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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



8004
Mishnah, Berachot, 7.3


כֵּיצַד מְזַמְּנִין, בִּשְׁלשָׁה אוֹמֵר נְבָרֵךְ. בִּשְׁלשָׁה וְהוּא, אוֹמֵר בָּרְכוּ. בַּעֲשָׂרָה, אוֹמֵר נְבָרֵךְ לֵאלֹהֵינוּ. בַּעֲשָׂרָה וָהוּא, אוֹמֵר בָּרְכוּ. אֶחָד עֲשָׂרָה וְאֶחָד עֲשָׂרָה רִבּוֹא. בְּמֵאָה אוֹמֵר, נְבָרֵךְ לַייָ אֱלֹהֵינוּ. בְּמֵאָה וְהוּא, אוֹמֵר בָּרְכוּ. בְּאֶלֶף, אוֹמֵר נְבָרֵךְ לַייָ אֱלֹהֵינוּ אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל. בְּאֶלֶף וְהוּא, אוֹמֵר בָּרְכוּ. בְּרִבּוֹא, אוֹמֵר, נְבָרֵךְ לַייָ אֱלֹהֵינוּ אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אֱלֹהֵי הַצְּבָאוֹת יוֹשֵׁב הַכְּרוּבִים עַל הַמָּזוֹן שֶׁאָכָלְנוּ. בְּרִבּוֹא וְהוּא, אוֹמֵר בָּרְכוּ. כְּעִנְיָן שֶׁהוּא מְבָרֵךְ, כָּךְ עוֹנִין אַחֲרָיו, בָּרוּךְ יְיָ אֱלֹהֵינוּ אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אֱלֹהֵי הַצְּבָאוֹת יוֹשֵׁב הַכְּרוּבִים עַל הַמָּזוֹן שֶׁאָכָלְנוּ. רַבִּי יוֹסֵי הַגְּלִילִי אוֹמֵר, לְפִי רֹב הַקָּהָל הֵן מְבָרְכִין, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר בְּמַקְהֵלוֹת בָּרְכוּ אֱלֹהִים, יְיָ מִמְּקוֹר יִשְׂרָאֵל (תהלים סח). אָמַר רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא, מַה מָּצִינוּ בְּבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת, אֶחָד מְרֻבִּין וְאֶחָד מֻעָטִין אוֹמֵר, בָּרְכוּ אֶת יְיָ. רַבִּי יִשְׁמָעֵאל אוֹמֵר, בָּרְכוּ אֶת יְיָ הַמְבֹרָךְ:How do they invite [one another to recite the Birkat Hamazon]?If there are three, he [the one saying Birkat Hamazon] says, “Let us bless [Him of whose food we have eaten].” If there are three and him he says, “Bless [Him of whose food we have eaten]” If there are ten, he says, “Let us bless our God [of whose food we have eaten].” If there are ten and he says, “Bless.” It is the same whether there are ten or ten myriads (ten ten thousands). If there are a hundred he says, “Let us bless the Lord our God [of whose food we have eaten]. If there are a hundred and him he says, “Bless.” If there are a thousand he says “Let us bless the Lord our God, the God of Israel [of whose food we have eaten].” If there are a thousand and him he says “Bless.” If there are ten thousand he says, “Let us bless the Lord our God, the God of Israel, the God of hosts, who dwells among the cherubim, for the food which we have eaten.” If there are ten thousand and him he says, “Bless.” Corresponding to his blessing the others answer after him, “Blessed be the Lord our God the God of Israel, the God of hosts, who dwells among the cherubim, for the food which we have eaten.” Rabbi Yose the Galilean says: According to the number of the congregation, they bless, as it says, “In assemblies bless God, the Lord, O you who are from the fountain of Israel.” Rabbi Akiba said: What do we find in the synagogue? Whether there are many or few the he says, “Bless the Lord your God.” Rabbi Ishmael says: “Bless the Lord your God who is blessed.”


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

8 results
1. Dead Sea Scrolls, Damascus Covenant, 10.4-10.10 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

2. Dead Sea Scrolls, (Cairo Damascus Covenant) Cd-A, 10.4-10.10 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

3. Dead Sea Scrolls, Community Rule, 2.11-2.22 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

4. Anon., Didache, 9.4, 10.5 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

5. Mishnah, Berachot, 6.6, 6.8, 7.4-7.5 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

6.6. If [those at the table] are sitting upright, each one blesses for himself. If they are reclining, one blesses for them all. If wine came during the meal, each one says a blessing for himself. If after the meal, one blesses for them all. The same one says [the blessing] over the incense, even though the incense is not brought until after the meal." 6.8. If one has eaten grapes, figs or pomegranates he blesses after them three blessings, the words of Rabban Gamaliel. The sages say: one blessing which includes three. Rabbi Akiva says: even if one ate only boiled vegetables and that is his meal, he says after it the three blessings. If one drinks water to quench his thirst, he says “By Whose word all things exist.” Rabbi Tarfon says: “Who creates many living things and their requirements.”" 7.4. Three persons who have eaten together may not separate [to recite Birkat Hamazon]. Similarly four and similarly five. Six may separate, up until ten. And ten may not separate until there are twenty." 7.5. Two eating companies that were eating in the same room: When some of them can see some of the other they combine [for a zimun], but if not each group makes a zimun for itself. They do not bless over the wine until they put water into it, the words of Rabbi Eliezer. The sages say they bless."
6. Mishnah, Megillah, 4.3 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

4.3. They do not recite the Shema responsively, And they do not pass before the ark; And the [the priests] do not lift up their hands; And they do not read the Torah [publicly]; And they do not conclude with a haftarah from the prophets; And they do not make stops [at funeral] processions; And they do not say the blessing for mourners, or the comfort of mourners, or the blessing of bridegrooms; And they do not mention God’s name in the invitation [to say Birkat Hamazon]; Except in the presence of ten. [For redeeming sanctified] land nine and a priest [are sufficient], and similarly with human beings."
7. Babylonian Talmud, Bava Batra, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

16a. מעין העולם הבא,(איוב א, טז) עוד זה מדבר וזה בא ויאמר אש אלהים וגו עוד זה מדבר וזה בא ויאמר כשדים שמו שלשה ראשים ויפשטו על הגמלים ויקחום וגו' עוד זה מדבר וזה בא ויאמר בניך ובנותיך אוכלים ושותים יין בבית אחיהם הבכור והנה רוח גדולה באה מעבר המדבר ויגע בארבע פנות הבית ויפול על הנערים וגו' ויקם איוב ויקרע את מעילו ויגז את ראשו וגו' ויאמר ערום יצאתי מבטן אמי וערום אשוב שמה ה' נתן וה' לקח יהי שם ה' מבורך בכל זאת לא חטא איוב ולא נתן תפלה לאלהים,ויהי היום ויבואו בני האלהים להתיצב וגו' ויאמר ה' אל השטן אי מזה תבא ויען השטן את ה' ויאמר משוט בארץ [וגו'] אמר לפניו רבש"ע שטתי בכל העולם ולא מצאתי כעבדך אברהם שאמרת לו (בראשית יג, יז) קום התהלך בארץ לארכה ולרחבה כי לך אתננה ובשעה שבקש לקבור שרה לא מצא מקום לקוברה ולא הרהר אחר מדותיך,ויאמר ה' אל השטן השמת לבך אל עבדי איוב כי אין כמוהו בארץ וגו' ועודנו מחזיק בתומתו ותסיתני בו לבלעו חנם,אמר רבי יוחנן אלמלא מקרא כתוב אי אפשר לאומרו כאדם שמסיתין אותו וניסת,במתניתא תנא יורד ומתעה ועולה ומרגיז נוטל רשות ונוטל נשמה,(איוב ב, ד) ויען השטן את ה' ויאמר עור בעד עור וכל אשר לאיש יתן בעד נפשו אולם שלח נא ידך וגע אל עצמו ואל בשרו אם לא (על) פניך יברכך ויאמר ה' אל השטן הנו בידך אך את נפשו שמור ויצא השטן מאת פני ה' ויך את איוב וגו' אמר רבי יצחק קשה צערו של שטן יותר משל איוב משל לעבד שאמר לו רבו שבור חבית ושמור את יינה,אמר ר"ל הוא שטן הוא יצר הרע הוא מלאך המות הוא שטן דכתיב (איוב ב, ז) ויצא השטן מאת פני ה' הוא יצר הרע כתיב התם (בראשית ו, ה) רק רע כל היום וכתיב הכא (רק את נפשו שמור) [(איוב א, יב) רק אליו אל תשלח ידך] הוא מלאך המות דכתיב (איוב ב, ו) (רק) [אך] את נפשו שמור אלמא בדידיה קיימא,א"ר לוי שטן ופנינה לשם שמים נתכוונו שטן כיון דחזיא להקדוש ברוך הוא דנטיה דעתיה בתר איוב אמר חס ושלום מינשי ליה לרחמנותיה דאברהם פנינה דכתיב (שמואל א א, ו) וכעסתה צרתה גם כעס בעבור הרעימה דרשה רב אחא בר יעקב בפפוניא אתא שטן נשקיה לכרעיה,(איוב ב, י) בכל זאת לא חטא איוב בשפתיו אמר רבא בשפתיו לא חטא בלבו חטא מאי קאמר (איוב ט, כד) ארץ נתנה ביד רשע פני שופטיה יכסה אם לא איפו מי הוא אמר רבא בקש איוב להפוך קערה על פיה אמר ליה אביי לא דבר איוב אלא כנגד השטן,כתנאי ארץ נתנה ביד רשע רבי אליעזר אומר בקש איוב להפוך קערה על פיה אמר לו רבי יהושע לא דבר איוב אלא כלפי שטן,(איוב י, ז) על דעתך כי לא ארשע ואין מידך מציל אמר רבא בקש איוב לפטור את כל העולם כולו מן הדין אמר לפניו רבונו של עולם בראת שור פרסותיו סדוקות בראת חמור פרסותיו קלוטות בראת גן עדן בראת גיהנם בראת צדיקים בראת רשעים מי מעכב על ידך,ומאי אהדרו ליה חבריה [דאיוב] (איוב טו, ד) אף אתה תפר יראה ותגרע שיחה לפני אל ברא הקדוש ברוך הוא יצר הרע ברא לו תורה תבלין,דרש רבא מאי דכתיב (איוב כט, יג) ברכת אובד עלי תבא ולב אלמנה ארנין ברכת אובד עלי תבא מלמד שהיה גוזל שדה מיתומים ומשביחה ומחזירה להן ולב אלמנה ארנין דכל היכא דהוה (איכא) אלמנה דלא הוו נסבי לה הוה אזיל שדי שמיה עילווה והוו אתו נסבי לה,(איוב ו, ב) לו שקול ישקל כעשי והותי במאזנים ישאו יחד אמר רב עפרא לפומיה דאיוב חברותא כלפי שמיא (איוב ט, לג) לו יש בינינו מוכיח ישת ידו על שנינו אמר רב עפרא לפומיה דאיוב כלום יש עבד שמוכיח את רבו (איוב לא, א) ברית כרתי לעיני ומה אתבונן על בתולה אמר רבא עפרא לפומיה דאיוב איהו באחרניתא אברהם אפילו בדידיה לא איסתכל דכתיב (בראשית יב, יא) הנה נא ידעתי כי אשה יפת מראה את מכלל דמעיקרא לא הוה ידע לה,(איוב ז, ט) כלה ענן וילך כן יורד שאול לא יעלה אמר רבא מכאן שכפר איוב בתחיית המתים (איוב ט, יז) אשר בשערה ישופני והרבה פצעי חנם אמר רבה איוב בסערה חרף ובסערה השיבוהו,בסערה חרף דכתיב אשר בשערה ישופני אמר לפניו רבונו של עולם שמא רוח סערה עברה לפניך ונתחלף לך בין איוב לאויב בסערה השיבוהו דכתיב (איוב לח, א) ויען ה' את איוב מן הסערה ויאמר [וגו'] אזר נא כגבר חלציך אשאלך והודיעני,אמר לו הרבה נימין בראתי באדם וכל נימא ונימא בראתי לה גומא בפני עצמה שלא יהו שתים יונקות מגומא אחת שאלמלי שתים יונקות מגומא אחת מחשיכות מאור עיניו של אדם בין גומא לגומא לא נתחלף לי בין איוב לאויב נתחלף לי,(איוב לח, כה) מי פלג לשטף תעלה [וגו'] הרבה טיפין בראתי בעבים וכל טיפה וטיפה בראתי לה דפוס בפני עצמה כדי שלא יהו שתי טיפין יוצאות מדפוס אחד שאלמלי שתי טיפין יוצאות מדפוס אחד מטשטשות את הארץ ואינה מוציאה פירות בין טיפה לטיפה לא נתחלף לי בין איוב לאויב נתחלף לי מאי משמע דהאי תעלה לישנא דדפוס היא אמר רבה בר שילא דכתיב (מלכים א יח, לב) ויעש תעלה כבית סאתים זרע,(איוב לח, כה) ודרך לחזיז קולות הרבה קולות בראתי בעבים וכל קול וקול בראתי לו שביל בפני עצמו כדי שלא יהו שתי קולות יוצאות משביל אחד שאלמלי שתי קולות יוצאות משביל אחד מחריבין את כל העולם בין קול לקול לא נתחלף לי בין איוב לאויב נתחלף לי,(איוב לט, א) הידעת עת לדת יעלי סלע חולל אילות תשמור יעלה זו אכזרית על בניה בשעה שכורעת 16a. bof the World-to-Come,when plowing and harvesting will take place at the same time. Here too, the oxen plowed and the donkeys grazed on the crops that grew from that effort.,The Gemara continues to interpret verses from the book of Job. b“While he was yet speaking, there came also another and said: The fire of Godhas fallen from heaven, and has burned up the sheep, and the servants, and consumed them… bWhile he was yet speaking, there came also another and said: The Chaldeans formed three bands, and fell among the camels, and have carried them away,and have slain the servants with the edge of the sword… bWhile he was yet speaking, there came also another and said: Your sons and your daughters were eating and drinking wine in their eldest brother’s house; and, behold, there came a great wind from across the wilderness, and smote the four corners of the house, and it fell upon the young men,and they are dead… bThen Job arose, and rent his coat, and shaved his head,and fell down on the ground and prostrated himself. bAnd he said: I came naked out of my mother’s womb, and naked I shall return there; the Lord gave, and the Lord has taken away, blessed be the name of the Lord. In all this Job sinned not, nor did he lay reproach on God”(Job 1:16–22)., b“Again there was a day when the sons of God came to present themselvesbefore the Lord, and the Satan came also among them to present himself before God. bAnd the Lord said to the Satan: From where do you come? And the Satan answered the Lord, and said: From going to and fro in the earthand from walking up and down in it” (Job 2:1–2). The Satan bsaid beforeGod: bMaster of the Universe, I have gone to and fro across the entire world and have not found anyone as faithful as your servant Abraham, to whom you said: “Arise, walk through the land in the length of it and in the breadth of it; for I will give it to you”(Genesis 13:17). bAnd when he wanted to bury Sarah, he could not find a place to bury her, andyet bhe did not criticize Your ways,or accuse You of having failed to keep Your promise.,About this it says: b“And the Lord said to the Satan: Have you considered My servant Job, that there is none like him on earth,a perfect and an upright man, one that fears God and turns away from evil? bAnd still he holds fast to his integrity, although you moved Me against him, to destroy him without cause”(Job 2:3)., bRabbi Yoḥa says: Were it notexplicitly bwritten in the verse, it would be impossible to say this,as it would be insulting to God’s honor. The verse states: “You moved Me against him,” blike a person whom others persuade andallows himself to be bpersuaded,as if God had not wanted to do anything, but allowed Himself to be persuaded to bring harm to Job., bIt was taught in a ibaraita /iwith regard to the methods of the Satan: He bdescendsto this world band misleadsa person into sinning. He then bascendsto Heaven, levels accusations against that very sinner, band inflamesGod’s bangeragainst him. He then breceives permissionto act band takes away thesinner’s bsoulas punishment.,The Gemara returns to discuss the text of the book of Job: b“And the Satan answered the Lord, and said: Skin for skin, for all that a man has he will give for his life. But put forth Your hand now, and touch his bone and his flesh, and he will curse You to Your face. And the Lord said to the Satan: Behold, he is in your hand; only spare his life. So the Satan went forth from the presence of the Lord, and smote Jobwith vile sores from the sole of his foot to his crown” (Job 2:4–7). bRabbi Yitzḥak says: Satan’s suffering was more difficult than that of Job.This can be explained by means of ba parable involving a servant whose master said to him: Break the barrel but save its wine.Here too, God told the Satan that he could do whatever he liked short of taking Job’s life, and that limitation caused Satan to suffer., bReish Lakish says: Satan, the evil inclination, and the Angel of Death are one,that is, they are three aspects of the same essence. bHe is the Satanwho seduces people and then accuses them, bas it is written: “So the Satan went forth from the presence of the Lord,and smote Job with vile sores” (Job 2:7). bHe isalso bthe evil inclination,as bit is written there:“The impulse of the thoughts of his heart bwas only evil continuously”(Genesis 6:5); band it is written here: “Only upon himself do not put forth your hand”(Job 1:12). The verbal analogy between the various uses of the word “only” teaches that the evil inclination is to be identified with the Satan. bHe isalso bthe Angel of Death, as it is written: “Only spare his life”(Job 2:6); bapparentlyJob’s life bdepends upon him,the Satan, and accordingly the Satan must also be the Angel of Death., bRabbi Levi says:Both bSatan,who brought accusations against Job, band Peninnah,who tormented Hannah, mother of Samuel the prophet, acted with bintentthat was bfor the sake of Heaven.As for bSatan, when he saw that the Holy One, Blessed be He, inclined tofavor bJoband praised him, bhe said: Heaven forbid that He should forget the love of Abraham.With regard to bPeninnah, as it is written: “And her rival wife also provoked her sore, to make her fret”(I Samuel 1:6), i.e., Peninnah upset Hannah in order to motivate her to pray. bRav Aḥa bar Ya’akov taughtthis bin Paphunya,and bSatan came and kissed his feetin gratitude for speaking positively about him.,The Gemara considers the character of Job. The verse states: b“In all this Job did not sin with his lips”(Job 2:10). bRava says:A close reading of the verse indicates that bhe did not sin with his lips,but bhe sinned in his heart. What did he saythat suggests that he had wicked thoughts? b“The earth is given into the hand of the wicked, he covers the faces of its judges; if not he, then who is it?”(Job 9:24). bRava says: Job sought to turn the bowl upside down,that is to say, he alluded here to a heretical thought, as he said that the earth is given into the hand of the wicked, indicating that he had God in mind. bAbaye said to him: Job was referringhere bonly to the Satan,he being the wicked one into whose hands the land was given.,The Gemara comments: This is bparallel toa dispute between itanna’im /i,as it was taught in a ibaraita /i: b“The earth is given into the hand of the wicked.” Rabbi Eliezer says: Job sought to turn the bowl upside down; Rabbi Yehoshua said to him: Job was referringhere bonly to the Satan. /b,The Gemara continues to discuss Job’s statements: b“Although You know that I am not wicked, and there is none that can deliver out of Your hand”(Job 10:7). bRava says: Job sought to exempt the whole world from judgment,claiming that all of a person’s actions are directed by God, and therefore one cannot be held culpable for his misdeeds. Job bsaid beforeGod: bMaster of the Universe, You created the ox with split hooves,making it kosher, and bYou created the donkey with closed hooves,making it forbidden; bYou created the Garden of Eden,and bYou created Gehenna;and similarly, bYou created righteous peopleand bYou created wicked people; who can restrain You?Seeing that You created people as either righteous or wicked, You cannot later complain about their actions., bAnd how did Job’s friends answer him? “You do away with fear, and impair devotion before God”(Job 15:4) with such statements. True, bthe Holy One, Blessed be He, created the evil inclination,but bHealso bcreated the Torahas ban antidoteto counter its effects and prevent it from gaining control of a person., bRava interpreteda verse bhomiletically: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written,Job saying about himself: b“The blessing of him that was lost came upon me, and I caused the widow’s heart to sing for joy”(Job 29:13). b“The blessing of him that was lost came upon me” teaches thatJob bused to steal a field from orphans,cultivate it, bimprove it, andthen breturn it to them;consequently, they would bless him for the field they had lost. b“I caused the widow’s heart to sing for joy”teaches that banywhere that there was a widow whom no one would marry, he would goand bcast his name upon her,i.e., he would start a rumor that she was related to him, bandthen bsomebody wouldcome forward and bmarry her. /b,Job further said: b“O that my vexation were thoroughly weighed, and my calamity laid in the balances”(Job 6:2). bRav says: Dustshould be put bin the mouth of Job,meaning, he should not have spoken in such a manner, as if he were weighing his deeds against those of God; may one act as if he is in ba friendship with Heaven?And similarly, Job said: b“There is no arbiter between us, who may lay his hand upon us both”(Job 9:33). bRav says: Dustshould be put bin the mouth of Jobfor saying this; bis there a servant who rebukes his master?Job also said: b“I have made a covet with my eyes; why then should I look upon a virgin?”(Job 31:1). bRava says: Dustshould be put bin the mouthof bJobfor saying this; bhedid not look bat otherwomen, but bAbraham did not even look at his ownwife, bas it is written: “Now I know that you are a beautiful woman”(Genesis 12:11). One may learn bby inference that initially he did not knowhow beautiful she was because he had not gazed at her.,Job further said: b“As the cloud is consumed and vanishes away, so he who goes down to the grave shall come up no more”(Job 7:9). bRava says: From hereit may be inferred bthat Job denied the resurrection of the dead,as he said that one who goes down to the grave will not come up and live again, just as a cloud that dissipates will not return. He also stated: b“He crushes me with a tempest, and multiplies my wounds without cause”(Job 9:17). bRabba says: Job blasphemed withmention of ba tempest and he was answered withmention of ba tempest. /b,Rabba explains: bHe blasphemed withmention of ba tempest [ ibise’ara /i], as it is written: “He crushes me with a tempest.”Job bsaid beforeGod: bMaster of the Universe, perhaps a tempest passed before You and You confused iIyov /i,Job, bwith ioyev /i,enemy. bHe was answered withmention of ba tempest, as it is written: “Then the Lord answered Job out of the tempest, and said:Who is this that darkens counsel by words without knowledge? bGird up now your loins like a man, for I will demand of you and let me know your answer”(Job 38:1–3).,What is the meaning of “out of the tempest”? God bsaid to him: I have created many hairs [ inimin /i] on a person, and for each hair I created its own folliclethrough which the hair is sustained, bso that twohairs bshould not draw from one follicle. As were twohairs bto draw from one follicle, they would impair a man’s vision.Now, if bI do not confuse one follicle with another, would I confuse iIyovwith ioyev /i?The Hebrew word for tempest, ise’ara /i, is phonetically identical to the Hebrew word for hair.,God further said to Job: b“Who has divided a channel [ ite’ala /i] for the torrentof rain, or a path for the lightning of thunder”? (Job 38:25). bI have created many dropsof water bin the clouds, and for each drop I created its own channel, so that two drops should not emerge from the same channel. As were two drops to emerge from the same channel they would destroy the earth and it would not yield produce.Now, if bI do not confuse one drop with another, would I confuse iIyovwith ioyev /i?Incidentally, the Gemara asks: bFrom where mayit bbe inferred that thisterm ite’ala /imeans ba channel? Rabba bar Sheila said: As it is writtenwith regard to Elijah the prophet: b“And he fashioned a channel [ ite’ala /i]about the altar, basgreat as would contain btwo ise’aof seed”(I Kings 18:32).,The second half of the aforementioned verse in Job states: b“Or a path for the lightning of thunder,”which is interpreted as follows: God said: bI have created many thunderclaps in the clouds, and for each and every thunderclap I created its own path, so that two thunderclaps should not issue forth from the same path. As were two thunderclaps to issue from the same path, they would destroy the world.Now, bif I do not confuse one thunderclap with another, would I confuse iIyovwith ioyev /i? /b,It is further stated there: b“Do you know when the wild goats of the rock give birth? Can you mark when the hinds do calve?”(Job 39:1). bThis goat is cruel to her youngand shows them no pity; bwhen she squats /b
8. Babylonian Talmud, Berachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

42a. דגורם ברכה לעצמו,רב הונא אכל תליסר ריפתי בני תלתא תלתא בקבא ולא בריך א"ל רב נחמן עדי כפנא אלא כל שאחרים קובעים עליו סעודה צריך לברך,רב יהודה הוה עסיק ליה לבריה בי רב יהודה בר חביבא אייתו לקמייהו פת הבאה בכסנין כי אתא שמעינהו דקא מברכי המוציא אמר להו מאי ציצי דקא שמענא דילמא המוציא לחם מן הארץ קא מברכיתו אמרי ליה אין דתניא רבי מונא אמר משום רבי יהודה פת הבאה בכסנין מברכין עליה המוציא ואמר שמואל הלכה כרבי מונא,אמר להו אין הלכה כרבי מונא אתמר אמרי ליה והא מר הוא דאמר משמיה דשמואל לחמניות מערבין בהן ומברכין עליהן המוציא שאני התם דקבע סעודתיה עלייהו אבל היכא דלא קבע סעודתיה עלייהו לא,רב פפא איקלע לבי רב הונא בריה דרב נתן בתר דגמר סעודתייהו אייתו לקמייהו מידי למיכל שקל רב פפא וקא אכיל אמרי ליה לא סבר לה מר גמר אסור מלאכול אמר להו סלק אתמר,רבא ורבי זירא איקלעו לבי ריש גלותא לבתר דסליקו תכא מקמייהו שדרו להו ריסתנא מבי ריש גלותא רבא אכיל ורבי זירא לא אכיל א"ל לא סבר לה מר סלק אסור מלאכול א"ל אנן אתכא דריש גלותא סמכינן:,אמר רב הרגיל בשמן שמן מעכבו אמר רב אשי כי הוינן בי רב כהנא אמר לן כגון אנן דרגילינן במשחא משחא מעכבא לן ולית הלכתא ככל הני שמעתתא אלא כי הא דאמר רבי חייא בר אשי אמר רב שלש תכיפות הן תכף לסמיכה שחיטה תכף לגאולה תפלה תכף לנטילת ידים ברכה,אמר אביי אף אנו נאמר תכף לתלמידי חכמים ברכה שנאמר (בראשית ל, כז) ויברכני ה' בגללך איבעית אימא מהכא שנאמר (בראשית לט, ה) ויברך ה' את בית המצרי בגלל יוסף:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big ברך על היין שלפני המזון פטר את היין שלאחר המזון ברך על הפרפרת שלפני המזון פטר את הפרפרת שלאחר המזון ברך על הפת פטר את הפרפרת על הפרפרת לא פטר את הפת בש"א אף לא מעשה קדרה,היו יושבין כל אחד מברך לעצמו הסבו אחד מברך לכולן 42a. bas it causes a blessing itself.It is so significant, that one recites a blessing over it together with other blessings like ikiddushand ihavdala /i, even though he does not particularly want to drink it. During a meal too, a blessing is recited over the wine and it is not exempted by the blessing over the bread.,As the Gemara mentioned bread that comes as dessert, it now relates that bRav Huna ate thirteensubstantially sized, sweetened bloaves, threeloaves bper ikav /iof flour, band he did not reciteGrace after Meals because they were not genuine bread. bRav Naḥman said to him: That is hunger.One does not typically eat that much merely as dessert. bRather, over anything whichis substantial enough to satiate and bothers base a mealupon it, bone must reciteGrace after Meals.,The Gemara also relates: bRav Yehuda was engagedin preparations for bhis son’swedding bat the house of Rav Yehuda bar Ḥaviva when they brought bread that comes as dessert before them. When it arrived, he heard them reciting: Who brings forthbread from the earth. bHe said to them: What is this itzitzi /isound bthat I hear? Perhaps you are reciting: Who brings forth bread from the earth? They said to him: Yes,indeed, bas it was taughtin a ibaraita /i: bRabbi Mona said in the name of Rabbi Yehuda: Over bread that comes as dessert, one recites: Who brings forthbread from the earth. bAnd Shmuel said: The ihalakhais in accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Mona. /b,Rav Yehuda bsaid to them:You are mistaken. Actually, bit was statedthat Shmuel said: bThe ihalakhais not in accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Mona. They said to him: But aren’tyou, bMaster, the one who said in the nameof bShmuelwith regard to bwafers: One may establish an ieiruv /i,the joining of courtyards, to permit carrying in a shared courtyard and the joining of cooked foods, to permit cooking on a festival for Shabbat, bwith them and recite over them: Who brings forthbread from the earth. Why is that the blessing over those wafers? They too are sweetened bread that comes as dessert. He answered them: bIt is different there as he based his meal upon them, but here, where one did not base his meal upon them, no,he does not recite: Who brings forth bread from the earth.,The Gemara relates: bRav Pappa happenedto come bto the house of Rav Huna, son of Rav Natan. After they finished their meal, they brought before them something to eat. Rav Pappa tookthis food item band ateit without reciting a blessing. bThey said to him:Do you, bMaster, not holdthat once bone finishedhis meal bhe is forbidden to eatagain without reciting a blessing? bHe said to themthat in the correct version of that ihalakha /i, bit is stated: Removed.One need recite a second blessing only when eating after the table was removed from before him.,Similarly, the Gemara relates: bRava and Rabbi Zeira happenedto come bto the house of the Exilarch. Afterthe meal, when bthey removed the table from before them, a portion [ iristena /i]of food bwas sent to them from the house of the Exilarch. Rava ateit band Rabbi Zeira did not eatit. Rabbi Zeira bsaid toRava: Do you, bMaster, not holdthat once the table was bremoved, he is forbidden to eat?Rava bsaid to him: We are dependent upon the table of the Exilarch,and so long as he has not completed his meal, his guests have not completed their meals either., bRav said: One who is accustomed toapplying fragrant boilto his hands after meals, failure to apply that boil delaysthe end of bhismeal and he is not considered to have finished his meal and is not required to recite a blessing before continuing to eat. Similarly, bRav Ashi said: When we were in the house of Rav Kahana, he said to us: We, for example, who are accustomed to oil,failure to apply that boil delaysthe end of the meal bfor us.Nevertheless, the Gemara concludes: bAnd the ihalakhais not in accordance with all of these statementsand the end of the meal is not determined by those factors. bRather, it isdetermined by bthat which Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Ashi saidthat bRav said: There are threepairs that bimmediatelyfollow each other: bImmediatelyfollowing bplacing handson the head of a sacrifice, is its bslaughter; immediatelyfollowing the blessing of bredemptionrecited after iShema /i, is the iAmida bprayer;and bimmediatelyfollowing the ritual bwashing of the handsafter a meal, is bthe blessing ofGrace after Meals., bAbaye saidthat on a similar note, bwe too will say: Immediatelyfollowing the entrance of bTorah scholarsinto a house, a bblessingrests upon that house, bas it is statedwith regard to Laban and Jacob: b“The Lord has blessed me because of you”(Genesis 30:27). bIf you wish, sayinstead, that the proof is bfrom here, as it is stated:“And it was from when he placed him in charge of his house and over all that he owned, bthe Lord blessed the house of the Egyptian on account of Joseph”(Genesis 39:5)., strongMISHNA: /strong This mishna explains those cases and those circumstances in which blessings recited over particular foods exempt other foods at the meal from the requirement to recite a blessing over them. bOne who recited a blessing over the wine thatone drank bbefore the meal,with that blessing bhe exempted the wine thathe drinks bafter the meal.Similarly, bone who recited a blessing over the appetizers thatone ate bbefore the meal,with that blessing bhe exempted the appetizers thathe eats bafter the meal. One who recited a blessing over the bread exempted the appetizers,as they are considered secondary to the bread. However, one who recited a blessing bover the appetizers did not exempt the bread. Beit Shammai say:The blessing recited over the appetizers bdid not exempt even a cooked dishthat he eats during the meal.,An additional ihalakhais cited: If several people bwere sittingto eat not in the framework of a joint meal, beach recites a blessing for himself. If they were reclinedon divans to eat, which renders it a joint meal, bone recites a blessing on behalf of them all. /b


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
amoraim, amoraic period Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 206
berakhot Alikin, The Earliest History of the Christian Gathering (2009) 238
birkat ha-mazon Alikin, The Earliest History of the Christian Gathering (2009) 238
bread, wine Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 196
bread Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 196
court, of ten Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 196
courts, sectarian Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 196
dinner, formal Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 196, 206
dinner, informal Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 206
doxology Alikin, The Earliest History of the Christian Gathering (2009) 238
eating Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 196
father, fatherhood Albrecht, The Divine Father: Religious and Philosophical Concepts of Divine Parenthood in Antiquity (2014) 143
grace before and after meals, invitation to say (zimmun) Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 196
grace before and after meals, recited by one for all Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 196, 206
grace before and after meals, recited individually Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 196, 206
grace before and after meals Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 196, 206
judges, number constituting a court Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 196
loaves Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 196
meals, communal Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 196, 206
meals, cultic Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 206
meals, reclining at Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 196, 206
meals, sitting at Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 206
messianic banquet Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 206
moshav ha-rabbim Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 196, 206
palestinian talmud Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 206
pater familias Albrecht, The Divine Father: Religious and Philosophical Concepts of Divine Parenthood in Antiquity (2014) 143
prayereucharistic Alikin, The Earliest History of the Christian Gathering (2009) 238
priests, aaronide Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 196, 206
purity and impurity, ritual purity Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 206
qiddush Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 196
quorum, ten, ritual quorum Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 196, 206
rabbi akiva Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 206
rabbi yose the galilean Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 206
rava Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 206
sabbath, and festival meals Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 196
sectarian settlements Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 196
tannaim, tannaitic law, judaism, period Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 196
targumim' Albrecht, The Divine Father: Religious and Philosophical Concepts of Divine Parenthood in Antiquity (2014) 143
trial, liability to be tried Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 196
wine, grape juice Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 196
zadokite fragments Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 196