature death rather than waiting to die of starvation. The Gemara asks rhetorically: bBut isn’t there temporal lifeto be lost, in which case it would be preferable for the lepers to remain in their current location? bRather, is it notapparent that bwe are not concerned withthe value of btemporal life? /b,The Gemara braises an objectionfrom a ibaraita /i: bA person may not engage in dealings with heretics, and one may not be treated by them even ina case where it is clear that without medical attention one will experience only btemporal life. /b,The ibaraitarelates an incident illustrating this point. There was ban incident involving ben Dama, son of Rabbi Yishmael’s sister,in bwhich a snake bit him. Andfollowing the attack, bYa’akov of the village of Sekhanya,who was a heretic, a disciple of Jesus the Nazarene, bcame to treat him, but Rabbi Yishmael did not let himdo so. bAndben Dama bsaid to him: Rabbi Yishmael, my brother, let himtreat me, band I will be healed by him. And I will cite a verse from the Torahto prove bthataccepting medical treatment from a heretic bis permittedin this situation. bButben Dama bdid not manage to complete the statement before his soul departedfrom his body band he died. /b, bRabbi Yishmael recited with regard to him: Fortunate are you, ben Dama, as your body is pure and your soul departed in purity, and you did not transgress the statement of your colleagues, who would statethe verse: b“And who breaks through a fence, a snake shall bite him”(Ecclesiastes 10:8), i.e., one is punished for ignoring an ordice of the Sages. This incident indicates that it is not permitted for one to accept medical treatment from a heretic even if it is clear that without it he will live only a short while.,The Gemara explains: bHeresy is different, as it is enticing.In other words, it is prohibited to accept medical treatment from a heretic, bas one might come to be drawn afterhis heresy. By contrast, receiving medical attention from a gentile is permitted if it is certain that one will die if he is not treated., bThe Master saidabove: bYou did not transgress the statement of your colleagues, who would statethe verse: b“And who breaks through a fence, a snake shall bite him.”The Gemara asks: But ben Dama bwas also bitten by a snake,even before this declaration of Rabbi Yishmael, so how can he be considered fortunate? The Gemara explains: bThe snakementioned in the curse bof the Sagesis different, bas it has no remedy whatsoever.Although ben Dama was bitten by a snake, he could have been healed.,The Gemara asks: bAnd what wouldben Dama bhave said?What verse did he intend to cite as proof that it was permitted for him to be healed by a heretic? The verse: “You shall therefore keep My statutes, and My ordices, which if a man do, bhe shall live by them”(Leviticus 18:5). This teaches that one should live by God’s mitzvot, band not that heshould bdie by them.This verse serves as a source for the ihalakhathat one may violate a prohibition in order to save a life., bAndwhy does bRabbi Yishmaeldisagree with ben Dama? He maintains that bthis matterapplies only bin private, but in publicone bmay nottransgress a prohibition even to save a life. bAs it is taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Yishmael would say: From whereis it derived bthat ifoppressors bsay to a person: Worship an idol and youwill bnot be killed, that one should worshipthe idol band not be killed? The verse states: “He shall live by them,” and not that he should die by them.One bmighthave thought that this applies beven in public.Therefore, bthe verse states: “And you shall not profane My holy name”(Leviticus 22:32).,§ The Gemara examines various circumstances in which one is permitted to receive treatment from a gentile. bRabba bar bar Ḥana saysthat bRabbi Yoḥa says:With regard to bany injury for which Shabbat is desecrated, one may not be treated bygentiles. bAnd there arethose bwho saythat bRabba bar bar Ḥana saysthat bRabbi Yoḥa says:With regard to bany /b
68. Babylonian Talmud, Bava Batra, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

16b. ללדת עולה לראש ההר כדי שיפול ממנה וימות ואני מזמין לה נשר שמקבלו בכנפיו ומניחו לפניה ואלמלי מקדים רגע אחד או מתאחר רגע אחד מיד מת בין רגע לרגע לא נתחלף לי בין איוב לאויב נתחלף לי,(איוב לט, א) חולל אילות תשמור אילה זו רחמה צר בשעה שכורעת ללדת אני מזמין לה דרקון שמכישה בבית הרחם ומתרפה ממולדה ואלמלי מקדים רגע אחד או מאחר רגע אחד מיד מתה בין רגע לרגע לא נתחלף לי בין איוב לאויב נתחלף לי,(איוב לד, לה) [איוב] לא בדעת ידבר ודבריו לא בהשכל (וכתיב (איוב מב, ז) כי לא דברתם אלי נכונה כעבדי איוב) אמר רבא מכאן שאין אדם נתפס בשעת צערו,(איוב ב, יא) וישמעו שלשת רעי איוב את כל הרעה הזאת הבאה עליו ויבאו איש ממקומו אליפז התימני ובלדד השוחי וצופר הנעמתי ויועדו יחדו לבוא לנוד לו ולנחמו מאי ויועדו יחדו אמר רב יהודה אמר רב מלמד שנכנסו כולן בשער אחד ותנא בין כל אחד ואחד שלש מאות פרסי,מנא הוו ידעי איכא דאמרי כלילא הוה להו ואיכא דאמרי אילני הוה להו וכיון דכמשי הוו ידעי אמר רבא היינו דאמרי אינשי או חברא כחברי דאיוב או מיתותא,(בראשית ו, א) ויהי כי החל האדם לרוב על פני האדמה ובנות יולדו להם רבי יוחנן אמר רביה באה לעולם ריש לקיש אמר מריבה באה לעולם אמר ליה ריש לקיש לרבי יוחנן לדידך דאמרת רבייה באה לעולם מפני מה לא נכפלו בנותיו של איוב,אמר לו נהי דלא נכפלו בשמות אבל נכפלו ביופי דכתיב (איוב מב, יג) ויהי לו שבענה בנים ושלוש בנות ויקרא שם האחת ימימה ושם השנית קציעה ושם השלישית קרן הפוך,ימימה שהיתה דומה ליום קציעה שהיה ריחה נודף כקציעה קרן הפוך אמרי דבי רבי שילא שדומה לקרנא דקרש מחייכו עלה במערבא קרנא דקרש לקותא היא אלא אמר רב חסדא ככורכמא דרישקא במיניה שנאמר (ירמיהו ד, ל) כי תקרעי בפוך,רבי שמעון ברבי איתילידא ליה ברתא הוה קא חלש דעתיה אמר ליה אבוה רביה באה לעולם אמר ליה בר קפרא תנחומין של הבל ניחמך אבוך [דתניא] אי אפשר לעולם בלא זכרים ובלא נקבות אלא אשרי למי שבניו זכרים אוי לו למי שבניו נקבות אי אפשר לעולם בלא בסם ובלא בורסי אשרי מי שאומנותו בוסמי אוי למי שאומנותו בורסי,כתנאי (בראשית כד, א) וה' ברך את אברהם בכל מאי בכל רבי מאיר אומר שלא היתה לו בת רבי יהודה אומר שהיתה לו בת אחרים אומרים בת היתה לו לאברהם ובכל שמה רבי אלעזר המודעי אומר איצטגנינות היתה בלבו של אברהם אבינו שכל מלכי מזרח ומערב משכימין לפתחו רבי שמעון בן יוחי אומר אבן טובה היתה תלויה בצוארו של אברהם אבינו שכל חולה הרואה אותו מיד מתרפא ובשעה שנפטר אברהם אבינו מן העולם תלאה הקדוש ברוך הוא בגלגל חמה אמר אביי היינו דאמרי אינשי אידלי יומא אידלי קצירא,דבר אחר שלא מרד עשו בימיו דבר אחר שעשה ישמעאל תשובה בימיו שלא מרד עשו בימיו מנלן דכתיב (בראשית כה, כט) ויבא עשו מן השדה והוא עיף ותנא אותו היום נפטר אברהם אבינו ועשה יעקב אבינו תבשיל של עדשים לנחם את יצחק אביו,[ומ"ש של עדשים] אמרי במערבא משמיה דרבה בר מרי מה עדשה זו אין לה פה אף אבל אין לו פה דבר אחר מה עדשה זו מגולגלת אף אבילות מגלגלת ומחזרת על באי העולם מאי בינייהו איכא בינייהו לנחומי בביעי,אמר רבי יוחנן חמש עבירות עבר אותו רשע באותו היום בא על נערה מאורסה והרג את הנפש וכפר בעיקר וכפר בתחיית המתים ושט את הבכורה,בא על נערה מאורסה כתיב הכא (בראשית כה, כט) ויבא עשו מן השדה וכתיב התם (דברים כב, כז) כי בשדה מצאה הרג את הנפש כתיב הכא עיף וכתיב התם (ירמיהו ד, לא) אוי נא לי כי עיפה נפשי להורגים וכפר בעיקר כתיב הכא (בראשית כה, לב) למה זה לי וכתיב התם (שמות טו, ב) זה אלי ואנוהו וכפר בתחיית המתים דכתיב (בראשית כה, לב) הנה אנכי הולך למות ושט את הבכורה דכתיב (בראשית כה, לד) ויבז עשו את הבכורה,ושעשה ישמעאל תשובה בימיו מנלן כי הא דרבינא ורב חמא בר בוזי הוו יתבי קמיה דרבא וקא מנמנם רבא א"ל רבינא לרב חמא בר בוזי ודאי דאמריתו כל מיתה שיש בה גויעה זו היא מיתתן של צדיקים אמר ליה אין והא דור המבול אמר ליה אנן גויעה ואסיפה קאמרינן,והא ישמעאל דכתיב ביה גויעה ואסיפה אדהכי איתער בהו רבא אמר להו דרדקי הכי א"ר יוחנן ישמעאל עשה תשובה בחיי אביו שנאמר (בראשית כה, ט) ויקברו אותו יצחק וישמעאל בניו,ודילמא דרך חכמתן קא חשיב להו אלא מעתה (בראשית לה, כט) ויקברו אותו עשו ויעקב בניו מאי טעמא לא חשיב להו דרך חכמתן אלא מדאקדמיה אדבורי אדבריה ומדאדבריה שמע מינה תשובה עבד בימיו,תנו רבנן שלשה הטעימן הקב"ה בעולם הזה 16b. bto give birth she ascends to the top of a mountain so thatthe kid bshould fall down from her and die. And I summon her an eagle that receives it with his wings and places it before her; and ifthe eagle breachedher bone moment early or was one moment late,the kid bwould immediately die.Now, if bI do not confuse one moment with another moment, would I confuse iIyovwith ioyev /i? /b,Similarly: b“Can you mark when the hinds do calve?”(Job 39:1). bThe womb of this hind is narrow,which makes for a difficult delivery. bWhen she squats to give birth, I summon her a snake [ iderakon /i] that bites her at the opening of the womb, whichthen bbecomes loose, and she gives birth, and ifthe snake breachedher bone moment early or was one moment late, she would immediately die.Now, if I bdo not confuse one moment with another moment, would I confuse iIyovwith ioyev /i? /b,The Gemara comments: On the one hand, the text states: b“Job has spoken without knowledge, and his words were without wisdom”(Job 34:35). bButon the other hand, bit is writtenwith regard to Job’s friends: b“You have not spoken of Me the thing that is right, like my servant Job”(Job 42:8). bRava said: From hereit may be inferred bthat a person is not held responsiblefor what he says bwhen he is in distress.Although Job uttered certain words that were wrong and inappropriate, he was not punished for them because he said them at a time of pain and hardship.,The verse states: b“And Job’s three friends heard of all this evil that was come upon him, they came every one from his own place, Eliphaz the Temanite, and Bildad the Shuhite, and Zophar the Naamathite; for they had made an appointment together to come to mourn with him and to comfort him”(Job 2:11). bWhatdoes b“they had made an appointment together”mean? bRav Yehuda saysthat bRav says: Thisphrase bteaches that they all enteredthrough bone gateat the same time. bAnda Sage btaughtin a ibaraita /i: There were bthree hundred parasangs between each and every oneof them, i.e., each one lived three hundred parasangs away from the other.,The Gemara asks: bHow did theyall bknowat the same time what had happened to Job so that the three of them came together? bThere arethose bwho saythat btheyeach bhad a crownwhich displayed certain signs when something happened to one of the others. bAnd there arethose bwho say theyeach bhad trees and whenthe trees bwithered they knewthat sorrow had visited one of them. bRava saidthat bthiscloseness between Job and his friends explains the adage bthat people say: Either a friend like the friends of Job or death.If a person lacks close friends, he is better off dead.,The Gemara cites another place where Job is mentioned. b“And it came to pass, when men began to multiply [ ilarov /i] on the face of the earth, and daughters were born to them”(Genesis 6:1). bRabbi Yoḥa says: iLarovmeans that bpropagation [ ireviyya /i] came to the worldthrough these daughters. bReish Lakish says: Strife [ imeriva /i] came to the world.Once daughters were born, the men began to fight among themselves over them. bReish Lakish said to Rabbi Yoḥa: According to you who saythat due to the daughters bpropagation came to the world, for whatreason bwerethe number of bJob’s daughters not doubled,when at the end of the story God doubled everything that Job had lost (see Job 1:3, 42:12)?,Rabbi Yoḥa bsaid to him: Granted,the numbers of Job’s daughters bwere not doubled in name,meaning they did not become twice as many, bbut they were doubled in beauty, as it is written: “He had also seven sons and three daughters. And he called the name of the first Jemimah, and the name of the second was Keziah, and the name of the third one was Keren-happuch”(Job 42:13–14). All three names relate to the daughters’ beauty., bJemimah [ iYemima /i];in her beauty bshe was similar to the day [ iyom /i]. Keziah; her scent wafted likethe bcassia [ iketzia /i]tree. bKeren-happuch; in the school of Rav Sheila they say: She was similar to the horn [ ikeren /i] of a ikeresh /i,an animal whose horns are particularly beautiful. bThey laughed at this in the West,Eretz Yisrael, since it is considered ba blemishwhen a person resembles bthe horn of a ikeresh /i. Rather, Rav Ḥisda said:She was blike garden saffron [ ikekurkema derishka /i],which is the best bof its kind. iKerenrefers to a garden, and ipukhmeans ornament, bas it is stated: “Though you enlargeyour eyes bwith paint [ ipukh /i],you beautify yourself in vain” (Jeremiah 4:30).,It is reported that ba daughter was born to Rabbi Shimon, son of RabbiYehuda HaNasi, and bhe was upsetthat he did not have a son. bHis father said to him: Propagation has come to the worldthrough the birth of a daughter. bBar Kappara said toRabbi Shimon: bYour father has consoled you with meaningless consolation, as it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bThe world cannot endure without males and females,as both are needed for the perpetuation of humanity. bBut fortunate is he whose children are males and woe to him whose children are females.Similarly, bthe world cannot endure without either a spice dealerwhose wares are sweet-smelling, bor a tanner [ ibursi /i],who is engaged in a foul-smelling occupation. bFortunate is he whose occupation is a spice seller,and bwoe to him whose occupation is a tanner. /b,The Gemara comments that this disagreement is bparallel toa dispute between itanna’im /i:The Torah states: b“And the Lord blessed Abraham with everything [ ibakkol /i]”(Genesis 24:1), and the Sages disagree about bwhat ibakkol /imeans. bRabbi Meir says:The blessing is bthat he did not have a daughter. Rabbi Yehuda says:On the contrary, the blessing was bthat he had a daughter. Others say: Abraham had a daughter and her name was Bakkol. Rabbi Elazar HaModa’i says: Abraham our forefather was so knowledgeable in astrology [ iitztagninut /i] that all the kings of the East and the West would come early to his doordue to his wisdom. This is the blessing of ibakkol /i, that he possessed knowledge that everybody needed. bRabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai says: A precious stone hung around the neck of Abraham our forefather; any sick person who looked at it would immediately be healed. When Abraham our forefather died, the Holy One, Blessed be He, hungthis stone bfrom the sphere of the sun,which from that point on brought healing to the sick. bAbaye said: Thisexplains the adage bthat people say: As the day progresses, sickness is lifted. /b, bAlternatively,what is the blessing of ibakkol /i? bThat Esau did not rebel inAbraham’s blifetime,that is to say, as long as Abraham lived Esau did not sin. bAlternatively,the blessing of ibakkolis bthat Ishmael repented inAbraham’s blifetime.The Gemara explains: bFrom where do wederive that bEsau did not rebel inAbraham’s blifetime? As it is written:“And Jacob was cooking a stew band Esau came in from the field and he was faint”(Genesis 25:29), banda ibaraita btaught: On that day Abraham our forefather passed away, and Jacob our forefather prepared a lentil stew to comfort Isaac, his father,as it was customary to serve mourners lentil stew.,The Gemara explains: bAnd what is different about lentilsthat they in particular are the fare customarily offered to mourners? bThey say in the West,Eretz Yisrael, bin the name of Rabba bar Mari: Just as this lentil has no mouth,i.e., it does not have a crack like other legumes, bso too a mourner has no mouth,that is, his anguish prevents him from speaking. bAlternatively, just as this lentil iscompletely bround, so too mourning comes around to the inhabitants of the world.The Gemara asks: bWhat isthe practical difference bbetweenthe two explanations? The Gemara answers: bThere isa practical difference bbetween themwith regard to whether it is appropriate bto consolea mourner bwith eggs,which have no opening but are not completely round., bRabbi Yoḥa says: That wickedEsau bcommitted five transgressions on that daythat Abraham died: bHe engaged in sexual intercourse with a betrothed maiden, he killed a person, he denied the principleof God’s existence, bhe denied resurrection of the dead, and he despised the birthright. /b,The Gemara cites proofs to support these charges. bHe engaged in sexual intercourse with a betrothed maiden,as bit is written here: “And Esau came in from the field”; and it is written therewith regard to rape of a betrothed maiden: b“For he found her in a field”(Deuteronomy 22:27). bHe killed a person,as bit is written here:“And he was bfaint”; and it is written there: “Woe is me, for my soul faints before the slayers”(Jeremiah 4:31). bAnd he denied the principleof God’s existence, as bit is written here: “What profit is this to me”(Genesis 25:32); band it is written there: “This is my God and I will glorify Him”(Exodus 15:2). When he questioned the profit of “this,” he was challenging the assertion that “this is my God.” bAnd he denied resurrection of the dead, as it is written: “Behold, I am at the point of death”(Genesis 25:32), indicating that he did not believe in resurrection after death. bAnd he despised the birthright, as it is written: “And Esau despised the birthright”(Genesis 25:34)., bAnd from where do wederive bthat Ishmael repented inAbraham’s blifetime? Fromthe incident involving bRavina and Rav Ḥama bar Buzi,who bwere sitting before Rava, and Rava was dozingwhile they were talking. bRavina said to Rav Ḥama bar Buzi: Is it true that you saythat bany death with regard to whichthe word igevia /i,expire, is mentioned bis the death of the righteous?Rav Ḥama bar Buzi bsaid to him: Yes.For example: “And Isaac expired [ ivayyigva /i], and died” (Genesis 35:29). Ravina objected: bButwith regard to bthe generation of the floodit states: “And all flesh expired [ ivayyigva /i]” (Genesis 7:21), and there they died for their wickedness. Rav Ḥama bar Buzi bsaid to him: We saythis only when both igeviaand iasifa /i,gathering, are used; when these two terms are mentioned together they indicate the death of a righteous person.,Ravina asked: bBut isn’t there Ishmael, about whom igeviaand iasifaare written,as it is stated: “And these are the years of the life of Yishmael…and he expired and died [ ivayyigva vayyamot /i]; and was gathered to his people” (Genesis 25:17)? bMeanwhile Rava,who had heard the discussion in his dozed state, fully bawokeand bsaid to them: Children [ idardekei /i], this is what Rabbi Yoḥa says: Ishmael repented in the lifetime of his father, as it is stated: “And Isaac and Ishmael, his sons, buried him”(Genesis 25:9). The fact that Ishmael allowed Isaac to precede him demonstrates that he had repented and accepted his authority.,The Gemara asks: bBut perhapsthe verse blisted them in the order of their wisdom;that is to say, perhaps in fact Ishmael preceded Isaac but the Torah did not list them in that order. The Gemara answers: bBut if that is so,consider that the verse states: b“And Esau and Jacob, his sons, buried him”(Genesis 35:29). bWhat is the reasonthat the verse there bdid not list them in the order of their wisdom? Rather, sinceIshmael ballowedIsaac bto precede him,it is clear that he bmadeIsaac bhis leader, and since he made him his leader, learn from it that he repented inAbraham’s blifetime. /b,Incidental to the discussion of the verse “And God blessed Abraham with everything” (Genesis 24:1), the Gemara states that bthe Sages taught:There were bthreepeople bto whom the Holy One, Blessed be He, gavealready bin this world /b
69. Babylonian Talmud, Berachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

13b. (דברים ו, ו) אשר אנכי מצוך היום על לבבך מכאן אתה למד שכל הפרשה כולה צריכה כוונה,אמר רבה בר בר חנה אמר ר' יוחנן הלכה כר"ע,איכא דמתני לה אהא דתניא הקורא את שמע צריך שיכוין את לבו ר' אחא משום ר' יהודה אומר כיון שכוון לבו בפרק ראשון שוב אינו צריך אמר רבה בר בר חנה אמר ר' יוחנן הלכה כר' אחא שאמר משום ר' יהודה,תניא אידך והיו שלא יקרא למפרע על לבבך ר' זוטרא אומר עד כאן מצות כוונה מכאן ואילך מצות קריאה רבי יאשיה אומר עד כאן מצות קריאה מכאן ואילך מצות כוונה,מ"ש מכאן ואילך מצות קריאה דכתיב לדבר בם הכא נמי הא כתיב ודברת בם,ה"ק עד כאן מצות כוונה וקריאה מכאן ואילך קריאה בלא כוונה,ומאי שנא עד כאן מצות כוונה וקריאה דכתיב על לבבך ודברת בם התם נמי הא כתיב על לבבכם לדבר בם,ההוא מבעי ליה לכדרבי יצחק דאמר (דברים יא, יח) ושמתם את דברי אלה צריכה שתהא שימה כנגד הלב:,אמר מר ר' יאשיה אומר עד כאן מצות קריאה מכאן ואילך מצות כוונה מ"ש מכאן ואילך מצות כוונה משום דכתיב על לבבכם הכא נמי הא כתיב על לבבך,ה"ק עד כאן מצות קריאה וכוונה מכאן ואילך כוונה בלא קריאה,ומ"ש עד כאן מצות קריאה וכוונה דכתיב על לבבך ודברת בם התם נמי הא כתיב על לבבכם לדבר בם,ההוא בדברי תורה כתיב וה"ק רחמנא אגמירו בנייכו תורה כי היכי דליגרסו בהו:,ת"ר (דברים ו, ד) שמע ישראל ה' אלהינו ה' אחד עד כאן צריכה כוונת הלב דברי ר"מ אמר רבא הלכה כר"מ,תניא סומכוס אומר כל המאריך באחד מאריכין לו ימיו ושנותיו אמר רב אחא בר יעקב ובדלי"ת אמר רב אשי ובלבד שלא יחטוף בחי"ת,ר' ירמיה הוה יתיב קמיה דר' [חייא בר אבא] חזייה דהוה מאריך טובא א"ל כיון דאמליכתיה למעלה ולמטה ולארבע רוחות השמים תו לא צריכת:,אמר רב נתן בר מר עוקבא אמר רב יהודה על לבבך בעמידה על לבבך סלקא דעתך אלא אימא עד על לבבך בעמידה מכאן ואילך לא ורבי יוחנן אמר כל הפרשה כולה בעמידה,ואזדא ר' יוחנן לטעמיה דאמר רבה בר בר חנה א"ר יוחנן הלכה כר' אחא שאמר משום ר' יהודה:,ת"ר שמע ישראל ה' אלהינו ה' אחד זו ק"ש של ר' יהודה הנשיא א"ל רב לר' חייא לא חזינא ליה לרבי דמקבל עליה מלכות שמים אמר ליה בר פחתי בשעה שמעביר ידיו על פניו מקבל עליו עול מלכות שמים,חוזר וגומרה או אינו חוזר וגומרה בר קפרא אומר אינו חוזר וגומרה רבי שמעון ברבי אומר חוזר וגומרה א"ל בר קפרא לר"ש ברבי בשלמא לדידי דאמינא אינו חוזר וגומרה היינו דמהדר רבי אשמעתא דאית בה יציאת מצרים אלא לדידך דאמרת חוזר וגומרה למה ליה לאהדורי,כדי להזכיר יציאת מצרים בזמנה,אמר ר' אילא בריה דרב שמואל בר מרתא משמיה דרב אמר שמע ישראל ה' אלהינו ה' אחד ונאנס בשינה יצא אמר ליה רב נחמן לדרו עבדיה בפסוקא קמא צערן טפי לא תצערן אמר ליה רב יוסף לרב יוסף בריה דרבה אבוך היכי הוה עביד אמר ליה בפסוקא קמא הוה קא מצער נפשיה טפי לא הוה מצער נפשיה,אמר רב יוסף פרקדן לא יקרא קריאת שמע מקרא הוא דלא ליקרי הא מיגנא שפיר דמי והא רבי יהושע בן לוי לייט אמאן דגני אפרקיד,אמרי מיגנא כי מצלי שפיר דמי מקרא אע"ג דמצלי נמי אסור,והא ר' יוחנן מצלי וקרי,שאני ר' יוחנן דבעל בשר הוה:,ובפרקים שואל וכו',משיב מחמת מאי אילימא מפני הכבוד השתא משאל שאיל אהדורי מבעיא אלא שואל מפני הכבוד ומשיב שלום לכל אדם אימא סיפא ובאמצע שואל מפני היראה ומשיב,משיב מחמת מאי אילימא מפני היראה השתא משאל שאיל אהדורי מבעיא אלא מפני הכבוד היינו דר"י דתנן ר"י אומר באמצע שואל מפני היראה ומשיב מפני הכבוד ובפרקים שואל מפני הכבוד ומשיב שלום לכל אדם,חסורי מחסרא והכי קתני בפרקים שואל מפני הכבוד ואין צריך לומר שהוא משיב ובאמצע שואל מפני היראה ואין צריך לומר שהוא משיב דברי ר"מ רבי יהודה אומר באמצע שואל מפני היראה ומשיב מפני הכבוד 13b. b“Which I command you this day, will be upon your heart.”Surely the word these, does not come to limit the mitzva of intent. On the contrary, bfrom here you derive that the entire portion requires intent. /b, bRabba bar bar Ḥana saidthat bRabbi Yoḥa said: The ihalakhais in accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Akiva;the entire portion requires intent., bSome teach this ihalakhastated by Rabbi Yoḥa bwith regard to that which was taughtin a iTosefta /i, where there is a tannaitic dispute. The first itannaholds: bOne who recites iShemamust focus his heartfor the entire iShema /i. bRabbi Aḥa says in the name of Rabbi Yehuda: Once he focused his heart for the first paragraphalone, bhe no longer requiresintent. With regard to this iTosefta /i, bRabba bar bar Ḥana saidthat bRabbi Yoḥa said: The ihalakhais in accordance with Rabbi Aḥa who said in the name of Rabbi Yehuda.While this differs from the previous version in form, it arrives at the same conclusion., bIt was taughtin banother ibaraitaon this subject, which cited different opinions. From: bAnd they will be,recited in iShema /i, it is derived that bit may not be recited out of order.From: bUpon your heart, Rav Zutra says: To this point,there is bthe mitzva of intent; from here on,beginning with the second paragraph, there is only bthe mitzva of recitation. Rabbi Yoshiya saysthat it means the opposite: bTo this point,there is bthe mitzva of recitation; from here onthere is only bthe mitzva of intent. /b,At first the Gemara understands that Rav Zutra required recitation only in the second paragraph, while in the first paragraph only intent was required. Therefore, the Gemara asks: bWhat is different,that bfrom here on,beginning with the second paragraph, there is bthe mitzva of recitation?Is it because bit is written:“And you shall teach them to your children, bto speak of them”(Deuteronomy 11:19)? This is no proof, as bhere too,in the first paragraph bit is written: “And you shall speak of them.”The mitzva of recitation applies to the first paragraph as well.,Rather, bhe is saying as follows: To this pointthere is bthe mitzva ofboth bintent and recitation,but bfrom here on,there is only the mitzva of brecitation without intent. /b,Again the Gemara asks: According to Rav Zutra, bwhat is different,that bto this point,in the first paragraph, there is bthe mitzva ofboth bintent and recitationbecause there are two requirements in the first paragraph, bas it is written: “Upon your heart…and you shall speak of them”? There, too,in the second paragraph bit is also written: “And you shall place these words upon your heart…to speak of them,”indicating that intent is also required in that paragraph.,The Gemara responds: bThat verse is necessary to derivethat which was taught by bRabbi Yitzḥak, who said: “And you shall place these words”refers literally to the paragraphs of iShemafound in the phylacteries. The verse teaches bthat the placementof the phylacteries of the arm bmust be opposite the heart. /b,The Gemara now attempts to clarify the second opinion in the ibaraita /i. bThe Master said, Rabbi Yoshiya says: To this pointat the end of the first paragraph, there is bthe mitzva of recitation; from here onthere is bthe mitzva of intent.The Gemara asks: bWhat is different,that bfrom here on,beginning with the second paragraph, there is bthe mitzva of intent?Is it bbecause it is writtenin the second paragraph: “And you shall place these words bupon your heart”?That is no proof, as bhere too,in the first paragraph bit is written: “Upon your heart.” /b,The Gemara responds that bhe is saying as follows: To this point,there is bthe mitzva ofboth brecitation and intent,but bfrom here on,there is only the mitzva of bintent without recitation. /b,The Gemara continues: bAnd what is different,that bto this point,in the first paragraph, there is bthe mitzva of recitation and intentbecause there are two requirements, bas it is written: Upon your heartas well as: bAnd you shall speak of them? There, too,with regard to the second paragraph bisn’t it written:And you shall place these words bupon your heart /b…and you shall teach them to your children, bto speak of them? /b,Rabbi Yoshiya responded: bThatverse refers to bTorah studyin general, not to the recitation of iShemain particular. bAnd the Torah says the following: Teach your children Torah, that they will be well-versed in them. /b, bThe Sages taughtin another ibaraitawith regard to one who recites iShemaand utters the verse, b“Hear, Israel, the Lord is our God, the Lord is One.” Intent of the heart isonly brequired to this point.This is bthe statement of Rabbi Meir. Rava said:In this matter, bthe ihalakhais in accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Meir. /b, bIt was taughtin a ibaraita /i, bSumakhos says: One who extendshis intonation bofthe word bOne [ ieḥad /i]while reciting iShema /i, is rewarded that bhis days and years are extended. Rav Aḥa bar Ya’akov said:This is only true if he extends btheletter idalet /i,so the word ieḥadis sounded in its entirety. bRav Ashi said:This is bonly so long as one does notpronounce the letter iḥethurriedly. /b,The Gemara relates that bRabbi Yirmeya was seated before Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba. He saw that he was greatly extendinghis pronunciation of ieḥad /i. bHe said to him: Once you have crowned Himin your thoughts bovereverything babove,in Heaven, bbelow,on earth, band in the four corners of the heavens, you need notextend any bfurther. /b, bRav Natan bar Mar Ukva saidthat bRav Yehuda said:One must recite bupon your heart, while standingin one place. The Gemara is perplexed: bDoes it enter your mindthat bupon your heartalone must be recited while standing in one place? What distinguishes that phrase from the rest of iShema /i? bRather, say:One must recite buntil upon your heartwhile bstandingin one place. bFrom here on,one need bnotstand in one place. bRabbi Yoḥa said:One must recite bthe entirefirst bportionwhile bstandingin one place.,The Gemara notes: bRabbi Yoḥais consistent band follows his reasoningexpressed elsewhere, as bRabba bar bar Ḥana saidthat bRabbi Yoḥa said: The ihalakhais in accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Aḥa who said in the name of Rabbi Yehuda;one is required to recite the entire first paragraph of iShemawith intent., bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: The single verse, b“Hear, Israel, the Lord is our God, the Lord is One”; this is Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi’s recitation of iShema /i.The Gemara relates: bRav said tohis uncle, bRabbi Ḥiyya: I did not see RabbiYehuda HaNasi baccept the kingship of Heaven upon himself,meaning that he did not see him recite iShema /i. Rabbi Ḥiyya bsaid to him: Son of noblemen [ ibar paḥtei/b], bwhenRabbi Yehuda HaNasi bpassed his hands over his facein the study hall in the middle of his lesson, bhe accepted the yoke of the kingdom of Heaven upon himself,as his iShemawas comprised of a single verse.,Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi’s students and members of his household disputed: bDoes he complete iShema blater or does he not complete it later? Bar Kappara says: He does not complete it later. Rabbi Shimon, son of RabbiYehuda HaNasi, bsays: He completes it later. Bar Kappara said to Rabbi Shimon, son of RabbiYehuda HaNasi: bGranted, according to myposition, bthat I say thatRabbi Yehuda HaNasi bdoes not complete iShema blater, that is whywhen he taught, bRabbiYehuda HaNasi would specifically bseek a topic that included the exodus from Egypt,as by so doing he fulfills the mitzva to remember the Exodus; a mitzva that others fulfill in their recitation of the last paragraph of iShema /i. bBut according to you, who says that he completeshis recitation of iShema blater, why,when he teaches, bwouldhe specifically bseeka topic that included the exodus from Egypt?,Rabbi Shimon responded: Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi did so bin order to mention the exodus from Egypt at itsappointed btime,during the time of the recitation of iShema /i.,Based on this ihalakha /i, bRabbi Ila, son of Rav Shmuel bar Marta, said in the name of Rav: One who recitedthe verse, b“Hear, Israel, the Lord is our God, the Lord is One,” and wasimmediately bovercome by sleep, fulfilledhis obligation to recite iShema /i. Similarly, bRav Naḥman said to his slave, Daru:If you see that I have fallen asleep, bbother meto recite bthe first verse, do not bother meto recite any bmorethan that. Similarly, bRav Yosef said to Rav Yosef, son of Rabba: What would your father do?Rav Yosef, son of Rabba, bsaid to him: He would exert himselfnot to fall asleep in order to recite bthe first verse, he would not exert himselfto recite any bmorethan that., bRav Yosef said: One who is lying [ iperakdan /i] on his back may not recite iShema /i,for lying that way is unbecoming. The Gemara asks: Is that to say that bone may not recite iShemain this position, bbut tosleep blyingin that position bis permissible? Didn’t Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi curse one whosleeps blying on his back? /b,The Gemara answers: bIf onelies on his back bwhile leaningslightly to the side, bit is permissible.Nonetheless, bto recite iShemain this position, beven though he is leaning, is prohibited. /b,The Gemara asks: bWouldn’t Rabbi Yoḥalie on his back, bleanslightly band recite iShema /i?,The Gemara responds: The case of bRabbi Yoḥa is different,because bhe was corpulentand it was difficult for him to read any other way.,The mishna cited Rabbi Meir’s statement: bAt thebreaks between bparagraphs, one may greetan individual due to the respect that he is obligated to show him, and may respond. And in the middle of each paragraph, one may greet an individual due to the fear that the individual may harm him if he fails do so, and may respond.,About this, the Gemara asks: He may brespond due to whatcircumstance? bIf you saythat one may respond bdue to respect; now thatwe learned that bone may greetanother due to respect, bis it necessaryto say that bone may responddue to respect? bRather,it must be explained as follows: bOne may greet due to respect and respond with a greeting to any person.But if that is the case, bsay the latter clauseof the mishna: bIn the middleof each paragraph bone may greet due to fear and returnanother’s greeting due to fear.,Here too, it must be clarified: He may brespond due to whatcircumstance? bIf you saythat one may respond bdue to fear; now thatwe have learned that bone may greetanother due to fear, bis it necessaryto say that bone may responddue to fear? bRather,it must mean that one may respond to another’s greeting even bdue to honor.If so, bthat isidentical to the opinion of bRabbi Yehuda, as we learnedin the mishna: bIn the middleof each paragraph, bone may greetanother bdue to fear and respond due to respect. At thebreaks between bparagraphs, one may greetanother bdue to respect and respond with a greeting to any person.If so, what is the dispute between them?,The Gemara says: The mishna bis incomplete;it is missing an important element, band it teaches the following: At thebreaks between the bparagraphs, one may greet due to respect, and, needless to say, he may responddue to respect. bIn the middleof each paragraph bone may greet due to fear, and, needless to say, he may responddue to fear. This is the bstatement of Rabbi Meir. Rabbi Yehuda says: In the middleof each paragraph bone may greet due to fear and respond due to respect. /b
70. Babylonian Talmud, Megillah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

25a. יברכוך טובים הרי זו דרך המינות על קן צפור יגיעו רחמיך ועל טוב יזכר שמך מודים מודים משתקין אותו,המכנה בעריות משתקין אותו האומר (ויקרא יח, כא) ומזרעך לא תתן להעביר למולך לא תתן לאעברא בארמיותא משתקין אותו בנזיפה:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big בשלמא מודים מודים דמיחזי כשתי רשויות ועל טוב יזכר שמך נמי דמשמע על טוב אין ועל רע לא ותנן חייב אדם לברך על הרעה כשם שהוא מברך על הטובה אלא על קן צפור יגיעו רחמיך מ"ט,פליגי בה תרי אמוראי במערבא ר' יוסי בר אבין ור' יוסי בר זבידא חד אמר מפני שמטיל קנאה במעשה בראשית וחד אמר מפני שעושה מדותיו של הקב"ה רחמים ואינן אלא גזירות,ההוא דנחית קמיה דרבה אמר אתה חסת על קן צפור אתה חוס ורחם עלינו (אתה חסת על אותו ואת בנו אתה חוס ורחם עלינו) אמר רבה כמה ידע האי מרבנן לרצויי למריה א"ל אביי והא משתקין אותו תנן,ורבה לחדודי לאביי הוא דבעא,ההוא דנחית קמיה דרבי חנינא אמר האל הגדול הגבור והנורא האדיר והחזק והאמיץ,אמר ליה סיימתינהו לשבחיה דמרך השתא הני תלתא אי לאו דכתבינהו משה באורייתא ואתו כנסת הגדולה ותקנינהו אנן לא אמרינן להו ואת אמרת כולי האי משל לאדם שהיו לו אלף אלפי אלפים דינרי זהב והיו מקלסין אותו (באלף) דינרי כסף לא גנאי הוא לו,אמר רבי חנינא הכל בידי שמים חוץ מיראת שמים שנאמר (דברים י, יב) ועתה ישראל מה ה' אלהיך שואל מעמך כי אם ליראה,מכלל דיראה מילתא זוטרתי היא אין לגבי משה רבינו מילתא זוטרתי היא משל לאדם שמבקשין הימנו כלי גדול ויש לו דומה עליו ככלי קטן קטן ואין לו דומה עליו ככלי גדול,אמר רבי זירא האומר שמע שמע כאומר מודים מודים דמי,מיתיבי הקורא את שמע וכופלה הרי זה מגונה מגונה הוא דהוי שתוקי לא משתקינן ליה לא קשיא הא דאמר מילתא מילתא ותני לה הא דאמר פסוקא פסוקא ותני לה,א"ל רב פפא לרבא ודלמא מעיקרא לא כיון דעתיה והשתא כיון דעתיה אמר ליה חברותא כלפי שמיא אי לא מכוין דעתיה מחינא ליה בארזפתא דנפחא עד דמכוין דעתיה:,המכנה בעריות משתקין אותו: תנא רב יוסף קלון אביו וקלון אמו:,האומר ומזרעך לא תתן להעביר וכו': תנא דבי רבי ישמעאל בישראל הבא על הכותית והוליד ממנה בן לע"ז הכתוב מדבר:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big מעשה ראובן נקרא ולא מתרגם מעשה תמר נקרא ומתרגם מעשה עגל הראשון נקרא ומתרגם והשני נקרא ולא מתרגם ברכת כהנים מעשה דוד ואמנון נקראין ולא מתרגמין,אין מפטירין במרכבה ורבי יהודה מתיר ר' אליעזר אומר אין מפטירין (יחזקאל טז, ב) בהודע את ירושלם:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big תנו רבנן יש נקרין ומתרגמין ויש נקרין ולא מתרגמין ויש לא נקרין ולא מתרגמין אלו נקרין ומתרגמין: בל"ת עק"ן נשפ"ה סימן:,מעשה בראשית נקרא ומתרגם פשיטא מהו דתימא אתו לשיולי מה למעלה מה למטה 25a. bMay the good bless You, this is a path of heresy,as heretics divide the world into two domains, good and evil. If one says the following in his prayers: Just as bYour mercy is extended to a bird’s nest,as You have commanded us to send away the mother before taking her chicks or eggs (see Deuteronomy 22:6–7), so too extend Your mercy to us; bor: May Your name be mentioned with the good;or: bWe give thanks, we give thanks,twice, he is suspected of heretical beliefs and they bsilence him. /b,If bone modifiesthe text while reading the laws of bforbidden sexual relations,i.e., he introduces euphemisms out of a sense of propriety, bthey silence him.Similarly, if bone sayswhile translating the verse: b“And you shall not give any of your seed to set them apart to Molekh”(Leviticus 18:21): And byou shall not giveany of your seed bto impregnate an Aramean woman, he is silenced with rebuke. /b, strongGEMARA: /strong The mishna cites three instances where the communal prayer leader is silenced. The Gemara clarifies: bGranted,they silence one who repeats: bWe give thanks, we give thanks, as it appears likehe is acknowledging and praying to btwo authorities. And,granted, bthey alsosilence one who says: bMay Your name be mentioned with the good,as this formulation bindicatesone is thanking God only bfor the good and not for the bad, and we learnedin a mishna ( iBerakhot54a): bOne is obligated to blessGod bfor the bad just as he blessesHim bfor the good. However,in the case of one who recites: Just as bYour mercy is extended to a bird’s nest, what is the reasonthat they silence him?, bTwo iamora’imin the West,Eretz Yisrael, bdisagreeabout bthisquestion, bRabbi Yosei bar Avin and Rabbi Yosei bar Zevida. One saidthat this was bbecauseone who says this bengenders jealousy among God’s creations,as it appears as though he is indicating that God favored one creature over all others. bAnd one saidthat saying this is prohibited bbecause one transforms the attributes of the Holy One, Blessed be He, intoexpressions of bmercy, and they are nothing but decreesof the King that must be fulfilled without inquiring into the reasons behind them.,The Gemara relates that ba particularindividual bdescendedbefore the ark as prayer leader bin the presence of Rabba,and bsaidin his prayers: bYou have shown mercy to birds,as expressed through the mitzva to chase away the mother bird before taking eggs from its bnest; have mercy and pity upon us. You have shown mercyto animals, as expressed through the prohibition against slaughtering an animal band its offspringon the same day; bhave mercy and pity upon us. Rabba said: How much does this rabbi know to appeasethe Lord, bhis Master! Abaye said to him: Didn’t we learnin the mishna that bthey silence him? /b,The Gemara explains: bAnd Rabba,too, held in accordance with this mishna but merely acted this way because bhe wanted to hone Abaye’sintellect. Rabba did not make his statement to praise the rabbi, but simply to test his nephew and student, Abaye, and to encourage him to articulate what he knows about the mishna.,With regard to additions to prayers formulated by the Sages, the Gemara relates that ba particularindividual bdescendedbefore the ark as prayer leader bin the presence of Rabbi Ḥanina.He extended his prayer and bsaid: God, the great, the mighty, and the awesome, the powerful, and the strong, and the fearless. /b,When he finished, Rabbi Ḥanina bsaid to him: Have you concludedall of bthe praises of your Master? Even these threepraises bthat we recite:The great, the mighty, and the awesome, bhad Moses our teacher not written them in the Torah(Deuteronomy 10:17), band had the members of the Great Assembly not come and incorporated theminto the iAmidaprayer (see Nehemiah 9:32), bwe would notbe permitted to brecite them. And you went on and recited all of these. It is comparable to a man who possessed many thousands of golden dinars, yet they were praising him forowning ba thousand silverones. bIsn’t that deprecatory toward him?All of the praises one can lavish upon the Lord are nothing but a few silver dinars relative to many thousands of gold dinars. Reciting a litany of praise does not enhance God’s honor.,Tangentially, the Gemara cites an additional statement by Rabbi Ḥanina, concerning principles of faith. bRabbi Ḥanina said: Everything is in the hands of Heaven, except for fear of Heaven.Man has free will to serve God or not, bas it is stated: “And now, Israel, what does the Lord your God ask of you other than to fearthe Lord your God” (Deuteronomy 10:12). The fact that God asks man to fear Him indicates that it is in man’s ability to do so.,The Gemara notes: This proves bby inference that fearof Heaven bis a minor matter,as the verse is formulated as though God is not asking anything significant. Can it in fact be maintained that fear of Heaven is a minor matter? The Gemara responds: bIndeed, for Moses our teacher,fear of Heaven bis a minor matter. It is comparable to one who is asked for a large vessel and he hasone; bit seems to him like a small vesselbecause he owns it. However, one who is asked for just ba smallvessel and he does not have one, bit seems to him like a large vessel.Therefore, Moses could say: What does the Lord your God ask of you other than to fear, because in his eyes it was a minor matter., bRabbi Zeira said: One whorepeats himself while reciting iShemaand bsays: ListenIsrael, blistenIsrael, bis like one who says: We give thanks, we give thanks. /b,The Gemara braises an objection:It was taught in a ibaraita /i: bOne who recites iShemaand repeats it, it is reprehensible.One may infer: bIt is reprehensible,but bthey do not silence him.The Gemara answers: bThisis bnot difficult. Thiscase, where one repeats iShemaand it is reprehensible but they do not silence him, is referring to bone who recites and repeats each individual word.In so doing, he ruins the recitation of iShema /i. However, bthatcase, where Rabbi Zeira holds that they silence one who repeats iShema /i, is referring to bone who recites and repeats an entire verse,as it appears that he is worshipping separate authorities., bRav Pappa said to Ravawith regard to this ihalakha /i: bAnd perhaps initially he did not focus his attentionon the recitation of iShemaand therefore had to repeat it, band now he focused his attention.Rava bsaid to him: Can one havethat degree of bfamiliarity with Heaven,to the extent that he can take his words lightly and say them however he likes? bIf he did not focus his attention, we beat him with a blacksmith’s hammer until he focuses his attention,as conduct of that sort is unacceptable.,We learned in the mishna: If bone modifiesthe text while reading the laws of bforbidden sexual relations, they silence him. Rav Yosef taughtthat this is referring to one who says: bThe shame of his father and the shame of his mother,instead of: “The nakedness of your father and the nakedness of your mother you shall not uncover” (Leviticus 18:7).,We learned in the mishna: If bone says,while translating the verse: b“And you shall not give any of your seed to set them apart to Molekh”(Leviticus 18:21): And you shall not give any of your seed to impregnate an Aramean woman, he is silenced with rebuke. A Sage bfrom the school of Rabbi Yishmael taught:One who translates the verse in this manner maintains that bthe verse speaks of a Jew who has relations with a gentile woman and fathered from her a sonwho will be raised to engage in bidol worship. /b, strongMISHNA: /strong bThe incident of Reuben,about which it says: “And Reuben went and lay with Bilhah, his father’s concubine” (Genesis 35:22), bis readfrom the Torah in public bbut not translated,so that the uneducated not come to denigrate Reuben. bThe incident of Tamar(Genesis, chapter 38) bis readin public bandalso btranslated. The firstreport of the bincident of theGolden bCalf,i.e., the Torah’s account of the incident itself (Exodus 32:1–20), bis read and translated, but the secondnarrative, i.e., Aaron’s report to Moses of what had taken place (Exodus 32:21–24) bis read but not translated.The verses constituting bthe Priestly Benediction(Numbers 6:24–26) band the incident of David and Amnon(II Samuel, chapter 13) are bread, but not translated. /b, bOne may not concludethe Torah reading bwithby reading from the Prophets btheaccount of the Divine bChariot(Ezekiel, chapter 1), so as not to publicize that which was meant to remain hidden. bAnd Rabbi Yehuda permitsit. bRabbi Eliezer says: One may not conclude withsection from the Prophets beginning with: b“Make known to Jerusalemher abominations” (Ezekiel 16:2), because it speaks derogatively of the Jewish people., strongGEMARA: /strong bThe Sages taughtin the iTosefta(3:31): bThere areportions of the Bible that are bread and translated; there areportions that bare read but not translated; and there areportions that bare neither read nor translated. The following are read and translated:The Hebrew acronym ibet /i, ilamed /i, itav /i; iayin /i, ikuf /i, inun /i; inun /i, ishin /i, ipeh /i, iheh /icomprise ba mnemonicfor the sections included in this category, as the Gemara will explain.,The Gemara enumerates the sections indicated by the letters of the mnemonic. The section bof the act of Creation [ ibereshit /i],alluded to by the letter ibet /i, bis read and translated.The Gemara comments: This bis obvious.Why might one think otherwise? The Gemara answers: bLest you saythat if the story of the Creation is read in public people bwill come to askquestions that should not be asked, for instance: bWhat is above and what is below, /b
71. Babylonian Talmud, Pesahim, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

50a. כאיסורו מה איסורו בכזית אף חזרתו בכזית,תניא ר' נתן אומר זה וזה כשתי ביצים ולא הודו לו חכמים,(זכריה יד, ו) והיה ביום ההוא לא יהיה אור יקרות וקפאון מאי יקרות וקפאון,א"ר אלעזר זה אור שיקר בעולם הזה וקפוי לעולם הבא,ר' יוחנן אמר אלו נגעים ואהלות שיקרין הן בעוה"ז וקפויין הן לעולם הבא,ור' יהושע בן לוי אמר אלו בני אדם שיקרין הן בעולם הזה וקפויין הן לעוה"ב כי הא דרב יוסף בריה דר' יהושע בן לוי חלש ואיתנגיד כי הדר אמר ליה אבוה מאי חזית אמר ליה עולם הפוך ראיתי עליונים למטה ותחתונים למעלה אמר לו בני עולם ברור ראית ואנן היכי התם כי היכי דאיתו אנן הכא הכי איתינן התם,ושמעתי שהיו אומרים אשרי מי שבא לכאן ותלמודו בידו ושמעתי שהיו אומרים הרוגי מלכות אין אדם יכול לעמוד במחיצתן,(ומאן) נינהו אילימא ר"ע וחביריו משום הרוגי מלכות ותו לא אלא הרוגי לוד,(זכריה יד, כ) ביום ההוא יהיה על מצלות הסוס קדש לה' מאי מצלות הסוס,א"ר יהושע בן לוי עתיד הקב"ה להוסיף על ירושלים עד שהסוס רץ ומציל,ר' אלעזר אמר כל מצילות שתולין לסוס בין עיניו יהיה קדש לה',ור' יוחנן אמר כל ביזה שבוזזין ישראל עד שעה שהסוס רץ ומציל יהיה קדש לה',בשלמא למאן דאמר כל ביזה שבזזו ישראל היינו דכתיב (זכריה יד, כ) והיה הסירות בבית ה' כמזרקים לפני המזבח אלא למ"ד בהנך תרתי מאי והיה הסירות בבית ה' מילתא אחריתי קאמר דמתעתרי ישראל ומתנדבי ומייתי,בשלמא למ"ד ביזה היינו דכתיב (זכריה יד, כא) ולא יהיה כנעני עוד בבית ה' צבאות אלא למ"ד הנך תרתי מאי ולא יהיה כנעני א"ר ירמיה אין כאן עני,וכנעני מנלן דאיקרי תגר דכתיב (בראשית לח, ב) וירא שם יהודה בת איש כנעני מאי כנעני אילימא כנעני ממש אפשר בא אברהם והזהיר את יצחק בא יצחק והזהיר את יעקב ויהודה אזיל ונסיב אלא אמר רבי שמעון בן לקיש בת גברא תגרא דכתיב (הושע יב, ח) כנען בידו מאזני מרמה ואיבעית אימא מהכא (ישעיהו כג, ח) אשר סוחריה שרים כנעניה נכבדי ארץ:,(זכריה יד, ט) והיה ה' למלך על כל הארץ ביום ההוא יהיה ה' אחד ושמו אחד אטו האידנא לאו אחד הוא,אמר רבי אחא בר חנינא לא כעולם הזה העולם הבא העולם הזה על בשורות טובות אומר ברוך הטוב והמטיב ועל בשורות רעות אומר ברוך דיין האמת לעולם הבא כולו הטוב והמטיב,ושמו אחד מאי אחד אטו האידנא לאו שמו אחד הוא,א"ר נחמן בר יצחק לא כעולם הזה העולם הבא העולם הזה נכתב ביו"ד ה"י ונקרא באל"ף דל"ת אבל לעולם הבא כולו אחד נקרא ביו"ד ה"י ונכתב ביו"ד ה"י,סבר רבא למדרשה בפירקא א"ל ההוא סבא לעלם כתיב,ר' אבינא רמי כתיב (שמות ג, טו) זה שמי לעלם וזה זכרי לדור דור אמר הקב"ה לא כשאני נכתב אני נקרא נכתב אני ביו"ד ה"א ונקרא אני באל"ף דל"ת:, br br big strongהדרן עלך אלו עוברין /strong /big br br,מתני׳ big strongמקום /strong /big שנהגו לעשות מלאכה בערבי פסחים עד חצות עושין מקום שנהגו שלא לעשות אין עושין ההולך ממקום שעושין למקום שאין עושין או ממקום שאין עושין למקום שעושין נותנין עליו חומרי מקום שיצא משם וחומרי מקום שהלך לשם 50a. bis analogous to its prohibition. Just as its prohibition isonly when it is the size of an bolive-bulk, so too,the requirement to breturn it isonly when it is the size of an bolive-bulk. /b,Another opinion on this issue bwas taughtin a ibaraita /i. bRabbi Natan says:The minimum measure for both bthis and that,leaven and sacrificial meat, is btwo egg-bulksof prohibited material, bbut the Rabbis did not agree with him. /b,Incidental to the discussion of leaving Jerusalem and its surrounding area, the Gemara cites expositions of a prophetic passage, including a statement that God will eventually expand the boundaries of Jerusalem. The verse states: b“And it shall come to pass on that day that there shall not be light,but bheavy clouds [ iyekarot /i] and thickness [ ivekippaon /i]”(Zechariah 14:6). The Gemara asks: bWhat isthe meaning of the expression b“ iyekarot vekippaon /i”? /b, bRabbi Elazar said: This isthe blightcurrently provided by the sun, bwhich is significant[iyakar /i] in this world and insignificant[ikafuy /i] in the World-to-Come,when the moon will shine as brightly as the sun does now and the sun will be seven times brighter than it is currently., bRabbi Yoḥa said: Thisexpression refers to the tractates of iNega’imand iOholot /i, which are weighty [ iyekarim /i]owing to their difficulty bin this world,as they are among the most complex subjects, bbutwill be beasy [ ikefuyin /i] in the World-to-Come,when people will be much wiser., bAnd Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: These are people who areconsidered bimportant [ iyekarim /i] in this world and unimportant[ikefuyim /i] in the World-to-Come.This is blikethe incident involving bRav Yosef, son of Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi,who bbecame ill andwas about to bexpire. When he returnedto good health, bhis father said to him: What did you seewhen you were about to die? bHe said to him: I saw an inverted world. Those above,i.e., those who are considered important in this world, were bbelow,insignificant, while bthose below,i.e., those who are insignificant in this world, were babove. He said to him: My son, you have seen a clear world.The world you have seen is the true world, as in that world people’s standings befit them. Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi asked: bAnd where are we,the Torah scholars, bthere?Rav Yosef responded: bJust as we areregarded bhere, so are weregarded bthere. /b,Rav Yosef added: bAnd I heard that they were sayingin that world: bPraiseworthy is the one who arrives here with his studies in hand. And Ialso bheard that they were saying: Those executed by the governmentenjoy such an exalted status that bno one can stand in their enclosure. /b,The Gemara asks: bAnd who are thesemartyrs that Rav Yosef was referring to? bIf you saythat he was referring to bRabbi Akiva and his colleagues,who were martyred, this cannot be: Is their elevated status bdueonly btothe fact that bthey were martyred bythe Roman bgovernment and nothing more?These men were exceptional in their piety and sanctity during their lives as well. bRather,it is referring to bthe martyrs of Lod,Pappos and Luliyanos, who gave themselves up to be martyred for the sake of the Jewish people. They falsely admitted to killing the king’s daughter in order to prevent a harsh decree from being issued against the entire community. Although they were not known for exceptional piety before that event, they are considered to be extremely holy due to their martyrdom.,The Gemara continues to expound the section of the book of Zechariah cited above. The verse states: b“On that day there shall be upon the bells of the horses [ imetzillot hasus /i]: Holy unto the Lord”(Zechariah 14:20). The Gemara asks: bWhat isthe meaning of the expression imetzillot hasus /i? /b, bRabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: In the future the Holy One, Blessed be He, will extend Jerusalemby bas much asthe distance that ba horse can runthe entire time bit casts a shadow [ imetzeil /i].Jerusalem will be so large that a horse running from one side of the city in the morning will not arrive at the other end of the city until midday, when its shadow will have disappeared., bRabbi Elazar said: Alldecorative bbells [ imetzillot /i] that one hangs between the eyes of a horse will be sanctified to God,i.e., they will be consecrated for the Temple treasury., bAnd Rabbi Yoḥa said: All spoils that the Jewish peoplewill btakefrom gentiles who wage war against them, bup to the time a horse runs and casts a shadow [ imetzeil /i],i.e., half a day, bwill be sanctified for God. /b,The Gemara asks: bGranted, according to the one who saidthat this expression refers to ball spoils that the Jewish peoplewill btake, this is as it is writtenin the continuation of the verse, which mentions additional treasure donated to the Temple: b“And the pots in the Lord’s house shall be like the basins before the altar.” However, according to the ones who said theseother btwoexplanations, bwhatis the meaning of: b“And the pots in the Lord’s house”?The Gemara explains that according to these opinions the verse bis saying something else:It is prophesying that in the future bthe Jewish people will become wealthy and bring donationsto the Temple.,The Gemara goes on to ask: bGranted, according to the one who saidthat this expression refers to bspoils, this is as it is writtenin the next verse: b“Andon that day bthere shall no longer be a merchant [ ikena’ani /i] in the house of the Lord of hosts”(Zechariah 14:21), as he will no longer be needed. bHowever, according to the ones who said theseother btwoexplanations, bwhatis the meaning of the expression: b“There shall no longer be a merchant”? Rabbi Yirmeya said:The word ikena’aniis in fact a contraction of the phrase: bThere is no poor person here [ iein kan ani /i].In other words, there will no longer be poor people, and therefore the Jews themselves will be able to donate whatever is needed in the Temple (Maharsha)., bAnd from where do wederive bthat a merchant can be called a ikena’ani /i? As it is written: “And Judah saw there the daughter of a certain ikena’ani /i… /band he took her, and went in unto her” (Genesis 38:2). bWhat isthe meaning of the word ikena’ani /iin this context? bIf you sayit refers to ban actual Canaanite, is it possible that Abraham warned Isaacnot to marry a Canaanite woman, and bIsaac warned Jacobto the same effect, bandnonetheless bJudah went and marrieda Canaanite woman? bRather, Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish said:She was bthe daughter of a merchant, as it is written: “As for the merchant [ ikena’an /i], the balances of deceit are in his hand. He lovesto oppress” (Hosea 12:8). bAnd if you wish, sayinstead that this meaning of the word can be understood from the following verse, which describes Tyre: b“Whose traders are princes, whose merchants [ ikieha /i] are the honorable of the earth”(Isaiah 23:8).,The Gemara cites another verse from the prophecy at the end of the book of Zechariah: b“And the Lord shall be King over all the earth, on that day shall the Lord be one and His name one”(Zechariah 14:9). The Gemara asks: bIs that to say that now He is not one? /b, bRabbi Aḥa bar Ḥanina said: The World-to-Come is not like this world.In bthis world, upon good tidings one recites: Blessed…Who is good and does good, and over bad tidings one recites: Blessed…the true Judge. In the World-to-Comeone will balwaysrecite: bBlessed…Who is good and does good.There will be only one mode of blessing God for tidings.,The verse states: “On that day shall the Lord be one band His name one.”The Gemara asks: bWhatis the meaning of the word bonein this context? bIs that to say that now His name is not one? /b, bRav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said: The World-to-Come is not like this world. In this world,God’s name that bis written withthe letters iyod /iand ihehis readas iAdonai /i, which begins with the letters ialef /iand idalet /i.God’s name is not pronounced in the same way as it is written. bHowever, in the World-to-Come it will all be one,as God’s name will be both bread withthe letters iyod /iand ihehand written withthe letters iyod /iand iheh /i. /b, bRava thought to expoundupon the correct punctuation and enunciation of the name of God during his public blecturebefore one of the Festivals. bA certain old man said to him:The word bforever is writtenin the verse: “This is My name forever [ ile’olam /i]” (Exodus 3:15) without the letter ivav /i, such that it can be read ile’alem /i, to conceal, meaning that the name should be concealed., bRabbi Avina raised a contradiction: It is writtenin the verse: b“This is My name forever,”implying a requirement to conceal the name of God, and in the very next phrase it states: b“And this is My memorial unto all generations”(Exodus 3:15), which indicates that the name of God is to be publicized and remembered by all. Rather, bthe Holy One, Blessed be He, said: I,i.e., My name, is bnot read as I am written. I am written withthe letters iyod /iand iheh /i, and I am read withthe letters ialef /iand idalet /i. /b,, strongMISHNA: /strong In ba place wherethe people were baccustomed to perform labor on Passover eve until midday, onemay bdoso on that day. In ba place wherethe people were baccustomed not to performlabor, bonemay bnot doso. The performance of labor on the eve of Passover is not prohibited by Torah law, but is dependent on local custom. If one btravels from a place wherepeople bperformlabor on Passover eve bto a place wherepeople bdo not performlabor, bor from a place wherepeople bdo not performlabor on Passover eve bto a place wherepeople bperformlabor, the Sages bimpose upon him the stringencies ofboth bthe place from which he left and the stringencies of the place to which he went.In both cases, he may not perform labor.
72. Babylonian Talmud, Qiddushin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

71a. מטהר שבטים שבטו של לוי מטהר תחילה שנא' (מלאכי ג, ג) וישב מצרף ומטהר כסף וטיהר את בני לוי וזיקק אותם כזהב וככסף והיו לי"י מגישי מנחה בצדקה,אמר רבי יהושע בן לוי כסף מטהר ממזרים שנאמר וישב מצרף ומטהר כסף מאי מגישי מנחה בצדקה א"ר יצחק צדקה עשה הקב"ה עם ישראל שמשפחה שנטמעה נטמעה,גופא אמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל כל ארצות עיסה לארץ ישראל וארץ ישראל עיסה לבבל בימי רבי בקשו לעשות בבל עיסה לארץ ישראל אמר להן קוצים אתם משימים לי בין עיני רצונכם יטפל עמכם ר' חנינא בר חמא,נטפל עמהם ר' חנינא בר חמא אמר להם כך מקובלני מר' ישמעאל בר' יוסי שאמר משום אביו כל ארצות עיסה לארץ ישראל וארץ ישראל עיסה לבבל,בימי רבי פנחס בקשו לעשות בבל עיסה לארץ ישראל אמר להם לעבדיו כשאני אומר שני דברים בבית המדרש טלוני בעריסה ורוצו כי עייל אמר להם אין שחיטה לעוף מן התורה,אדיתבי וקמעייני בה אמר להו כל ארצות עיסה לארץ ישראל וארץ ישראל עיסה לבבל נטלוהו בעריסה ורצו רצו אחריו ולא הגיעוהו ישבו ובדקו עד שהגיעו לסכנה ופירשו,א"ר יוחנן היכלא בידינו היא אבל מה אעשה שהרי גדולי הדור נטמעו בה סבר לה כר' יצחק דאמר ר' יצחק משפחה שנטמעה נטמעה,אמר אביי אף אנן נמי תנינא משפחת בית הצריפה היתה בעבר הירדן וריחקה בן ציון בזרוע עוד אחרת היתה וקירבה בן ציון בזרוע כגון אלו אליהו בא לטמא ולטהר לרחק ולקרב כגון אלו דידעין אבל משפחה שנטמעה נטמעה,תאנא עוד אחרת היתה ולא רצו חכמים לגלותה אבל חכמים מוסרים אותו לבניהם ולתלמידיהן פעם אחת בשבוע ואמרי לה פעמים בשבוע אמר רב נחמן בר יצחק מסתברא כמאן דאמר פעם אחת בשבוע כדתניא הריני נזיר אם לא אגלה משפחות יהיה נזיר ולא יגלה משפחות,אמר רבה בר בר חנה אמר ר' יוחנן שם בן ארבע אותיות חכמים מוסרין אותו לתלמידיהן פעם אחת בשבוע ואמרי לה פעמים בשבוע אמר רב נחמן בר יצחק מסתברא כמאן דאמר פעם אחת בשבוע דכתיב (שמות ג, טו) זה שמי לעולם לעלם כתיב רבא סבר למידרשיה בפירקא א"ל ההוא סבא לעלם כתיב,רבי אבינא רמי כתיב (שמות ג, טו) זה שמי וכתיב (שמות ג, טו) זה זכרי אמר הקב"ה לא כשאני נכתב אני נקרא נכתב אני ביו"ד ה"י ונקרא באל"ף דל"ת,ת"ר בראשונה שם בן שתים עשרה אותיות היו מוסרין אותו לכל אדם משרבו הפריצים היו מוסרים אותו לצנועים שבכהונה והצנועים שבכהונה מבליעים אותו בנעימת אחיהם הכהנים תניא אמר רבי טרפון פעם אחת עליתי אחר אחי אמי לדוכן והטיתי אזני אצל כהן גדול ושמעתי שהבליע שם בנעימת אחיו הכהנים,אמר רב יהודה אמר רב שם בן ארבעים ושתים אותיות אין מוסרין אותו אלא למי שצנוע ועניו ועומד בחצי ימיו ואינו כועס ואינו משתכר ואינו מעמיד על מדותיו וכל היודעו והזהיר בו והמשמרו בטהרה אהוב למעלה ונחמד למטה ואימתו מוטלת על הבריות ונוחל שני עולמים העולם הזה והעולם הבא,אמר שמואל משמיה דסבא בבל בחזקת כשרה עומדת עד שיודע לך במה נפסלה שאר ארצות בחזקת פסול הן עומדות עד שיודע לך במה נכשרה ארץ ישראל מוחזק לפסול פסול מוחזק לכשר כשר,הא גופא קשיא אמרת מוחזק לפסול פסול הא סתמא כשר והדר תני מוחזק לכשר כשר הא סתמא פסול אמר רב הונא בר תחליפא משמיה דרב לא קשיא 71a. bpurifiesthe btribes,i.e., clarifies their lineage, He will bpurifythat of bthe tribe of Levi first, as it is statedwith regard to the angel sent forth by God: b“And he shall sit as a refiner and purifier of silver; and he shall purify the sons of Levi, and purge them as gold and silver; and there shall be they that shall offer to the Lord offerings in righteousness”(Malachi 3:3)., bRabbi Yehoshua ben Levi says: Money purifies imamzerim /i.Money causes rich imamzerimto become assimilated with Jews of unflawed lineage, since other families marry them despite their flawed lineage. In the future, God will not single them out as imamzerim /i, bas it is stated: “And he shall sit as a refiner and purifier of silver,”which teaches that money, i.e., silver, purifies them. bWhat,then, is the connection to the next part of the verse: b“They that shall offer to the Lord offerings in righteousness”? Rabbi Yitzḥak says: The Holy One, Blessed be He, performedan act of brighteousness with the Jewish peopleby establishing bthat a family that has become assimilatedwith Jews of unflawed lineage remains bassimilated.They are not removed from their tribe despite their flawed lineage.,§ With regard to bthematter bitselfthat was discussed earlier, the lineage of the Jews in various lands, bRav Yehuda saysthat bShmuel says:The lineage of residents of ball lands is muddledcompared btothat of the residents of bEretz Yisrael, andthe lineage of residents of bEretz Yisrael is muddledcompared btothat of bBabylonia.The Gemara relates: bIn the days of RabbiYehuda HaNasi, bthey sought to establishthe lineage of the Jews in bBabyloniaas bmuddledrelative btothat of bEretz Yisrael.In other words, the people of Eretz Yisrael wanted their lineage to be considered superior to that of the residents of Babylonia, so that if people from Eretz Yisrael would wish to marry Babylonians, they would have to investigate the lineage of the Babylonians. Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi was descended from Hillel, a Babylonian, so bhe said tothose who put forth this suggestion: bAre you placing thorns between my eyes?Do you wish to insult me? bIf you wish, Rabbi Ḥanina bar Ḥama will join youand explain it to you., bRabbi Ḥanina bar Ḥama joined themand bsaid to them: Thisis the tradition that bI received from Rabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yosei, who says in the name of his father,who was from Eretz Yisrael: The lineage of residents of ball lands is muddledcompared btothat of bEretz Yisrael, andthe lineage of residents of bEretz Yisrael is muddledcompared btothat of bBabylonia. /b,The Gemara further relates with regard to the same issue: bIn the days of Rabbi Pineḥas, they sought to establishthe lineage of bBabyloniaas bmuddledrelative btothat of bEretz Yisrael. He said to his servants: When I have said two statements in the house of study, pick me up on a stretcher and run,so that I will not be attacked for my statements. bWhen he enteredthe house of study bhe said tothose studying there: bSlaughter of a bird is notobligatory bby Torah law. /b, bWhile they were sitting and scrutinizing thisnovel ihalakha /i, bhe said to them:The lineage of residents of ball lands is muddledcompared btothat of bEretz Yisrael, andthe lineage of residents of bEretz Yisrael is muddledcompared btothat of bBabylonia.His servants bpicked him up on a stretcher and ran.Those that were in the house of study bpursued him but could not catch him.Nevertheless, bthey sat and examinedthe lineage of various families in order to determine whether in fact the lineage of the residents of Eretz Yisrael was problematic, buntil they reachedpowerful families. It was bdangerousto accuse them of flaws due to their power, band they withdrewfrom their inspections., bRabbi Yoḥa saysas an oath: By the bSanctuary! It is in our powerto reveal the identity of a family that has a flawed lineage, bbut what can I do, as the greatest of the generation are assimilated into it?Consequently, I will not reveal its name. The Gemara comments: Rabbi Yoḥa bholds in accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Yitzḥak, as Rabbi Yitzḥak says: A family that has become assimilatedremains bassimilated,and one should not reveal their flawed status., bAbaye said: We too learnin the mishna ( iEduyyot8:7): bThere was a familyknown as bBeit HaTzerifa in Transjordan, anda person called bben Tziyyon forcefully distanced itand proclaimed that its lineage was flawed, although its lineage was unflawed. bThere was anotherone bthat ben Tzion forcefully drew near,although its lineage was flawed. The mishna adds: Known families bsuch as these, Elijah comes todeclare bimpure and todeclare bpure, to distance and to draw near.Abaye continues: When the mishna states: bSuch as these,it means those bwhosestatus bwe know. But a family that has become assimilated,whose flawed lineage is unknown to the public, bhasalready bbecome assimilated,and not even Elijah will publicize its flaw.,The Sage btaught( iTosefta /i, iEduyyot3:4): bThere was anotherfamily with flawed lineage, bbut the Sages did not want to reveal itsidentity to all. bBut the Sages transmit itsname bto their children and to their students once every seven years, and some say twice every seven years,to prevent them from marrying into their family. bRav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak says: It stands to reason in accordance with the one who saysthat they transmit it bonce every seven years, as it is taughtin a ibaraita( iTosefta /i, iNazir1:2): One who says: bI am hereby a nazirite if I do not revealthe names of bfamiliesof flawed lineage among the Jewish people, bhe should be a nazirite and not revealthe identity of such bfamilies.This shows that such information should be kept secret as much as possible.,§ The above statement, concerning a matter that the Sages transmitted privately and infrequently, leads the Gemara to teach a similar ihalakha /i: bRabba bar bar Ḥana saysthat bRabbi Yoḥa says: The Sages transmitthe correct pronunciation of bthe four-letter nameof God bto their students once every seven years, and some say twice every seven years. Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak says: It stands to reason in accordance with the one who saysthat they transmit it bonce every seven years, as it is written: “This is My name forever [ ile’olam /i]”(Exodus 3:15), which is bwrittenso that it can be read ile’alem /i,to hide. This indicates that the Divine Name must remain hidden. The Gemara relates: bRava planned to expoundand explain the proper way to say the name bina public bdiscourse. A certain elder said to him: It is writtenso that it can be read ile’alem /i,indicating that it must stay hidden., bRabbi Avina raised a contradiction: It is written: “This is My name,”indicating that the name as written is that of God; band it is written: “This is My remembrance”(Exodus 3:15), which indicates that it is not God’s actual name but merely a way of remembering His name. The explanation is as follows: bThe Holy One, Blessed be He, said: Not as I am written am I pronounced. I am written withthe letters iyod /i, iheh /i, ivav /i, iheh /i, bwhileMy name is bpronounced withthe letters ialef /i, idalet /i, inun /i, iyod /i., bThe Sages taught: Initially,the Sages bwould transmit the twelve-letter nameof God bto any person. When the uninhibited oneswho used the name disrespectfully bincreased, they would transmit itonly bto discreetmembers bof the priesthood, and the discreetmembers bof the priesthoodwould pronounce the name during the Priestly Benediction. They would bconceal itby saying it bduring the sweetmelody bof their priestly brothers,so that it would not become publicly known. bIt is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bRabbi Tarfon,who was himself a priest, bsaid:On bone occasion I ascended after my mother’s brother to the platformto give the Priestly Benediction, band I inclined my ear near the High Priest, and I heard him conceal the name during the sweetmelody bof his priestly brothers. /b, bRav Yehuda saysthat bRav says: The forty-two-letter nameof God bmay be transmitted only to one who is discreet, and humble, and stands atat least bhalf his life, and does not get angry, and does not get drunk, and does not insist upon his rightsbut is willing to yield. There is no concern that such a person might reveal the name in a fit of anger or drunkenness. bAnd anyone who knowsthis name band is careful with it and guards it in purity is beloved above and treasured below; and fear of him is cast upon the creatures; and he inherits two worlds, this world and the World-to-Come. /b,§ The Gemara returns to the issue of lineage: bShmuel says in the name ofa certain belder:A family in bBabylonia has a presumptive status of unflawedlineage buntil it becomes known to you in what way it wasrendered of bflawedlineage. Conversely, a family from bother lands has a presumptive status of flawedlineage buntil it becomes known to you in what way it wasrendered bunflawed.As for families in bEretz Yisrael,one who bhas a presumptive status of flawedlineage is of bflawedlineage, whereas one who bhas presumptive status of unflawedlineage is of bunflawedlineage.,The Gemara is puzzled by this last statement: bThis matter itself is difficult:First, byou saidthat a family that bhas a presumptive status of flawedlineage is of bflawedlineage, indicating that a family with bunspecifiedstatus is of bunflawedlineage. bAnd thenyou bteach:A family that bhas a presumptive status of unflawedlineage is of bunflawedlineage, indicating that a family with bunspecifiedstatus is of bflawedlineage. bRav Huna bar Taḥalifa said in the name of Rav:This is bnot difficult. /b
73. Babylonian Talmud, Rosh Hashanah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

29b. ברכת הלחם של מצה וברכת היין של קידוש היום מהו כיון דחובה הוא מפיק או דלמא ברכה לאו חובה היא,ת"ש דאמר רב אשי כי הוינן בי רב פפי הוה מקדש לן וכי הוה אתי אריסיה מדברא הוה מקדש להו,ת"ר לא יפרוס אדם פרוסה לאורחין אלא אם כן אוכל עמהם אבל פורס הוא לבניו ולבני ביתו כדי לחנכן במצות ובהלל ובמגילה אף על פי שיצא מוציא:, br br big strongהדרן עלך ראוהו בית דין /strong /big br br,מתני׳ big strongיום /strong /big טוב של ר"ה שחל להיות בשבת במקדש היו תוקעין אבל לא במדינה משחרב בהמ"ק התקין רבן יוחנן בן זכאי שיהו תוקעין בכל מקום שיש בו ב"ד אמר רבי אלעזר לא התקין רבן יוחנן בן זכאי אלא ביבנה בלבד אמרו לו אחד יבנה ואחד כל מקום שיש בו בית דין,ועוד זאת היתה ירושלים יתירה על יבנה שכל עיר שהיא רואה ושומעת וקרובה ויכולה לבוא תוקעין וביבנה לא היו תוקעין אלא בב"ד בלבד:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big מנה"מ אמר רבי לוי בר לחמא אמר רבי חמא בר חנינא כתוב אחד אומר (ויקרא כג, כד) שבתון זכרון תרועה וכתוב אחד אומר (במדבר כט, א) יום תרועה יהיה לכם לא קשיא כאן ביו"ט שחל להיות בשבת כאן ביום טוב שחל להיות בחול,אמר רבא אי מדאורייתא היא במקדש היכי תקעינן ועוד הא לאו מלאכה היא דאצטריך קרא למעוטי,דתנא דבי שמואל (במדבר כט, א) כל מלאכת עבודה לא תעשו יצתה תקיעת שופר ורדיית הפת שהיא חכמה ואינה מלאכה,אלא אמר רבא מדאורייתא מישרא שרי ורבנן הוא דגזור ביה כדרבה דאמר רבה הכל חייבין בתקיעת שופר ואין הכל בקיאין בתקיעת שופר גזירה שמא יטלנו בידו וילך אצל הבקי ללמוד ויעבירנו ד' אמות ברה"ר,והיינו טעמא דלולב והיינו טעמא דמגילה:,משחרב בהמ"ק התקין רבי יוחנן בן זכאי כו': תנו רבנן פעם אחת חל ראש השנה להיות בשבת [והיו כל הערים מתכנסין] אמר להם רבן יוחנן בן זכאי לבני בתירה נתקע אמרו לו נדון,אמר להם נתקע ואחר כך נדון לאחר שתקעו אמרו לו נדון אמר להם כבר נשמעה קרן ביבנה ואין משיבין לאחר מעשה:,אמר רבי אלעזר לא התקין רבן יוחנן בן זכאי אלא ביבנה בלבד אמרו לו אחד יבנה ואחד כל מקום שיש בו ב"ד: אמרו לו היינו ת"ק,איכא בינייהו בי דינא דאקראי:,אמרו לו אחד יבנה ואחד כל מקום שיש בו ב"ד: אמר רב הונא 29b. With regard to bthe blessing over breadthat is recited before eating imatza /iat the Passover seder band the blessing over winerecited as part bof the sanctification of the dayof Shabbat or a Festival, bwhat isthe ihalakha /i? The Gemara analyzes the question: Do we say that bsince there is an obligationto recite these blessings due to the mitzva involved, therefore bone can dischargethe obligation for others, even if he himself has already fulfilled his obligation? bOr perhapswe say that bthe blessingitself bis not an obligation,but rather the obligation lies in the eating and drinking, and the blessing is recited over one’s physical enjoyment; therefore, if he already fulfilled his own obligation, he cannot recite the blessing for others, as he derives no pleasure at this time.,The Gemara answers: bComeand bhearan answer to this question from what bRav Ashi said: When we werestudying bin the school of Rav Pappi, he would recite ikiddushfor us, and when his tets would arrive from the field he would recite ikiddush /ionce again bon their behalf.Therefore, it is clear that one may recite ikiddushon behalf of others, including the blessing that is recited over the wine, even if he himself has already fulfilled his own obligation., bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: bOne should not break breadand recite a blessing bfor guests unless he is eating with them,so that he is obligated to recite a blessing for himself. bBut he may breakbread bfor his children and forthe other bmembers of his householdand recite the blessing, bin order to educate them toperform bthe mitzvot,so that they know how to recite a blessing. bAnd with regard to ihalleland the Scrollof Esther, the ihalakhais that beven if healready bfulfilledhis obligation, bhe canstill bdischargethe obligation of others.,, strongMISHNA: /strong With regard to the bFestival day of Rosh HaShana that occurs on Shabbat, in the Temple they would soundthe ishofaras usual. bHowever,they would bnotsound it bin therest of the bcountryoutside the Temple. bAfter the Temple was destroyed, Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai instituted thatthe people bshould soundthe ishofaron Shabbat bin every place where there is a courtof twenty-three judges. bRabbi Elazar said: Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai institutedthis practice bonly in Yavne,where the Great Sanhedrin of seventy-one judges resided in his time, but nowhere else. bThey said to him:He instituted the practice bbothin bYavne andin bany place where there is a court. /b,The mishna adds: bAnd Jerusalemin earlier times bhad this additional superiority over Yavneafter Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai instituted this practice, bforin bany city whoseresidents bcould seeJerusalem band hearthe sounding of the ishofarfrom there, bandwhich bwas nearto Jerusalem bandpeople bcould cometo Jerusalem from there, btheywould bsoundthe ishofarthere as well, as it was considered part of Jerusalem. bBut in Yavne they would soundthe ishofar bonly in the courtitself, not in the surrounding cities., strongGEMARA: /strong The Gemara asks: bFrom whereare bthese matters;from where is it derived that the ishofaris not sounded on Shabbat? bRabbi Levi bar Laḥma saidthat bRabbi Ḥama bar Ḥanina said: One verse says,with regard to Rosh HaShana: b“A solemn rest, a memorial of blasts”(Leviticus 23:24), which indicates that one should merely remember the ishofarwithout actually sounding it. bAnd another verse says: “It is a day of blowing for you”(Numbers 29:1), i.e., a day on which one must actually sound the ishofar /i. This apparent contradiction is bnot difficult: Here,the verse in which the ishofaris only being remembered but not sounded, is referring bto a Festival that occurs on Shabbat; there,the verse in which the ishofaris actually sounded, is referring bto a Festival that occurs on a weekday. /b, bRava said:This explanation is difficult, for bifthe distinction between Shabbat and the rest of the week applies bby Torah law, how does one soundthe ishofaron Shabbat bin the Temple?If it is prohibited to sound the ishofaron Shabbat, it should be prohibited everywhere. bAnd furthermore,there is an additional problem with this explanation: Although the Sages prohibited sounding a ishofarand playing other musical instruments on Shabbat, by Torah law sounding a ishofar bis not a prohibited laboron Shabbat such bthat a verse is necessary to excludeit when Rosh HaShana occurs on Shabbat.,The Gemara cites a proof for this last claim: bAsa Sage bof the school of Shmuel taughtin a ibaraita /i, with regard to the verse that prohibits performing prohibited labor on Festivals: b“Any prohibited labor of work you shall not perform”(Numbers 29:1). This comes bto excludefrom the category of prohibited labors bthe sounding of the ishofarand the removal of breadfrom the oven, each of bwhich is a skill and not a labor,and therefore they are not included in the category of prohibited labor. Apparently, sounding the ishofaris not prohibited by Torah law., bRather, Rava said: By Torah law one is permittedto sound the ishofaron Rosh HaShana even on Shabbat, band it was the Sages who decreedthat bitis prohibited. This is bin accordance withthe opinion of bRabba, as Rabba said: All are obligated to sound the ishofar /ion Rosh HaShana, bbut not all are experts in sounding the ishofar /i.Therefore, the Sages instituted ba decreethat the ishofarshould not be sounded on Shabbat, blest one takethe ishofar bin his hand and go to an expert to learnhow to sound it or to have him sound it for him, banddue to his preoccupation bhemight bcarry it four cubits in the public domain,which is a desecration of Shabbat.,The Gemara comments: bAnd this isalso bthe reason forthe rabbinical decree that bthe palm branch[ilulav/b] may not be taken on Shabbat, band this islikewise bthe reason forthe decree that bthe Megillaof Esther may not be read on Shabbat. The Sages were concerned that one might carry the ilulavor the Megilla four cubits in the public domain to take it to an expert who will teach him the proper manner to perform these mitzvot.,§ The mishna taught: bAfter the Temple was destroyed, Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai instituted thatthe people should sound the ishofareven on Shabbat in every place where there is a court of twenty-three judges. The background to this decree is related in greater detail in a ibaraita /i, as bthe Sages taught: Once Rosh HaShana occurred on Shabbat, and all the cities gatheredat the Great Sanhedrin in Yavne for the Festival prayers. bRabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai said to the sons of Beteira,who were the leading halakhic authorities of the generation: bLet us soundthe ishofar /i, as in the Temple. bThey said to him: Let us discusswhether or not this is permitted., bHe said to them:First blet us soundit, band afterward,when there is time, blet us discussthe matter. bAfter they soundedthe ishofar /i, the sons of Beteira bsaid toRabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai: bLet usnow bdiscussthe issue. bHe said to them: The horn has already been heard in Yavne, and one does not refutea ruling bafter actionhas already been taken. There is no point in discussing the matter, as it would be inappropriate to say that the community acted erroneously after the fact.,§ The mishna further stated that bRabbi Elazar said: Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai institutedthis practice bonly in Yavne. They said to him:He instituted the practice bbothin bYavne andin bany place where there is a court.The Gemara asks: This last statement of the Rabbis: bThey said to him,etc.; bisthe same as the opinion of bthe first itanna /iof the mishna. Why did the mishna repeat this opinion?,The Gemara answers: The practical difference bbetweenthe opinion of the first itannaand the opinion of the Rabbis who issued that last statement is with regard to ba temporary court,i.e., one that is not fixed in a certain place. According to the opinion of the first itanna /i, the ishofaris sounded there as well, whereas according to the opinion of the Rabbis who responded to Rabbi Elazar, the ishofaris sounded only in a place where there is a permanent court, similar to that in Yavne.,§ The mishna taught that bthey said to him:He instituted the practice bbothin bYavne andin bany place where there is a court. Rav Huna said: /b
74. Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

38b. גופו מבבל וראשו מארץ ישראל ואבריו משאר ארצות עגבותיו א"ר אחא מאקרא דאגמא,א"ר יוחנן בר חנינא שתים עשרה שעות הוי היום שעה ראשונה הוצבר עפרו שניה נעשה גולם שלישית נמתחו אבריו רביעית נזרקה בו נשמה חמישית עמד על רגליו ששית קרא שמות שביעית נזדווגה לו חוה שמינית עלו למטה שנים וירדו ארבעה תשיעית נצטווה שלא לאכול מן האילן עשירית סרח אחת עשרה נידון שתים עשרה נטרד והלך לו שנאמר (תהלים מט, יג) אדם ביקר בל ילין,אמר רמי בר חמא אין חיה רעה שולטת באדם אלא אם כן נדמה לו כבהמה שנאמר (תהלים מט, יג) נמשל כבהמות נדמו:,(שע"ה בסו"ף ארמ"י סימן) אמר רב יהודה א"ר בשעה שבקש הקב"ה לבראות את האדם ברא כת אחת של מלאכי השרת אמר להם רצונכם נעשה אדם בצלמנו אמרו לפניו רבש"ע מה מעשיו אמר להן כך וכך מעשיו,אמרו לפניו רבש"ע (תהלים ח, ה) מה אנוש כי תזכרנו ובן אדם כי תפקדנו הושיט אצבעו קטנה ביניהן ושרפם וכן כת שניה כת שלישית אמרו לפניו רבש"ע ראשונים שאמרו לפניך מה הועילו כל העולם כולו שלך הוא כל מה שאתה רוצה לעשות בעולמך עשה,כיון שהגיע לאנשי דור המבול ואנשי דור הפלגה שמעשיהן מקולקלין אמרו לפניו רבש"ע לא יפה אמרו ראשונים לפניך אמר להן (ישעיהו מו, ד) ועד זקנה אני הוא ועד שיבה אני אסבול וגו',אמר רב יהודה אמר רב אדם הראשון מסוף העולם ועד סופו היה שנאמר (דברים ד, לב) למן היום אשר ברא אלהים אדם על הארץ ולמקצה השמים ועד קצה השמים כיון שסרח הניח הקדוש ברוך הוא ידו עליו ומיעטו שנאמר (תהלים קלט, ה) אחור וקדם צרתני ותשת עלי כפכה,אמר ר"א אדם הראשון מן הארץ עד לרקיע היה שנאמר למן היום אשר ברא אלהים אדם על הארץ ולמקצה השמים (עד קצה השמים) כיון שסרח הניח הקב"ה ידו עליו ומיעטו שנאמר אחור וקדם צרתני וגו' קשו קראי אהדדי אידי ואידי חדא מידה היא,ואמר רב יהודה אמר רב אדם הראשון בלשון ארמי ספר שנאמר (תהלים קלט, יז) ולי מה יקרו רעיך אל,והיינו דאמר ריש לקיש מאי דכתיב (בראשית ה, א) זה ספר תולדות אדם מלמד שהראהו הקב"ה דור דור ודורשיו דור דור וחכמיו כיון שהגיע לדורו של רבי עקיבא שמח בתורתו ונתעצב במיתתו אמר ולי מה יקרו רעיך אל,ואמר רב יהודה אמר רב אדם הראשון מין היה שנאמר (בראשית ג, ט) ויקרא ה' אלהים אל האדם ויאמר לו איכה אן נטה לבך רבי יצחק אמר מושך בערלתו היה כתיב הכא (הושע ו, ז) והמה כאדם עברו ברית וכתיב התם (בראשית ט, ט) את בריתי הפר,רב נחמן אמר כופר בעיקר היה כתיב הכא עברו ברית וכתיב התם (את בריתי הפר) (ירמיהו כב, ט) ואמרו על אשר עזבו (את) ברית ה' (אלהי אבותם),תנן התם ר"א אומר הוי שקוד ללמוד תורה ודע מה שתשיב לאפיקורוס אמר ר' יוחנן ל"ש אלא אפיקורוס (של) עובדי כוכבים אבל אפיקורוס ישראל כ"ש דפקר טפי,א"ר יוחנן כ"מ שפקרו המינים תשובתן בצידן (בראשית א, כו) נעשה אדם בצלמנו (ואומר) (בראשית א, כז) ויברא אלהים את האדם בצלמו (בראשית יא, ז) הבה נרדה ונבלה שם שפתם (בראשית יא, ה) וירד ה' לראות את העיר ואת המגדל (בראשית לה, ז) כי שם נגלו אליו האלהים (בראשית לה, ג) לאל העונה אותי ביום צרתי,(דברים ד, ז) כי מי גוי גדול אשר לו אלהים קרובים אליו כה' אלהינו בכל קראנו אליו (שמואל ב ז, כג) ומי כעמך כישראל גוי אחד בארץ אשר הלכו אלהים לפדות לו לעם (דניאל ז, ט) עד די כרסוון רמיו ועתיק יומין יתיב,הנך למה לי כדרבי יוחנן דא"ר יוחנן אין הקב"ה עושה דבר אא"כ נמלך בפמליא של מעלה שנאמר (דניאל ד, יד) בגזירת עירין פתגמא ובמאמר קדישין שאילתא,התינח כולהי עד די כרסוון רמיו מאי איכא למימר אחד לו ואחד לדוד דתניא אחד לו ואחד לדוד דברי ר"ע א"ל ר' יוסי עקיבא עד מתי אתה עושה שכינה חול אלא אחד לדין ואחד לצדקה,קבלה מיניה או לא קבלה מיניה ת"ש דתניא אחד לדין ואחד לצדקה דברי ר"ע א"ל ר' אלעזר בן עזריא עקיבא מה לך אצל הגדה כלך אצל נגעים ואהלות אלא אחד לכסא ואחד לשרפרף כסא לישב עליו שרפרף להדום רגליו,אמר רב נחמן האי מאן דידע לאהדורי למינים כרב אידית ליהדר ואי לא לא ליהדר אמר ההוא מינא לרב אידית כתיב (שמות כד, א) ואל משה אמר עלה אל ה' עלה אלי מיבעי ליה א"ל זהו מטטרון ששמו כשם רבו דכתיב (שמות כג, כא) כי שמי בקרבו,אי הכי ניפלחו ליה כתיב (שמות כג, כא) אל תמר בו אל תמירני בו אם כן לא ישא לפשעכם למה לי א"ל הימנותא בידן דאפילו בפרוונקא נמי לא קבילניה דכתיב (שמות לג, טו) ויאמר אליו אם אין פניך הולכים וגו',אמר ליה ההוא מינא לר' ישמעאל בר' יוסי כתיב (בראשית יט, כד) וה' המטיר על סדום ועל עמורה גפרית ואש מאת ה' מאתו מיבעי ליה א"ל ההוא כובס שבקיה אנא מהדרנא ליה דכתיב (בראשית ד, כג) ויאמר למך לנשיו עדה וצלה שמען קולי נשי למך נשיי מיבעי ליה אלא משתעי קרא הכי הכא נמי משתעי קרא הכי א"ל מנא לך הא מפירקיה דר"מ שמיע לי,דא"ר יוחנן כי הוה דריש ר' מאיר בפירקיה הוה דריש תילתא שמעתא תילתא אגדתא תילתא מתלי ואמר ר' יוחנן ג' מאות משלות שועלים היו לו לרבי מאיר ואנו אין לנו אלא שלש 38b. bhis torsowas fashioned from dust taken bfrom Babylonia, and his headwas fashioned from dust taken bfrom Eretz Yisrael,the most important land, band his limbswere fashioned from dust taken bfrom the rest of the landsin the world. With regard to bhis buttocks, Rav Aḥa says:They were fashioned from dust taken bfrom Akra De’agma,on the outskirts of Babylonia., bRabbi Yoḥa bar Ḥanina says: Daytime is twelve hourslong, and the day Adam the first man was created was divided as follows: In the bfirst hourof the day, bhis dust was gathered.In the bsecond,an undefined bfigure was fashioned.In the bthird, his limbs were extended.In the bfourth, a soul was cast into him.In the bfifth, he stood on his legs.In the bsixth, he calledthe creatures by the bnameshe gave them. In the bseventh, Eve was paired with him.In the beighth, they arose to the bed two, and descended four,i.e., Cain and Abel were immediately born. In the bninth, he was commanded not to eat of the Treeof Knowledge. In the btenth, he sinned.In the beleventh, he was judged.In the btwelfth, he was expelled and leftthe Garden of Eden, bas it is stated: “But man abides not in honor;he is like the beasts that perish” (Psalms 49:13). Adam did not abide, i.e., sleep, in a place of honor for even one night., bRami bar Ḥama saysin explanation of the end of that verse: bA wild animal does not have power over a person unlessthat person bseems tothe wild animal blike an animal, as it is stated: “He is like the beasts that perish.” /b,The Gemara presents ba mnemonicfor the statements that follow: bAt the time, to the end, Aramaic. Rav Yehuda saysthat bRav says: At the time that the Holy One, Blessed be He, sought to create a person, He created one group of ministering angels. He said to them:If byou agree, let us fashion a person in our image.The angels bsaid before him: Master of the Universe, what are the actions ofthis person You suggest to create? God bsaid to them: His actions are such and such,according to human nature.,The angels bsaid before him: Master of the Universe: “What is man that You are mindful of him? And the son of man that You think of him?”(Psalms 8:5), i.e., a creature such as this is not worth creating. God boutstretched His small finger among them and burned themwith fire. bAnd the sameoccurred with ba second groupof angels. The bthird groupof angels that He asked bsaid before Him: Master of the Universe, the firsttwo groups bwho spoketheir mind bbefore You, what did they accomplish? The entire world is Yours; whatever You wish to do in Your world, do.God then created the first person., bWhenhistory barrived atthe time of bthe people of the generation of the flood and the people of the generation of the dispersion,i.e., the Tower of Babel, bwhose actions were ruinous,the angels bsaid before God: Master of the Universe, didn’t thefirst set of angels bspeak appropriately before You,that human beings are not worthy of having been created? God bsaid to themconcerning humanity: b“Even to your old age I am the same; and even to hoar hairs will I suffer you;I have made and I will bear; and I will carry, and I will deliver you” (Isaiah 46:4), i.e., having created people, I will even suffer their flaws., bRav Yehuda saysthat bRav says: Adam the firstman spanned bfrom one end of the world until the other, as it is stated: “Since the day that God created man upon the earth, and from the one end of heaven unto the other”(Deuteronomy 4:32), meaning that on the day Adam was created he spanned from one end of the heavens until the other. bOnceAdam bsinned, the Holy One, Blessed be He, placed His hand on him and diminished him, as it is stated: “Behind and before You have created me and laid Your hand upon me”(Psalms 139:5), that at first Adam spanned “behind and before,” meaning everywhere, and then God laid His hand on him and diminished him., bRabbi Elazar says:The height of bAdam the firstman bwas from the ground until the firmament, as it is stated: “Since the day that God created man upon the earth, and from the one end of heaven unto the other.”Adam stood “upon the earth” and rose to the end of the heavens. bOnceAdam bsinned, the Holy One, Blessed be He, placed His hand on him and diminished him, as it is stated: “Behind and before You have created meand laid Your hand upon me.” The Gemara asks: The interpretations of bthe verses contradict each other.The first interpretation is that his size was from one end of the world to the other, and the second interpretation is that it was from the earth until the heavens. The Gemara answers: bThis and that,from one end of the world to another and from the earth until the heavens, bare one measure,i.e., the same distance., bAnd Rav Yehuda saysthat bRav says: Adam the firstman bspoke in the language of Aramaic, as it is statedin the chapter of Psalms speaking in the voice of Adam: b“How weighty also are Your thoughts to me, O God”(Psalms 139:17)., bAnd this,i.e., that the verse in Psalms is stated by Adam, is what bReish Lakish says: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “This is the book of the generations of Adam”(Genesis 5:1)? This verse bteaches that the Holy One, Blessed be He, showedAdam bevery generation and itsTorah binterpreters, every generation and its wise ones. When he arrived athis vision of bthe generation of Rabbi Akiva,Adam bwas gladdened by his Torah, and saddened by hismanner of bdeath. He said: “How weighty also are Your thoughts to me, O God,”i.e., how it weighs upon me that a man as great as Rabbi Akiva should suffer., bAnd Rav Yehuda saysthat bRav says: Adam the firstman bwas a heretic, as it is stated: “And the Lord called to the man and said to him: Where are you”?(Genesis 3:9), meaning, to bwhere has your heart turned,indicating that Adam turned from the path of truth. bRabbi Yitzḥak says: He wasone who bdrew his foreskinforward, so as to remove any indication that he was circumcised. It bis written here: “And they like men [ iadam /i] have transgressed the covet”(Hosea 6:7), bandit bis written there:“And the uncircumcised male who is not circumcised in the flesh of his foreskin, that soul shall be cut off from his people; bhe has broken My covet”(Genesis 17:14)., bRav Naḥman says: He was a denier of the fundamental principleof belief in God. It bis written here:“And they like men [ iadam /i] bhave transgressed the covet,” andit bis written there: “He has broken My covet,”and it is written in a third verse: b“And then they shall answer: Because they have forsaken the covet of the Lord their Godand worshipped other gods and served them” (Jeremiah 22:9).,§ bWe learnedin a mishna bthere(Avot 2:14): bRabbi Eliezer says: Be persistent to learn Torah, and know what to respond to the heretic [ ila’apikoros /i]. Rabbi Yoḥa says:This was btaught onlywith regard to ba gentile heretic, butnot with regard to ba Jewish heretic,as one should not respond to him. bAll the more so,if one does respond bhe will become more heretical.His heresy is assumed to be intentional, and any attempt to rebut it will only cause him to reinforce his position., bRabbi Yoḥa says: Any placein the Bible from bwhere the hereticsattempt to bprove their heresy,i.e., that there is more than one god, bthe response to theirclaim is balongside them,i.e., in the immediate vicinity of the verses they cite. The verse states that God said: b“Let us make man in our image”(Genesis 1:26), employing the plural, bbut itthen bstates: “And God created man in His image”(Genesis 1:27), employing the singular. The verse states that God said: b“Come, let us go down and there confound their language”(Genesis 11:7), but it also states: b“And the Lord came down to see the city and the tower”(Genesis 11:5). The verse states in the plural: b“There God was revealed [ iniglu /i] to himwhen he fled from the face of his brother” (Genesis 35:7), but it also states in the singular: b“To God Who answers [ ihaoneh /i] me in the day of my distress”(Genesis 35:3).,Rabbi Yoḥa cites several examples where the counterclaim is in the same verse as the claim of the heretics. The verse states: b“For what nation is there so great that has God so near to them as the Lord our God is whenever we call upon Him?”(Deuteronomy 4:7), where the term “near” is written in plural, ikerovim /i, but the term “upon Him” is written in singular. Another verse states: b“And who is like Your people, like Israel, a nation one in the earth, whom God went to redeem unto Himself for a people?”(II Samuel 7:23), where the term “went” is written in plural, ihalekhu /i, but the term “Himself” is written in singular. Another verse states: “I beheld btill thrones were placed, and one that was ancient of days did sit”(Daniel 7:9); where the term “thrones” is written in plural, ikharsavan /i, but the term “sit” is written in singular.,The Gemara asks: bWhy do Ineed btheseinstances of plural words? Why does the verse employ the plural at all when referring to God? The Gemara explains: This is bin accordance withthe statement bof Rabbi Yoḥa, as Rabbi Yoḥa says: The Holy One, Blessed be He, does not act unless He consults with the entourage of Above,i.e., the angels, bas it is stated: “The matter is by the decree of the watchers, and the sentence by the word of the holy ones”(Daniel 4:14).,The Gemara clarifies: This bworks out well foralmost ballthe verses, as they describe an action taken by God, but bwhat is there to sayconcerning the verse: “I beheld btill thrones were placed”?The Gemara answers: bOnethrone is bfor Him and onethrone is bfor David,i.e., the messiah, bas it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bOnethrone is bfor Him and onethrone is bfor David;this is bthe statement of Rabbi Akiva. Rabbi Yosei said to him: Akiva! Until when will you desacralize the Divine Presenceby equating God with a person? bRather,the correct interpretation is that both thrones are for God, as bonethrone is bfor judgment and onethrone is bfor righteousness. /b,The Gemara asks: Did Rabbi Akiva bacceptthis explanation bfromRabbi Yosei bordid he bnot accept it from him?The Gemara suggests: bComeand bheara proof to the matter from what was taught in another ibaraita /i, bas it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bOnethrone is bfor judgment and onethrone is bfor righteousness;this is bthe statement of Rabbi Akiva. Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya said to him: Akiva! What are you doing near,i.e., discussing, matters of iaggada /i? Go neartractates iNega’imand iOholot /i,which examine the complex ihalakhotof ritual purity, where your knowledge is unparalleled. bRather,the correct interpretation is that while both thrones are for God, boneis bfor a throne and oneis bfor a stool.There is ba throne for God to sit upon, and a stoolthat serves bas His footstool. /b, bRav Naḥman says: This one,i.e., any person, bwho knowshow bto respond to the hereticsas effectively bas Rav Idit should respondto them, bbut ifhe does bnotknow, he bshould not respondto them. The Gemara relates: bA certain heretic said to Rav Idit:It bis writtenin the verse concerning God: b“And to Moses He said: Come up to the Lord”(Exodus 24:1). The heretic raised a question: bIt should havestated: bCome up to Me.Rav Idit bsaid to him: Thisterm, “the Lord,” in that verse bisreferring to the angel bMetatron, whose name is like the name of his Master, as it is written:“Behold I send an angel before you to keep you in the way and to bring you to the place that I have prepared. Take heed of him and obey his voice; do not defy him; for he will not pardon your transgression, bfor My name is in him”(Exodus 23:20–21).,The heretic said to him: bIf so,if this angel is equated with God, bwe should worship himas we worship God. Rav Idit said to him: It bis written: “Do not defy [ itammer /i] him,”which alludes to: bDo not replace Me [ itemireni /i] with him.The heretic said to him: bIf so, why do Ineed the clause b“For he will not pardon your transgression”?Rav Idit bsaid to him: We believe that we did not acceptthe angel beven as a guide [ ibefarvanka /i]for the journey, bas it is written: “And he said to him: If Your Presence go not with meraise us not up from here” (Exodus 33:15). Moses told God that if God Himself does not accompany the Jewish people they do not want to travel to Eretz Yisrael.,The Gemara relates: bA certain heretic said to Rabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yosei:It bis written: “And the Lord rained upon Sodom and upon Gomorrah brimstone and fire from the Lordout of heaven” (Genesis 19:24). The heretic raised the question: bIt should havestated: bFrom Himout of heaven. bA certain launderer said toRabbi Yishmael: bLeave him be; I will respond to him.This is bas it is written: “And Lemech said to his wives: Adah and Zillah, hear my voice; wives of Lemech,hearken to my speech” (Genesis 4:23). One can raise the question: bIt should havebeen written: bMy wives,and not: “Wives of Lemech.” bRather, it isthe style of bthe verseto bspeak in thismanner. bHere too, it isthe style of bthe verseto bspeak in thismanner. Rabbi Yishmael bsaid tothe launderer: bFrom where did youhear bthisinterpretation? The launderer bsaid to him: I heard it at the lecture of Rabbi Meir. /b,The Gemara comments: This is bas Rabbi Yoḥa said: When Rabbi Meir would teach his lecture he would expound one-third ihalakha /i, one-third iaggada /i,and bone-third parables. And Rabbi Yoḥa says: Rabbi Meir had,i.e., taught, bthree hundred parables of foxes, and we have only three. /b
75. Babylonian Talmud, Sotah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

38a. ככתבו ובמדינה בכינויו במדינה כהנים נושאים את ידיהן כנגד כתפיהן ובמקדש על גבי ראשיהן חוץ מכהן גדול שאינו מגביה את ידיו למעלה מן הציץ ר' יהודה אומר אף כהן גדול מגביה ידיו למעלה מן הציץ שנאמר (ויקרא ט, כב) וישא אהרן את ידיו אל העם ויברכם, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big תנו רבנן (במדבר ו, כג) כה תברכו בלשון הקודש אתה אומר בלשון הקודש או אינו אלא בכל לשון נאמר כאן כה תברכו ונאמר להלן (דברים כז, יב) אלה יעמדו לברך את העם מה להלן בלשון הקודש אף כאן בלשון הקודש,רבי יהודה אומר אינו צריך הרי הוא אומר כה עד שיאמרו בלשון הזה,תניא אידך כה תברכו בעמידה אתה אומר בעמידה או אינו אלא אפי' בישיבה נאמר כאן כה תברכו ונאמר להלן אלה יעמדו לברך מה להלן בעמידה אף כאן בעמידה,ר' נתן אומר אינו צריך הרי הוא אומר (דברים י, ח) לשרתו ולברך בשמו מה משרת בעמידה אף מברך בעמידה ומשרת גופיה מנלן דכתיב (דברים יח, ה) לעמוד לשרת,תניא אידך כה תברכו בנשיאות כפים אתה אומר בנשיאות כפים או אינו אלא שלא בנשיאות כפים נאמר כאן כה תברכו ונאמר להלן (ויקרא ט, כב) וישא אהרן את ידיו אל העם ויברכם מה להלן בנשיאות כפים אף כאן בנשיאות כפים,קשיא ליה לר' יונתן אי מה להלן כהן גדול וראש חודש ועבודת צבור אף כאן כהן גדול וראש חודש ועבודת ציבור,ר' נתן אומר אינו צריך הרי הוא אומר (דברים יח, ה) הוא ובניו כל הימים מקיש בניו לו מה הוא בנשיאות כפים אף בניו בנשיאות כפים וכתיב כל הימים ואיתקש ברכה לשירות,ותניא אידך כה תברכו את בני ישראל בשם המפורש אתה אומר בשם המפורש או אינו אלא בכינוי ת"ל (במדבר ו, כז) ושמו את שמי שמי המיוחד לי,יכול אף בגבולין כן נאמר כאן ושמו את שמי ונאמר להלן (דברים יב, ה) לשום את שמו שם מה להלן בית הבחירה אף כאן בבית הבחירה,רבי יאשיה אומר אינו צריך הרי הוא אומר (שמות כ, כא) בכל המקום אשר אזכיר את שמי אבוא אליך בכל מקום ס"ד אלא מקרא זה מסורס הוא בכל מקום אשר אבוא אליך וברכתיך שם אזכיר את שמי והיכן אבוא אליך וברכתיך בבית הבחירה שם אזכיר את שמי בבית הבחירה,תניא אידך כה תברכו את בני ישראל אין לי אלא בני ישראל גרים נשים ועבדים משוחררים מנין ת"ל (במדבר ו, כג) אמור להם לכולהו,תניא אידך כה תברכו פנים כנגד פנים אתה אומר פנים כנגד פנים או אינו אלא פנים כנגד עורף ת"ל אמור להם כאדם האומר לחבירו,תניא אידך כה תברכו בקול רם או אינו אלא בלחש ת"ל אמור להם כאדם שאומר לחבירו,אמר אביי נקטינן לשנים קורא כהנים ולא' אינו קורא כהן שנא' אמור להם לשנים ואמר רב חסדא נקטינן כהן קורא כהנים ואין ישראל קורא כהנים שנאמר אמור להם אמירה 38a. bas it is writtenin the Torah, i.e., the Tetragrammaton, band in the countrythey use bits substitute nameof Lordship. bIn the country, the priests lift their handsso they are baligned with their shouldersduring the benediction. bAnd in the Templethey lift them babove their heads, except for the High Priest, who does not lift his hands above the frontplate.Since the Tetragrammaton is inscribed on it, it is inappropriate for him to lift his hands above it. bRabbi Yehuda says: Even the High Priest lifts his hands above the frontplate, as it is stated: “And Aaron lifted up his hands toward the people and blessed them”(Leviticus 9:22)., strongGEMARA: /strong bThe Sages taught:The mitzva given to the priests: b“So you shall blessthe children of Israel” (Numbers 6:23), is that they bless them bin the sacred tongue,Hebrew. Do byou saythat the benediction must be recited bin the sacred tongue, orperhaps it may be recited bin any language?The ibaraitaanswers: bIt is stated here,with regard to the Priestly Benediction: b“So you shall bless,” and it is stated there,with regard to the blessings and curses: b“These shall standon Mount Gerizim bto bless the people”(Deuteronomy 27:12). There is a verbal analogy between these two usages of the word “bless”: bJust as there,the blessings and curses were recited bin the sacred tongue,as stated above (33a), bso too here,the Priestly Benediction is recited bin the sacred tongue. /b, bRabbi Yehuda says: It is not necessaryto derive this from a verbal analogy, as bit sayswith regard to the Priestly Benediction: b“Thus,”which means that it is not recited correctly bunless they recite it in thisexact blanguage,as it is written in the Torah., bIt is taughtin banother ibaraita /i: b“So you shall bless,”means bwhile standing.Do byou saythat the benediction must be recited bwhile standing, orperhaps it may bevenbe recited bwhile sitting? It is stated here: “So you shall bless,” and it is stated there,with regard to the blessings and curses: b“These shall standon Mount Gerizim bto bless.” Just as there,the blessing was recited bwhile standing, so too here,the priests must recite the Priestly Benediction bwhile standing. /b, bRabbi Natan says: It is not necessaryto derive this from a verbal analogy, as bit saysin the verse: “At that time the Lord separated the tribe of Levi to bear the Ark of the Covet of the Lord, to stand before the Lord bto minister to Him and to bless in His name”(Deuteronomy 10:8). bJust asa priest bperforms theTemple bservice while standing, so too, he blesses while standing.The Gemara asks: bAnd from where do wederive that bhe performs the service itselfwhile standing? bAs it is written: “To stand to ministerin the name of the Lord” (Deuteronomy 18:5)., bIt is taughtin banother ibaraita /i: b“So you shall bless”means bwith lifted hands.Do byou saythat the priests must recite the benediction bwith lifted hands, orperhaps they may recite it bwithout lifted hands? It is stated here: “So you shall bless,” and it is stated there,with regard to the dedication of the Tabernacle: b“And Aaron lifted up his hands toward the people and blessed them”(Leviticus 9:22). bJust as there,Aaron blessed the nation bwith lifted hands, so too here,the Priestly Benediction is recited bwith lifted hands. /b,This ihalakhawas bdifficult for Rabbi Yonatan to understand: Ifthis ihalakhais derived from the dedication of the Tabernacle, then why not also say: bJust as there,the bHigh Priestwas the one who recited the blessing, bandit was the bNew Moon, andthe offerings that were brought were ba communal service, so too here,the Priestly Benediction must be recited only by the bHigh Priest, andon the bNew Moon, andwhen performing ba communal service? /b, bRabbi Natan says: It is not necessaryto derive from a verbal analogy that the Priestly Benediction is recited with lifted hands, as bit sayswith regard to Aaron: “To stand to minister in the name of the Lord, bhim and his sons forever”(Deuteronomy 18:5). In this verse, bhis sons are juxtaposed with him. Just asAaron recited the Priestly Benediction bwith lifted hands, so too, his sonsrecite the benediction bwith lifted hands. Andfurthermore, bit is written “forever,”which indicates that it is referring not only to special occasions. bAndalthough the verse is not referring to the Priestly Benediction, the bbenediction is juxtaposed tothe Temple bservicein another verse: “To minister to Him and to bless in His name” (Deuteronomy 10:8)., bAnd it is taughtin banother ibaraita /i: b“So you shall bless the children of Israel”means the blessing should be recited bwith the ineffable name.Do byou saythat the Priestly Benediction must be recited bwith the ineffable name, orperhaps bit isrecited bwith only the substitute name, iAdonai /i? bThe verse states: “So shall they put My name”(Numbers 6:27), which means bMy name that is unique to Me. /b,One bmighthave thought that beven in the outlying areas,outside the Temple, bthisineffable name is used. bIt is stated here,with regard to the Priestly Benediction: b“So shall they put My name,” and it is stated there,with regard to the place one must sacrifice offerings: “The place that the Lord your God has chosen out of all your tribes bto put His name there”(Deuteronomy 12:5). The verbal analogy teaches that bjust as there,the expression “to put His name there” is referring to bthe Temple, so too here,the mitzva of “so shall they put My name” applies bin the Templeand not anywhere else., bRabbi Yoshiya says: It is not necessaryto derive this ihalakhafrom the verbal analogy, as it can be derived from a verse. bIt saysin the verse: b“In every place where I cause My name to be mentioned I will come to youand bless you” (Exodus 20:20). Does it benter your mindthat this verse literally means that the Divine Presence will be revealed beverywhere? Rather, this versemust be interpreted by btransposition.It must be reordered and read as follows: bIn every place where I will come to you and bless you, there I will cause My name to be mentioned.Rabbi Yoshiya explains that God is stating: bAnd where will I come to you and bless you? In the Temple.Therefore, he derives: bThere, in the Temple, I will cause My name to be mentioned,but the ineffable name is not mentioned elsewhere., bIt is taughtin banother ibaraita /i: b“So you shall bless the sons of Israel”(Numbers 6:23). bI havederived bonlythe ihalakhato bless bthe sons of Israel. From wheredo I derive the ihalakhaof blessing bconverts, women, and emancipated slaves? The verse statesimmediately afterward: b“You shall say to them,”meaning bto all ofthe Jewish people., bIt is taughtin banother ibaraita /i: b“So you shall bless,”means that the priests must recite the Priestly Benediction bface-to-facewith the congregation. Do byou saythat the Benediction must be recited bface-to-face, orperhaps bit is onlyrecited with the bfacesof the priests bfacing the back of the necksof the congregation? bThe verse states: “You shall say to them,”face-to-face, blike a person who is talking to another. /b, bIt is taughtin banother ibaraita /i: b“So you shall bless”means that the benediction must be recited bout loud. Or,perhaps, bis itrecited bonly in a whisper? The verse states: “You shall say to them,” like a person who is talking to another. /b, bAbaye said: We have a traditionwith regard to the prayer leader calling the priests to recite the Priestly Benediction: When there are btwopriests, bhe calls: Priests, butwhen there is bonepriest bhe does not call: Priest, as it is stated: “You shall say to them,”in plural, meaning btoa minimum of btwopriests. bAnd Rav Ḥisda said: We have a traditionthat ba priest calls: Priests, but an Israelite does not call: Priests, as it is stated: “You shall say to them,”which means that the bsaying /b
76. Babylonian Talmud, Yevamot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

122b. big strongגמ׳ /strong /big מאי גריעותא דפונדקית אמר רב כהנא פונדקית עובדת כוכבים היתה ומסיחה לפי תומה היתה זה מקלו וזה תרמילו וזה קבר שקברתיו בו וכן תני אבא בריה דרב מניומי בר חייא פונדקית עובדת כוכבים היתה ומסיחה לפי תומה היתה זה מקלו וזה תרמילו וזה קבר שקברתיו בו,והא איה חברנו קאמרי לה כיון דחזיתינהו בכיא אמרו לה איה חברנו אמרה להם מת וקברתיו,תנו רבנן מעשה באדם אחד שבא להעיד על האשה לפני רבי טרפון אמר לו בני היאך אתה יודע בעדות אשה זו אמר אני והוא היינו הולכים בדרך ורדף אחרינו גייס ונתלה בייחור של זית ופשחו והחזיר את הגייס לאחוריו,אמרתי לו אריה יישר כחך אמר לי מנין אתה יודע שאריה שמי כך קורין אותי בעירי יוחנן ברבי יהונתן אריה דמכפר שיחיא לימים חלה ומת והשיא רבי טרפון את אשתו,ורבי טרפון לא בעי דרישה וחקירה והתניא מעשה באדם אחד שבא לפני רבי טרפון להעיד עדות אשה אמר לו בני היאך אתה יודע עדות זו אמר לו אני והוא היינו הולכין בדרך ורדף אחרינו גייס ונתלה בייחור תאנה ופשחו והחזיר את הגייס לאחוריו אמרתי לו יישר כחך אריה אמר לי יפה כוונת לשמי שכך קורין אותי בעירי יוחנן בן יונתן אריה דמכפר שיחיא לימים חלה ומת,אמר לו לא כך אמרת לי יוחנן בן יונתן דמכפר שיחיא אריה אמר ליה לא אלא כך אמרתי לך יוחנן בן יונתן אריה דמכפר שיחיא ודקדק עליו שנים ושלשה פעמים וכיון את דבריו והשיא רבי טרפון את אשתו,תנאי היא דתניא אין בודקין עדי נשים בדרישה וחקירה דברי ר"ע רבי טרפון אומר בודקין,וקמיפלגי בדר' חנינא דאמר רבי חנינא דבר תורה אחד דיני ממונות ואחד דיני נפשות בדרישה וחקירה שנאמר (ויקרא כד, כב) משפט אחד יהיה לכם,ומה טעם אמרו דיני ממונות אין צריכין דרישה וחקירה שלא תנעול דלת בפני לוין,ובמאי קמיפלגי מר סבר כיון דאיכא כתובה למשקל כדיני ממונות דמי ומר סבר כיון דקא שרינן אשת איש לעלמא כדיני נפשות דמי,אמר רבי אלעזר אמר רבי חנינא תלמידי חכמים מרבים שלום בעולם שנאמר (ישעיהו נד, יג) וכל בניך למודי ה' ורב שלום בניך:, br br big strongהדרן עלך האשה בתרא וסליקא לה מסכת יבמות /strong /big br br
77. Anon., Avot Derabbi Nathan A, 34, 2 (6th cent. CE - 8th cent. CE)

78. Anon., Avot Derabbi Nathan B, 3 (6th cent. CE - 8th cent. CE)

79. Anon., 4 Baruch, 4.11

4.11. When he had said this, Baruch departed from the city, weeping andsaying: Grieving because of you, Jerusalem, I went out from you.
80. Anon., Pesikta Rabbati, 12

81. Anon., Letter of Aristeas, 207

207. The king received the answer with great delight and looking at another said, 'What is the teaching of wisdom?' And the other replied, 'As you wish that no evil should befall you, but to be a partaker of all good things, so you should act on the same principle towards your subjects and offenders, and you should mildly admonish the noble and good. For God draws all men to himself by his benignity.'


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abba saul Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 147
abimelech/ebed-melech, sleep of Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 233
abimelech/ebed-melech Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 233
abot, exemplarity in Neusner, The Idea of History in Rabbinic Judaism (2004) 80
achan Samely, Rabbinic Interpretation of Scripture in the Mishnah (2002) 158
aggadic passages on legal biblical units, blurred units Hayes, The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning (2022) 490
aggadic passages on legal biblical units, halakha derived from narrative biblical units Hayes, The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning (2022) 490
ahitophel Samely, Rabbinic Interpretation of Scripture in the Mishnah (2002) 158
akiva, r. Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 653
akiva, rabbi Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 181
al-ʿammānī, aaron ibn Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 546
albeck, chanoch Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 15
alexander, philip s. Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 15, 71
alexandria, judah ha-levis poetry and Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 546
alexandria Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 546
amidah (jewish daily prayer) Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 35, 36
amoraim, amoraic period Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 135
angel, in the heart Rosen-Zvi, Demonic Desires: Yetzer Hara and the Problem of Evil in Late Antiquity (2011). 56
angel Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 181
angelic sin, as epistemological transgression Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 142
animals, abundant in judaea Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 365
animals, skins Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 365
animals Rosen-Zvi, Demonic Desires: Yetzer Hara and the Problem of Evil in Late Antiquity (2011). 75
antiochus, iii' "123.0_75.0@'amidah" '123.0_75.0@bible Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 365
apocalyptic(ism) (see also dualism) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 426
apocalyptic literature, and book of daniel Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 142
apocalyptic literature, history of scholarship on Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 142
apocalyptic literature, rabbinic attitudes towards Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 142
aqiva, r. Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 222
arabic language (judaeo-) Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 546
athletic metaphor, for personal sins Avemarie, van Henten, and Furstenberg, Jewish Martyrdom in Antiquity (2023) 382
babylonian, halakha/tradition Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 426
baethesians Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 79, 175
bailees (shomerin) Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 124
bar kokhba revolt, failure of Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 37
bible, allusions in poetry and other literature Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 546
bible, qumran manuscripts Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 135
birkat haminim Cohen, The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism (2010) 59
blasphemy Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 175
boaz Rosen-Zvi, Demonic Desires: Yetzer Hara and the Problem of Evil in Late Antiquity (2011). 27; Samely, Rabbinic Interpretation of Scripture in the Mishnah (2002) 158, 159
body, hand Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 181
boethusians Cohn, The Memory of the Temple and the Making of the Rabbis (2013) 169
boyarin, daniel, border lines Cohn, The Memory of the Temple and the Making of the Rabbis (2013) 169
boyarin, daniel Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 14
christian jew Sigal, The Halakhah of Jesus of Nazareth According to the Gospel of Matthew (2007) 20
christianity, early, syriac Rosen-Zvi, Demonic Desires: Yetzer Hara and the Problem of Evil in Late Antiquity (2011). 27
christianity Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 147
christians Sigal, The Halakhah of Jesus of Nazareth According to the Gospel of Matthew (2007) 20
conflict, of jews and christians (parting of the ways) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 653
consensus Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 70
creation Goodman, Judaism in the Roman World: Collected Essays (2006) 167
crucifixion, jesus death Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 113
david Samely, Rabbinic Interpretation of Scripture in the Mishnah (2002) 158
day of judgement, last judgement Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 113
dead sea scrolls vii Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 113
death Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 181
death penalty Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 147
demons, internalized Rosen-Zvi, Demonic Desires: Yetzer Hara and the Problem of Evil in Late Antiquity (2011). 170
demons, terminology Rosen-Zvi, Demonic Desires: Yetzer Hara and the Problem of Evil in Late Antiquity (2011). 149
destruction of the second temple Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 36
destruction of the second templereactions to Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 35, 37
dietary laws Goodman, Judaism in the Roman World: Collected Essays (2006) 167
different way (אחרת דרך , ( Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 192
disciple Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 181
disputes, schools (of shammai and hillel) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 426
divine name, surrogate Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 135, 147
dositheans Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 135
dualism, dualist(ic) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 426
eleazar b. dima, r. Goodman, Judaism in the Roman World: Collected Essays (2006) 167
enemies, enmity Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 113
enochic literary tradition, place of book of dreams in Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 142
enochic literature, rabbinic rejection of Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 142
epicureans Goodman, Judaism in the Roman World: Collected Essays (2006) 167; Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 14, 70, 71
esau Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 175
eschatology, eschatological, belonging to the end-of-days, messianic age Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 113
eschatology, rabbinic Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 142
essenes Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 142
exegesis, exegetical, interpretation of scripture Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 222
exegesis, sectarian Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 124
expulsion of books from canon Cohen, The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism (2010) 59
ezekiel, vision of divine chariot, vision of future temple Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 233
fate Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 181
fatimids (dynasty) Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 546
flattering Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 52
fourth philosophy Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 70, 71
gamaliel (gamliel) the elder, r. Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 426
genesis, and book of the watchers Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 142
gnosticism, gnostics Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 71
god, denial of Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 52
god, devouring fire Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 52
god, doubt concerning his divinity Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 35
god, doubt concerning his power Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 35
god, lack of display of his power Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 37
god, name Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 36, 37
god, powerless Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 35, 37
goodman, martin Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 14, 71
greek, language Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 546
grossberg, david m. Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 14, 71
ha-levi, judah Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 546
hai gaon Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 147
halakhah and custom' "123.0_75.0@shema'" Reif, Problems with Prayers: Studies in the Textual History of Early Rabbinic Liturgy (2006) 75
handwashing Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 202
hasidim Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 147
hatred (of enemies, outsiders) Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 113
heart Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 181; Rosen-Zvi, Demonic Desires: Yetzer Hara and the Problem of Evil in Late Antiquity (2011). 27, 75
hebrew, biblical Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 124
hebrew, qumran Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 124, 135, 147
hebrew, rabbinic Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 124
heinemann j. Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 177
henderson, john b. Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 14
hererobaptists Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 147
heresy, and orthodoxy Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 15, 71
heresy, definition of Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 15
heresy, jewish origins denied Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 14, 15
herford, r. travers Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 14, 15, 70, 71
herod i, king of judea Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 233
hillel, school of Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 426
hillel the elder Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 426
homilies, on double letters Rosen-Zvi, Demonic Desires: Yetzer Hara and the Problem of Evil in Late Antiquity (2011). 61, 146
impure, book renders the hands Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 135
intention, in fulfilling mitsvot Hayes, The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning (2022) 490
intermarriage Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 142
intertextuality, intra-bavli, links rabbis to biblical history Hayes, The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning (2022) 490, 491
iqqar Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 175
israel, competing claims to status as Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 142
israel, the people of, redemption/restoration of, the kingdom of, israelite Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 222
jacob of cfar sima Goodman, Judaism in the Roman World: Collected Essays (2006) 167
jacob son of abraham, patriarch Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 546
jerusalem Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 546
jesus, disciples, early followers, messianic movement Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 222
jesus, divine status Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 113
jesus, temple incident of Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 224, 233
jesus Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 113
jesus (christ) (see also yeshu) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 426
jesus seminar Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 224
jewish-christians Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 15
jews, jewry, jewish, jewish matrix, jewish setting, anti-jewish, non-jewish Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 222
josephus Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 142
joy Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 181
joy in face of martyrdom, in rabbinic literature Avemarie, van Henten, and Furstenberg, Jewish Martyrdom in Antiquity (2023) 170
kalmin, richard Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 71
kimelman, reuven Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 35
knowledge, revealed Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 142
kuttim (samaritans) Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 192
lamentations rabbah, law, exemplary cases and Neusner, The Idea of History in Rabbinic Judaism (2004) 80
langer, ruth Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 15
laws of minim Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 191
leontius Rosen-Zvi, Demonic Desires: Yetzer Hara and the Problem of Evil in Late Antiquity (2011). 146
lieberman, saul Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 15; Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 192
life after death Goodman, Judaism in the Roman World: Collected Essays (2006) 167
literary production Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 142
love Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 113, 222
love of god, r. akiva Avemarie, van Henten, and Furstenberg, Jewish Martyrdom in Antiquity (2023) 167, 168, 169, 170, 171
love of god Avemarie, van Henten, and Furstenberg, Jewish Martyrdom in Antiquity (2023) 382
manual of discipline Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 135
market Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 653
martyrdom, jewish Nikolsky and Ilan, Rabbinic Traditions Between Palestine and Babylonia (2014) 308
martyrdom Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 181
martyrs, martyrdom, sanctification of the name Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 113
martyrs Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 181
meir, r. Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 426
messiah, gods anointed, messiahship, messianic Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 113
midrash, contemporary practice biblicized Hayes, The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning (2022) 490, 491
miller, stuart Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 71
mimouni, simon claude Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 14, 15
minim, christians Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 79, 192
minim, deny god Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 52
minim, gentiles Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 52
minim, gnostics Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 79
minim, in rabbinic literature Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 79, 191
minim, laws of Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 79
minim, nations of the world Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 52
minim, sectarians Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 79
minim, their identity Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 79
minim, two powers Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 52
minim Goodman, Judaism in the Roman World: Collected Essays (2006) 167; Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 14, 15, 70, 71; Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 36
minut, denial of god Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 52
minut, deviance Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 79
minut, in rabbinic literature Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 79, 192
minut, minim Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 142
mishnah, exemplarity in Neusner, The Idea of History in Rabbinic Judaism (2004) 80
mishnah, school of r. akiva Rosen-Zvi, Demonic Desires: Yetzer Hara and the Problem of Evil in Late Antiquity (2011). 149
money Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 181
nagid, negidim, nagidate Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 546
narrative, in mishnah Neusner, The Idea of History in Rabbinic Judaism (2004) 80
nations of the world, two powers Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 52
noah Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 142
oath, formula Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 147
oath Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 124
orthodoxy Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 15, 71
ouranography, outside books Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 142
owner, lost property, not located Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 124
owner, lost property Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 124
pagan, paganism Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 653
paul, pauline Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 222
paul (saul) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 426
persecution Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 181
pharisaic-rabbinic connection Cohen, The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism (2010) 59
pharisaic-rabbinic tradition, law Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 147
pharisees Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 14; Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 142; Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 147
phylacteries Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 79
pig Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 175
pilgrimage Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 546
poetry Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 546
prayer (jewish/rabbinic) Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 202
priesthood Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 365
priests, aaronide Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 124
property, disposition of Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 124
property, guardian of Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 124
property, lost or missing Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 124
property, restitution of lost or stolen Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 124
property, stolen Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 124
punishment Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 222
purity and impurity, ritual purity Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 147
qumran, and the school ofr. ishmael Rosen-Zvi, Demonic Desires: Yetzer Hara and the Problem of Evil in Late Antiquity (2011). 62
qumran documents Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 426
r. akiva, love of god Avemarie, van Henten, and Furstenberg, Jewish Martyrdom in Antiquity (2023) 167, 168, 169, 170, 171
r. akiva Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 142
rabbi ishmael Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 191
rabbi jonathan Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 52
rabbi nathan Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 52
repentance Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 124
righteous, righteousness Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 113
ritual Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 653
ritual baths (miqvaot) Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 202
ritual purity, maintained beyond the temple Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 202
ritual purity Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 365
roman, rome Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 222
roman empire, oppressor of the jews Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 175
roman empire, reference to in rabbinic texts Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 175
roman empire, victory of Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 166
sacrifice Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 233
sadducees Goodman, Judaism in the Roman World: Collected Essays (2006) 167; Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 14, 70; Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 142; Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 653
samaritans Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 365; Goodman, Judaism in the Roman World: Collected Essays (2006) 167; Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 135
samuel b. hananyah (nagid of cairo) Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 546
sanders, e. p. Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 233
schremer, adiel Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 14, 71
scribal error, traditions and practices, qumran Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 135
script, palaeo-hebrew Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 135
second temple period, jewry, tradition Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 113
sectarian settlements Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 124
segal, alan f. Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 15, 71; Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 52
seleucid monarchy Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 365
seleucids, privileges granted jews Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 365
self-definition, rabbinic Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 142
shammai, school Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 426
shammai (see also subject index) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 426
shema Nikolsky and Ilan, Rabbinic Traditions Between Palestine and Babylonia (2014) 308
shema yisrael, rabbi akivas recitation Avemarie, van Henten, and Furstenberg, Jewish Martyrdom in Antiquity (2023) 170
shepherd of hermas Rosen-Zvi, Demonic Desires: Yetzer Hara and the Problem of Evil in Late Antiquity (2011). 56
sifra, exemplarity in Neusner, The Idea of History in Rabbinic Judaism (2004) 80
sifre to deuteronomy, exemplarity in Neusner, The Idea of History in Rabbinic Judaism (2004) 80
sifré to numbers, exemplarity in Neusner, The Idea of History in Rabbinic Judaism (2004) 80
simeon the just (simeon ii) Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 147
sin, not connected to the body Rosen-Zvi, Demonic Desires: Yetzer Hara and the Problem of Evil in Late Antiquity (2011). 61
sin Rosen-Zvi, Demonic Desires: Yetzer Hara and the Problem of Evil in Late Antiquity (2011). 62
single-mindedness Rosen-Zvi, Demonic Desires: Yetzer Hara and the Problem of Evil in Late Antiquity (2011). 27
sins, transgressions, sinners, forgiveness of Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 113
slaughter Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 653
smith, jonathan z. Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 202
soul Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 181
stoic Rosen-Zvi, Demonic Desires: Yetzer Hara and the Problem of Evil in Late Antiquity (2011). 56
stone vessels Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 202
strenski, ivan Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 15
sussman, yaakov Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 192
synagogue Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 124
synagogues Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 177; Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 202
synoptic, gospels Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 426
tannaim, tannaitic law, judaism, period Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 135
tannaim, treatment of heretics Cohen, The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism (2010) 59
tannaitic Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 222
tarfon, r. Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 653
tefi llin Goodman, Judaism in the Roman World: Collected Essays (2006) 167
temple, as ritually inadequate, in new testament Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 224, 233
temple, regulations Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 365
temple, seleucid proclamation Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 365
temple, third/new temple, trade in Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 233
temple, third/new temple Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 233
temple, writings about, narrative subordinated to topical program in Neusner, The Idea of History in Rabbinic Judaism (2004) 80
temple in jerusalem, destruction of Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 233
temple tax Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 233
ten commandments (decalogue) Reif, Problems with Prayers: Studies in the Textual History of Early Rabbinic Liturgy (2006) 75
tetragrammaton Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 135
the world, appellation for rome Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 175
theft Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 124
theodicy, justification of gods judgment Avemarie, van Henten, and Furstenberg, Jewish Martyrdom in Antiquity (2023) 382
theodoret Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 135
tineius rufus, as the (greek) word tyrannos Nikolsky and Ilan, Rabbinic Traditions Between Palestine and Babylonia (2014) 308
titus Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 35
tomb Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 233
torah, and jewish magic Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 142
torah Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 181; Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 222
torah and prophets, commandments Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 113
torah and prophets, great principle of Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 222
tosefta, exemplarity in Neusner, The Idea of History in Rabbinic Judaism (2004) 80
two powers in heaven Goodman, Judaism in the Roman World: Collected Essays (2006) 167
utility, factor in defining key terms Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 15
world to come Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 135
worship, daily and weekly Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 177
written law, documents Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 135