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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



8004
Mishnah, Berachot, 5.5


הַמִּתְפַּלֵּל וְטָעָה, סִימָן רַע לוֹ. וְאִם שְׁלִיחַ צִבּוּר הוּא, סִימָן רַע לְשׁוֹלְחָיו, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁשְּׁלוּחוֹ שֶׁל אָדָם כְּמוֹתוֹ. אָמְרוּ עָלָיו עַל רַבִּי חֲנִינָא בֶן דּוֹסָא, כְּשֶׁהָיָה מִתְפַּלֵּל עַל הַחוֹלִים וְאוֹמֵר, זֶה חַי וְזֶה מֵת. אָמְרוּ לוֹ, מִנַּיִן אַתָּה יוֹדֵעַ. אָמַר לָהֶם, אִם שְׁגוּרָה תְפִלָּתִי בְּפִי, יוֹדֵעַ אֲנִי שֶׁהוּא מְקֻבָּל. וְאִם לָאו, יוֹדֵעַ אֲנִי שֶׁהוּא מְטֹרָף:One who is praying and makes a mistake, it is a bad sign for him. And if he is the messenger of the congregation (the prayer leader) it is a bad sign for those who have sent him, because one’s messenger is equivalent to one’s self. They said about Rabbi Hanina ben Dosa that he used to pray for the sick and say, “This one will die, this one will live.” They said to him: “How do you know?” He replied: “If my prayer comes out fluently, I know that he is accepted, but if not, then I know that he is rejected.”


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

126 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Song of Songs, 1.2-1.3, 5.14, 7.10 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.2. יִשָּׁקֵנִי מִנְּשִׁיקוֹת פִּיהוּ כִּי־טוֹבִים דֹּדֶיךָ מִיָּיִן׃ 1.3. לְרֵיחַ שְׁמָנֶיךָ טוֹבִים שֶׁמֶן תּוּרַק שְׁמֶךָ עַל־כֵּן עֲלָמוֹת אֲהֵבוּךָ׃ 5.14. יָדָיו גְּלִילֵי זָהָב מְמֻלָּאִים בַּתַּרְשִׁישׁ מֵעָיו עֶשֶׁת שֵׁן מְעֻלֶּפֶת סַפִּירִים׃ 1.2. Let him kiss me with the kisses of his mouth— For thy love is better than wine. 1.3. Thine ointments have a goodly fragrance; Thy name is as ointment poured forth; Therefore do the maidens love thee. 5.14. His hands are as rods of gold Set with beryl; His body is as polished ivory Overlaid with sapphires. 7.10. And the roof of thy mouth like the best wine, That glideth down smoothly for my beloved, moving gently the lips of those that are asleep.’
2. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 4.14, 5.22, 6.5, 11.1, 17.2, 32.4 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

4.14. וְאֹתִי צִוָּה יְהוָה בָּעֵת הַהִוא לְלַמֵּד אֶתְכֶם חֻקִּים וּמִשְׁפָּטִים לַעֲשֹׂתְכֶם אֹתָם בָּאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר אַתֶּם עֹבְרִים שָׁמָּה לְרִשְׁתָּהּ׃ 5.22. וְעַתָּה לָמָּה נָמוּת כִּי תֹאכְלֵנוּ הָאֵשׁ הַגְּדֹלָה הַזֹּאת אִם־יֹסְפִים אֲנַחְנוּ לִשְׁמֹעַ אֶת־קוֹל יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵינוּ עוֹד וָמָתְנוּ׃ 6.5. וְאָהַבְתָּ אֵת יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ בְּכָל־לְבָבְךָ וּבְכָל־נַפְשְׁךָ וּבְכָל־מְאֹדֶךָ׃ 11.1. וְאָהַבְתָּ אֵת יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ וְשָׁמַרְתָּ מִשְׁמַרְתּוֹ וְחֻקֹּתָיו וּמִשְׁפָּטָיו וּמִצְוֺתָיו כָּל־הַיָּמִים׃ 11.1. כִּי הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר אַתָּה בָא־שָׁמָּה לְרִשְׁתָּהּ לֹא כְאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם הִוא אֲשֶׁר יְצָאתֶם מִשָּׁם אֲשֶׁר תִּזְרַע אֶת־זַרְעֲךָ וְהִשְׁקִיתָ בְרַגְלְךָ כְּגַן הַיָּרָק׃ 17.2. לְבִלְתִּי רוּם־לְבָבוֹ מֵאֶחָיו וּלְבִלְתִּי סוּר מִן־הַמִּצְוָה יָמִין וּשְׂמֹאול לְמַעַן יַאֲרִיךְ יָמִים עַל־מַמְלַכְתּוֹ הוּא וּבָנָיו בְּקֶרֶב יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 17.2. כִּי־יִמָּצֵא בְקִרְבְּךָ בְּאַחַד שְׁעָרֶיךָ אֲשֶׁר־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ נֹתֵן לָךְ אִישׁ אוֹ־אִשָּׁה אֲשֶׁר יַעֲשֶׂה אֶת־הָרַע בְּעֵינֵי יְהוָה־אֱלֹהֶיךָ לַעֲבֹר בְּרִיתוֹ׃ 32.4. כִּי־אֶשָּׂא אֶל־שָׁמַיִם יָדִי וְאָמַרְתִּי חַי אָנֹכִי לְעֹלָם׃ 32.4. הַצּוּר תָּמִים פָּעֳלוֹ כִּי כָל־דְּרָכָיו מִשְׁפָּט אֵל אֱמוּנָה וְאֵין עָוֶל צַדִּיק וְיָשָׁר הוּא׃ 4.14. And the LORD commanded me at that time to teach you statutes and ordices, that ye might do them in the land whither ye go over to possess it." 5.22. Now therefore why should we die? for this great fire will consume us; if we hear the voice of the LORD our God any more, then we shall die." 6.5. And thou shalt love the LORD thy God with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy might." 11.1. Therefore thou shalt love the LORD thy God, and keep His charge, and His statutes, and His ordices, and His commandments, alway." 17.2. If there be found in the midst of thee, within any of thy gates which the LORD thy God giveth thee, man or woman, that doeth that which is evil in the sight of the LORD thy God, in transgressing His covet," 32.4. The Rock, His work is perfect; For all His ways are justice; A God of faithfulness and without iniquity, Just and right is He. ."
3. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 15.20, 20.2, 20.16, 20.18, 21.1 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

20.2. אָנֹכִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ אֲשֶׁר הוֹצֵאתִיךָ מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם מִבֵּית עֲבָדִים׃ 20.2. לֹא תַעֲשׂוּן אִתִּי אֱלֹהֵי כֶסֶף וֵאלֹהֵי זָהָב לֹא תַעֲשׂוּ לָכֶם׃ 20.16. וַיֹּאמְרוּ אֶל־מֹשֶׁה דַּבֵּר־אַתָּה עִמָּנוּ וְנִשְׁמָעָה וְאַל־יְדַבֵּר עִמָּנוּ אֱלֹהִים פֶּן־נָמוּת׃ 20.18. וַיַּעֲמֹד הָעָם מֵרָחֹק וּמֹשֶׁה נִגַּשׁ אֶל־הָעֲרָפֶל אֲשֶׁר־שָׁם הָאֱלֹהִים׃ 21.1. וְאֵלֶּה הַמִּשְׁפָּטִים אֲשֶׁר תָּשִׂים לִפְנֵיהֶם׃ 21.1. אִם־אַחֶרֶת יִקַּח־לוֹ שְׁאֵרָהּ כְּסוּתָהּ וְעֹנָתָהּ לֹא יִגְרָע׃ 15.20. And Miriam the prophetess, the sister of Aaron, took a timbrel in her hand; and all the women went out after her with timbrels and with dances." 20.2. I am the LORD thy God, who brought thee out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of bondage." 20.16. And they said unto Moses: ‘Speak thou with us, and we will hear; but let not God speak with us, lest we die.’" 20.18. And the people stood afar off; but Moses drew near unto the thick darkness where God was." 21.1. Now these are the ordices which thou shalt set before them."
4. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 3.15, 11.11, 17.1, 49.33 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

3.15. וְאֵיבָה אָשִׁית בֵּינְךָ וּבֵין הָאִשָּׁה וּבֵין זַרְעֲךָ וּבֵין זַרְעָהּ הוּא יְשׁוּפְךָ רֹאשׁ וְאַתָּה תְּשׁוּפֶנּוּ עָקֵב׃ 11.11. וַיְחִי־שֵׁם אַחֲרֵי הוֹלִידוֹ אֶת־אַרְפַּכְשָׁד חֲמֵשׁ מֵאוֹת שָׁנָה וַיּוֹלֶד בָּנִים וּבָנוֹת׃ 17.1. זֹאת בְּרִיתִי אֲשֶׁר תִּשְׁמְרוּ בֵּינִי וּבֵינֵיכֶם וּבֵין זַרְעֲךָ אַחֲרֶיךָ הִמּוֹל לָכֶם כָּל־זָכָר׃ 17.1. וַיְהִי אַבְרָם בֶּן־תִּשְׁעִים שָׁנָה וְתֵשַׁע שָׁנִים וַיֵּרָא יְהוָה אֶל־אַבְרָם וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלָיו אֲנִי־אֵל שַׁדַּי הִתְהַלֵּךְ לְפָנַי וֶהְיֵה תָמִים׃ 49.33. וַיְכַל יַעֲקֹב לְצַוֺּת אֶת־בָּנָיו וַיֶּאֱסֹף רַגְלָיו אֶל־הַמִּטָּה וַיִּגְוַע וַיֵּאָסֶף אֶל־עַמָּיו׃ 3.15. And I will put enmity between thee and the woman, and between thy seed and her seed; they shall bruise thy head, and thou shalt bruise their heel.’" 11.11. And Shem lived after he begot Arpachshad five hundred years, and begot sons and daughters." 17.1. And when Abram was ninety years old and nine, the LORD appeared to Abram, and said unto him: ‘I am God Almighty; walk before Me, and be thou wholehearted." 49.33. And when Jacob made an end of charging his sons, he gathered up his feet into the bed, and expired, and was gathered unto his people."
5. Hebrew Bible, Hosea, 1.9 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.9. וַיֹּאמֶר קְרָא שְׁמוֹ לֹא עַמִּי כִּי אַתֶּם לֹא עַמִּי וְאָנֹכִי לֹא־אֶהְיֶה לָכֶם׃ 1.9. And He said: ‘Call his name Lo-ammi; for ye are not My people, and I will not be yours.’"
6. Hebrew Bible, Job, 3.3-3.6, 3.8, 22.28 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

3.3. יֹאבַד יוֹם אִוָּלֶד בּוֹ וְהַלַּיְלָה אָמַר הֹרָה גָבֶר׃ 3.4. הַיּוֹם הַהוּא יְהִי חֹשֶׁךְ אַל־יִדְרְשֵׁהוּ אֱלוֹהַּ מִמָּעַל וְאַל־תּוֹפַע עָלָיו נְהָרָה׃ 3.5. יִגְאָלֻהוּ חֹשֶׁךְ וְצַלְמָוֶת תִּשְׁכָּן־עָלָיו עֲנָנָה יְבַעֲתֻהוּ כִּמְרִירֵי יוֹם׃ 3.6. הַלַּיְלָה הַהוּא יִקָּחֵהוּ אֹפֶל אַל־יִחַדְּ בִּימֵי שָׁנָה בְּמִסְפַּר יְרָחִים אַל־יָבֹא׃ 3.8. יִקְּבֻהוּ אֹרְרֵי־יוֹם הָעֲתִידִים עֹרֵר לִוְיָתָן׃ 22.28. וְתִגְזַר־אוֹמֶר וְיָקָם לָךְ וְעַל־דְּרָכֶיךָ נָגַהּ אוֹר׃ 3.3. Let the day perish wherein I was born, And the night wherein it was said: ‘A man-child is brought forth.’" 3.4. Let that day be darkness; Let not God inquire after it from above, Neither let the light shine upon it." 3.5. Let darkness and the shadow of death claim it for their own; Let a cloud dwell upon it; Let all that maketh black the day terrify it." 3.6. As for that night, let thick darkness seize upon it; Let it not rejoice among the days of the year; Let it not come into the number of the months." 3.8. Let them curse it that curse the day, Who are ready to rouse up leviathan." 22.28. Thou shalt also decree a thing, and it shall be established unto thee, And light shall shine upon thy ways."
7. Hebrew Bible, Joel, 2.32 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

8. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 6.4, 16.21, 19.18, 26.4 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

6.4. וּפָשַׁט אֶת־בְּגָדָיו וְלָבַשׁ בְּגָדִים אֲחֵרִים וְהוֹצִיא אֶת־הַדֶּשֶׁן אֶל־מִחוּץ לַמַּחֲנֶה אֶל־מָקוֹם טָהוֹר׃ 16.21. וְסָמַךְ אַהֲרֹן אֶת־שְׁתֵּי ידו [יָדָיו] עַל רֹאשׁ הַשָּׂעִיר הַחַי וְהִתְוַדָּה עָלָיו אֶת־כָּל־עֲוֺנֹת בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאֶת־כָּל־פִּשְׁעֵיהֶם לְכָל־חַטֹּאתָם וְנָתַן אֹתָם עַל־רֹאשׁ הַשָּׂעִיר וְשִׁלַּח בְּיַד־אִישׁ עִתִּי הַמִּדְבָּרָה׃ 19.18. לֹא־תִקֹּם וְלֹא־תִטֹּר אֶת־בְּנֵי עַמֶּךָ וְאָהַבְתָּ לְרֵעֲךָ כָּמוֹךָ אֲנִי יְהוָה׃ 26.4. וְנָתַתִּי גִשְׁמֵיכֶם בְּעִתָּם וְנָתְנָה הָאָרֶץ יְבוּלָהּ וְעֵץ הַשָּׂדֶה יִתֵּן פִּרְיוֹ׃ 26.4. וְהִתְוַדּוּ אֶת־עֲוֺנָם וְאֶת־עֲוֺן אֲבֹתָם בְּמַעֲלָם אֲשֶׁר מָעֲלוּ־בִי וְאַף אֲשֶׁר־הָלְכוּ עִמִּי בְּקֶרִי׃ 6.4. And he shall put off his garments, and put on other garments, and carry forth the ashes without the camp unto a clean place." 16.21. And Aaron shall lay both his hands upon the head of the live goat, and confess over him all the iniquities of the children of Israel, and all their transgressions, even all their sins; and he shall put them upon the head of the goat, and shall send him away by the hand of an appointed man into the wilderness." 19.18. Thou shalt not take vengeance, nor bear any grudge against the children of thy people, but thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself: I am the LORD." 26.4. then I will give your rains in their season, and the land shall yield her produce, and the trees of the field shall yield their fruit."
9. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 11.16, 24.5-24.6 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

11.16. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה אֶסְפָה־לִּי שִׁבְעִים אִישׁ מִזִּקְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אֲשֶׁר יָדַעְתָּ כִּי־הֵם זִקְנֵי הָעָם וְשֹׁטְרָיו וְלָקַחְתָּ אֹתָם אֶל־אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד וְהִתְיַצְּבוּ שָׁם עִמָּךְ׃ 24.5. מַה־טֹּבוּ אֹהָלֶיךָ יַעֲקֹב מִשְׁכְּנֹתֶיךָ יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 24.6. כִּנְחָלִים נִטָּיוּ כְּגַנֹּת עֲלֵי נָהָר כַּאֲהָלִים נָטַע יְהוָה כַּאֲרָזִים עֲלֵי־מָיִם׃ 11.16. And the LORD said unto Moses: ‘Gather unto Me seventy men of the elders of Israel, whom thou knowest to be the elders of the people, and officers over them; and bring them unto the tent of meeting, that they may stand there with thee." 24.5. How goodly are thy tents, O Jacob, Thy dwellings, O Israel!" 24.6. As valleys stretched out, As gardens by the river-side; As aloes planted of the LORD, As cedars beside the waters;"
10. Hebrew Bible, Proverbs, 8.36, 16.14, 22.6, 23.23, 30.4 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

8.36. וְחֹטְאִי חֹמֵס נַפְשׁוֹ כָּל־מְשַׂנְאַי אָהֲבוּ מָוֶת׃ 16.14. חֲמַת־מֶלֶךְ מַלְאֲכֵי־מָוֶת וְאִישׁ חָכָם יְכַפְּרֶנָּה׃ 22.6. חֲנֹךְ לַנַּעַר עַל־פִּי דַרְכּוֹ גַּם כִּי־יַזְקִין לֹא־יָסוּר מִמֶּנָּה׃ 23.23. אֱמֶת קְנֵה וְאַל־תִּמְכֹּר חָכְמָה וּמוּסָר וּבִינָה׃ 30.4. מִי עָלָה־שָׁמַיִם וַיֵּרַד מִי אָסַף־רוּחַ בְּחָפְנָיו מִי צָרַר־מַיִם בַּשִּׂמְלָה מִי הֵקִים כָּל־אַפְסֵי־אָרֶץ מַה־שְּׁמוֹ וּמַה־שֶּׁם־בְּנוֹ כִּי תֵדָע׃ 8.36. But he that misseth me wrongeth his own soul; All they that hate me love death.’" 16.14. The wrath of a king is as messengers of death; But a wise man will pacify it." 22.6. Train up a child in the way he should go, And even when he is old, he will not depart from it." 23.23. Buy the truth, and sell it not; also wisdom, and instruction, and understanding." 30.4. Who hath ascended up into heaven, and descended? Who hath gathered the wind in his fists? Who hath bound the waters in his garment? Who hath established all the ends of the earth? What is his name, and what is his son’s name, if thou knowest?"
11. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 82.1, 110.1 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

82.1. מִזְמוֹר לְאָסָף אֱ‍לֹהִים נִצָּב בַּעֲדַת־אֵל בְּקֶרֶב אֱלֹהִים יִשְׁפֹּט׃ 110.1. לְדָוִד מִזְמוֹר נְאֻם יְהוָה לַאדֹנִי שֵׁב לִימִינִי עַד־אָשִׁית אֹיְבֶיךָ הֲדֹם לְרַגְלֶיךָ׃ 82.1. A Psalm of Asaph. God standeth in the congregation of God; in the midst of the judges He judgeth:" 110.1. A Psalm of David. The LORD saith unto my lord: ‘Sit thou at My right hand, until I make thine enemies thy footstool.'"
12. Hebrew Bible, 1 Kings, 19 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

13. Hebrew Bible, 1 Samuel, 1.18, 12.19 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

1.18. וַתֹּאמֶר תִּמְצָא שִׁפְחָתְךָ חֵן בְּעֵינֶיךָ וַתֵּלֶךְ הָאִשָּׁה לְדַרְכָּהּ וַתֹּאכַל וּפָנֶיהָ לֹא־הָיוּ־לָהּ עוֹד׃ 12.19. וַיֹּאמְרוּ כָל־הָעָם אֶל־שְׁמוּאֵל הִתְפַּלֵּל בְּעַד־עֲבָדֶיךָ אֶל־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ וְאַל־נָמוּת כִּי־יָסַפְנוּ עַל־כָּל־חַטֹּאתֵינוּ רָעָה לִשְׁאֹל לָנוּ מֶלֶךְ׃ 1.18. And she said, Let thy handmaid find favour in thy sight. So the woman went her way, and did eat, and her countece was no more sad." 12.19. And all the people said to Shemu᾽el, Pray for thy servants to the Lord thy God, that we die not: for we have added to all our sins this evil, to ask for a king for ourselves."
14. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 20.3, 65.17 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

20.3. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה כַּאֲשֶׁר הָלַךְ עַבְדִּי יְשַׁעְיָהוּ עָרוֹם וְיָחֵף שָׁלֹשׁ שָׁנִים אוֹת וּמוֹפֵת עַל־מִצְרַיִם וְעַל־כּוּשׁ׃ 65.17. כִּי־הִנְנִי בוֹרֵא שָׁמַיִם חֲדָשִׁים וָאָרֶץ חֲדָשָׁה וְלֹא תִזָּכַרְנָה הָרִאשֹׁנוֹת וְלֹא תַעֲלֶינָה עַל־לֵב׃ 20.3. And the LORD said: ‘Like as My servant Isaiah hath walked naked and barefoot to be for three years a sign and a wonder upon Egypt and upon Ethiopia," 65.17. For, behold, I create new heavens And a new earth; And the former things shall not be remembered, Nor come into mind. ."
15. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 31.15-31.16, 31.33, 32.19, 42.2 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

31.15. כֹּה אָמַר יְהוָה קוֹל בְּרָמָה נִשְׁמָע נְהִי בְּכִי תַמְרוּרִים רָחֵל מְבַכָּה עַל־בָּנֶיהָ מֵאֲנָה לְהִנָּחֵם עַל־בָּנֶיהָ כִּי אֵינֶנּוּ׃ 31.16. כֹּה אָמַר יְהוָה מִנְעִי קוֹלֵךְ מִבֶּכִי וְעֵינַיִךְ מִדִּמְעָה כִּי יֵשׁ שָׂכָר לִפְעֻלָּתֵךְ נְאֻם־יְהוָה וְשָׁבוּ מֵאֶרֶץ אוֹיֵב׃ 31.33. כִּי זֹאת הַבְּרִית אֲשֶׁר אֶכְרֹת אֶת־בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל אַחֲרֵי הַיָּמִים הָהֵם נְאֻם־יְהוָה נָתַתִּי אֶת־תּוֹרָתִי בְּקִרְבָּם וְעַל־לִבָּם אֶכְתֲּבֶנָּה וְהָיִיתִי לָהֶם לֵאלֹהִים וְהֵמָּה יִהְיוּ־לִי לְעָם׃ 32.19. גְּדֹל הָעֵצָה וְרַב הָעֲלִילִיָּה אֲשֶׁר־עֵינֶיךָ פְקֻחוֹת עַל־כָּל־דַּרְכֵי בְּנֵי אָדָם לָתֵת לְאִישׁ כִּדְרָכָיו וְכִפְרִי מַעֲלָלָיו׃ 42.2. כִּי התעתים [הִתְעֵיתֶם] בְּנַפְשׁוֹתֵיכֶם כִּי־אַתֶּם שְׁלַחְתֶּם אֹתִי אֶל־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם לֵאמֹר הִתְפַּלֵּל בַּעֲדֵנוּ אֶל־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵינוּ וּכְכֹל אֲשֶׁר יֹאמַר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵינוּ כֵּן הַגֶּד־לָנוּ וְעָשִׂינוּ׃ 42.2. וַיֹּאמְרוּ אֶל־יִרְמְיָהוּ הַנָּבִיא תִּפָּל־נָא תְחִנָּתֵנוּ לְפָנֶיךָ וְהִתְפַּלֵּל בַּעֲדֵנוּ אֶל־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ בְּעַד כָּל־הַשְּׁאֵרִית הַזֹּאת כִּי־נִשְׁאַרְנוּ מְעַט מֵהַרְבֵּה כַּאֲשֶׁר עֵינֶיךָ רֹאוֹת אֹתָנוּ׃ 31.15. Thus saith the LORD: A voice is heard in Ramah, Lamentation, and bitter weeping, Rachel weeping for her children; She refuseth to be comforted for her children, Because they are not." 31.16. Thus saith the LORD: Refrain thy voice from weeping, And thine eyes from tears; For thy work shall be rewarded, saith the LORD; And they shall come back from the land of the enemy." 31.33. But this is the covet that I will make with the house of Israel after those days, saith the LORD, I will put My law in their inward parts, and in their heart will I write it; and I will be their God, and they shall be My people;" 32.19. great in counsel, and mighty in work; whose eyes are open upon all the ways of the sons of men, to give every one according to his ways, and according to the fruit of his doings;" 42.2. and said unto Jeremiah the prophet: ‘Let, we pray thee, our supplication be accepted before thee, and pray for us unto the LORD thy God, even for all this remt; for we are left but a few of many, as thine eyes do behold us;"
16. Hebrew Bible, Judges, 5.1 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

5.1. וַתָּשַׁר דְּבוֹרָה וּבָרָק בֶּן־אֲבִינֹעַם בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא לֵאמֹר׃ 5.1. רֹכְבֵי אֲתֹנוֹת צְחֹרוֹת יֹשְׁבֵי עַל־מִדִּין וְהֹלְכֵי עַל־דֶּרֶךְ שִׂיחוּ׃ 5.1. Then sang Devora and Baraq the son of Avino῾am on that day, saying,"
17. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 20.25, 24.16, 36.26 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

20.25. וְגַם־אֲנִי נָתַתִּי לָהֶם חֻקִּים לֹא טוֹבִים וּמִשְׁפָּטִים לֹא יִחְיוּ בָּהֶם׃ 24.16. בֶּן־אָדָם הִנְנִי לֹקֵחַ מִמְּךָ אֶת־מַחְמַד עֵינֶיךָ בְּמַגֵּפָה וְלֹא תִסְפֹּד וְלֹא תִבְכֶּה וְלוֹא תָבוֹא דִּמְעָתֶךָ׃ 36.26. וְנָתַתִּי לָכֶם לֵב חָדָשׁ וְרוּחַ חֲדָשָׁה אֶתֵּן בְּקִרְבְּכֶם וַהֲסִרֹתִי אֶת־לֵב הָאֶבֶן מִבְּשַׂרְכֶם וְנָתַתִּי לָכֶם לֵב בָּשָׂר׃ 20.25. Wherefore I gave them also statutes that were not good, and ordices whereby they should not live;" 24.16. ’Son of man, behold, I take away from thee the desire of thine eyes with a stroke; yet neither shalt thou make lamentation nor weep, neither shall thy tears run down." 36.26. A new heart also will I give you, and a new spirit will I put within you; and I will take away the stony heart out of your flesh, and I will give you a heart of flesh."
18. Hebrew Bible, 1 Chronicles, 26.5 (5th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

26.5. עַמִּיאֵל הַשִּׁשִּׁי יִשָׂשכָר הַשְּׁבִיעִי פְּעֻלְּתַי הַשְּׁמִינִי כִּי בֵרֲכוֹ אֱלֹהִים׃ 26.5. Ammiel the sixth, Issachar the seventh, Peullethai the eighth; for God blessed him."
19. Hebrew Bible, 2 Chronicles, 6.32, 15.3 (5th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

6.32. וְגַם אֶל־הַנָּכְרִי אֲשֶׁר לֹא מֵעַמְּךָ יִשְׂרָאֵל הוּא וּבָא מֵאֶרֶץ רְחוֹקָה לְמַעַן שִׁמְךָ הַגָּדוֹל וְיָדְךָ הַחֲזָקָה וּזְרוֹעֲךָ הַנְּטוּיָה וּבָאוּ וְהִתְפַּלְלוּ אֶל־הַבַּיִת הַזֶּה׃ 15.3. וְיָמִים רַבִּים לְיִשְׂרָאֵל לְלֹא אֱלֹהֵי אֱמֶת וּלְלֹא כֹּהֵן מוֹרֶה וּלְלֹא תוֹרָה׃ 6.32. Moreover concerning the stranger, that is not of Thy people Israel, when be shall come out of a far country for Thy great name’s sake, and Thy mighty hand, and Thine outstretched arm; when they shall come and pray toward this house;" 15.3. Now for long seasons Israel was without the true God, and without a teaching priest, and without law;"
20. Hebrew Bible, Ecclesiastes, 2.8 (5th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

2.8. כָּנַסְתִּי לִי גַּם־כֶּסֶף וְזָהָב וּסְגֻלַּת מְלָכִים וְהַמְּדִינוֹת עָשִׂיתִי לִי שָׁרִים וְשָׁרוֹת וְתַעֲנוּגֹת בְּנֵי הָאָדָם שִׁדָּה וְשִׁדּוֹת׃ 2.8. I gathered me also silver and gold, and treasure such as kings and the provinces have as their own; I got me men-singers and women-singers, and the delights of the sons of men, women very many."
21. Hebrew Bible, Zechariah, 4.3 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

4.3. וּשְׁנַיִם זֵיתִים עָלֶיהָ אֶחָד מִימִין הַגֻּלָּה וְאֶחָד עַל־שְׂמֹאלָהּ׃ 4.3. and two olive-trees by it, one upon the right side of the bowl, and the other upon the left side thereof.’"
22. Anon., 1 Enoch, 92.1 (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

92.1. The book written by Enoch-[Enoch indeed wrote this complete doctrine of wisdom, (which is) praised of all men and a judge of all the earth] for all my children who shall dwell on the earth. And for the future generations who shall observe uprightness and peace. 1. The words of the blessing of Enoch, wherewith he blessed the elect and righteous, who will be,living in the day of tribulation, when all the wicked and godless are to be removed. And he took up his parable and said -Enoch a righteous man, whose eyes were opened by God, saw the vision of the Holy One in the heavens, which the angels showed me, and from them I heard everything, and from them I understood as I saw, but not for this generation, but for a remote one which is,for to come. Concerning the elect I said, and took up my parable concerning them:The Holy Great One will come forth from His dwelling,,And the eternal God will tread upon the earth, (even) on Mount Sinai, [And appear from His camp] And appear in the strength of His might from the heaven of heavens.,And all shall be smitten with fear And the Watchers shall quake, And great fear and trembling shall seize them unto the ends of the earth.,And the high mountains shall be shaken, And the high hills shall be made low, And shall melt like wax before the flame,And the earth shall be wholly rent in sunder, And all that is upon the earth shall perish, And there shall be a judgement upon all (men).,But with the righteous He will make peace.And will protect the elect, And mercy shall be upon them.And they shall all belong to God, And they shall be prospered, And they shall all be blessed.And He will help them all, And light shall appear unto them, And He will make peace with them'.,And behold! He cometh with ten thousands of His holy ones To execute judgement upon all, And to destroy all the ungodly:And to convict all flesh of all the works of their ungodliness which they have ungodly committed, And of all the hard things which ungodly sinners have spoken against Him.
23. Anon., Jubilees, 3.31 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

3.31. for God doth know that on the day ye shall eat thereof, your eyes will be opened, and ye will be as gods, and ye will know good and evil.
24. Septuagint, 2 Maccabees, 6.6, 6.18-6.31 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

6.6. A man could neither keep the sabbath, nor observe the feasts of his fathers, nor so much as confess himself to be a Jew.' 6.18. Eleazar, one of the scribes in high position, a man now advanced in age and of noble presence, was being forced to open his mouth to eat swine's flesh.' 6.19. But he, welcoming death with honor rather than life with pollution, went up to the the rack of his own accord, spitting out the flesh,' 6.20. as men ought to go who have the courage to refuse things that it is not right to taste, even for the natural love of life.' 6.21. Those who were in charge of that unlawful sacrifice took the man aside, because of their long acquaintance with him, and privately urged him to bring meat of his own providing, proper for him to use, and pretend that he was eating the flesh of the sacrificial meal which had been commanded by the king,' 6.22. o that by doing this he might be saved from death, and be treated kindly on account of his old friendship with them.' 6.23. But making a high resolve, worthy of his years and the dignity of his old age and the gray hairs which he had reached with distinction and his excellent life even from childhood, and moreover according to the holy God-given law, he declared himself quickly, telling them to send him to Hades.' 6.24. Such pretense is not worthy of our time of life, he said, 'lest many of the young should suppose that Eleazar in his ninetieth year has gone over to an alien religion,' 6.25. and through my pretense, for the sake of living a brief moment longer, they should be led astray because of me, while I defile and disgrace my old age.' 6.26. For even if for the present I should avoid the punishment of men, yet whether I live or die I shall not escape the hands of the Almighty.' 6.27. Therefore, by manfully giving up my life now, I will show myself worthy of my old age' 6.28. and leave to the young a noble example of how to die a good death willingly and nobly for the revered and holy laws.'When he had said this, he went at once to the rack.' 6.29. And those who a little before had acted toward him with good will now changed to ill will, because the words he had uttered were in their opinion sheer madness.' 6.30. When he was about to die under the blows, he groaned aloud and said: 'It is clear to the Lord in his holy knowledge that, though I might have been saved from death, I am enduring terrible sufferings in my body under this beating, but in my soul I am glad to suffer these things because I fear him.' 6.31. So in this way he died, leaving in his death an example of nobility and a memorial of courage, not only to the young but to the great body of his nation.'
25. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 44.16 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

44.16. Enoch pleased the Lord, and was taken up;he was an example of repentance to all generations.
26. Septuagint, Wisdom of Solomon, 4.13 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

4.13. Being perfected in a short time, he fulfilled long years;
27. Philo of Alexandria, On The Life of Moses, 2.256 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)

2.256. For this mercy Moses very naturally honoured his Benefactor with hymns of gratitude. For having divided the host into two choruses, one of men and one of women, he himself became the leader of that of the men, and appointed his sister to be the chief of that of the women, that they might sing hymns to their father and Creator, joining in harmonies responsive to one another, by a combination of dispositions and melody, the former being eager to offer the same requital for the mercies which they had received, and the latter consisting of a symphony of the deep male with the high female voices, for the tones of men are deep and those of women are high; and when there is a perfect and harmonious combination of the two a most delightful and thoroughly harmonious melody is effected.
28. Philo of Alexandria, Allegorical Interpretation, 3.79-3.82 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)

29. Anon., Epistle of Barnabas, 9 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

30. Ignatius, To The Romans, 3, 5, 7, 1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

31. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 1.85, 4.326, 9.28, 15.136 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.85. He lived nine hundred and sixty-two years; and then his son Enoch succeeded him, who was born when his father was one hundred and sixty-two years old. Now he, when he had lived three hundred and sixty-five years, departed and went to God; whence it is that they have not written down his death. 4.326. and as he was going to embrace Eleazar and Joshua, and was still discoursing with them, a cloud stood over him on the sudden, and he disappeared in a certain valley, although he wrote in the holy books that he died, which was done out of fear, lest they should venture to say that, because of his extraordinary virtue, he went to God. 9.28. Now at this time it was that Elijah disappeared from among men, and no one knows of his death to this very day; but he left behind him his disciple Elisha, as we have formerly declared. And indeed, as to Elijah, and as to Enoch, who was before the deluge, it is written in the sacred books that they disappeared, but so that nobody knew that they died. 9.28. So the ten tribes of the Israelites were removed out of Judea nine hundred and forty-seven years after their forefathers were come out of the land of Egypt, and possessed themselves of the country, but eight hundred years after Joshua had been their leader, and, as I have already observed, two hundred and forty years, seven months, and seven days after they had revolted from Rehoboam, the grandson of David, and had given the kingdom to Jeroboam. 15.136. for these Arabians have done what both the Greeks and barbarians own to be an instance of the grossest wickedness, with regard to our ambassadors, which they have beheaded, while the Greeks declare that such ambassadors are sacred and inviolable. And for ourselves, we have learned from God the most excellent of our doctrines, and the most holy part of our law, by angels or ambassadors; for this name brings God to the knowledge of mankind, and is sufficient to reconcile enemies one to another.
32. Mishnah, Arakhin, 2.6 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

2.6. There were never less than twelve levites standing on the platform and their number could be increased into infinity. No minor could enter the court of the sanctuary to take part in the service except when the Levites stood up to sing. Nor did they join in the singing with harp and lyre, but with the mouth alone, to add flavor to the music. Rabbi Eliezer ben Jacob said: they did not count in the required number, nor did they stand on the platform. Rather they would stand on the ground, so that their heads were between the feet of the levites. And they were called the youth of the Levites."
33. Mishnah, Avot, 1.1, 1.16, 2.5, 2.9, 3.8-3.10 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

1.1. Moses received the torah at Sinai and transmitted it to Joshua, Joshua to the elders, and the elders to the prophets, and the prophets to the Men of the Great Assembly. They said three things: Be patient in [the administration of] justice, raise many disciples and make a fence round the Torah." 1.16. Rabban Gamaliel used to say: appoint for thyself a teacher, avoid doubt, and do not make a habit of tithing by guesswork." 2.5. He used to say: A brute is not sin-fearing, nor is an ignorant person pious; nor can a timid person learn, nor can an impatient person teach; nor will someone who engages too much in business become wise. In a place where there are no men, strive to be a man." 2.9. He [Rabban Yoha] said unto them: go forth and observe which is the right way to which a man should cleave? Rabbi Eliezer said, a good eye; Rabbi Joshua said, a good companion; Rabbi Yose said, a good neighbor; Rabbi Shimon said, foresight. Rabbi Elazar said, a good heart. He [Rabban Yoha] said to them: I prefer the words of Elazar ben Arach, for in his words your words are included. He [Rabban Yoha] said unto them: go forth and observe which is the evil way which a man should shun? Rabbi Eliezer said, an evil eye; Rabbi Joshua said, an evil companion; Rabbi Yose said, an evil neighbor; Rabbi Shimon said, one who borrows and does not repay for he that borrows from man is as one who borrows from God, blessed be He, as it is said, “the wicked borrow and do not repay, but the righteous deal graciously and give” (Psalms 37:21). Rabbi Elazar said, an evil heart. He [Rabban Yoha] said to them: I prefer the words of Elazar ben Arach, for in his words your words are included." 3.8. Rabbi Dostai ben Rabbi Yannai said in the name of Rabbi Meir: whoever forgets one word of his study, scripture accounts it to him as if he were mortally guilty, as it is said, “But take utmost care and watch yourselves scrupulously, so that you do not forget the things that you saw with your own eyes” (Deuteronomy 4:9). One could [have inferred that this is the case] even when his study proved [too] hard for him, therefore scripture says, “that they do not fade from your mind as long as you live” (ibid.). Thus, he is not mortally guilty unless he deliberately removes them from his heart." 3.9. Rabbi Hanina ben Dosa said: anyone whose fear of sin precedes his wisdom, his wisdom is enduring, but anyone whose wisdom precedes his fear of sin, his wisdom is not enduring. He [also] used to say: anyone whose deeds exceed his wisdom, his wisdom is enduring, but anyone whose wisdom exceeds his deeds, his wisdom is not enduring." 3.10. He used to say: one with whom men are pleased, God is pleased. But anyone from whom men are displeased, God is displeased. Rabbi Dosa ben Harkinas said: morning sleep, midday wine, children’s talk and sitting in the assemblies of the ignorant put a man out of the world."
34. Mishnah, Berachot, 1.3, 5.1 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

1.3. Bet Shammai say: in the evening every man should recline and recite [the Shema], and in the morning he should stand, as it says, “And when you lie down and when you get up” (Deuteronomy 6:7). Bet Hillel say that every man should recite in his own way, as it says, “And when you walk by the way” (ibid). Why then is it said, “And when you lies down and when you get up?” At the time when people lie down and at the time when people rise up. Rabbi Tarfon said: I was once walking by the way and I reclined to recite the Shema according to the words of Bet Shammai, and I incurred danger from robbers. They said to him: you deserved to come to harm, because you acted against the words of Bet Hillel." 5.1. One should not stand up to say Tefillah except in a reverent state of mind. The pious men of old used to wait an hour before praying in order that they might direct their thoughts to God. Even if a king greets him [while praying] he should not answer him: even if a snake is wound round his heel he should not stop."
35. Mishnah, Eduyot, 5.6 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

5.6. Akavia ben Mahalalel testified concerning four things. They said to him: Akavia, retract these four things which you say, and we will make you the head of the court in Israel. He said to them: it is better for me to be called a fool all my days than that I should become [even] for one hour a wicked man before God; So they shouldn’t say: “he withdrew his opinions for the sake of power.” He used to pronounce impure the hair which has been left over [in leprosy], And green (yellow) blood (of vaginal discharge); But the Sages declared them clean. He used to permit the wool of a first-born animal which was blemished and which had fallen out and had been put in a niche, the first-born being slaughtered afterwards; But the sages forbid it. He used to say: a woman proselyte and a freed slave-woman are not made to drink of the bitter waters. But the Sages say: they are made to drink. They said to him: it happened in the case of Karkemith, a freed slave-woman who was in Jerusalem, that Shemaiah and Avtalion made her drink. He said to them: they made her drink an example (and not the real water). Whereupon they excommunicated him; and he died while he was under excommunication, and the court stoned his coffin. Rabbi Judah said: God forbid [that one should say] that Akavia was excommunicated; for the courtyard is never locked for any man in Israel who was equal to Avavia ben Mahalalel in wisdom and the fear of sin. But whom did they excommunicate? Eliezer the son of Hanoch who cast doubt against the laws concerning the purifying of the hands. And when he died the court sent and laid a stone on his coffin. This teaches that whoever is excommunicated and dies while under excommunication, his coffin is stoned."
36. Mishnah, Gittin, 8.5 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

8.5. If the get was dated by an unfit kingship, by the empire of Medea, by the empire of Greece, by the building of the Temple or by the destruction of the Temple, Or if being in the east he wrote “in the west”, or being in the west he wrote “in the east”, She must leave this one and that one, and she also requires a get from this one and that one. She has no ketubah, no usufruct, no support money or worn clothes, neither from this one nor from that one. If she has taken anything from this one or that one, she must return it. The child from this one or that one is a mamzer. Neither this one nor that one may impurify himself for her. Neither this one and that one has a claim to whatever she may find, nor what she makes with her hands, nor to invalidate her vows. If she was the daughter of an Israelite, she becomes disqualified from marrying a priest; if the daughter of a Levite, from the eating of tithe; and if the daughter of a priest, from the eating of terumah. Neither the heirs of this one nor the heirs of that one are entitled to inherit her ketubah. And if [the husbands] die, the brother of the one and the brother of the other must perform halitzah, but may not contract yibbum. If his name or her name or the name of his town or the name of her town was wrongly given, she must leave both husbands and all the above consequences apply to her."
37. Mishnah, Hagigah, 2.2 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

2.2. Yose ben Yoezer says that [on a festival] the laying of the hands [on the head of a sacrifice] may not be performed. Yosef ben Joha says that it may be performed. Joshua ben Perahia says that it may not be performed. Nittai the Arbelite says that it may be performed. Judah ben Tabai says that it may not be performed. Shimon ben Shetah says that it may be performed. Shamayah says that it may be performed. Avtalyon says that it may not be performed. Hillel and Menahem did not dispute. Menahem went out, Shammai entered. Shammai says that it may not be performed. Hillel says that it may be performed. The former [of each] pair were patriarchs and the latter were heads of the court."
38. Mishnah, Hulin, 2.9 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

2.9. One may not slaughter [so that the blood runs] into the sea or into rivers, or into vessels, But one may slaughter into a pool (or vessel) of water. And when on board a ship on to vessels. One may not slaughter at all into a hole, but one may dig a hole in his own house for the blood to run into. In the street, however, he should not do so as not to follow the ways of the heretics."
39. Mishnah, Kelim, 28.8 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

28.8. Poor men's clothes, though made up of pieces none of which is three [fingerbreadths] square are susceptible to midras uncleanness. If a cloak began to be torn, as soon as its greater part is torn [the pieces] are not regarded as connected. Exceptionally thick or thin materials are not governed by the prescribed minimum of three [fingerbreadths] square."
40. Mishnah, Maaser Sheni, 5.15 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

5.15. Yoha the high priest stopped [the recitation] of the confession of the tithes. He also abolished the “wakers” and the “strikers.” Until his days the hammer used to beat in Jerusalem. And in his days one did not have to ask about demai."
41. Mishnah, Maasrot, 1.1, 1.5-1.8 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

1.1. They said a general principle concerning tithes: whatever is food, and is looked after, and grows from the land, is liable for tithes. And they have further stated another general principle [concerning tithes]: whatever is considered food both at the beginning and at the conclusion [of its growth] even though he holds on to it in order to increase the quantity of food, is liable [to tithe] whether [it is harvested] in its earlier or later stages. But whatever is not considered food in the earlier stages [of its growth] but only in its later stages, is not liable [to tithe] until it can be considered food." 1.5. What is considered a “threshing floor” for tithes [i.e. when does produce become liable for tithes]?Cucumbers and gourds [are liable for tithes] once he removes their fuzz. And if he doesn’t remove it, once he makes a pile. Melons once he removes the fuzz with hot water. And if they he does not remove the fuzz, once he stores them in the muktzeh. Vegetables which are tied in bundles, from the time he ties them up in bundles. If he does not tie them up in bundles, until he fills the vessel with them. And if he does not fill the vessel, after he has gathered all that he wishes to gather. [Produce which is packed in] a basket [is liable for tithes] after he has covered it. If he is not going to cover it, until he fills the vessel with them. And if he does not fill the vessel, after he has gathered all that he wishes to gather. When does this apply? When one brings [the produce] to the market. But when he brings it to his own house, he may make a chance meal of it, until he reaches his house." 1.6. Dried pomegranate seeds, raisins and carobs, [are liable for tithes] after he has made a pile. Onions, once he removes the onion seeds. If he does not remove the onion seeds, after he makes a pile. Grain, once he smoothes out the pile. If he does not smooth the pile, after he makes a pile. Pulse, after he has sifted it. If he does not sift, after he smoothes out a pile. Even after he has smoothed out the pile, he may [without tithing] take from the broken ears, from the sides of the piles, and from that which is mixed in with the chaff, and eat." 1.7. Wine [is liable for tithes] after it has been skimmed [in the lower part of the winepress]. Even though it has been skimmed, he may take from the upper winepress, or from the duct, and drink [without taking out tithe]. Oil [is liable for tithes] after it has gone down into the trough. But even after it has gone down into the trough he may still take oil from the pressing bale, or from the press beam, or from the boards between the press [without tithing,] And he may put such oil on a cake, or large plate. But he should not put the oil in a dish or stewpot, while they are boiling. Rabbi Judah says: he may put it into anything except that which contains vinegar or brine." 1.8. A cake of pressed figs [is liable for tithes] from the moment it has been smoothed out [with fruit juice]. They may smooth them out with [the juice of] untithed figs or grapes. Rabbi Judah forbids this. If one smoothed with grapes, it is not susceptible to uncleanness. Rabbi Judah says it is susceptible. Dried figs [are liable to tithe] after they have been pressed [into a jar]. And [figs] stored in a bin [are liable to tithe] after they have been pressed. If one was pressing [the figs] into a jar, or pressing them in a storage bin, and the jar was broken or the storage bin opened, he may not make a chance meal of them. Rabbi Yose permits this."
42. Mishnah, Megillah, 4.6 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

4.6. A child may read in the Torah and translate, but he may not pass before the ark or lift up his hands. A person in rags may lead the responsive reading of the Shema and translate, but he may not read in the Torah, pass before the ark, or lift up his hands. A blind man may lead the responsive reading of the Shema and translate. Rabbi Judah says: one who has never seen the light from his birth may not lead the responsive reading of the Shema."
43. Mishnah, Middot, 2.5 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

2.5. The courtyard of the women was a hundred and thirty-five cubits long by a hundred and thirty-five wide. It had four chambers in its four corners, each of which was forty cubits. They were not roofed, and so they will be in the time to come, as it says, “Then he brought me forth into the outer court, and caused me to pass by the four corners of the court, and behold in every corner of the court there was a court. In the four corners of the court there were keturot courts” (Ezekiel 46:21-22) and keturot means that they were not roofed. For what were they used? The southeastern one was the chamber of the Nazirites where the Nazirites used to boil their shelamim and shave their hair and throw it under the pot. The northeastern one was the wood chamber where priests with physical defects used to pick out the wood which had worms, every piece with a worm in it being unfit for use on the altar. The northwestern one was the chamber of those with skin disease. The southwestern one: Rabbi Eliezer ben Jacob said: I forget what it was used for. Abba Shaul says: they used to store there wine and oil, and it was called the chamber of oil. It [the courtyard of the women] had originally been smooth [without protrusions in the walls] but subsequently they surrounded it with a balcony so that the women could look on from above while the men were below, and they should not mix together. Fifteen steps led up from it to the courtyard of Israel, corresponding to the fifteen [songs of] ascents mentioned in the Book of Psalms, and upon which the Levites used to sing. They were not rectangular but circular like the half of a threshing floor."
44. Mishnah, Parah, 3.5 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

3.5. If they did not find the residue of the ashes of the seven [red cows] they performed the sprinkling with those of six, of five, of four, of three, of two or of one. And who prepared these? Moses prepared the first, Ezra prepared the second, and five were prepared from the time of Ezra, the words of Rabbi Meir. But the sages say: seven from the time of Ezra. And who prepared them? Shimon the Just and Yoha the high priest prepared two; Elihoenai the son of Ha-Kof and Hanamel the Egyptian and Ishmael the son of Piabi prepared one each."
45. Mishnah, Pesahim, 10 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

46. Mishnah, Sanhedrin, 11.3 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

11.3. There is greater stringency in respect to the teachings of the scribes than in respect to the torah: [thus,] if [a rebellious elder] says, there is no commandment of tefillin, so that a biblical law may be transgressed, he is exempt. [But if he rules that the tefillin must contain] five compartments, thus adding to the words of the scribes, he is liable."
47. Mishnah, Shabbat, 19.2, 21.2 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

19.2. They may perform all the necessities of circumcision on Shabbat: circumcising, uncovering [the corona], sucking [the wound], and placing a compress and cumin upon [the wound]. If one did not grind [the cumin] on the eve of Shabbat, he may chew [it] with his teeth and apply [it to the wound]. If he did not beat up wine and oil on the eve of Shabbat, he should apply each separately. They may not make a cloak for it in the first place, but he may wrap a rag about it. If this was not prepared from the eve of Shabbat, he may wind it about his finger and bring it, and even from another courtyard." 21.2. If a stone is on the mouth of a cask [of wine], one tilts it to its side and it falls off. If it [the cask] is [standing] among [other] casks, he lifts it up, tilts it on its side, and it falls off. If money is lying on a cushion, one shakes the cushion, and it falls off. If snot is on it, one wipes it off with a rag; If it is on leather, one pours water over it until it disappears."
48. Mishnah, Sotah, 9.10, 9.15 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

9.10. Yoha the high priest brought to an end the confession made at the presentation of the tithe. He also discontinued the wakers and the knockers Up to his days the hammer used to strike in Jerusalem, And in his days there was no need to inquire about doubtfully tithed produce." 9.15. When Rabbi Meir died, the composers of fables ceased. When Ben Azzai died, the diligent students [of Torah] ceased. When Ben Zoma died, the expounders ceased. When Rabbi Joshua died, goodness ceased from the world. When Rabban Shimon ben Gamaliel died, locusts come and troubles multiplied. When Rabbi Elazar ben Azaryah died, the sages ceased to be wealthy. When Rabbi Akiba died, the glory of the Torah ceased. When Rabbi Hanina ben Dosa died, men of wondrous deeds ceased. When Rabbi Yose Katnuta died, the pious men (hasidim) ceased and why was his name called Katnuta? Because he was the youngest of the pious men. When Rabban Yoha ben Zakkai died, the splendor of wisdom ceased. When Rabban Gamaliel the elder died, the glory of the torah ceased, and purity and separateness perished. When Rabbi Ishmael ben Fabi died, the splendor of the priesthood ceased. When Rabbi died, humility and fear of sin ceased. Rabbi Phineas ben Yair says: when Temple was destroyed, scholars and freemen were ashamed and covered their head, men of wondrous deeds were disregarded, and violent men and big talkers grew powerful. And nobody expounds, nobody seeks, and nobody asks. Upon whom shall we depend? Upon our father who is in heaven. Rabbi Eliezer the Great says: from the day the Temple was destroyed, the sages began to be like scribes, scribes like synagogue-attendants, synagogue-attendants like common people, and the common people became more and more debased. And nobody seeks. Upon whom shall we depend? Upon our father who is in heaven. In the footsteps of the messiah insolence (hutzpah) will increase and the cost of living will go up greatly; the vine will yield its fruit, but wine will be expensive; the government will turn to heresy, and there will be no one to rebuke; the meeting-place [of scholars] will be used for licentiousness; the Galilee will be destroyed, the Gablan will be desolated, and the dwellers on the frontier will go about [begging] from place to place without anyone to take pity on them; the wisdom of the learned will rot, fearers of sin will be despised, and the truth will be lacking; youths will put old men to shame, the old will stand up in the presence of the young, “For son spurns father, daughter rises up against mother, daughter-in-law against mother-in-law a man’s own household are his enemies” (Micah 7:6). The face of the generation will be like the face of a dog, a son will not feel ashamed before his father. Upon whom shall we depend? Upon our father who is in heaven. Rabbi Pinchas ben Yair says, “Heedfulness leads to cleanliness, cleanliness leads to purity, purity leads to separation, separation leads to holiness, holiness leads to modesty, modesty leads to fear of sin, fear of sin leads to piety, piety leads to the Holy Spirit, The Holy Spirit leads to the resurrection of the dead, and the resurrection of the dead comes from Elijah, blessed be his memory, Amen.”"
49. Mishnah, Sukkah, 5.1-5.4 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

5.1. The flute was for five or six days. This refers to the flute at the Bet Hashoevah [the place of the water-drawing] which does not override Shabbat or the festival day. They said: he who has not seen the Simchat Bet Hashoevah has never seen rejoicing in his life." 5.2. At the conclusion of the first festival day of Sukkot they descended to the Women’s Court (Ezrat Nashim) and they would make there a great enactment. And golden candlesticks were there, and four golden bowls on the top of each of them and four ladders to each, and four youths drawn from the young priests, and in their hands there were jars of oil containing one hundred and twenty logs which they poured into the bowls." 5.3. From the worn-out pants and belts of the priests they made wicks and with them they kindled the lamps. And there was not a courtyard in Jerusalem that was not illuminated by the light of the Bet Hashoevah." 5.4. Men of piety and good deeds used to dance before them with lighted torches in their hands, and they would sing songs and praises. And Levites with innumerable harps, lyres, cymbals and trumpets and other musical instruments stood upon the fifteen steps leading down from the Court of the Israelites to the Court of the Women, corresponding to the fifteen songs of ascents in the Psalms, and it was on these [steps] that the Levites stood with their musical instruments and sang their songs. Two priests stood by the upper gate which leads down from the Court of the Israelites to the Court of the Women, with two trumpets in their hands. When the cock crowed they sounded a teki'ah [drawn-out blast], a teru'ah [staccato note] and again a teki'ah. When they reached the tenth step they sounded a teki'ah, a teru'ah and again a teki'ah. When they reached the Court [of the Women] they sounded a teki'ah, a teru'ah and again a teki'ah. They would sound their trumpets and proceed until they reached the gate which leads out to the east. When they reached the gate which leads out to the east, they turned their faces from east to west and said, “Our fathers who were in this place ‘their backs were toward the Temple of the Lord, and their faces toward the east, and they worshipped the sun toward the east’, but as for us, our eyes are turned to the Lord.” Rabbi Judah said: they used to repeat [the last words] and say “We are the Lord’s and our eyes are turned to the Lord.”"
50. Mishnah, Taanit, 1.7, 3.8 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

1.7. If these passed and there was [still] no answer then they restrict engaging in business, and in building, planting, betrothal and marriage, and in greeting one another, as if they were people undesirable to God. The individuals go back to fasting anew until the end of Nisan. If Nisan passes and then rain falls this is a sign of a curse, as it is written, “It is the season of the wheat harvest. [I will pray to the Lord and He will send thunder and rain; then you will take thought and realize what a wicked thing you did in the sight of the Lord when you asked for a king” (I Samuel 12:17)." 3.8. For every trouble that should not come upon the community they sound a blast except on account of too much rain. It happened that they said to Honi the circle drawer: “Pray for rain to fall.” He replied: “Go and bring in the pesah ovens so that they do not dissolve.” He prayed and no rain fell. What did he do? He drew a circle and stood within it and exclaimed before Him: “Master of the universe, Your children have turned their faces to me because I am like one who was born in Your house. I swear by Your great name that I will not move from here until You have mercy upon Your children.” Rain then began to drip, and he exclaimed: “I did not request this but rain [which can fill] cisterns, ditches and caves. The rain then began to come down with great force, and he exclaimed: “I did not request this but pleasing rain of blessing and abudance.” Rain then fell in the normal way until the Jews in Jerusalem had to go up Temple Mount because of the rain. They came and said to him: “In the same way that you prayed for [the rain] to fall pray [now] for the rain to stop.” He replied: “Go and see if the stone of people claiming lost objects has washed away.” Rabbi Shimon ben Shetah sent to him: “Were you not Honi I would have excommunicated you, but what can I do to you, for you are spoiled before God and he does your will like a son that is spoiled before his father and his father does his request. Concerning you it is written, “Let your father and your mother rejoice, and let she that bore you rejoice” (Proverbs 23:25)."
51. Mishnah, Tamid, 7.4 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

7.4. The following are the psalms that were chanted in the Temple.On the first day they used to say, “The earth is the Lord's and the fullness thereof, the world and they that dwell therein” (Psalms. On the second day they used to say: “Great is the Lord and highly to be praised, in the city of our God. His holy mountain” (Psalms. On the third day they used to say: “God stands in the congregation of God, in the midst of the judges he judges” (Psalms. On the fourth day they used to say: “O Lord, God to whom vengeance belongs. God to whom vengeance belongs, shine forth” (Psalms. On the fifth day they used to say: “Sing aloud unto God our strength, shout unto the God of Jacob” (Psalms. On the sixth day they used to say: “The lord reigns, he is clothed in majesty, the Lord is clothed, He has girded himself with strength” (Psalms. On Shabbat they used to say: “A psalm, a song for the Sabbath day” (Psalms. A psalm, a song for the time to come, for the day that will be all Shabbat and rest for everlasting life. Congratulations! We have finished Tractate Tamid! It is a tradition at this point to thank God for helping us finish learning the tractate and to commit ourselves to going back and relearning it, so that we may not forget it and so that its lessons will stay with us for all of our lives. Tamid may have been one of the more unusual tractates that we have ever learned. Instead of disputes between sages, heaps of logic and laws, we get an intricate description of the Temple service. Indeed, although the language is clearly rabbinic Hebrew, its descriptive style is more characteristic of the Bible than of rabbinic literature. It is likely that these descriptions, or at least parts thereof, come from Temple times. They were preserved because the rabbis fervently hoped that the Temple would be rebuilt during their own lifetimes. While we may or may not share in this wish, I think we can all appreciate the respect in which they held this ceremony. Despite the fact that it was performed each and every day, twice every day, they don’t seem to have lost their sense of wonder at the intimate connection that they received with God through the sacrificial process. I hope you have enjoyed Tamid. Tomorrow we begin Tractate Middot (the last tractate in Seder Kodashim!)."
52. Mishnah, Yevamot, 10.1 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

10.1. A woman whose husband had gone to a country beyond the sea and they came and told her, “Your husband died”, married, and then her husband returned: She must leave this one and that one, and she also requires a get from this one and that one. She has no ketubah, no usufruct, no support money or worn clothes, neither from this one nor from that one. If she has taken anything from this one or that one, she must return it. The child from this one or that one is a mamzer. Neither this one nor that one may impurify himself for her. Neither this one and that one has a claim to whatever she may find, nor what she makes with her hands, nor to invalidate her vows. If she was the daughter of an Israelite, she becomes disqualified from marrying a priest; if the daughter of a Levite, from the eating of tithe; and if the daughter of a priest, from the eating of terumah. Neither the heirs of this one nor the heirs of that one are entitled to inherit her ketubah. And if [the husbands] die, the brother of the one and the brother of the other must perform halitzah, but may not contract yibbum. Rabbi Yose said: her ketubah remains a charge upon the estate of her first husband. Rabbi Elazar said: the first husband is entitled to whatever she may find, and what she makes with her hands, and also has the right to invalidate her vows. Rabbi Shimon said: intercourse or halitzah with the brother of the first husband exempts her rival, and the child from him is not a bastard. If she married without an authorization, she may return to him."
53. Mishnah, Shekalim, 5.1 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

5.1. These were the officers in the Temple:Yoha the son of Pinchas was over the seals. Ahiyah over the libations. Mattityah the son of Shmuel over the lots. Petahiah over the bird-offering. (Petahiah was Mordecai. Why was his name called Petahiah? Because he ‘opened’ matters and expounded them, and he understood the seventy tongues). The son of Ahijah over the sickness of the bowels. Nehuniah, the digger of ditches. Gevini, the crier. The son of Gever over the locking of the gates. The son of Bevai over the strips [for lighting the menorah]. The son of Arza over the cymbal. Hugras the son of Levi over the song. The house of Garmu over the making of the showbread. The house of Avtinas over the preparing of the frankincense. Elazar over the curtains. And Pinchas over the priestly vestments."
54. Mishnah, Yadayim, 4.6 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

4.6. The Sadducees say: we complain against you, Pharisees, because you say that the Holy Scriptures defile the hands, but the books of Homer do not defile the hands. Rabban Yoha ben Zakkai said: Have we nothing against the Pharisees but this? Behold they say that the bones of a donkey are clean, yet the bones of Yoha the high priest are unclean. They said to him: according to the affection for them, so is their impurity, so that nobody should make spoons out of the bones of his father or mother. He said to them: so also are the Holy Scriptures according to the affection for them, so is their uncleanness. The books of Homer which are not precious do not defile the hands."
55. New Testament, 1 Peter, 2.15, 5.13 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.15. For this is the will of God, that by well-doing you should put to silence the ignorance of foolish men: 5.13. She who is in Babylon, elect together with you, greets you; and so does Mark, my son.
56. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 2.8 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.8. which none of the rulers of this worldhas known. For had they known it, they wouldn't have crucified the Lordof glory.
57. New Testament, 2 Peter, 3.13 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.13. But, according to his promise, we look for new heavens and a new earth, in which dwells righteousness.
58. New Testament, 2 Timothy, 3.6-3.7 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.6. For of these are those who creep into houses, and take captive gullible women loaded down with sins, led away by various lusts 3.7. always learning, and never able to come to the knowledge of the truth.
59. New Testament, Acts, 1.23, 3.1-3.9, 4.19, 7.27, 10.9-10.16, 13.1, 13.9, 21.9 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

1.23. They put forward two, Joseph called Barsabbas, who was surnamed Justus, and Matthias. 3.1. Peter and John were going up into the temple at the hour of prayer, the ninth hour. 3.2. A certain man who was lame from his mother's womb was being carried, whom they laid daily at the door of the temple which is called Beautiful, to ask gifts for the needy of those who entered into the temple. 3.3. Seeing Peter and John about to go into the temple, he asked to receive gifts for the needy. 3.4. Peter, fastening his eyes on him, with John, said, "Look at us. 3.5. He listened to them, expecting to receive something from them. 3.6. But Peter said, "Silver and gold have I none, but what I have, that I give you. In the name of Jesus Christ of Nazareth, rise and walk! 3.7. He took him by the right hand, and raised him up. Immediately his feet and his ankle bones received strength. 3.8. Leaping up, he stood, and began to walk. He entered with them into the temple, walking, leaping, and praising God. 3.9. All the people saw him walking and praising God. 4.19. But Peter and John answered them, "Whether it is right in the sight of God to listen to you rather than to God, judge for yourselves 7.27. But he who did his neighbor wrong pushed him away, saying, 'Who made you a ruler and a judge over us? 10.9. Now on the next day as they were on their journey, and got close to the city, Peter went up on the housetop to pray at about noon. 10.10. He became hungry and desired to eat, but while they were preparing, he fell into a trance. 10.11. He saw heaven opened and a certain container descending to him, like a great sheet let down by four corners on the earth 10.12. in which were all kinds of four-footed animals of the earth, wild animals, reptiles, and birds of the sky. 10.13. A voice came to him, "Rise, Peter, kill and eat! 10.14. But Peter said, "Not so, Lord; for I have never eaten anything that is common or unclean. 10.15. A voice came to him again the second time, "What God has cleansed, you must not make unholy. 10.16. This was done three times, and immediately the vessel was received up into heaven. 13.1. Now in the assembly that was at Antioch there were some prophets and teachers: Barnabas, Simeon who was called Niger, Lucius of Cyrene, Manaen the foster-brother of Herod the tetrarch, and Saul. 13.9. But Saul, who is also called Paul, filled with the Holy Spirit, fastened his eyes on him 21.9. Now this man had four virgin daughters who prophesied.
60. New Testament, Apocalypse, 14.8, 16.19, 18.2, 21.1 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

14.8. Another, a second angel, followed, saying, "Babylon the great has fallen, which has made all the nations to drink of the wine of the wrath of her sexual immorality. 16.19. The great city was divided into three parts, and the cities of the nations fell. Babylon the great was remembered in the sight of God, to give to her the cup of the wine of the fierceness of his wrath. 18.2. He cried with a mighty voice, saying, "Fallen, fallen is Babylon the great, and has become a habitation of demons, and a prison of every unclean spirit, and a prison of every unclean and hateful bird! 21.1. I saw a new heaven and a new earth: for the first heaven and the first earth have passed away, and the sea is no more.
61. New Testament, Galatians, 3.28 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.28. There is neither Jewnor Greek, there is neither slave nor free man, there is neither malenor female; for you are all one in Christ Jesus.
62. New Testament, Hebrews, 7.3, 11.5-11.6 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

7.3. without father, without mother, without genealogy, having neither beginning of days nor end of life, but made like the Son of God), remains a priest continually. 11.5. By faith, Enoch was taken away, so that he wouldn't see death, and he was not found, because God translated him. For he has had testimony given to him that before his translation he had been well pleasing to God. 11.6. Without faith it is impossible to be well pleasing to him, for he who comes to God must believe that he exists, and that he is a rewarder of those who seek him.
63. New Testament, John, 3.13, 4.27, 7.48, 20.22 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.13. No one has ascended into heaven, but he who descended out of heaven, the Son of Man, who is in heaven. 4.27. At this, his disciples came. They marveled that he was speaking with a woman; yet no one said, "What are you looking for?" or, "Why do you speak with her? 7.48. Have any of the rulers believed in him, or of the Pharisees? 20.22. When he had said this, he breathed on them, and said to them, "Receive the Holy Spirit!
64. New Testament, Luke, 5.12-5.14, 7.11-7.15, 9.28-9.36, 12.11, 16.19-16.20, 22.32 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

5.12. It happened, while he was in one of the cities, behold, there was a man full of leprosy. When he saw Jesus, he fell on his face, and begged him, saying, "Lord, if you want to, you can make me clean. 5.13. He stretched out his hand, and touched him, saying, "I want to. Be made clean."Immediately the leprosy left him. 5.14. He charged him to "Tell no one, but go your way, and show yourself to the priest, and offer for your cleansing according to what Moses commanded, for a testimony to them. 7.11. It happened soon afterwards, that he went to a city called Nain. Many of his disciples, along with a great multitude, went with him. 7.12. Now when he drew near to the gate of the city, behold, one who was dead was carried out, the only son of his mother, and she was a widow. Many people of the city were with her. 7.13. When the Lord saw her, he had compassion on her, and said to her, "Don't cry. 7.14. He came near and touched the coffin, and the bearers stood still. He said, "Young man, I tell you, arise! 7.15. He who was dead sat up, and began to speak. And he gave him to his mother. 9.28. It happened about eight days after these sayings, that he took with him Peter, John, and James, and went up onto the mountain to pray. 9.29. As he was praying, the appearance of his face was altered, and his clothing became white and dazzling. 9.30. Behold, two men were talking with him, who were Moses and Elijah 9.31. who appeared in glory, and spoke of his departure, which he was about to accomplish at Jerusalem. 9.32. Now Peter and those who were with him were heavy with sleep, but when they were fully awake, they saw his glory, and the two men who stood with him. 9.33. It happened, as they were parting from him, that Peter said to Jesus, "Master, it is good for us to be here. Let's make three tents: one for you, and one for Moses, and one for Elijah," not knowing what he said. 9.34. While he said these things, a cloud came and overshadowed them, and they were afraid as they entered into the cloud. 9.35. A voice came out of the cloud, saying, "This is my beloved Son. Listen to him! 9.36. When the voice came, Jesus was found alone. They were silent, and told no one in those days any of the things which they had seen. 12.11. When they bring you before the synagogues, the rulers, and the authorities, don't be anxious how or what you will answer, or what you will say; 16.19. Now there was a certain rich man, and he was clothed in purple and fine linen, living in luxury every day. 16.20. A certain beggar, named Lazarus, was laid at his gate, full of sores 22.32. but I prayed for you, that your faith wouldn't fail. You, when once you have turned again, establish your brothers.
65. New Testament, Mark, 4.35-4.41, 6.30-6.44, 7.24-7.30, 8.27-8.34, 9.2-9.13, 10.42 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4.35. On that day, when evening had come, he said to them, "Let's go over to the other side. 4.36. Leaving the multitude, they took him with them, even as he was, in the boat. Other small boats were also with him. 4.37. There arose a great wind storm, and the waves beat into the boat, so much that the boat was already filled. 4.38. He himself was in the stern, asleep on the cushion, and they woke him up, and told him, "Teacher, don't you care that we are dying? 4.39. He awoke, and rebuked the wind, and said to the sea, "Peace! Be still!" The wind ceased, and there was a great calm. 4.40. He said to them, "Why are you so afraid? How is it that you have no faith? 4.41. They were greatly afraid, and said to one another, "Who then is this, that even the wind and the sea obey him? 6.30. The apostles gathered themselves together to Jesus, and they told him all things, whatever they had done, and whatever they had taught. 6.31. He said to them, "You come apart into a deserted place, and rest awhile." For there were many coming and going, and they had no leisure so much as to eat. 6.32. They went away in the boat to a desert place by themselves. 6.33. They saw them going, and many recognized him and ran there on foot from all the cities. They arrived before them and came together to him. 6.34. Jesus came out, saw a great multitude, and he had compassion on them, because they were like sheep without a shepherd, and he began to teach them many things. 6.35. When it was late in the day, his disciples came to him, and said, "This place is deserted, and it is late in the day. 6.36. Send them away, that they may go into the surrounding country and villages, and buy themselves bread, for they have nothing to eat. 6.37. But he answered them, "You give them something to eat."They asked him, "Shall we go and buy two hundred denarii worth of bread, and give them something to eat? 6.38. He said to them, "How many loaves do you have? Go see."When they knew, they said, "Five, and two fish. 6.39. He commanded them that everyone should sit down in groups on the green grass. 6.40. They sat down in ranks, by hundreds and by fifties. 6.41. He took the five loaves and the two fish, and looking up to heaven, he blessed and broke the loaves, and he gave to his disciples to set before them, and he divided the two fish among them all. 6.42. They all ate, and were filled. 6.43. They took up twelve baskets full of broken pieces and also of the fish. 6.44. Those who ate the loaves were five thousand men. 7.24. From there he arose, and went away into the borders of Tyre and Sidon. He entered into a house, and didn't want anyone to know it, but he couldn't escape notice. 7.25. For a woman, whose little daughter had an unclean spirit, having heard of him, came and fell down at his feet. 7.26. Now the woman was a Greek, a Syrophoenician by race. She begged him that he would cast the demon out of her daughter. 7.27. But Jesus said to her, "Let the children be filled first, for it is not appropriate to take the children's bread and throw it to the dogs. 7.28. But she answered him, "Yes, Lord. Yet even the dogs under the table eat the children's crumbs. 7.29. He said to her, "For this saying, go your way. The demon has gone out of your daughter. 7.30. She went away to her house, and found the child lying on the bed, with the demon gone out. 8.27. Jesus went out, with his disciples, into the villages of Caesarea Philippi. On the way he asked his disciples, "Who do men say that I am? 8.28. They told him, "John the Baptizer, and others say Elijah, but others: one of the prophets. 8.29. He said to them, "But who do you say that I am?"Peter answered, "You are the Christ. 8.30. He charged them that they should tell no one about him. 8.31. He began to teach them that the Son of Man must suffer many things, and be rejected by the elders, the chief priests, and the scribes, and be killed, and after three days rise again. 8.32. He spoke to them openly. Peter took him, and began to rebuke him. 8.33. But he, turning around, and seeing his disciples, rebuked Peter, and said, "Get behind me, Satan! For you have in mind not the things of God, but the things of men. 8.34. He called the multitude to himself with his disciples, and said to them, "Whoever wants to come after me, let him deny himself, and take up his cross, and follow me. 9.2. After six days Jesus took with him Peter, James, and John, and brought them up onto a high mountain privately by themselves, and he was changed into another form in front of them. 9.3. His clothing became glistening, exceedingly white, like snow, such as no launderer on earth can whiten them. 9.4. Elijah and Moses appeared to them, and they were talking with Jesus. 9.5. Peter answered Jesus, "Rabbi, it is good for us to be here. Let's make three tents: one for you, one for Moses, and one for Elijah. 9.6. For he didn't know what to say, for they were very afraid. 9.7. A cloud came, overshadowing them, and a voice came out of the cloud, "This is my beloved Son. Listen to him. 9.8. Suddenly looking around, they saw no one with them any more, except Jesus only. 9.9. As they were coming down from the mountain, he charged them that they should tell no one what things they had seen, until after the Son of Man had risen from the dead. 9.10. They kept the saying, questioning among themselves what the rising from the dead should mean. 9.11. They asked him, saying, "Why do the scribes say that Elijah must come first? 9.12. He said to them, "Elijah indeed comes first, and restores all things. How is it written about the Son of Man, that he should suffer many things and be despised? 9.13. But I tell you that Elijah has come, and they have also done to him whatever they wanted to, even as it is written about him. 10.42. Jesus summoned them, and said to them, "You know that they who are recognized as rulers over the Gentiles lord it over them, and their great ones exercise authority over them.
66. New Testament, Matthew, 4.19, 5.39, 8.1-8.3, 10.1-10.16, 13.29, 16.13-16.24, 17.1-17.13, 20.25, 23.2-23.12, 28.19 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4.19. He said to them, "Come after me, and I will make you fishers for men. 5.39. But I tell you, don't resist him who is evil; but whoever strikes you on your right cheek, turn to him the other also. 8.1. When he came down from the mountain, great multitudes followed him. 8.2. Behold, a leper came to him and worshiped him, saying, "Lord, if you want to, you can make me clean. 8.3. Jesus stretched out his hand, and touched him, saying, "I want to. Be made clean." Immediately his leprosy was cleansed. 10.1. He called to himself his twelve disciples, and gave them authority over unclean spirits, to cast them out, and to heal every disease and every sickness. 10.2. Now the names of the twelve apostles are these. The first, Simon, who is called Peter; Andrew, his brother; James the son of Zebedee; John, his brother; 10.3. Philip; Bartholomew; Thomas; Matthew the tax collector; James the son of Alphaeus; and Lebbaeus, whose surname was Thaddaeus; 10.4. Simon the Canaanite; and Judas Iscariot, who also betrayed him. 10.5. Jesus sent these twelve out, and charged them, saying, "Don't go among the Gentiles, and don't enter into any city of the Samaritans. 10.6. Rather, go to the lost sheep of the house of Israel. 10.7. As you go, preach, saying, 'The Kingdom of Heaven is at hand!' 10.8. Heal the sick, cleanse the lepers, and cast out demons. Freely you received, so freely give. 10.9. Don't take any gold, nor silver, nor brass in your money belts. 10.10. Take no bag for your journey, neither two coats, nor shoes, nor staff: for the laborer is worthy of his food. 10.11. Into whatever city or village you enter, find out who in it is worthy; and stay there until you go on. 10.12. As you enter into the household, greet it. 10.13. If the household is worthy, let your peace come on it, but if it isn't worthy, let your peace return to you. 10.14. Whoever doesn't receive you, nor hear your words, as you go out out of that house or that city, shake off the dust from your feet. 10.15. Most assuredly I tell you, it will be more tolerable for the land of Sodom and Gomorrah in the day of judgment than for that city. 10.16. Behold, I send you out as sheep in the midst of wolves. Therefore be wise as serpents, and harmless as doves. 13.29. But he said, 'No, lest perhaps while you gather up the darnel, you root up the wheat with them. 16.13. Now when Jesus came into the parts of Caesarea Philippi, he asked his disciples, saying, "Who do men say that I, the Son of Man, am? 16.14. They said, "Some say John the Baptizer, some, Elijah, and others, Jeremiah, or one of the prophets. 16.15. He said to them, "But who do you say that I am? 16.16. Simon Peter answered, "You are the Christ, the Son of the living God. 16.17. Jesus answered him, "Blessed are you, Simon Bar Jonah, for flesh and blood has not revealed this to you, but my Father who is in heaven. 16.18. I also tell you that you are Peter, and on this rock I will build my assembly, and the gates of Hades will not prevail against it. 16.19. I will give to you the keys of the Kingdom of Heaven, and whatever you bind on earth will be bound in heaven; and whatever you loose on earth will be loosed in heaven. 16.20. Then he charged the disciples that they should tell no one that he is Jesus the Christ. 16.21. From that time, Jesus began to show his disciples that he must go to Jerusalem and suffer many things from the elders, chief priests, and scribes, and be killed, and the third day be raised up. 16.22. Peter took him aside, and began to rebuke him, saying, "Far be it from you, Lord! This will never be done to you. 16.23. But he turned, and said to Peter, "Get behind me, Satan! You are a stumbling-block to me, for you are not setting your mind on the things of God, but on the things of men. 16.24. Then Jesus said to his disciples, "If anyone desires to come after me, let him deny himself, and take up his cross, and follow me. 17.1. After six days, Jesus took with him Peter, James, and John his brother, and brought them up into a high mountain by themselves. 17.2. He was transfigured before them. His face shone like the sun, and his garments became as white as the light. 17.3. Behold, Moses and Elijah appeared to them talking with him. 17.4. Peter answered, and said to Jesus, "Lord, it is good for us to be here. If you want, let's make three tents here: one for you, one for Moses, and one for Elijah. 17.5. While he was still speaking, behold, a bright cloud overshadowed them. Behold, a voice came out of the cloud, saying, "This is my beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased. Listen to him. 17.6. When the disciples heard it, they fell on their faces, and were very afraid. 17.7. Jesus came and touched them and said, "Get up, and don't be afraid. 17.8. Lifting up their eyes, they saw no one, except Jesus alone. 17.9. As they were coming down from the mountain, Jesus commanded them, saying, "Don't tell anyone what you saw, until the Son of Man has risen from the dead. 17.10. His disciples asked him, saying, "Then why do the scribes say that Elijah must come first? 17.11. Jesus answered them, "Elijah indeed comes first, and will restore all things 17.12. but I tell you that Elijah has come already, and they didn't recognize him, but did to him whatever they wanted to. Even so the Son of Man will also suffer by them. 17.13. Then the disciples understood that he spoke to them of John the Baptizer. 20.25. But Jesus summoned them, and said, "You know that the rulers of the Gentiles lord it over them, and their great ones exercise authority over them. 23.2. saying, "The scribes and the Pharisees sat on Moses' seat. 23.3. All things therefore whatever they tell you to observe, observe and do, but don't do their works; for they say, and don't do. 23.4. For they bind heavy burdens that are grievous to be borne, and lay them on men's shoulders; but they themselves will not lift a finger to help them. 23.5. But all their works they do to be seen by men. They make their phylacteries broad, enlarge the fringes of their garments 23.6. and love the place of honor at feasts, the best seats in the synagogues 23.7. the salutations in the marketplaces, and to be called 'Rabbi, Rabbi' by men. 23.8. But don't you be called 'Rabbi,' for one is your teacher, the Christ, and all of you are brothers. 23.9. Call no man on the earth your father, for one is your Father, he who is in heaven. 23.10. Neither be called masters, for one is your master, the Christ. 23.11. But he who is greatest among you will be your servant. 23.12. Whoever will exalt himself will be humbled, and whoever will humble himself will be exalted. 28.19. Go, and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit
67. Tosefta, Avodah Zarah, 3.13 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

68. Tosefta, Berachot, 3.20 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

3.20. [If a person] was standing and praying [Shemoneh Esreh] in a main road or on a plaza he may move [out of the way] for a donkey, or a donkey driver [who is walking behind a donkey], or a potter [who is selling pots], and he does not stop [his prayer of Shemoneh Esreh]. They said [a story] about Rebbi Chaninah Ben Dosa that [one day] he was standing and praying [Shemoneh Esreh]. [Suddenly] he was bitten by an Arod (snake), but he did not stop praying. [Later] his students went and found [the Arod] dead on top of [the opening to] his hole. They said, “Woe to the man who was bitten by an Arod, woe to an Arod who has bitten Ben Dosa.”"
69. Tosefta, Hagigah, 2.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

70. Tosefta, Hulin, 2.18, 2.24 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

71. Tosefta, Megillah, 3.27 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

72. Tosefta, Peah, 4.9 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

73. Tosefta, Sanhedrin, 2.6 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

74. Tosefta, Shabbat, 6 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

75. Tosefta, Taanit, 1.7 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

76. Anon., Genesis Rabba, 4.6, 6.5, 25.1, 43.6, 63.8 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

4.6. וַיַּעַשׂ אֱלֹהִים אֶת הָרָקִיעַ, זֶה אֶחָד מִן הַמִּקְרָאוֹת שֶׁהִרְעִישׁ בֶּן זוֹמָא אֶת הָעוֹלָם, וַיַּעַשׂ, אֶתְמְהָא, וַהֲלוֹא בְּמַאֲמָר הֵן, הֱוֵי (תהלים לג, ו): בִּדְבַר ה' שָׁמַיִם נַעֲשׂוּ וּבְרוּחַ פִּיו כָּל צְבָאָם, לָמָּה אֵין כְּתִיב בַּשֵּׁנִי כִּי טוֹב, רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן תָּנֵי לָהּ בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי יוֹסֵי בֶּן רַבִּי חֲלַפְתָּא, שֶׁבּוֹ נִבְרֵאת גֵּיהִנֹּם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ישעיה ל, לג): כִּי עָרוּךְ מֵאֶתְמוּל תָּפְתֶּה, יוֹם שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ אֶתְמוֹל וְאֵין בּוֹ שִׁלְשׁוֹם. רַבִּי חֲנִינָא אוֹמֵר שֶׁבּוֹ נִבְרֵאת מַחְלֹקֶת, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: וִיהִי מַבְדִּיל בֵּין מַיִם לָמָיִם. אָמַר רַבִּי טַבְיוֹמֵי אִם מַחְלֹקֶת שֶׁהִיא לְתִקּוּנוֹ שֶׁל עוֹלָם וּלְיִשּׁוּבוֹ, אֵין בָּהּ כִּי טוֹב. מַחְלֹקֶת שֶׁהִיא לְעִרְבּוּבוֹ עַל אַחַת כַּמָּה וְכַמָּה. אָמַר רַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל לְפִי שֶׁלֹא נִגְמְרָה מְלֶאכֶת הַמַּיִם, לְפִיכָךְ כָּתוּב בַּשְּׁלִישִׁי כִּי טוֹב שְׁנֵי פְּעָמִים, אֶחָד לִמְלֶאכֶת הַמַּיִם, וְאֶחָד לִמְלַאכְתּוֹ שֶׁל יוֹם. שָׁאֲלָה מַטְרוֹנָה אַחַת אֶת רַבִּי יוֹסֵי, אָמְרָה לוֹ לָמָּה אֵין כְּתִיב בַּשֵּׁנִי כִּי טוֹב, אָמַר לָהּ אַף עַל פִּי כֵן חָזַר וּכְלָלוֹ כֻּלּוֹ בַּסּוֹף, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (בראשית א, לא): וַיַּרְא אֱלֹהִים אֶת כָּל אֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה וְהִנֵּה טוֹב מְאֹד, אָמְרָה לֵיהּ מָשָׁל שִׁשָּׁה בְּנֵי אָדָם בָּאִין אֶצְלְךָ וְאַתְּ נוֹתֵן לְכָל אֶחָד וְאֶחָד מָנֶה, וּלְאֶחָד אֵין אַתְּ נוֹתֵן מָנֶה, וְאַתְּ חוֹזֵר וְנוֹתֵן לְכֻלָּם מָנֶה אֶחָד, לֹא נִמְצָא בְּיַד כָּל אֶחָד מָנֶה וּשְׁתוּת וּבְיַד אֶחָד שְׁתּוּת, אֶתְמָהָא. חָזַר וְאָמַר לָהּ כְּהַהוּא דְאָמַר רַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל בַּר נַחְמָן, לְפִי שֶׁלֹא נִגְמְרָה מְלֶאכֶת הַמַּיִם, לְפִיכָךְ כְּתִיב בַּשְּׁלִישִׁי שְׁתֵּי פְּעָמִים כִּי טוֹב, אַחַת לִמְלֶאכֶת הַמַּיִם וְאַחַת לִמְלֶאכֶת הַיּוֹם. רַבִּי לֵוִי בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי תַּנְחוּם בַּר חֲנִילָאִי אָמַר, כְּתִיב (ישעיה מו, י): מַגִּיד מֵרֵאשִׁית אַחֲרִית, מִתְּחִלַּת בְּרִיָּתוֹ שֶׁל עוֹלָם צָפָה הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא משֶׁה קָרוּי טוֹב (שמות ב, ב), וְעָתִיד לִטֹּל אֶת שֶׁלּוֹ מִתַּחַת יְדֵיהֶם, לְפִיכָךְ לֹא כָּתוּב בָּהֶם כִּי טוֹב. רַבִּי סִימוֹן בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בֶּן לֵוִי אָמַר, מָשָׁל לְמֶלֶךְ שֶׁהָיָה לוֹ לִגְיוֹן קָשֶׁה, אָמַר הַמֶּלֶךְ הוֹאִיל וְלִגְיוֹן זֶה קָשֶׁה אַל יִכָּתֵב שְׁמִי עָלָיו. כָּךְ אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, הוֹאִיל וְהַמַּיִם הַלָּלוּ לָקוּ בָּהֶם דּוֹר הַמַּבּוּל, וְדוֹר אֱנוֹשׁ, וְדוֹר הַפְלָגָה, לְפִיכָךְ אַל יִכָּתֵב בָּהֶן כִּי טוֹב. 6.5. וַיִּתֵּן אֹתָם אֱלֹהִים בִּרְקִיעַ הַשָּׁמָיִם, אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן שְׁלשָׁה דְבָרִים נִתְּנוּ מַתָּנָה לָעוֹלָם, וְאֵלּוּ הֵן: הַתּוֹרָה, וְהַמְאוֹרוֹת, וְהַגְּשָׁמִים. הַתּוֹרָה מִנַּיִן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות לא, יח): וַיִּתֵּן אֶל משֶׁה וגו'. הַמְאוֹרוֹת מִנַּיִן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: וַיִּתֵּן אֹתָם אֱלֹהִים בִּרְקִיעַ הַשָּׁמָיִם. גְּשָׁמִים מִנַּיִן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא כו, ד): וְנָתַתִּי גִּשְׁמֵיכֶם בְּעִתָּם. רַבִּי עֲזַרְיָה בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי יְהוּדָה בֶּן רַבִּי סִימוֹן אוֹמֵר, אַף הַשָּׁלוֹם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא כו, ו): וְנָתַתִּי שָׁלוֹם בָּאָרֶץ. רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בֶּן רַבִּי נְחֶמְיָה אָמַר, אַף הַיְשׁוּעָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים יח, לו): וַתִּתֶּן לִי מָגֵן יִשְׁעֶךָ. רַבִּי תַּנְחוּמָא אָמַר, אַף אֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים קה, מד): וַיִּתֵּן לָהֶם אַרְצוֹת גּוֹיִם וגו'. וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִים, אַף הַנְּקָמָה בֶּאֱדוֹם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (יחזקאל כה, יד): וְנָתַתִּי נִקְמָתִי בֶּאֱדוֹם וגו'. רַבָּנָן אָמְרֵי, אַף הָרַחֲמִים, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים קו, מו): וַיִּתֵּן אוֹתָם לְרַחֲמִים לִפְנֵי כָּל שׁוֹבֵיהֶם. רַבִּי יִצְחָק בַּר מַרְיוֹן אוֹמֵר, אַף הַפְרָשַׁת הַיָּם הַגָּדוֹל, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ישעיה מג, טז): כֹּה אָמַר ה' הַנּוֹתֵן בַּיָּם דֶּרֶךְ וגו'. רַבָּנָן אָמְרֵי: הַנּוֹתֵן בַּיָּם דֶּרֶךְ, מֵעֲצֶרֶת וְעַד הֶחָג. וּבְמַיִם עַזִּים נְתִיבָה, מִן הֶחָג וְעַד הַחֲנֻכָּה. רַבִּי נָתָן בַּר אֲחוּהָ דְּרַבִּי חִיָּא בַּר אַבָּא הֲוָה מְפָרֵשׁ בְּיַמָּא, אֲמַר לֵיהּ לַאֲחוּי צַלֵּי עֲלַי, אֲמַר לֵיהּ מַה נְּצַלֵּי עֲלָךְ, מִן דְּאַתְּ קְטַר לוּלָבָךְ קְטוֹר רַגְלָיךְ, אִין עָיְילַת לִכְנִישְׁתָּא וּשְׁמַעְתָּן מְצַלְּיָן עַל מִטְרָא לָא תִסְמֹךְ עַל צְלוֹתִי. רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בְּרֵיהּ דְרַבִּי תַּנְחוּמָא בֶּן רַבִּי חִיָּא דִּכְפַר חָנוּן, הֲוָה בְּאַסְיָא, בְּעָא דְּיִפְרשׁ, אָמְרָה לֵיהּ מַטְרוֹנָה, בְּאִילֵין יוֹמַיָא פָּרְשֵׁי, אֶתְמְהָא, אִתְחַזֵּי לֵיהּ אֲבוּי בְּחֶלְמָא אֲמַר לֵיהּ בְּרִי בְּלֹא קְבוּרָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (קהלת ו, ג): גַּם קְבוּרָה לֹא הָיְתָה לוֹ, וְלָא שְׁמַע לָא לְמִילֵי דְדֵין וְלָא לְמִילֵי דְדֵין, וְכֵן הֲוַת לֵיהּ. 25.1. וַיִּתְהַלֵּךְ חֲנוֹךְ אֶת הָאֱלֹהִים וְאֵינֶנּוּ כִּי לָקַח אֹתוֹ אֱלֹהִים (בראשית ה, כד), אָמַר רַבִּי חָמָא בַּר הוֹשַׁעְיָא אֵינוֹ נִכְתַּב בְּתוֹךְ טִימוֹסָן שֶׁל צַדִּיקִים אֶלָּא בְּתוֹךְ טִימוֹסָן שֶׁל רְשָׁעִים. אָמַר רַבִּי אַיְבוּ חֲנוֹךְ חָנֵף הָיָה, פְּעָמִים צַדִּיק פְּעָמִים רָשָׁע, אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא עַד שֶׁהוּא בְּצִדְקוֹ אֲסַלְּקֶנּוּ. אָמַר רַבִּי אַיְבוּ בְּרֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה דָּנוֹ בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁהוּא דָן כָּל בָּאֵי עוֹלָם. אֶפִּיקוֹרְסִים שָׁאֲלוּ לְרַבִּי אַבָּהוּ אָמְרוּ לוֹ אֵין אָנוּ מוֹצְאִין מִיתָה לַחֲנוֹךְ, אָמַר לָהֶם לָמָּה, אָמְרוּ לוֹ נֶאֶמְרָה כָּאן לְקִיחָה וְנֶאֶמְרָה לְהַלָּן (מלכים ב ב, ה): כִּי הַיּוֹם ה' לֹקֵחַ אֶת אֲדֹנֶיךָ מֵעַל רֹאשֶׁךָ, אָמַר לָהֶם אִם לִלְּקִיחָה אַתֶּם דּוֹרְשִׁים, נֶאֱמַר כָּאן לְקִיחָה וְנֶאֱמַר לְהַלָּן (יחזקאל כד, טז): הִנְנִי לֹקֵחַ מִמְּךָ אֶת מַחְמַד עֵינֶיךָ, אָמַר רַבִּי תַּנְחוּמָא יָפֶה הֵשִׁיבָן רַבִּי אַבָּהוּ. מַטְרוֹנָה שָׁאֲלָה אֶת רַבִּי יוֹסֵי אָמְרָה לוֹ אֵין אָנוּ מוֹצְאִין מִיתָה בַּחֲנוֹךְ, אָמַר לָהּ אִלּוּ נֶאֱמַר (בראשית ה, כד): וַיִּתְהַלֵּךְ חֲנוֹךְ אֶת הָאֱלֹהִים וְשָׁתַק, הָיִיתִי אוֹמֵר כִּדְבָרַיִךְ, כְּשֶׁהוּא אוֹמֵר וְאֵינֶנּוּ כִּי לָקַח אֹתוֹ אֱלֹהִים, וְאֵינֶנּוּ בָּעוֹלָם הַזֶּה כִּי לָקַח אֹתוֹ אֱלֹהִים. 43.6. וּמַלְכִּי צֶדֶק מֶלֶךְ שָׁלֵם וגו' (בראשית יד, יח), הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (תהלים מה, יג): וּבַת צֹר בְּמִנְחָה פָּנַיִךְ יְחַלּוּ עֲשִׁירֵי עָם. וּמַלְכִּי צֶדֶק מֶלֶךְ שָׁלֵם, הַמָּקוֹם הַזֶּה מַצְדִּיק אֶת יוֹשְׁבָיו, מַלְכִּי צֶדֶק, (יהושע י, א): אֲדֹנִי צֶדֶק. צֶדֶק נִקְרֵאת יְרוּשָׁלַיִם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ישעיה א, כא): צֶדֶק יָלִין בָּהּ, מֶלֶךְ שָׁלֵם, רַבִּי יִצְחָק הַבַּבְלִי אוֹמֵר שֶׁנּוֹלַד מָהוּל. (בראשית יד, יח): הוֹצִיא לֶחֶם וָיָיִן וְהוּא כֹהֵן לְאֵל עֶלְיוֹן, רַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל בַּר נַחְמָן וְרַבָּנָן, רַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל אָמַר הִלְכוֹת כְּהֻנָּה גְדוֹלָה גִּלָּה לוֹ, לֶחֶם, זֶה לֶחֶם הַפָּנִים. וָיָיִן, אֵלּוּ הַנְּסָכִים. וְרַבָּנָן אָמְרֵי תּוֹרָה גִּלָּה לוֹ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (משלי ט, ה): לְכוּ לַחֲמוּ בְלַחְמִי וּשְׁתוּ בְּיַיִן מָסָכְתִּי. וְהוּא כֹהֵן לְאֵל עֶלְיוֹן, רַבִּי אַבָּא בַּר כַּהֲנָא וְרַבִּי לֵוִי, רַבִּי אַבָּא בַּר כַּהֲנָא אָמַר כָּל יַיִן שֶׁכָּתוּב בַּתּוֹרָה עוֹשֶׂה רוֹשֶׁם חוּץ מִזֶּה. אָמַר רַבִּי לֵוִי אַף זֶה לֹא יָצָאנוּ מִיָּדוֹ, שֶׁמִּשָּׁם קָרָא עָלָיו (בראשית טו, יג): וַעֲבָדוּם וְעִנּוּ אֹתָם אַרְבַּע מֵאוֹת שָׁנָה. 63.8. וַיִּמְלְאוּ יָמֶיהָ לָלֶדֶת (בראשית כה, כד), לְהַלָּן חֲסֵרִים וְכָאן מְלֵאִים, לְהַלָּן כְּתִיב (בראשית לח, כז): תְאוֹמִים, פֶּרֶץ וְזֶרַח שְׁנֵיהֶם צַדִּיקִים, וְכָאן תוֹמִם, יַעֲקֹב צַדִּיק וְעֵשָׂו רָשָׁע. (בראשית כה, כה): וַיֵּצֵא הָרִאשׁוֹן אַדְמוֹנִי, אָמַר רַבִּי חַגַּי בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי יִצְחָק בִּזְכוּת (ויקרא כג, מ): וּלְקַחְתֶּם לָכֶם בַּיּוֹם הָרִאשׁוֹן, אֲנִי נִגְלֶה לָכֶם רִאשׁוֹן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ישעיה מד, ו): אֲנִי רִאשׁוֹן וַאֲנִי אַחֲרוֹן, וּפוֹרֵעַ לָכֶם מִן הָרִאשׁוֹן, זֶה עֵשָׂו, דִּכְתִיב: וַיֵּצֵא הָרִאשׁוֹן, וּבוֹנֶה לָכֶם רִאשׁוֹן, זֶה בֵּית הַמִּקְדָּשׁ, דִּכְתִיב בֵּיהּ (ירמיה יז, יב): כִּסֵּא כָבוֹד מָרוֹם מֵרִאשׁוֹן, וְאָבִיא לָכֶם רִאשׁוֹן, זֶה מֶלֶךְ הַמָּשִׁיחַ, דִּכְתִיב בֵּיהּ (ישעיה מא, כז): רִאשׁוֹן לְצִיּוֹן הִנֵּה הִנָּם. דָּבָר אַחֵר, וַיֵּצֵא הָרִאשׁוֹן אַדְמוֹנִי, לָמָה יָצָא עֵשָׂו תְּחִלָּה כְּדֵי שֶׁיֵּצֵא הוּא וְתֵצֵא סַרְיוּתוֹ עִמּוֹ, אָמַר רַבִּי אַבָּהוּ כְּהָדֵין פָּרָבִיטָא שֶׁהוּא מְשַׁטֵּף אֶת בֵּית הַמֶּרְחָץ וְאַחַר כָּךְ מַרְחִיץ בְּנוֹ שֶׁל מֶלֶךְ, כָּךְ לָמָּה יָצָא עֵשָׂו תְּחִלָּה כְּדֵי שֶׁיֵּצֵא הוּא וְתֵצֵא סַרְיוּתוֹ עִמּוֹ. מַטְרוֹנָא שָׁאֲלָה אֶת רַבִּי יוֹסֵי בֶּן חֲלַפְתָּא אָמְרָה לֵיהּ לָמָּה יָצָא עֵשָׂו תְּחִלָּה, אָמַר לָהּ, טִפָּה רִאשׁוֹנָה שֶׁל יַעֲקֹב הָיְתָה, אָמַר לָהּ מָשָׁל אִם תַּנִּיחוּ שְׁתֵּי מַרְגָּלִיּוֹת בִּשְׁפוֹפֶרֶת אַחַת, לֹא זוֹ שֶׁאַתְּ נוֹתְנָהּ רִאשׁוֹנָה יוֹצְאָה אַחֲרוֹנָה, כָּךְ טִפָּה רִאשׁוֹנָה שֶׁל יַעֲקֹב הָיְתָה. אַדְמוֹנִי, אָמַר רַבִּי אַבָּא בַּר כַּהֲנָא כְּאִלּוּ שׁוֹפֵךְ דָּמִים, וְכֵיוָן שֶׁרָאָה שְׁמוּאֵל אֶת דָּוִד אַדְמוֹנִי, דִּכְתִיב (שמואל א טז, יב): וַיִּשְׁלַח וַיְבִיאֵהוּ וְהוּא אַדְמוֹנִי, נִתְיָרֵא וְאָמַר אַף זֶה שׁוֹפֵךְ דָּמִים כְּעֵשָׂו. אָמַר לוֹ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא (שמואל א טז, יב): עִם יְפֵה עֵינַיִם, עֵשָׂו מִדַּעַת עַצְמוֹ הוּא הוֹרֵג אֲבָל זֶה מִדַּעַת סַנְהֶדְרִין הוּא הוֹרֵג. דִּקְלִיטְיָינוֹס מַלְכָּא הֲוָה רָעֵי חֲזִירִין בַּהֲדָא טְבֶרְיָה, וְכֵיוָן דַּהֲוָה מָטֵי סִדְרֵיהּ דְּרַבִּי הֲוֵי מֵינוֹקָא נָפְקִין וּמָחֲיִין לֵיהּ, לְבָתַר יוֹמִין אִיתְעֲבֵד מֶלֶךְ, נְחַת וִיתֵיב לֵיהּ בַּהֲדָא פַּנְיָיס נ"א: פַּמְיָיס, וּשְׁלַח כְּתָבִים לִטְבֶרְיָא מִפְּנֵי רַמְשָׁא דַעֲרוֹבְתָה, אֲמַר אֲנָא יָהֵיב קֵלֶווֹן דְּיֶהֱווֹן רַבְרְבָנֵי דִּיהוּדָאֵי קָיְימִין קֳדָמִי בְּצַפְרָא דְחַד בְּשַׁבָּא. פַּקְדֵּיהּ לִשְׁלִיחָא אֲמַר לֵיהּ לָא תִתֵּן יָתְהוֹן לְהוֹן אֶלָּא עִם מַטְעֲמֵי יוֹמָא דַעֲרוֹבְתָא. נְחַת רַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל בַּר נַחְמָן לְמִיסְחֵי, חַמְתֵי לְרַבִּי דַּהֲוָה קָאֵים קוֹמֵי סִדְרָא רַבָּה רָאָה פָּנָיו חוֹלָנִיּוֹת, אָמַר לוֹ לָמָּה פָנֶיךָ חוֹלָנִיּוֹת, אֲמַר כֵּן וְכֵן אִשְׁתַּדַּר לִי כְּתָבִין מִן מַלְכוּתָא. אֲמַר לֵיהּ אִיתָא סְחֵי דְּבָרְיָיךְ עֲבֵיד לָנָא נִסִּין. עָלוֹן לְמִסְחֵי וַאֲתָא הָדֵין אַרְגִּינִיטוֹן מְגַחֵךְ וּמְרַקֵּד קֳדָמֵיהוֹן. בְּעָא רַבִּי דְּיִזְעוֹף בֵּיהּ, אֲמַר לֵיהּ רַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל בַּר נַחְמָן רַבִּי שַׁבְקֵיהּ דְּזִמְנִין עַל נִסִּין הוּא מִתְחֲמָא. אֲמַר לֵיהּ מָרָיךְ בְּעָקָא וְאַתְּ קָאֵים גָּחֵךְ וּמְרַקֵּד. אֲמַר לְהוֹן אֲזַלוּן וְאַכְלוּן וּשְׁתוֹן וְעַבְדוּן שַׁבָּא טָבָא דְּמָרֵיכוֹן עָבֵיד לְכוֹן נִסִּין וַאֲנָא מְקִים לְכוֹן קֳדָמוֹי בְּצַפְרָא דְחַד בְּשַׁבְּתָא. בַּאֲפוּקֵי שַׁבְּתָא בָּתַר סִידְרָא, נְסַבוֹן וַאֲקִימוֹן קֳדָם פְּיָילֵי דְּפַנְיָיס. עָלוּן וְאָמְרִין לֵיהּ הָא קָיְימִין קֳדָם פְּיָילֵי. אֲמַר סִגְרוּן פְּיָילִי. נְסַבוּהוֹן וַאֲקִימוֹן עַל מְטַכְּסָא דִּמְדִינְתָּא. עָלוּן וְאָמְרִין לֵיהּ, אֲמַר אֲנָא קֵלֶווֹן אֲנָא דְּיִתְּזוּן בֵּי בַּנֵּי תְּלָתָא יוֹמֵי וְיַעֲלוּן וְיִסְחוּן וְיֶאֱתוֹן לְגַבָּאי, אֲזַלוּן וְאִתְּזוּן בֵּי בַּנֵּי תְּלָתָא יוֹמִין וְעָאל חַד אַרְגִינִיטוֹן וּמוֹזְגָהּ קֳדָמֵיהוֹן וְעָלוּ וּסְחוּן וַאֲתוֹן לְגַבֵּיהּ. אֲמַר לְהוֹן בְּגִין דְּאַתּוּן יָדְעִין דֵּאלָהֵיכוֹן עָבֵיד לְכוֹן נִסִּין אַתּוּן מְקִילִין לְמַלְכָּא. אָמְרִין לֵיהּ לְדִיקְלֵיטְיָינוֹס רָעֵי חֲזִירִין אֲקֵילֵינַן, בְּרַם לְדִיקְלֵיטְיָינוּס מַלְכָּא אֲנַן מְשֻׁעְבָּדִים. אֲמַר לְהוֹן אֲפִלּוּ כֵּן לָא תִבְזוֹן לָא בְּרוֹמִי זְעֵיר וְלָא בְּגוּלְיָיר זְעֵיר. (בראשית כה, כה): כֻּלּוֹ כְּאַדֶּרֶת שֵׂעָר, אָמַר רַבִּי חֲנִינָה כֻּלּוֹ רָאוּי לְאַדֶּרֶת. רַבָּנָן דָּרוֹמָאֵי בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי אֲלֶכְּסַנְדְּרִי וְרַחֲבָה בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי אַבָּא בַּר כַּהֲנָא אָמַר יָצָא כֻּלּוֹ מְפֹזָר וּמְפֹרָד כְּאַדֶּרֶת, לִזְרוֹתוֹ כְּמוֹץ וּכְקַשׁ מֵאִדְּרָא, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (דניאל ב, לה): בֵּאדַיִן דָּקוּ כַחֲדָה פַּרְזְלָא וגו' וַהֲווֹ כְּעוּר מִן אִדְּרֵי קַיִט, רַבִּי חֲנִינָא בַּר יִצְחָק אָמַר מִי גָרַם לָהֶם לְהֵעָשׂוֹת כְּעוּר, מִן אִדְּרֵי קַיִט, עַל שֶׁפָּשְׁטוּ יְדֵיהֶם בָּאַדִּירִים. (בראשית כה, כה): וַיִּקְרְאוּ שְׁמוֹ עֵשָׂו, הֵא שָׁוְא שֶׁבָּרָאתִי בְּעוֹלָמִי. אָמַר רַבִּי יִצְחָק אַתּוּן קְרֵיתוּן לַחֲזִירַתְכוֹן שֵׁם, אַף אֲנָא קוֹרֵא לִבְנִי בְכוֹרִי שֵׁם, (שמות ד, כב): כֹּה אָמַר ה' בְּנִי בְּכֹרִי יִשְׂרָאֵל. 4.6. \"And God made the firmament\", this is one of the verses that Ben Zoma shook the world with. He imade- how remarkable! sure it [came into existence] at [God's] word i, [as it is written], \"With the word of God the heavens were made and with the wind of His mouth all of their armies\". why doesn't it say \"it was good\" on the second day of creation?r yocha taught in the name of r yosi the son of r chalafta, because hell was created on the second day, as it says \" the topheth has been ready for him since yesterday, a day that has a yesterday but not three days ago. another reason that it dose not say \"it was good\" on the second day, r channina says its because division was created on the second day, as it says: \"and it (the heavens) should separate between the two body's of water\". r tivyomi said if division that is for the sake of fixing the world does not have good all the more so division that is to mix up the world doesn't have good. r shmuel says because the creation of water wasnt finished, it was written on the third day \"it was good\" twice, one for the creation of water and one for the days work. a noble woman asked r yosi, why dosen't it say \"and it was good on the second day? he answered her even so it was included in the end as it says: \"and god saw all that he did and it was very good\" she said back to him this is analogous to six people coming to you give each one a manna and to one of them you don't give anything, then you go back and give one manna to everyone, is it not true that 5 of them have a mana and a 1/6 manna and the last one only has 1/6? he said to her like r shmuel says because the creation of water wasnt finished, it was written on the third day \"it was good\" twice, one for the creation of water and one for the days work. r levi in the name of r tanchum the son of r chnelyayi said, it states in the verse:\" he (god) tells the end in the beginning\", from the beginning of creation god saw Moses who is called \"good\" and was ultimately was going to be punished from an issue regarding water and therefore did not write and it was good regarding the water. r simon in the name of r levi said it is analogous to a king who had a bad legion, the king said since this legion is no good my name shouldn't be called on it, so too god said, since these waters punished the generation of the flood, dor enosh, and haflaga it should not be written regarding them \"forit was good\" /i/i" 43.6. And Malchitzedek king of Shalem – This is what is written “And the daughter of Tyre shall seek your presence with tribute, those who are the richest of the people.” (Tehillim 45:13) ‘Malchitzedek the king of Shalem’, this place makes its inhabitants righteous (matzdik) – Malchitzedek, Adonitzedek (Yehoshua 10:1). Jerusalem is called righteousness as it says, “…in which righteousness would lodge…” (Isaiah 1:21) ‘king of Shalem’ R’ Yitzchak the Bavli says (he is called this) because he was born circumcised. \"brought out bread and wine, and he was a priest to the Most High God\" (Bereshit 14:18) R’ Shmuel bar Nachmani and the Rabba argue, R’ Shmuel said that the laws of the High Priesthood were revealed to him – ‘bread’ is the show bread, ‘wine’ are the libations. The Rabba say that Torah was revealed to him as it says, “\"Come, partake of my bread and drink of the wine I have mingled.” (Mishle 9:5) ‘and he was a priest to the Most High God’ R’ Aba bar Kahana said every mention of wine written in the Torah makes an impact except for this, R’ Levi said that even this we did not escape, because from there He called upon him “…and they will enslave them and oppress them, for four hundred years.” (Bereshit 15:13)" 63.8. “And her days to give birth were completed…” (Genesis 25:24) Below they were lacking, here they were full. Below where the word twins is written full, with the letter aleph, Peretz and Zerach were both righteous. Here it is written without an aleph, Yaakov was righteous and Esau was wicked. “And the first one emerged ruddy…” (Genesis 25:25) R’ Chaggai said in the name of R’ Yitzchak: in the merit of “And you shall take for yourselves on the first day…” (Leviticus 23:40) I will be revealed to you first, as it says “I am first and I am last” (Isaiah 44:6) and I will exact retribution on your behalf from the first who is Esau, as it is written “And the first one emerged” and I will build the first for you, which is the Holy Temple of which it is written “As a Throne of Glory, exalted from the beginning…” (Jeremiah 17:12) and I will bring for you the first who is the King Messiah of whom it is written “The first one to Zion, behold, behold them…” (Isaiah 41:27)"
77. Anon., Leviticus Rabba, 25.6 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

25.6. רַב הוּנָא בַּר קַפָּרָא אָמַר יָשַׁב אַבְרָהָם אָבִינוּ וְדָרַשׁ, נֶאֱמַר עָרְלָה בְּאִילָן וְנֶאֱמַר עָרְלָה בְּאָדָם, מַה עָרְלָה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר בְּאִילָן מָקוֹם שֶׁהוּא עוֹשֶׂה פֵּרוֹת אַף עָרְלָה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר בָּאָדָם מָקוֹם שֶׁהוּא עוֹשֶׂה פֵּרוֹת. אָמַר רַבִּי חָנִין בֶּן פָּזִי וְכִי כְּבָר הָיָה אַבְרָהָם אָבִינוּ יוֹדֵעַ קַלִּין וַחֲמוּרִין וּגְזֵרוֹת שָׁווֹת, אֶלָּא רֶמֶז רְמָזָהּ לוֹ (בראשית יז, ב): וְאֶתְּנָה בְרִיתִי בֵּינִי וּבֵינֶיךָ וגו' מָקוֹם שֶׁהוּא פָּרֶה וְרָבֶה. תָּנֵי רַבִּי יִשְׁמָעֵאל בִּקֵשׁ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לְהוֹצִיא כְּהֻנָּה מִשֵּׁם, מִשּׁוּם שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (בראשית יד, יח): וּמַלְכִּי צֶדֶק מֶלֶךְ שָׁלֵם, כֵּיוָן שֶׁהִקְדִּים בִּרְכַּת אַבְרָהָם לְבִרְכַּת הַמָּקוֹם, אָמַר לוֹ אַבְרָהָם וְכִי מַקְדִּימִין בִּרְכַּת עֶבֶד לְבִרְכַּת הָאָדוֹן, הוֹצִיאָהּ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא מִמֶּנּוּ וּנְתָנָהּ לְאַבְרָהָם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים קי, א): נְאֻם ה' לַאדֹנִי, וּכְתִיב בַּתְרֵיהּ (תהלים קי, ד): נִשְׁבַּע ה' וְלֹא יִנָּחֵם אַתָּה כֹהֵן לְעוֹלָם עַל דִּבְרָתִי מַלְכִּי צֶדֶק, עַל דִּבּוּרוֹ שֶׁל מַלְכִּי צֶדֶק, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (בראשית יד, יט): בָּרוּךְ אַבְרָם לְאֵל עֶלְיוֹן קֹנֵה שָׁמַיִם וָאָרֶץ, רַבִּי יִשְׁמָעֵאל וְרַבִּי עֲקִיבָא, רַבִּי יִשְׁמָעֵאל אוֹמֵר אַבְרָהָם כֹּהֵן גָּדוֹל הָיָה, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב: נִשְׁבַּע ה' וְלֹא יִנָּחֵם אַתָּה כֹהֵן לְעוֹלָם, וּכְתִיב (בראשית יז, יא): וּנְמַלְתֶּם אֵת בְּשַׂר עָרְלַתְכֶם, וּמֵהֵיכָן יִמּוֹל אִם יִמּוֹל מִן הָאֹזֶן עֲדַיִן אֵינוֹ כָּשֵׁר לְהַקְרִיב, אִם יִמּוֹל מִן הַלֵּב עֲדַיִן אֵינוֹ כָּשֵׁר לְהַקְרִיב, אִם יִמּוֹל מִן הַפֶּה עֲדַיִן אֵינוֹ כָּשֵׁר לְהַקְרִיב, מֵהֵיכָן יִמּוֹל וְיִהְיֶה כָּשֵׁר לְהַקְרִיב, הֱוֵי אוֹמֵר זוֹ מִצְוַת הַגּוּף. רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא אוֹמֵר אַרְבַּע עָרְלוֹת הֵן, נֶאֱמַר עָרְלָה בָּאֹזֶן (ירמיה ו, י): הִנֵּה עֲרֵלָה אָזְנָם, עָרְלָה בַּפֶּה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות ו, ל): וַאֲנִי עֲרַל שְׂפָתַיִם. נֶאֶמְרָה בַּלֵּב, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ירמיה ט, כה): וְכָל בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל עַרְלֵי לֵב. וּכְתִיב (בראשית יז, א): הִתְהַלֵּךְ לְפָנַי וֶהְיֵה תָמִים, מֵהֵיכָן יִמּוֹל אִם יִמּוֹל מִן הָאֹזֶן עֲדַיִן אֵינוֹ תָּמִים, אִם יִמּוֹל מִן הַפֶּה עֲדַיִן אֵינוֹ תָּמִים, מֵהֵיכָן יִמּוֹל וְיִהְיֶה תָּמִים הֱוֵי אוֹמֵר זוֹ עָרְלַת הַגּוּף. נַגְדָּא אָמַר כְּתִיב (בראשית יז, יב): וּבֶן שְׁמֹנַת יָמִים, מֵהֵיכָן יִמּוֹל, אִם מִן הָאֹזֶן עֲדַיִן אֵינוֹ שׁוֹמֵעַ, אִם מִן הַפֶּה עֲדַיִן אֵינוֹ מְדַבֵּר, אִם מִן הַלֵּב עֲדַיִן אֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לְחַשֵּׁב, מֵהֵיכָן יִמּוֹל וְיִהְיֶה שׁוֹמֵעַ וּמְדַבֵּר וּמְחַשֵּׁב הֱוֵי אוֹמֵר זוֹ עָרְלַת הַגּוּף, אָמַר רַבִּי תַּנְחוּמָא מִסְתַּבְּרָא דְּנַגְדָּא (בראשית יז, יד): וְעָרֵל זָכָר אֲשֶׁר לֹא יִמּוֹל. רַבִּי יוּדָן בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי יִצְחָק וְרַבִּי בֶּרֶכְיָה בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי יִצְחָק, וְתָנוּ לָהּ בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי יוֹסֵי בֶּן חֲלַפְתָּא וְעָרֵל זָכָר, וְכִי יֵשׁ עָרֵל נְקֵבָה, אֶלָּא מִמָּקוֹם שֶׁרוֹאִין אוֹתוֹ וְיוֹדְעִין אִם זָכָר הוּא אוֹ נְקֵבָה מִשָּׁם מוֹלִין אוֹתוֹ.
78. Anon., Sifre Deuteronomy, 307 (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

79. Anon., Acts of Pilate, 2.3-2.4 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

80. Anon., Targum Pseudo-Jonathan, None (2nd cent. CE - 7th cent. CE)

81. Irenaeus, Refutation of All Heresies, 3.2, 4.16.2, 5.5.1 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

82. Palestinian Talmud, Berachot, None (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

83. Palestinian Talmud, Hagigah, None (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

84. Palestinian Talmud, Nedarim, None (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

85. Tertullian, On The Soul, 50 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

86. Tertullian, Prescription Against Heretics, 32 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

87. Babylonian Talmud, Bava Batra, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

116a. ולא תהא תורה שלמה שלנו כשיחה בטלה שלכם מה לבת בנו שכן יפה כחה במקום האחין תאמר בבתו שהורע כחה במקום אחין ונצחום ואותו היום עשאוהו יום טוב,(שופטים כא, יז) ויאמרו ירושת פלטה לבנימן ולא ימחה שבט מישראל,אמר רבי יצחק דבי רבי אמי מלמד שהתנו על שבט בנימין שלא תירש בת הבן עם האחין,אמר רבי יוחנן משום ר' שמעון בן יוחאי כל שאינו מניח בן ליורשו הקדוש ברוך הוא מלא עליו עברה כתיב הכא (במדבר כז, ח) והעברתם את נחלתו וכתיב התם (צפניה א, טו) יום עברה היום ההוא,(תהלים נה, כ) אשר אין חליפות למו ולא יראו אלהים רבי יוחנן ורבי יהושע בן לוי חד אמר כל שאינו מניח בן וחד אמר כל שאינו מניח תלמיד,תסתיים רבי יוחנן דאמר תלמיד דאמר רבי יוחנן דין גרמיה דעשיראה ביר תסתיים דרבי יוחנן דאמר תלמיד,ומדרבי יוחנן אמר תלמיד רבי יהושע בן לוי אמר בן,והא רבי יהושע בן לוי לא אזיל לבי טמיא אלא לבי מאן דשכיב בלא בני דכתיב (ירמיהו כב, י) בכו בכה להולך ואמר רב יהודה אמר רב להולך בלא בן זכר אלא רבי יהושע בן לוי הוא דאמר תלמיד,ומדר' יהושע בן לוי הוא דאמר תלמיד רבי יוחנן אמר בן,קשיא דרבי יוחנן אדרבי יוחנן לא קשיא הא דידיה הא דרביה:,סימן הדד עני וחכם:,דרש רבי פנחס בן חמא מאי דכתיב (מלכים א יא, כא) והדד שמע במצרים כי שכב דוד עם אבותיו וכי מת יואב שר הצבא מפני מה בדוד נאמרה בו שכיבה וביואב נאמרה בו מיתה דוד שהניח בן נאמרה בו שכיבה יואב שלא הניח בן נאמרה בו מיתה,ויואב לא הניח בן והכתיב (עזרא ח, ט) מבני יואב עובדיה בן יחיאל אלא דוד שהניח בן כמותו נאמרה בו שכיבה יואב שלא הניח בן כמותו נאמרה בו מיתה,דרש ר' פנחס בן חמא קשה עניות בתוך ביתו של אדם יותר מחמשים מכות שנאמר (איוב יט, כא) חנוני חנוני אתם רעי כי יד אלוה נגעה בי וקא אמרי ליה חבריה (איוב לו, כא) השמר אל תפן אל און כי על זה בחרת מעוני,דרש ר' פנחס בר חמא כל שיש לו חולה בתוך ביתו ילך אצל חכם ויבקש עליו רחמים שנא' (משלי טז, יד) חמת מלך מלאכי מות ואיש חכם יכפרנה:,זה הכלל כל הקודם בנחלה יוצאי ירכו קודמין והאב קודם לכל יוצאי ירכו: בעי רמי בר חמא אבי האב ואחי האב כגון אברהם וישמעאל בנכסי עשו איזה מהן קודם אמר רבא תא שמע האב קודם לכל יוצאי ירכו ורמי בר חמא 116a. bbut will our perfect Torah not beas worthy bas your frivolous speech,as your inference is fallacious: bWhatis notable baboutthe inheritance of ba daughter ofthe deceased’s bson?It is notable bin that her right is enhancedin that she inherits from her paternal grandfather together bwith the brothersof her father. Would you bsaythat the same applies bwith regard tothe deceased’s bdaughter, whose rightto inherit bis diminishedin that she does not inherit from her father together bwithher bbrothers?The Sadducee’s ia fortioriinference is thereby disproved. The Gemara concludes: bAndsince the Sadducees had no counterargument, the Sages bwere victorious over them, and they established that day,the twenty-fourth of Tevet, as a minor bfestivalto celebrate the establishment of the ihalakhain accordance with the opinion of the Sages.,Having discussed the ihalakhaof a son’s daughter’s right to inheritance, the Gemara cites a verse that relates to the matter. After the incident known as: The concubine in Gibeah, the men of the tribe of Benjamin numbered only six hundred, and each of these men had inherited large plots of land from their deceased relatives. The verse states: b“And they said: They that are escaped must be as an inheritance for Benjamin, that a tribe be not blotted out from Israel”(Judges 21:17)., bRabbi Yitzḥak of the house of Rabbi Ami says:This bteaches thatthe elders of that generation bstipulated with regard to the tribe of Benjamin that a daughter of a son shall not inherit with the brothersof her father. Since the daughter of a son who inherits her grandfather’s property may later bequeath it to her husband, who may be from another tribe, the elders instituted this temporary ordice in order to ensure that other tribes would not inherit large quantities of land belonging to the tribe of Benjamin, lest the tribe of Benjamin be left with little land of its own.,§ The Gemara presents a related statement. bRabbi Yoḥa says in the name of Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai:Concerning banyone who does not leavebehind ba son to inheritfrom bhim, the Holy One, Blessed be He, is filled with wrath [ ievra /i] toward him,as bit is written here:“If a man die, and he has no son, bthen you shall pass his inheritance [ iveha’avartem /i]to his daughter” (Numbers 27:8), band it is written there: “That day is a day of wrath [ ievra /i]”(Zephaniah 1:15). The words “ iveha’avartem /i” and “ ievra /i” share common root letters, whereby Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai interprets that God’s wrath may be the result of the inheritance passing to a daughter rather than a son.,The Gemara presents a related statement. Concerning the verse: “God shall hear, and humble them, even He that is enthroned of old, Selah; bthose that have no exchange, and fear not God”(Psalms 55:20), bRabbi Yoḥa and Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levieach interpret the verse in a different manner. bOne saysthat this is a reference to banyone who does not leavebehind ba sonto inherit from him, as he does not leave anyone to serve in exchange, i.e., as a replacement, for him; band one saysthat this is a reference to banyone who does not leavebehind ba studentto serve in exchange for him.,The Gemara suggests: bIt may be concludedthat it was bRabbi Yoḥa who saysthat the verse is referring to one who does not leave behind ba student, for Rabbi Yoḥa,whose ten sons died in his lifetime, bsaidto those he would console: bThis is the bone of my tenth son,to encourage them not to succumb to their sorrow. Since Rabbi Yoḥa knew that he would not leave any sons to inherit his property, it is reasonable to assume that he interpreted the verse as meaning that God is full of wrath toward one who does not leave behind a student. The Gemara comments that bit may be concluded thatit was bRabbi Yoḥa who saysthat the verse is referring to one who does not leave behind ba student. /b,The Gemara notes: bAnd fromthis, bthat Rabbi Yoḥais the one who bsaysthat the verse is referring to one who does not leave behind ba student,it follows that bRabbi Yehoshua ben Levi saysthe verse is referring to one who does not leave behind ba son. /b,The Gemara asks: bButthis cannot be, as bRabbi Yehoshua ben Levi would not go to a house of mourning [ ibei tamya /i]to console the bereaved so as not to interrupt his studies, bexcept to the house of one who died without any sons, as it is written:“Weep not for the dead, neither bemoan him; but bweep sore for him that goes away”(Jeremiah 22:10), band Rabbi Yehuda saysthat bRav saysthat the verse is referring btoone who bdepartsfrom this world bwithoutleaving behind ba male child.From the fact that Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi would console specifically one who died without leaving a son, it is apparent that he does not hold that God is full of wrath toward such an individual. bRather,it must be that bRabbi Yehoshua ben Levi isthe Sage bwho saysthat the verse is referring to one who does not leave behind ba student. /b,The Gemara notes: bAnd fromthis bthat Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi isthe one bwho saysthat the verse is referring to one who does not leave behind ba student,it follows that bRabbi Yoḥa saysit is referring to one who does not leave behind ba son. /b,The Gemara asks: This poses ba difficultyfrom one statement bof Rabbi Yoḥa,that the verse is referring to one who does not leave behind a son, btoanother statement bof Rabbi Yoḥa,as he would say: This is the bone of my tenth son. The Gemara answers: It is bnot difficult: Thisstatement, with regard to the bone of his son, bis his,while bthatstatement, with regard to the verse, bis his teacher’s. /b,§ The Gemara continues with three homiletic interpretations by Rabbi Pineḥas ben Ḥama, and provides ba mnemonicto facilitate the memorization of these expositions: bHadad, poverty, and sage. /b,The Gemara presents the first homiletic interpretation: bRabbi Pineḥas ben Ḥama interpreteda verse bhomiletically: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “And when Hadad heard in Egypt that David slept with his fathers, and that Joab the captain of the host was dead”(I Kings 11:21)? bFor whatreason is it that binthe case of King bDavid, sleeping was stated with regard to hisdemise, band inthe case of bJoab, death was stated with regard to hisdemise? He answers: Concerning King bDavid, who left a sonbehind, bsleeping was stated with regard to hisdemise, as it was not a complete death, while concerning bJoab, who did not leave a sonbehind, bdeath was stated with regard to hisdemise, as he left no son to succeed him.,The Gemara asks: bAndis it so that bJoab did not leave a sonbehind; bbut isn’t it written: “of the sons of Joab: Obadiah, son of Jehiel”(Ezra 8:9)? bRather,concerning King bDavid, who left a son asgreat as bhimself, sleeping was stated with regard to hisdemise, but concerning bJoab, who did not leave a son asgreat as bhimself, death was stated with regard to hisdemise.,The Gemara presents the second homiletic interpretation: bRabbi Pineḥas ben Ḥama interpreteda verse bhomiletically,and derived that bpoverty in a person’s household is more difficult than fifty plagues, as it is stated: “Have pity upon me, have pity upon me, O you my friends; for the hand of God has touched me”(Job 19:21), band his friends were saying to him: “Take heed, regard not iniquity; for this have you chosen rather than poverty”(Job 36:21). Job, who suffered many plagues, was told by his friends that his suffering was preferable to poverty.,The Gemara presents the third homiletic interpretation: bRabbi Pineḥas bar Ḥama interpreteda verse bhomiletically: Anyone who has a sick person in his home should go to a sage, andthe sage will baskfor bmercy onthe sick person’s behalf, bas it is stated: “The wrath of a king is as messengers of death; but a wise man will pacify it”(Proverbs 16:14).,§ The mishna teaches that bthis is the principle:Concerning banyone who precedesanother bwith regard to inheritance, his descendants precedethe other as well, band a father precedes all of his descendants. Rami bar Ḥama raises a dilemma:With regard to the claim of ba father of thedeceased’s bfather andthe claim of bthe brother of thedeceased’s bfather, such asthe claims of bAbraham and Ishmael to the property of Esau,who was Abraham’s grandson and Ishmael’s nephew, bwhich of them precedesthe other and inherits the property? bRava said: Comeand bheara proof from the mishna: bA father precedes all of his descendants,therefore, Abraham would inherit, as Ishmael was his descendant. The Gemara asks: bAndwhy did bRami bar Ḥamahave a dilemma; was he not aware of the statement of the mishna?
88. Babylonian Talmud, Bava Metzia, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

85a. ובני בתירה ויונתן בן שאול רבן שמעון בן גמליאל הא דאמרן בני בתירה דאמר מר הושיבוהו בראש ומינוהו לנשיא עליהן יונתן בן שאול דקא"ל לדוד (שמואל א כג, יז) ואתה תמלוך על ישראל ואני אהיה לך למשנה,ממאי דלמא יונתן בן שאול דחזא דגריר עלמא בתר דוד בני בתירה נמי דחזו להלל דעדיף מינייהו אלא רבן שמעון בן גמליאל ודאי ענוותן הוה,אמר רבי חביבין יסורין קבל עליה תליסר שני שית בצמירתא ושבע בצפרנא ואמרי לה שבעה בצמירתא ושית בצפרנא,אהורייריה דבי רבי הוה עתיר משבור מלכא כד הוה רמי כיסתא לחיותא הוה אזיל קלא בתלתא מילי הוה מכוין דרמי בההיא שעתא דעייל רבי לבית הכסא ואפי' הכי מעבר ליה קליה לקלייהו ושמעו ליה נחותי ימא,ואפ"ה יסורי דר' אלעזר בר' שמעון עדיפי מדרבי דאילו ר"א בר"ש מאהבה באו ומאהבה הלכו דרבי ע"י מעשה באו וע"י מעשה הלכו,ע"י מעשה באו מאי היא דההוא עגלא דהוו קא ממטו ליה לשחיטה אזל תליא לרישיה בכנפיה דרבי וקא בכי אמר ליה זיל לכך נוצרת אמרי הואיל ולא קא מרחם ליתו עליה יסורין,וע"י מעשה הלכו יומא חד הוה קא כנשא אמתיה דרבי ביתא הוה שדיא בני כרכושתא וקא כנשא להו אמר לה שבקינהו כתיב (תהלים קמה, ט) ורחמיו על כל מעשיו אמרי הואיל ומרחם נרחם עליה,כולהו שני יסורי דר' אלעזר לא שכיב איניש בלא זמניה כולהו שני יסורי דרבי לא איצטריך עלמא למיטרא דאמר רבה בר רב שילא קשי יומא דמיטרא כיומא דדינא ואמר אמימר אי לאו צריך לעלמא בעו רבנן רחמי עליה ומבטלי ליה אפי' הכי כי הוו עקרי פוגלא ממשרא הוה קיימא בירא מליא מיא,איקלע רבי לאתריה דר' אלעזר בר' שמעון א"ל יש לו בן לאותו צדיק אמרו לו יש לו בן וכל זונה שנשכרת בשנים שוכרתו בשמנה אתייה אסמכיה ברבי ואשלמיה לר' שמעון בן איסי בן לקוניא אחות דאמיה,כל יומא הוה אמר לקרייתי אנא איזיל אמר ליה חכים עבדו יתך וגולתא דדהבא פרסו עלך ורבי קרו לך ואת אמרת לקרייתי אנא איזיל אמר ליה מומי עזובה דא כי גדל אתא יתיב במתיבתא דרבי שמעיה לקליה אמר הא קלא דמי לקליה דר' אלעזר בר' שמעון אמרו ליה בריה הוא,קרי עליה (משלי יא, ל) פרי צדיק עץ חיים ולוקח נפשות חכם פרי צדיק עץ חיים זה ר' יוסי בר' אלעזר בר' שמעון ולוקח נפשות חכם זה ר' שמעון בן איסי בן לקוניא,כי נח נפשיה אמטוהו למערתא דאבוה הוה הדרא לה עכנא למערתא אמר ליה עכנא עכנא פתח פיך ויכנס בן אצל אביו לא פתחא להו כסבורים העם לומר שזה גדול מזה,יצתה בת קול ואמרה לא מפני שזה גדול מזה אלא זה היה בצער מערה וזה לא היה בצער מערה,איקלע רבי לאתריה דר' טרפון אמר להו יש לו בן לאותו צדיק שהיה מקפח את בניו אמרו לו בן אין לו בן בת יש לו וכל זונה שנשכרת בשנים שוכרתו בשמנה,אתיוהו לקמיה אמר ליה אי הדרת בך יהיבנא לך ברתאי הדר ביה איכא דאמרי נסבה וגירשה איכא דאמרי לא נסבה כלל כדי שלא יאמרו בשביל זו חזר זה,ולמה ליה כולי האי דאמר רב יהודה אמר רב ואמרי לה אמר ר' חייא בר אבא אמר ר' יוחנן ואמרי לה אמר ר' שמואל בר נחמני אמר ר' יונתן כל המלמד את בן חבירו תורה זוכה ויושב בישיבה של מעלה שנאמר (ירמיהו טו, יט) אם תשוב ואשיבך לפני תעמוד,וכל המלמד את בן עם הארץ תורה אפילו הקב"ה גוזר גזירה מבטלה בשבילו שנאמר (ירמיהו טו, יט) ואם תוציא יקר מזולל כפי תהיה,אמר ר' פרנך אמר ר' יוחנן כל שהוא תלמיד חכם ובנו תלמיד חכם ובן בנו תלמיד חכם שוב אין תורה פוסקת מזרעו לעולם שנאמר (ישעיהו נט, כא) ואני זאת בריתי וגו' לא ימושו מפיך ומפי זרעך ומפי זרע זרעך אמר ה' מעתה ועד עולם,מאי אמר ה' אמר הקב"ה אני ערב לך בדבר זה מאי מעתה ועד עולם אמר ר' ירמיה מכאן ואילך תורה מחזרת על אכסניא שלה,רב יוסף יתיב ארבעין תעניתא ואקריוהו לא ימושו מפיך יתיב ארבעים תעניתא אחריני ואקריוהו לא ימושו מפיך ומפי זרעך יתיב מאה תעניתא אחריני אתא ואקריוהו לא ימושו מפיך ומפי זרעך ומפי זרע זרעך אמר מכאן ואילך לא צריכנא תורה מחזרת על אכסניא שלה,ר' זירא כי סליק לארעא דישראל יתיב מאה תעניתא דלשתכח גמרא בבלאה מיניה כי היכי דלא נטרדיה יתיב מאה אחרניתא דלא לשכוב ר' אלעזר בשניה ונפלין עילויה מילי דצבורא ויתיב מאה אחריני דלא נשלוט ביה נורא דגיהנם,כל תלתין יומי הוה בדיק נפשיה שגר תנורא סליק ויתיב בגויה ולא הוה שלטא ביה נורא יומא חד יהבו ביה רבנן עינא ואיחרכו שקיה וקרו ליה קטין חריך שקיה,אמר רב יהודה אמר רב מאי דכתיב (ירמיהו ט, יא) מי האיש החכם ויבן את זאת ואשר דבר פי ה' אליו ויגידה על מה אבדה הארץ דבר זה 85a. bthe sons of Beteira; and Jonathan, son of Saul.The Gemara discusses each case: The incident revealing the modesty of bRabban Shimon ben Gamliel is thatwhich bwejust bsaid,as he referred to himself modestly as a fox. bThe sons of Beteirawere exceptionally modest, as they served in the position of iNasiand yet abdicated their positions in favor of Hillel when he emigrated from Babylonia to Eretz Yisrael. bAs the Master said:The sons of Beteira, upon recognizing that Hillel was a superior expert in ihalakha /i, bseated him at the head and appointed him iNasiover them(see iPesaḥim66a). bJonathan, son of Saul,was extremely modest, bas he said to David: “And you shall be king over Israel, and I shall be second to you”(I Samuel 23:17), despite the fact that his father, Saul, was the current king.,The Gemara asks: bFrom wheredo we know that the aforementioned men were truly modest? bPerhaps Jonathan, son of Saul,relinquished his rights to the kingship not due to modesty, but bbecause he saw that the world,i.e., the masses, were bdrawn after David,and he felt he had no other recourse. With regard to the bsons of Beteira also,perhaps they abdicated only because they bsaw that Hillel was greater than they,as he was able to answer questions that they could not resolve. The Gemara adds: bBut Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel certainly wasa truly bmodestindividual.,§ The Gemara returns to the previous incident. When he heard that the greatness of Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, was due to his suffering, bRabbiYehuda HaNasi bsaidto himself: bAfflictions areevidently bprecious. He accepted thirteen yearsof afflictions bupon himself; sixyears bof stones in the kidneys and sevenyears bof scurvy [ ibitzfarna /i]. And some sayit was bsevenyears bof stones in the kidneys and sixyears bof scurvy. /b,The Gemara relates: bThe stableman [ iahuriyareih /i] of the house of RabbiYehuda HaNasi bwas wealthier than King Shapurof Persia, due to Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi’s abundant livestock. bWhenthe stableman bwould place fodder before the livestock, the soundof their lowing bwould travelthe distance bof three imil /i. He would calculatethe right moment so bthathe would bplacethe fodder before the animals batprecisely bthat time when RabbiYehuda HaNasi bentered the latrine,so that the lowing of the animals would drown out Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi’s screams of pain. bBut even so,Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi’s bvoicewas so loud that it bovercame the sound ofthe livestock, bandeven bsailors heard itout at sea.,The Gemara says: bBut even so, the afflictions of Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon,were bgreater thanthose bof RabbiYehuda HaNasi. The reason is bthat whereasthe afflictions of bRabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, cameupon him bout of love, and lefthim bout of love,i.e., they were solely the result of his own request, not because he deserved them, those bof RabbiYehuda HaNasi bcameupon him bdue to an incident and lefthim bdue toanother bincident. /b,The Gemara stated that Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi’s suffering bcameupon him bdue to an incident. What was thatincident that led to his suffering? The Gemara answers bthatthere was ba certain calf that was being led to slaughter.The calf bwent and hung its head on the corner of RabbiYehuda HaNasi’s garment band was weeping.Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi bsaid to it: Go,as byou were created for thispurpose. It was bsaidin Heaven: bSince he was not compassionatetoward the calf, blet afflictions come upon him. /b,The Gemara explains the statement: bAnd lefthim bdue toanother bincident. One day, the maidservant of RabbiYehuda HaNasi bwas sweepinghis bhouse. There were young weasels [ ikarkushta /i] lyingabout, band she wasin the process of bsweeping themout. Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi bsaid to her: Let them be,as bit is written:“The Lord is good to all; band His mercies are over all His works”(Psalms 145:9). bThey saidin Heaven: bSince he was compassionate, we shall be compassionate on him,and he was relieved of his suffering.,The Gemara relates: During ball the years of the suffering of Rabbi Elazar,son of Rabbi Shimon, bno one died prematurely,as his afflictions atoned for the entire generation. During ball the years of the suffering of RabbiYehuda HaNasi, bthe world did not requireany brain,as the moisture of the dew was sufficient. bAs Rabba bar Rav Sheila said: A day of rain is as difficult as a day of judgment,due to the damage that storms and flooding can cause. bAnd Ameimar said: Wereit bnotfor the fact bthatrain is bneeded by people, the Sages would pray for mercy and annul it,due to the nuisances of rain. And beven so,despite the fact that there was no rain all those years, bwhen a radish was uprooted from its rowin the field, bthere remainedin its place ba hole filled with water,due to the moisture in the earth.,The Gemara continues discussing Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi’s relationship with Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon. Once bRabbiYehuda HaNasi barrived at the place of Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon. He said tothe locals: bDoes that righteous person have a son? They said to him: He has a sonwho is wayward, band any prostitute who hires herselfout to others bfor twocoins bhires him for eight,due to his handsomeness. Upon hearing this report, Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi resolved to extricate Rabbi Elazar’s son from his plight. bHe brought himback with him, bordained him as a rabbi, and gave him over to Rabbi Shimon ben Isi ben Lakonya,the bbrother ofthe boy’s bmother,to teach him Torah., bEach day,the boy bwould say: I am going back to my town,because it was difficult for him to study. Rabbi Shimon ben Isi ben Lakonya bsaid to him: You have been made wise, and a golden cloak has been spread over youwhen you were ordained, band you are calledby the title bRabbi, andyet byou say: I am going back to my town?The boy bsaid to him: I vow [ imomei /i]that bthisthought of leaving is now babandoned,i.e., I will stay and improve my ways. bWhenthe boy bmaturedand became a Torah scholar, bhe came and sat in the academy of RabbiYehuda HaNasi. Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi bheard his voice and said: This voice is similar to the voice of Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon.Those who were present bsaid to him: It is his son. /b,Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi breadthe verse babout him: “The fruit of the righteous is a tree of life; and he that is wise wins souls”(Proverbs 11:30). The Gemara explains, with regard to the phrase b“the fruit of the righteous,”that bthisis referring to bRabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon,who was the son of a righteous individual and became a great scholar in his own right. When the verse states: b“And he that is wise wins souls,” thisis referring to bRabbi Shimon ben Isi ben Lakonya,who successfully helped Rabbi Yosei reach his potential., bWhenthis Rabbi Yosei bdied, he was brought to his father’s cavefor burial. bA serpent encircled theentrance of the bcave,denying any access. Those present bsaid to it: Serpent, serpent! Open your mouth, so that a son may enter next to his father.The serpent bdid not openits mouth bfor them. The peoplethere bthought thatRabbi Yosei was denied burial alongside his father because bthisone, Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, was bgreater than thatone, Rabbi Yosei., bA Divine Voice emerged and said:It is bnot because this one is greater than that one; rather,it is because bthis one,Rabbi Elazar, bexperienced the suffering of the cave, while that one,i.e., Rabbi Yosei, bdid not experience suffering of the cave.Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, suffered with his father for thirteen years in a cave while hiding from the Romans (see iShabbat33b).,The Gemara relates a similar incident: Once bRabbiYehuda HaNasi barrived at the place of Rabbi Tarfon. He said tothe townspeople: bDoes that righteous person,Rabbi Tarfon, bwho would take an oath by the life of his children, have a son?Rabbi Tarfon was wont to take oaths by the lives of his children (see iOholot16:1). bThey said to him: He does not have a son,but bhe hasa grandson, ba sonfrom bhis daughter, and every prostitutewho is bhired for twocoins bhires him for eight. /b,The townspeople bbroughtRabbi Tarfon’s grandson bbeforeRabbi Yehuda HaNasi, who bsaid to him: If you repentfrom your evil ways, bI will give you my daughterin marriage. bHe repentedand became a righteous individual. bThere arethose bwho saythat bhe marriedRabbi Yehuda HaNasi’s daughter bandsubsequently bdivorced her. There arethose bwho saythat bhe did not marry her at all, so that it would not be saidabout him: It was bfor the sake of thatwoman that bthisman brepented. /b,§ The Gemara asks: bAnd whydid Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi exert himself bso muchto save these wayward sons? The Gemara answers: It is because of bthatwhich bRav Yehuda saysthat bRav says, and some saythat which bRabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba saysthat bRabbi Yoḥa says, and some saythat which bRabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani saysthat bRabbi Yonatan says: Anyone who teaches Torah to the son of another merits to sitand study bin the heavenly academy, as it is stated:“Therefore so says the Lord: bIf you return, and I bring you back, you shall stand before Me”(Jeremiah 15:19). This verse, which is addressed to Jeremiah, indicates that if he is able to cause the Jewish people to return to God, he himself will be brought to stand before God., bAnd anyone who teaches Torah to the son of an ignoramusachieves such an exalted status that beven if the Holy One, Blessed be He,were to bissuea harsh bdecree, Hemay bnullify it for his sake, as it is statedin the continuation of the verse: b“And if you bring forth the precious out of the worthless, you shall be as My mouth,”i.e., you will be like the mouth of God that can rescind a decree.,The Gemara relates other statements pertaining to Torah scholars and their descendants. bRabbi Parnakh saysthat bRabbi Yoḥa says:With regard to banyone who is a Torah scholar, and whose sonis ba Torah scholar, and whose grandsonis ba Torah scholar, the Torah will never again cease from his descendants, as it is stated: “And as for Me, this is My covet… /bMy spirit that is upon you, and My words which I have put in your mouth, bshall not depart out of your mouth, nor out of the mouth of your seed, nor out of the mouth of your seed’s seed, says the Lord, from now and forever”(Isaiah 59:21).,The Gemara asks: bWhatis the significance of the phrase b“says the Lord”?The Gemara answers that bthe Holy One, Blessed be He, said: I am your guarantor in this matter.The Gemara asks: bWhatis the meaning of the phrase b“from now and forever”?The verse mentioned only three generations. bRabbi Yirmeya says:The verse means that bfrom thispoint bforward,after three generations, bthe Torah returns to its lodging,i.e., the Torah is now ingrained in the family.,The Gemara relates that bRav Yosef fasted forty fastsso that the Torah would become ingrained in his family, band he was readthe verse in a dream: “My words… bshall not depart out of your mouth.” He fasted an additional forty fasts and he was read: “Shall not depart out of your mouth, nor out of the mouth of your seed.” He fasted an additional one hundred fasts.In a dream, bhe came and was readthe conclusion of the verse: b“Shall not depart out of your mouth, nor out of the mouth of your seed, nor out of the mouth of your seed’s seed.” He said: From thispoint bforward I do not needto fast anymore, as I am now assured that the bTorahwill breturn to its lodging. /b,The Gemara relates a similar occurrence: bWhen Rabbi Zeira ascendedfrom Babylonia bto Eretz Yisrael, he fasted one hundred fasts so that hewould bforget the Babylonianmethod of studying bGemara, so that it would not hinder himfrom adapting to the unique style of study prevalent in Eretz Yisrael. bHe fasted an additional one hundredfasts so bthat Rabbi Elazar,son of Rabbi Shimon, would bnot die during his lifetime,which would have caused the burden of bcommunal mattersto fall bupon him.As dean of the Torah academy, Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, was in charge of all public affairs, leaving Rabbi Zeira unencumbered to study Torah. Rabbi Zeira bfasted an additional one hundredfasts bso that the fire of Gehennashould bnot affect him. /b,The Gemara relates with regard to Rabbi Zeira: bEvery thirty days, he would examine himselfto ascertain if he remained on his exalted level. He would bignite an oven, climb in, and sit inside it, and the fire would not affect him. One day, the Sages gave him theevil beye,i.e., they were envious of him, band his legs became singedin the fire. bAndfrom then on bthey referred to himas: The bshort one with singed legs. /b,§ The Gemara discusses the topic of the acquisition of Torah knowledge. bRav Yehuda saysthat bRav says: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “Who is the wise man, that he may understand this? And who is he to whom the mouth of the Lord has spoken, that he may declare it? Why has the land been lostand laid waste like a wilderness, so that none passes through?” (Jeremiah 9:11). bThis matter,i.e., the question: Why has the land been lost
89. Babylonian Talmud, Berachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

19a. ואי ס"ד דלא ידעי כי אמר להו מאי הוי אלא מאי דידעי למה לי' למימר להו לאחזוקי ליה טיבותא למשה,אמר רבי יצחק כל המספר אחרי המת כאלו מספר אחרי האבן איכא דאמרי דלא ידעי ואיכא דאמרי דידעי ולא איכפת להו,איני והא אמר רב פפא חד אישתעי מילתא בתריה דמר שמואל ונפל קניא מטללא ובזעא לארנקא דמוחיה,שאני צורבא מרבנן דקודשא בריך הוא תבע ביקריה,אמר רבי יהושע בן לוי כל המספר אחר מטתן של תלמידי חכמים נופל בגיהנם שנא' (תהלים קכה, ה) והמטים עקלקלותם יוליכם ה' את פועלי האון שלום על ישראל אפילו בשעה ששלום על ישראל יוליכם ה' את פועלי האון,תנא דבי ר' ישמעאל אם ראית תלמיד חכם שעבר עבירה בלילה אל תהרהר אחריו ביום שמא עשה תשובה שמא סלקא דעתך אלא ודאי עשה תשובה והני מילי בדברים שבגופו אבל בממונא עד דמהדר למריה:,ואמר ר' יהושע בן לוי בכ"ד מקומות בית דין מנדי' על כבוד הרב וכולן שנינו במשנתנו אמר ליה ר' אלעזר היכא אמר ליה לכי תשכח,נפק דק ואשכח תלת המזלזל בנטילת ידים והמספר אחר מטתן של תלמידי חכמי' והמגיס דעתו כלפי מעלה,המספר אחר מטתן של תלמידי חכמים מאי היא דתנן הוא היה אומר אין משקין לא את הגיורת ולא את המשוחררת וחכמים אומרים משקין ואמרו לו מעשה בכרכמית שפחה משוחררת בירושלים והשקוה שמעיה ואבטליון ואמר להם דוגמא השקוה ונדוהו ומת בנדויו וסקלו בית דין את ארונו,והמזלזל בנטילת ידים מאי היא דתנן א"ר יהודה חס ושלום שעקביא בן מהללאל נתנדה שאין עזרה ננעלת על כל אדם בישראל בחכמה ובטהרה וביראת חטא כעקביא בן מהללאל אלא את מי נדו את אלעזר בן חנוך שפקפק בנטילת ידים וכשמת שלחו בית דין והניחו אבן גדולה על ארונו ללמדך שכל המתנדה ומת בנדויו ב"ד סוקלין את ארונו,המגיס דעתו כלפי מעלה מאי היא דתנן שלח לו שמעון בן שטח לחוני המעגל צריך אתה להתנדות ואלמלא חוני אתה גוזרני עליך נדוי אבל מה אעשה שאתה מתחטא לפני המקום ועושה לך רצונך כבן שמתחטא לפני אביו ועושה לו רצונו ועליך הכתוב אומר (משלי כג, כה) ישמח אביך ואמך ותגל יולדתך,ותו ליכא והא איכא דתני רב יוסף תודוס איש רומי הנהיג את בני רומי להאכילן גדיים מקולסין בלילי פסחים שלח ליה שמעון בן שטח אלמלא תודוס אתה גוזרני עליך נדוי שאתה מאכיל את ישראל קדשים בחוץ,במשנתנו קאמרינן והא ברייתא היא,ובמתני' ליכא והא איכא הא דתנן חתכו חוליות ונתן חול בין חוליא לחוליא ר' אליעזר מטהר וחכמים מטמאים וזהו תנורו של עכנאי,מאי עכנאי אמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל מלמד שהקיפוהו הלכות כעכנאי זה וטמאוהו,ותניא אותו היום הביאו כל טהרות שטיהר ר"א ושרפום לפניו ולבסוף ברכוהו,אפילו הכי נדוי במתני' לא תנן אלא בכ"ד מקומות היכא משכחת לה ר' יהושע בן לוי מדמה מילתא למילתא ור' אלעזר לא מדמה מילתא למילתא:, נושאי המטה וחלופיהן: ת"ר אין מוציאין את המת סמוך לק"ש ואם התחילו אין מפסיקין איני והא רב יוסף אפקוהו סמוך לק"ש אדם חשוב שאני:,שלפני המטה ושלאחר המטה: ת"ר העוסקים בהספד בזמן שהמת מוטל לפניהם נשמטין אחד אחד וקורין אין המת מוטל לפניהם הן יושבין וקורין והוא יושב ודומם הם עומדים ומתפללין והוא עומד ומצדיק עליו את הדין ואומר רבון העולמים הרבה חטאתי לפניך ולא נפרעת ממני אחד מני אלף יהי רצון מלפניך ה' אלהינו שתגדור פרצותינו ופרצות כל עמך בית ישראל ברחמים,אמר אביי לא מבעי ליה לאינש למימר הכי דארשב"ל וכן תנא משמיה דרבי יוסי לעולם אל יפתח אדם פיו לשטן,ואמר רב יוסף מאי קראה שנאמר (ישעיהו א, ט) כמעט כסדום היינו מאי אהדר להו נביא שמעו דבר ה' קציני סדום:,קברו את המת וחזרו וכו': אם יכולים להתחיל ולגמור את כולה אין אבל פרק אחד או פסוק אחד לא ורמינהו קברו את המת וחזרו אם יכולין להתחיל ולגמור אפילו פרק אחד או פסוק אחד,הכי נמי קאמר אם יכולין להתחיל ולגמור אפי' פרק אחד או אפילו פסוק אחד עד שלא יגיעו לשורה יתחילו ואם לאו לא יתחילו 19a. bAnd if it should enter your mind thatthe dead bdo not know, then what of it if he tells them?The Gemara rejects this: bRather whatwill you say, bthatthey bknow?Then bwhy does heneed bto tell them?The Gemara replies: This is not difficult, as he is telling them so that bthey will give credit to Moses. /b,On this subject, bRabbi Yitzḥak said: Anyone who speaksnegatively bafter the deceased it is as ifhe bspeaks after the stone.The Gemara offers two interpretations of this: bSome saythis is because the dead bdo not know, and some saythat bthey know,but bthey do not carethat they are spoken of in such a manner.,The Gemara asks: bIs that so? Didn’t Rav Pappa say:There was once bsomeone who spokedisparagingly bafterthe death of bMar Shmuel and a reed fell from the ceiling, fracturing his skull?Obviously, the dead care when people speak ill of them.,The Gemara rejects this: This is no proof that the dead care. Rather, a bTorah scholar is different, as GodHimself bdemandsthat bhis honorbe upheld.,Rabbi Yehoshua bben Levi saidsimilarly: bOne who speaksdisparagingly bafter the biers of Torah scholarsand maligns them after their death will bfall in Gehenna, as it is stated: “But those who turn aside unto their crooked ways, the Lord will lead them away with the workers of iniquity; peace be upon Israel”(Psalms 125:5). bEvenif he speaks ill of them bwhen there is peace upon Israel,after death, when they are no longer able to fight those denouncing them ( iTosafot /i); nevertheless bthe Lord will lead them away with the workers of iniquity,to Gehenna.,On a similar note, bit was taught in the school of Rabbi Yishmael: If you saw aTorah bscholar transgress a prohibition at night, do not thinkbadly bof him during the day; perhaps he has repentedin the meantime. The Gemara challenges this: bDoes it enter your mindthat only bperhapshe has repented? Shouldn’t he be given the benefit of the doubt? bRather, he has certainly repented.The Gemara notes: bThe ideathat one must always give a Torah scholar the benefit of the doubt and assume that he has repented refers specifically to bmattersaffecting bhimself, but,if one witnesses a Torah scholar committing a transgression binvolving the propertyof another, one is not required to give him the benefit of the doubt. Rather, he should not assume that he has repented buntilhe sees him breturnthe money to bits owner. /b,Since matters relating to the respect due Torah scholars were raised, the Gemara continues, citing bRabbi Yehoshua ben Levi,who bsaid: There are twenty-four places in which the court ostracizes overmatters of brespectdue bthe rabbi, and we learned them all in our Mishna. Rabbi Elazar said to him: Whereare those cases to be found? Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi bsaid to him: Whenyou look, byouwill bfindthem., bHe went out, analyzed, and found threeexamples: bOne who demeansthe ritual of bwashing of the hands, one who speaksdisparagingly bafter the bier of Torah scholars, and one who is arrogant vis-à-vis Heaven.The Gemara cites sources for each of these cases., bWhat isthe source for bone who speaksdisparagingly bafter the biers of Torah scholars? As we learnedin the mishna: Akavya ben Mahalalel bwould say:In the case of a woman whose husband suspects her of adultery, who was warned by her husband not to seclude herself with another man and she did not listen (see Numbers 5), the court bdoes not administerthe bitter water potion of a isotato ba convert or an emancipatedmaidservant. bAnd the Rabbis say:The court badministersthe bitter water potion to them. bAndthe Rabbis bsaid to himas proof: bThere is the story of Kharkemit, an emancipated maidservant in Jerusalem, and Shemaya and Avtalyon administered herthe bitter waters. Akavya ben Mahalalel bsaid tothe Sages: That is no proof. Shemaya and Avtalyon, who were also from families of converts, required the maidservant bto drinkthe potion because she was blike them [ idugma /i]. Andsince Akavya ben Mahalalel cast aspersion on the deceased Torah scholars, bhe was ostracized and diedwhile bhewas still under the ban of bostracism. Andin accordance with the ihalakhawith regard to one who dies while under a ban of ostracism, the court bstoned his coffin.Apparently, one who deprecates a deceased Torah scholar is sentenced to ostracism.,And bwhat isthe source for bone who demeansthe ritual of bwashing of the hands? We learnedlater in the same mishna: bRabbi Yehuda said:That story related with regard to the ostracism of Akavya ben Mahalalel is completely untrue; bGod forbid that Akavya ben Mahalalel was ostracized, as the Temple courtyard is not closed on any Jew,meaning that even when all of Israel made the pilgrimage to Jerusalem, when each of the three groups that gathered to offer the Paschal lamb filled the courtyard, leading the Temple administration to close the courtyard, there was no one there as perfect bin wisdom, purity and fear of sin as Akavya ben Mahalalel. Rather, whom did they excommunicate? Elazar ben Ḥanokh,because he bdoubtedand demeaned the rabbinic ordice of bwashing of the hands. And when he died, the court sentinstructions band they placed a large rock upon his coffinin order bto teach you that one who is ostracized and dies ina state of bostracism, the court stones his coffin,as if symbolically stoning him. Apparently, one who makes light of the ritual of washing of the hands is sentenced to ostracism., bWhat isthe source for the third case, bone who is arrogant vis-à-vis Heaven?The mishna relates that Ḥoni HaMe’aggel, the circle-drawer, drew a circle and stood inside it, and said that he would not leave the circle until it rained, and he went so far as to make demands in terms of the manner in which he wanted the rain to fall. After it rained, bShimon ben Shataḥ,the iNasiof the Sanhedrin, relayed to bḤoni HaMe’aggel:Actually, byou should be ostracizedfor what you said, band if you were not Ḥoni, I would have decreed ostracism upon you, but what can I do? You nag God and He does your bidding, like a son who nags his father andhis father bdoes his biddingwithout reprimand. After all, the rain fell as you requested. bAbout you, the verse states: “Your father and mother will be glad and she who bore you will rejoice”(Proverbs 23:25). Apparently, one who is arrogant vis-à-vis Heaven would ordinarily merit excommunication.,The Gemara challenges this: bAnd are there no morecases of excommunication or threats of excommunication? bSurely there areadditional cases like the one in the ibaraita btaught by Rav Yosef:It is told that bTheodosius of Rome,leader of the Jewish community there, binstituted the custom for the RomanJews bto eat whole kids,young goats roasted with their entrails over their heads, as was the custom when roasting the Paschal lamb, bon the eve of Passover,as they did in the Temple. bShimon ben Shataḥ senta message bto him: If you were not Theodosius,an important person, bI would have decreed ostracism upon you, asit appears as if byou are feeding Israel consecrated food,which may only be eaten in and around the Temple itself, boutsidethe Temple.,The Gemara responds: This case should not be included, as Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said that there were twenty-four cases bin our Mishna,and bthis ismerely ba ibaraita /i. /b,The Gemara asks: bAnd are there none in the Mishna? Isn’t there that which we learnedin the mishna: bOnewho bcutan earthenware oven horizontally bintoring-shaped bpieces and put sand between the pieces, Rabbi Eliezer deemsthe oven britually pure,i.e., it is no longer susceptible to ritual impurity. He holds that, although the fragments of the oven were pieced together, it is not considered an intact vessel but, rather, as a collection of fragments, and a broken earthenware vessel cannot become ritually impure. bAnd the Rabbis deem it ritually impure.Since the oven continues to serve its original function, it is still considered a single entity and a whole vessel despite the sand put between the pieces. bAnd this iscalled bthe oven of iakhnai /i, snake. /b,The Gemara asks: bWhat isthe meaning of oven of the bsnake? Rav Yehuda saidthat bShmuel said:It is called snake bto teach thatthe Rabbis bsurroundedRabbi Eliezer bwith ihalakhotand proofs blike a snakesurrounds its prey, band declaredthe oven and its contents britually impure. /b, bAnd it was taughtin a ibaraita /i: bOn that day, they gathered allof bthe ritually purefood items that had come into contact with the oven bthat Rabbi Eliezer had declared ritually pure, and burned them before him,and because he did not accept the decision of the majority, bin the end they “blessed,”a euphemism for ostracized, bhim.This is another case that ended in ostracism.,The Gemara answers: bEven so, we did not learnthe ruling with regard to his bostracism in the mishna.The Gemara asks: Then bwhere do you findthe btwenty-four placesmentioned in Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi’s statement? The Gemara responds: bRabbi Yehoshua ben Levi likens one matter to anothersimilar bmatter.Whenever he would encounter a case in a mishna where one of the Sages expressed himself inappropriately in reference to other Sages, he concluded that they should have been excommunicated. bRabbi Elazar does not liken one matter to anothersimilar bmatter,and therefore located only three explicit cases of ostracism.,We learned in the mishna that bthe pallbearers and their replacementsare exempt from the recitation of iShema /i. On this subject, the Gemara cites that which the bSages taughtin a ibaraita /i: bThe deceased may not be taken outto be buried badjacent tothe time for bthe recitation of iShema /i,but should be buried later. bAnd if theyalready bstartedto take him out, bthey need not stopin order to recite iShema /i. The Gemara challenges: bIs that so? Didn’t they take Rav Yosef outto be buried badjacent tothe time for bthe recitation of iShema /i?The Gemara resolves this contradiction: The case of ban important person is different,and they are more lenient in order to honor him at his burial.,In the mishna, we learned the ihalakhawith regard to the pallbearers and their obligation to recite iShema /i, and a distinction was made between those bwho are before the bier andthose bafter the bier. Our Rabbis taughtin a ibaraita /i: bThose involved in eulogy must slip awayfrom the eulogy bone by one while the deceased is laid out before them and recite iShemaelsewhere. And bif the deceased is not laid out before them,the eulogizers must bsit and recite iShema bwhilethe bereaved bsits silently. They stand and pray and he stands and justifies God’s judgment, saying: Master of the Universe, I have sinned greatly against You, and You have not collected even one one-thousandthof my debt. bMay it be Your will, Lord our God, to mercifully repair the breaches in ourfence band the breaches of Your nation, the House of Israel. /b, bAbaye said: A person should not say that, as Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish said, and it was also taught in the name of Rabbi Yosei: One must never open his mouth to the Satan,i.e., one must not leave room for or raise the possibility of disaster or evil. This formula, which states that the entire debt owed due to his transgressions has not been collected, raises the possibility that further payment will be exacted from him., bAnd Rav Yosef said: What is the versefrom which bitis derived? bAs it is stated: “We should have almost been as Sodom,we should have been like unto Gomorrah” (Isaiah 1:9), after which bwhat didthe prophet breply to them? “Hear the word of the Lord, rulers of Sodom;give ear unto the law of our God, people of Gomorrah” (Isaiah 1:10).,We learned in the mishna that, in a case when bthey buried the deceased and returned,if they have sufficient time to begin to recite iShemaand conclude before they arrive at the row formed by those who came to console the bereaved, they should begin. Here, the Gemara clarifies: This is the case only bif they can begin and completerecitation of iShema bin its entirety. However,if they can only complete bone chapter or one verse,they should bnotstop to do so. The Gemara braises a contradictionfrom that which we learned in the ibaraita /i: After bthey buried the deceased and returned, if they can beginthe recitation of iShema band finish even a single chapter or verse,they should begin.,The Gemara responds: bThat is also whatthe itannaof the mishna bsaidand this is the conclusion drawn from his statement: bIf one can begin and conclude even one chapter or one verse before they arrive at the rowof consolers, bthey should begin. And if not, they should not begin. /b
90. Babylonian Talmud, Gittin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

56b. איברא מלכא את דאי לאו מלכא את לא מימסרא ירושלים בידך דכתיב (ישעיהו י, לד) והלבנון באדיר יפול ואין אדיר אלא מלך דכתיב (ירמיהו ל, כא) והיה אדירו ממנו וגו' ואין לבנון אלא ביהמ"ק שנאמר (דברים ג, כה) ההר הטוב הזה והלבנון ודקאמרת אי מלכא אנא אמאי לא קאתית לגבאי עד האידנא בריוני דאית בן לא שבקינן,אמר ליה אילו חבית של דבש ודרקון כרוך עליה לא היו שוברין את החבית בשביל דרקון אישתיק קרי עליה רב יוסף ואיתימא רבי עקיבא (ישעיהו מד, כה) משיב חכמים אחור ודעתם יסכל איבעי ליה למימר ליה שקלינן צבתא ושקלינן ליה לדרקון וקטלינן ליה וחביתא שבקינן לה,אדהכי אתי פריסתקא עליה מרומי אמר ליה קום דמית ליה קיסר ואמרי הנהו חשיבי דרומי לאותיבך ברישא הוה סיים חד מסאני בעא למסיימא לאחרינא לא עייל בעא למשלפא לאידך לא נפק אמר מאי האי,אמר ליה לא תצטער שמועה טובה אתיא לך דכתיב (משלי טו, ל) שמועה טובה תדשן עצם אלא מאי תקנתיה ליתי איניש דלא מיתבא דעתך מיניה ולחליף קמך דכתיב (משלי יז, כב) ורוח נכאה תיבש גרם עבד הכי עייל אמר ליה ומאחר דחכמיתו כולי האי עד האידנא אמאי לא אתיתו לגבאי אמר ליה ולא אמרי לך אמר ליה אנא נמי אמרי לך,אמר ליה מיזל אזילנא ואינש אחרינא משדרנא אלא בעי מינאי מידי דאתן לך אמר ליה תן לי יבנה וחכמיה ושושילתא דרבן גמליאל ואסוותא דמסיין ליה לרבי צדוק קרי עליה רב יוסף ואיתימא רבי עקיבא (ישעיהו מד, כה) משיב חכמים אחור ודעתם יסכל איבעי למימר ליה לשבקינהו הדא זימנא,והוא סבר דלמא כולי האי לא עביד והצלה פורתא נמי לא הוי,אסוותא דמסיין ליה לרבי צדוק מאי היא יומא קמא אשקיוה מיא דפארי למחר מיא דסיפוקא למחר מיא דקימחא עד דרווח מיעיה פורתא פורתא,אזל שדריה לטיטוס ואמר (דברים לב, לז) אי אלהימו צור חסיו בו זה טיטוס הרשע שחירף וגידף כלפי מעלה,מה עשה תפש זונה בידו ונכנס לבית קדשי הקדשים והציע ספר תורה ועבר עליה עבירה ונטל סייף וגידר את הפרוכת ונעשה נס והיה דם מבצבץ ויוצא וכסבור הרג את עצמו שנאמר (תהלים עד, ד) שאגו צורריך בקרב מועדיך שמו אותותם אותות,אבא חנן אומר (תהלים פט, ט) מי כמוך חסין יה מי כמוך חסין וקשה שאתה שומע ניאוצו וגידופו של אותו רשע ושותק דבי רבי ישמעאל תנא (שמות טו, יא) מי כמוכה באלים ה' מי כמוכה באלמים,מה עשה נטל את הפרוכת ועשאו כמין גרגותני והביא כל כלים שבמקדש והניחן בהן והושיבן בספינה לילך להשתבח בעירו שנאמר (קהלת ח, י) ובכן ראיתי רשעים קבורים ובאו וממקום קדוש יהלכו וישתכחו בעיר אשר כן עשו אל תיקרי קבורים אלא קבוצים אל תיקרי וישתכחו אלא וישתבחו,איכא דאמרי קבורים ממש דאפילו מילי דמטמרן איגלייא להון,עמד עליו נחשול שבים לטובעו אמר כמדומה אני שאלהיהם של אלו אין גבורתו אלא במים בא פרעה טבעו במים בא סיסרא טבעו במים אף הוא עומד עלי לטובעני במים אם גבור הוא יעלה ליבשה ויעשה עמי מלחמה יצתה בת קול ואמרה לו רשע בן רשע בן בנו של עשו הרשע בריה קלה יש לי בעולמי ויתוש שמה,אמאי קרי לה בריה קלה דמעלנא אית לה ומפקנא לית לה,עלה ליבשה ותעשה עמה מלחמה עלה ליבשה בא יתוש ונכנס בחוטמו ונקר במוחו שבע שנים יומא חד הוה קא חליף אבבא דבי נפחא שמע קל ארזפתא אישתיק אמר איכא תקנתא כל יומא מייתו נפחא ומחו קמיה לנכרי יהיב ליה ארבע זוזי לישראל אמר ליה מיסתייך דקא חזית בסנאך עד תלתין יומין עבד הכי מכאן ואילך כיון דדש דש,תניא אמר רבי פנחס בן ערובא אני הייתי בין גדולי רומי וכשמת פצעו את מוחו ומצאו בו כצפור דרור משקל שני סלעים במתניתא תנא כגוזל בן שנה משקל שני ליטרין,אמר אביי נקטינן פיו של נחושת וצפורניו של ברזל כי הוה קא מיית אמר להו ליקליוה לההוא גברא ולבדרי לקיטמיה אשב ימי דלא לשכחיה אלהא דיהודאי ולוקמיה בדינא,אונקלוס בר קלוניקוס בר אחתיה דטיטוס הוה בעי לאיגיורי אזל אסקיה לטיטוס בנגידא אמר ליה מאן חשיב בההוא עלמא אמר ליה ישראל מהו לאידבוקי בהו אמר ליה מילייהו נפישין ולא מצית לקיומינהו זיל איגרי בהו בההוא עלמא והוית רישא דכתיב (איכה א, ה) היו צריה לראש וגו' כל המיצר לישראל נעשה ראש אמר ליה דיניה דההוא גברא במאי א"ל 56b. bin truth, you are a king,if not now, then in the future. bAs if you are not a king, Jerusalem will not be handed over into your hand, as it is written: “And the Lebanon shall fall by a mighty one”(Isaiah 10:34). bAnd “mighty one”means bonly a king, as it is written: “And their mighty one shall be of themselves,and their ruler shall proceed from the midst of them” (Jeremiah 30:21), indicating that “mighty one” parallels “ruler.” bAnd “Lebanon”means bonly the Temple, as it is stated: “That good mountain and the Lebanon”(Deuteronomy 3:25). bAndas for bwhat you saidwith your second comment: bIf I am a king why didn’t you come to me until now, there are zealots among uswho bdid not allow usto do this.,Understanding that Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai was prepared to ask him not to destroy the Temple, Vespasian bsaid to him: Ifthere is ba barrel of honey and a snake [ iderakon /i] is wrapped around it, wouldn’t they break the barrel in order tokill bthe snake?In similar fashion, I am forced to destroy the city of Jerusalem in order to kill the zealots barricaded within it. Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai bwas silentand did not answer. In light of this, bRav Yoseflater breadthe following verse babout him, and some saythat it was bRabbi Akivawho applied the verse to Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai: “I am the Lord… bWho turns wise men backward and makes their knowledge foolish”(Isaiah 44:25). As Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai bshould have saidthe following btoVespasian in response: In such a case, bwe take tongs, remove the snake, and kill it, andin this way bwe leave the barrelintact. So too, you should kill the rebels and leave the city as it is., bIn the meantime,as they were talking, ba messenger [ iferistaka /i] arrived from Rome,and bsaid to him: Rise, for the emperor has died, and the noblemen of Rome plan to appoint you astheir bleaderand make you the next emperor. At that time Vespasian bwas wearingonly bone shoe,and when bhe tried to put on the other one, it would not go onhis foot. bHethen btried to remove the othershoe that he was already wearing, but bit would not come off. He said: What is this? /b,Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai bsaid to him: Be not distressedor troubled, for bgood tidings have reached you, as it is written: “Good tidings make the bone fat”(Proverbs 15:30), and your feet have grown fatter out of joy and satisfaction. Vespasian said to him: bBut what is the remedy?What must I do in order to put on my shoe? Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai bsaid to him: Have someone with whom you are displeased come and pass before you, as it is written: “A broken spirit dries the bones”(Proverbs 17:22). bHe did this, andhis shoe bwent onhis foot. Vespasian bsaid to him: Since you are so wise, why didn’t you come tosee bme until now?Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai bsaid to him: But didn’t Ialready btell you?Vespasian bsaid to him: I also told youwhat I had to say.,Vespasian then bsaid toRabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai: bI will be goingto Rome to accept my new position, band I will send someone elsein my place to continue besieging the city and waging war against it. bButbefore I leave, bask something of me that Ican bgive you.Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai bsaid to him: Give me Yavne and its Sagesand do not destroy it, bandspare bthe dynasty of Rabban Gamlieland do not kill them as if they were rebels, bandlastly give me bdoctors to heal Rabbi Tzadok. Rav Yosef readthe following verse babout him, and some saythat it was bRabbi Akivawho applied the verse to Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai: “I am the Lord… bWho turns wise men backward and makes their knowledge foolish”(Isaiah 44:25), as bhe should have said to him to leavethe Jews alone bthis time. /b, bAndwhy didn’t Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai make this request? bHe maintainedthat Vespasian bmight not do that muchfor him, band there would not be even a smallamount of bsalvation.Therefore, he made only a modest request, in the hope that he would receive at least that much.,The Gemara asks: bWhatwas he requesting when he asked for bdoctors to heal Rabbi Tzadok?How did they heal him? bThe first day they gave him water to drinkthat contained bbran [ iparei /i]. The nextday they gave him bwatercontaining bflour mixed with bran [ isipuka /i]. The following daythey gave him bwatercontaining bflour.In this way they slowly restored his ability to eat, allowing bhis stomach to broaden little by little. /b,§ Vespasian bwentback to Rome and bsent Titusin his place. The Gemara cites a verse that was expounded as referring to Titus: b“And he shall say: Where is their God, their rock in whom they trusted?”(Deuteronomy 32:37). bThis is the wicked Titus, who insulted and blasphemed God on High. /b, bWhat didTitus bdowhen he conquered the Temple? bHe took a prostitute with his hand, and entered the Holy of Holieswith her. bHethen bspread out a Torah scrollunderneath him band committed a sin,i.e., engaged in sexual intercourse, bon it.Afterward bhe took a sword and cut into the curtainseparating between the Sanctuary and the Holy of Holies. bAnd a miracle was performed and blood spurted forth.Seeing the blood, bhemistakenly bthoughtthat bhe had killed himself.Here, the term himself is a euphemism for God. Titus saw blood issuing forth from the curtain in God’s meeting place, the Temple, and he took it as a sign that he had succeeded in killing God Himself. bAs it is stated: “Your enemies roar in the midst of Your meeting place; they have set up their own signs for signs”(Psalms 74:4)., bAbba Ḥa says:The verse states: b“Who is strong like You, O Lord?”(Psalms 89:9). bWho is strong and indurate like You, as You hear the abuse and the blasphemy of that wicked man and remain silent.Similarly, bthe school of Rabbi Yishmael taughtthat the verse: b“Who is like You, O Lord, among the gods [ ielim /i]”(Exodus 15:11), should be read as: bWho is like You among the mute [ iilmim /i],for You conduct Yourself like a mute and remain silent in the face of Your blasphemers., bWhatelse did Titus bdo? He took the curtain and formed it like a large basket, and brought all of thesacred bvessels of the Temple and placed them in it. And he put them on a ship to go and be praised in his citythat he had conquered Jerusalem, bas it is stated: “And so I saw the wicked buried, and come to their rest; but those that had done right were gone from the holy place, and were forgotten in the city; this also is vanity”(Ecclesiastes 8:10). bDo not readthe word bas “buried [ ikevurim /i].” Rather,read it as bcollected [ ikevutzim /i].And bdo not readthe word bas “and were forgotten [ iveyishtakeḥu /i].” Rather,read it as: bAnd they were praised [ iveyishtabeḥu /i].According to this interpretation, the verse speaks of those who will gather and collect items “from the holy place,” the Temple, and be praised in their city about what they had done., bThere arethose bwho saythat the verse is to be read as written, as it is referring to items that were bactually buried.This is because beven items that had been buried were revealed to them,i.e., Titus and his soldiers, as they found all of the sacred vessels.,It is further related about Titus that he was once traveling bat seaand ba wave rose up against himand threatened bto drown him.Titus bsaid: It seems to me that their God,the God of Israel, bhas power only in water. Pharaoh roseagainst them and bHe drowned him in water. Sisera roseagainst them and bHe drowned him in water.Here btoo, He has risen up against me to drown me in water. If He isreally bmighty, let Him go up on dry land andthere bwage war against me. A Divine Voice issued forth and said to him: Wicked one, son of a wicked one, grandson of Esau the wicked,for you are among his descendants and act just like him, bI have a lowly creature in My world and it is called a gnat. /b,The Gemara interjects: bWhy is it called a lowly creature?It is called this bbecause it has an entrancefor taking in food, bbut it does not have an exitfor excretion.,The Gemara resumes its story about Titus. The Divine Voice continued: bGo up on dry land and make war with it. He went up on dry land,and ba gnat came, entered his nostril, and picked at his brain for seven years.Titus suffered greatly from this until bone day he passed by the gate of a blacksmith’s shop.The gnat bheard the sound of a hammerand bwas silentand still. Titus bsaid:I see that bthere is a remedyfor my pain. bEvery day they would bring a blacksmith who hammered before him. He would give four dinarsas payment bto a gentileblacksmith, and bto a Jew he wouldsimply bsay: It is enough for you that you see your enemyin so much pain. bHe did this for thirty daysand it was effective until then. bFrom thatpoint bforward, sincethe gnat bbecame accustomedto the hammering, bit became accustomedto it, and once again it began to pick away at Titus’s brain., bIt is taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Pineḥas ben Arova said: I wasat that time bamong the noblemen of Rome, and whenTitus bdied they split open his head and foundthat the gnat had grown to bthe size of a sparrow weighing two isela /i. It was taught inanother ibaraita /i:It was blikea one- byear-old pigeon weighing two ilitra /i. /b, bAbaye said: We have a traditionthat bits mouthwas made bof copper and its claws werefashioned of biron. WhenTitus bwas dying, he said tohis attendants: bBurn that man,i.e., me, band scatter his ashes across the seven seas, so that the God of the Jews should not find me and stand me for judgment. /b,§ The Gemara relates: bOnkelos bar Kalonikos, the son of Titus’s sister, wanted to convertto Judaism. bHe wentand braised Titusfrom the grave bthrough necromancy,and bsaid to him: Who ismost bimportant in that worldwhere you are now? Titus bsaid to him: The Jewish people.Onkelos asked him: bShould Ithen battachmyself bto themhere in this world? Titus bsaid to him: Their commandments are numerous, and you will not be able to fulfill them.It is best that you do as follows: bGoout and bbattle against them in that world, and you will become the chief, as it is written: “Her adversaries [ itzareha /i] have become the chief”(Lamentations 1:5), which means: bAnyone who distresses [ imeitzer /i] Israel will become the chief.Onkelos bsaid to him: What is the punishment of that man,a euphemism for Titus himself, in the next world? Titus bsaid to him: /b
91. Babylonian Talmud, Hagigah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

16b. הראשונים היו נשיאים ושניים להם אב ב"ד:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big ת"ר שלשה מזוגות הראשונים שאמרו שלא לסמוך ושנים מזוגות האחרונים שאמרו לסמוך (הראשונים) היו נשיאים ושניים להם אבות ב"ד דברי רבי מאיר וחכמים אומרים יהודה בן טבאי אב ב"ד ושמעון בן שטח נשיא,מאן תנא להא דתנו רבנן אמר רבי יהודה בן טבאי אראה בנחמה אם לא הרגתי עד זומם להוציא מלבן של צדוקין שהיו אומרים אין עדים זוממין נהרגין עד שיהרג הנידון,אמר לו שמעון בן שטח אראה בנחמה אם לא שפכת דם נקי שהרי אמרו חכמים אין עדים זוממין נהרגין עד שיזומו שניהם ואין לוקין עד שיזומו שניהם ואין משלמין ממון עד שיזומו שניהם,מיד קבל עליו יהודה בן טבאי שאינו מורה הלכה אלא בפני שמעון בן שטח,כל ימיו של יהודה בן טבאי היה משתטח על קברו של אותו הרוג והיה קולו נשמע כסבורין העם לומר שקולו של הרוג הוא אמר להם קולי הוא תדעו שלמחר הוא מת ואין קולו נשמע,אמר ליה רב אחא בריה דרבא לרב אשי ודלמא פיוסי פייסיה או בדינא תבעי',מני הא אי אמרת בשלמא רבי מאיר דאמר שמעון בן שטח אב ב"ד ר"י בן טבאי נשיא היינו דקא מורי הלכה בפני שמעון בן שטח אלא אי אמרת רבנן דאמרי יהודה בן טבאי אב ב"ד שמעון בן שטח נשיא אב ב"ד בפני נשיא מי מורה הלכה,לא מאי קבל עליו דקאמר לאצטרופי דאפי' אצטרופי נמי לא מצטריפנא:,יצא מנחם ונכנס שמאי כו': להיכן יצא אביי אמר יצא לתרבות רעה רבא אמר יצא לעבודת המלך תניא נמי הכי יצא מנחם לעבודת המלך ויצאו עמו שמונים זוגות תלמידים לבושין סיריקון,אמר רב שמן בר אבא א"ר יוחנן לעולם אל תהא שבות קלה בעיניך שהרי סמיכה אינה אלא משום שבות ונחלקו בה גדולי הדור,פשיטא שבות מצוה אצטריכא ליה,הא נמי פשיטא לאפוקי ממאן דאמר בסמיכה גופה פליגי קא משמע לן בשבות הוא דפליגי,אמר רמי בר חמא שמע מינה סמיכה בכל כחו בעינן דאי ס"ד לא בעינן בכל כחו מאי קא עביד ליסמוך,מיתיבי (ויקרא א, ב) דבר אל בני ישראל וסמך בני ישראל סומכין ואין בנות ישראל סומכות רבי יוסי ור' (ישמעאל) [שמעון] אומרים בנות ישראל סומכות רשות,אמר רבי יוסי סח לי אבא אלעזר פעם אחת היה לנו עגל של זבחי שלמים והביאנוהו לעזרת נשים וסמכו עליו נשים לא מפני שסמיכה בנשים אלא כדי לעשות נחת רוח לנשים ואי ס"ד סמיכה בכל כחו בעינן משום נחת רוח דנשים עבדינן עבודה בקדשים אלא לאו ש"מ לא בעינן בכל כחו,לעולם אימא לך בעינן בכל כחו דאמר להו אקפו ידייכו אי הכי לא מפני שסמיכה בנשים תיפוק ליה דאינה לסמיכה כלל,א"ר אמי חדא ועוד קאמר חדא דליתא לסמיכה כלל ועוד כדי לעשות נחת רוח לנשים,אמר רב פפא שמע מינה צדדין אסורין דאי ס"ד צדדין מותרין לסמוך לצדדין אלא לאו שמע מינה צדדין אסורין 16b. bThe firstmembers of each pair bserved as iNasi /i, and their counterpartsserved as bdeputy iNasi /i. /b, strongGEMARA: /strong bThe Sages taught: Three of the first pairs who say not to place hands and two of the last pairs who say to place hands served as iNasi /i, and their counterpartsserved as bdeputy iNasi /i;this is bthe statement of Rabbi Meir. And the Rabbis saythe opposite: bYehuda ben Tabbaiwas bdeputy iNasiand Shimon ben Shataḥwas the iNasi /i. /b,The Gemara asks: bWho is the itanna /iwho taught bthat which the Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: bRabbi Yehuda ben Tabbai said:I swear that bI willnot bsee the consolationof Israel bif I did not kill a conspiring witness.This means that Rabbi Yehuda ben Tabbai sentenced a conspiring witness to death, in order bto counter the views of the Sadducees, who would say: Conspiring witnesses are not executed unless the sentenced one has been executed.Their views opposed the traditional view, which maintains that conspiring witnesses are executed only if the one sentenced by their testimony has not yet been executed., bShimon ben Shataḥ said to him:I swear that bI willnot bsee the consolationof Israel bif you did not shed innocent blood, as the Sages said: Conspiring witnesses are not executed unless they are both found to be conspirators;if only one is found to be a conspirator, he is not executed. bAnd they are not floggedif they are liable to such a penalty, bunless they are both found to be conspirators. Andif they testified falsely that someone owed money, bthey do not pay money unless they are both found to be conspirators. /b,Hearing this, bYehuda ben Tabbai immediately accepted upon himself not to ruleon any matter of blaw unless he was in the presence of Shimon ben Shataḥ,as he realized he could not rely on his own judgment.,The ibaraitafurther relates: bAll of Yehuda ben Tabbai’s days, he would prostrate himself on the grave of that executedindividual, to request forgiveness, band his voice was heardweeping. bThe people thought that it was the voice of that executedperson, rising from his grave. Yehuda ben Tabbai bsaid to them: It is my voice,and byoushall bknowthat it is so, bfor tomorrow,i.e., sometime in the future, bhe will die, and his voice will nolonger bbe heard.Yehuda ben Tabbai was referring to himself, but he did not want to mention something negative about himself in direct terms., bRav Aḥa, son of Rava, said to Rav Ashi:This provides no conclusive proof that the voice was not that of the executed man, as bperhapsben Tabbai bappeasedthe executed individual in the World-to-Come. bOr,alternatively, the latter may have bprosecuted him by the lawof Heaven, and that is why his voice can no longer be heard.,The Gemara returns to its original question: bWhoseopinion does bthis ibaraitafollow? bGranted, if you sayit is in accordance bwiththat of bRabbi Meir,who bsaidthat bShimon ben Shataḥ was deputy iNasi /iwhile bRabbi Yehuda ben Tabbai was iNasi /i, thatexplains why bhehad previously bissued a halakhic ruling in the presence of Shimon ben Shataḥto execute the conspiring witness, and only after that unfortunate incident did he undertake to issue rulings only in the presence of his colleague. bBut if you saythat the ibaraitais in accordance with bthe Sages, who said: Yehuda ben Tabbaiwas bdeputy iNasi /iand bShimon ben Shataḥthe iNasi /i,why did he need to make such a commitment? bMaythe bdeputy iNasiissue a halakhic ruling in the presence ofthe iNasi /i? /b,The Gemara refutes this: bNo; whatdid he mean by baccepting upon himselfnot to rule on his own? bHe spokewith regard bto joiningthe ruling of others: bEvenwith regard to bjoiningthe ruling of others, bI will also not joinuntil I have first heard the view of Shimon ben Shataḥ.,§ It is taught in the mishna: bMenaḥem departed and Shammai entered.The Gemara asks: bTo where didMenaḥem bdepart? Abaye said: He departed and went astray.Therefore, the mishna did not wish to delve into the details of his case. bRava said: He departed for the king’s service.He received a post from the king and had to leave the court. bThis is also taughtin a ibaraita /i: bMenaḥem departed for the king’s service, and eighty pairs of students dressed in silk robes left with himto work for the king, and that they no longer studied Torah.,§ bRav Shemen bar Abba saidthat bRabbi Yoḥa said: A rabbinic decree [ ishevut /i] should never be taken lightly in your eyes, since placing handson the head of an offering on a Festival bis prohibited only as a rabbinic decreebecause it is considered making use of an animal, which is not considered a prohibited labor but merely resembles one, and yet bthe greatestscholars bof each generation disputed it. /b,The Gemara is puzzled by this statement: This bis obvious.Since it is an accepted rabbinic decree, why should people take it lightly? The Gemara answers: It was bnecessary for himto state it because it is ba rabbinic decree related to a mitzva.In other words, although this rabbinic decree of placing the hands on an animal is not performed for one’s own sake but for the purpose of a mitzva, it was nevertheless a serious matter in the eyes of the Sages.,The Gemara remains puzzled: bThis too is obvious.In that case as well, the act is prohibited by the Sages. The Gemara responds: Rabbi Yoḥa’s statement comes bto excludethe opinion bof the one who saidthat bthey disagree with regard to the actualobligation of bplacing hands,i.e., whether or not obligatory peace-offerings require placing the hands. bHetherefore bteaches usthat bit is a rabbinic decreethat is the subject bof their dispute,not the requirement itself., bRami bar Ḥama said:You can blearn from here,from this dispute, that the mitzva of bplacing handsrequires not only placing one’s hands on the animal’s head, but bwe also requirethat one places his hands bwith all his strength. For if it enters your mindthat bwe do not require all his strength, whatprohibition bdoes one violateby placing his hands? bLet him placethem on a Festival as well, as this does not resemble a prohibited action at all., bThe Gemara raises an objectionto this from a ibaraita /i: b“Speak to the children of [ ibenei /i] Israel”(Leviticus 1:2). The word ibeneiliterally means: Sons of. And it states nearby: b“And he shall placehis hand on the head of the burnt-offering” (Leviticus 1:4), from which we learn that bthe sons of Israel placetheir hands, bbut the daughters of Israel do not placethem. bRabbi Yosei and Rabbi Yishmael say: It is optional for the daughters of Israel to placetheir hands. They may place their hands if they so choose, although they are not obligated to do so., bRabbi Yosei said:The Sage bAbba Elazar related to methe following incident: bOn one occasion, we had a calf for a peace-offering, and we brought it to the Women’s Courtyard, and women placedtheir hands bon it.We did this bnot because thereis an obligation of bplacing hands inthe case of bwomen, but in order to please the women,by allowing them to sacrifice an offering, in all of its particulars, as men do. Now, bif it enters your mindthat bwe requireplacing hands bwith all one’s strength,would bwe perform work with consecratedofferings bin order to pleasethe bwomen?Placing one’s hands forcefully on an animal is considered performing work with it, and if one does it without being obligated to do so, he has thereby performed work with an offering. bRather, isn’t itcorrect to bconclude from thisthat bwe do not requireplacing hands bwith all one’s strength? /b,The Gemara rejects this: bActually, Icould bsay to youthat bwe do requireplacing hands bwith all one’s strength,but here they allowed women to place their hands bby saying to them: Ease your handsand do not press forcefully, so that their hand placing should not constitute work. The Gemara retorts: bIf so,then the reason formulated as: bNot because thereis an obligation to bplace hands inthe case of bwomen,is irrelevant to this law. bLet him derivethe permission for women to do so from the reason that bit is notconsidered bplacing hands at all.If placing hands must be performed with all one’s strength, this action the women are performing does not constitute placing hands., bRabbi Ami said: He stated onereason band another. Onereason is bthat it is notconsidered bplacing hands at all,as it is not performed with all of one’s strength; band anotherreason is that they allowed it bin order to please the women. /b, bRav Pappa said: Learn from thisthat anything upon which one may not place objects or upon which one may not sit on Shabbat, its bsides arelikewise bprohibited, for if it enters your mindto say that the bsides are permitted,they could have told the women bto placetheir hands bon the sides,i.e., on the head of the animal rather than on its back, as the head of the animal is considered as if it were one of its sides. bRather,must one bnot conclude from thisthat the bsides are prohibited? /b
92. Babylonian Talmud, Ketuvot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

63a. קא מדברת אלמנות חיים אמרה ליה אי לדידי ציית יתיב תרי סרי שני אחריני אמר ברשות קא עבידנא הדר אזיל ויתיב תרי סרי שני אחריני בבי רב כי אתא אייתי בהדיה עשרין וארבעה אלפי תלמידי שמעה דביתהו הות קא נפקא לאפיה אמרו לה שיבבתא שאילי מאני לבוש ואיכסאי אמרה להו (משלי יב, י) יודע צדיק נפש בהמתו כי מטיא לגביה נפלה על אפה קא מנשקא ליה לכרעיה הוו קא מדחפי לה שמעיה אמר להו שבקוה שלי ושלכם שלה הוא,שמע אבוה דאתא גברא רבה למתא אמר איזיל לגביה אפשר דמפר נדראי אתא לגביה א"ל אדעתא דגברא רבה מי נדרת א"ל אפילו פרק אחד ואפי' הלכה אחת אמר ליה אנא הוא נפל על אפיה ונשקיה על כרעיה ויהיב ליה פלגא ממוניה ברתיה דר"ע עבדא ליה לבן עזאי הכי והיינו דאמרי אינשי רחילא בתר רחילא אזלא כעובדי אמה כך עובדי ברתא,רב יוסף בריה דרבא שדריה אבוהי לבי רב לקמיה דרב יוסף פסקו ליה שית שני כי הוה תלת שני מטא מעלי יומא דכפורי אמר איזיל ואיחזינהו לאינשי ביתי שמע אבוהי שקל מנא ונפק לאפיה אמר ליה זונתך נזכרת איכא דאמרי אמר ליה יונתך נזכרת איטרוד לא מר איפסיק ולא מר איפסיק:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big המורדת על בעלה פוחתין לה מכתובתה שבעה דינרין בשבת ר' יהודה אומר שבעה טרפעיקין עד מתי הוא פוחת עד כנגד כתובתה ר' יוסי אומר לעולם הוא פוחת והולך עד שאם תפול לה ירושה ממקום אחר גובה הימנה וכן המורד על אשתו מוסיפין על כתובתה שלשה דינרין בשבת ר' יהודה אומר שלשה טרפעיקין:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big מורדת ממאי רב הונא אמר מתשמיש המטה ר' יוסי ברבי חנינא אמר ממלאכה תנן וכן המורד על אשתו בשלמא למ"ד מתשמיש לחיי אלא למאן דאמר ממלאכה מי משועבד לה אין באומר איני זן ואיני מפרנס,והאמר רב האומר איני זן ואיני מפרנס יוציא ויתן כתובה ולאו לאמלוכי ביה בעי:,מיתבי אחת לי ארוסה ונשואה ואפי' נדה ואפילו חולה ואפי' שומרת יבם,(בשלמא למאן דאמר ממלאכה שפיר אלא למאן דאמר מתשמיש נדה בת תשמיש היא אמר לך אינו דומה מי שיש לו פת בסלו למי שאין לו,איכא דאמרי) בשלמא למאן דאמר מתשמיש היינו דקתני חולה 63a. bwill you leadthe life of a bwidow of a living man,living alone while your husband is in another place? bShe said to him: If hewould blisten to me, he would sitand study bfor another twelve years.When Rabbi Akiva heard this bhe said: I have permission to dothis. bHe went back and sat for another twelve years in the study hall. When he cameback bhe brought twenty-four thousand students with him. His wife heard and went outtoward him bto greet him. Her neighbors said: Borrow some clothes and wear them,as your current apparel is not appropriate to meet an important person. bShe said to them: “A righteous man understands the life of his beast”(Proverbs 12:10). bWhen she came to him she fell on her face and kissed his feet. His attendants pushed heraway as they did not know who she was, and bhe said to them: Leave heralone, as bmyTorah knowledge band yours isactually bhers. /b,In the meantime bher father heard that a great man came to the town. He said: I will go to him. Maybe he will nullify my vowand I will be able to support my daughter. bHe came to himto ask about nullifying his vow, and Rabbi Akiva bsaid to him: Did you vow thinking thatthis Akiva bwould become a great man? He said to him:If I had believed he would know beven one chapter or even one ihalakha /iI would not have been so harsh. bHe said to him: I am he.Ben Kalba Savua bfell on his face and kissed his feet and gave him half of his money.The Gemara relates: bRabbi Akiva’s daughter did the samething bfor ben Azzai,who was also a simple person, and she caused him to learn Torah in a similar way, by betrothing herself to him and sending him off to study. bThisexplains the folk saying bthat people say: The ewe follows the ewe; the daughter’s actions are the same as her mother’s. /b,On the same subject it is related: bRav Yosef, son of Rava, was sent by his father to the study hallto learn bbeforethe great Sage bRav Yosef.They bagreedthat bheshould sit for bsix yearsin the study hall. bWhen three years hadpassed, bthe eve of Yom Kippur arrivedand bhe said: I will go and see the members of my household,meaning his wife. bHis father heard and took a weapon,as if he were going to war, band went to meet him.According to one version bhe said to him: Did you remember your mistress,as you are abandoning your studies to see a woman? bThere arethose bwho saythat he said to him: bDid you remember your dove?Since both father and son were involved in an argument, bthey were preoccupiedand bthis Master did not eat the cessationmeal before Yom Kippur band that Masteralso bdid not eat the cessationmeal that day., strongMISHNA: /strong A woman bwho rebels against her husbandis fined; bher marriage contract is reducedby bseven dinarseach bweek. Rabbi Yehuda says: Seven half-dinars [ iterapa’ikin /i]each week. bUntil when does he reduceher marriage contract? bUntilthe reductions are bequivalent to her marriage contract,i.e., until he no longer owes her any money, at which point he divorces her without any payment. bRabbi Yosei says: He can always continue to deductfrom the sum, even beyond that which is owed to her due to her marriage contract, bso that if she will receive an inheritance from another source, he can collectthe extra amount bfrom her. And similarly,if a man brebels against his wife,he is fined and an extra bthree dinars a week are added to her marriage contract. Rabbi Yehuda says: Three iterapa’ikin /i. /b, strongGEMARA: /strong The Gemara asks: bAgainst whatdoes bshe rebel;what is the nature of the rebellion discussed in the mishna? bRav Huna said: Againstengaging in bmarital relations. Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, said: Againstthe btasksshe is obligated to perform for her husband. The Gemara clarifies this dispute. bThe mishna states: Similarly, ifa man brebels against his wife. Granted, according to the one who saysthat the rebellion is bagainst marital relations, it is well,as this type of rebellion can apply equally to a husband. bHowever, according to the one who saysthat she rebels bagainstperforming btasks, is he subjugated to herto perform tasks? The Gemara answers: bYes,he is, as the mishna is discussing bsomeone who says: I will not sustain and I will not supportmy wife.,The Gemara asks: bBut didn’t Rav say: One who says: I will not sustain and I will not supportmy wife bmustimmediately bdivorceher band give herthe payment for her bmarriage contract?What relevance is there to a discussion of a weekly fine? The Gemara answers: bShouldn’t he be consultedto investigate whether he will retract his decision? In the interim, while the court discusses the issue with him and explains that he must divorce his wife if he does not retract his decision, he is fined by the addition of three dinars per week to her marriage contract.,The Gemara braises an objectionfrom a ibaraitawith regard to a rebellious woman: bIt is the same to me,i.e., the same ihalakhaapplies, if the woman who rebelled is ba betrothed woman, or a married woman, or even a menstruating woman, or evenif she is bill, or evenif she is ba widow waiting for her iyavam /ito perform levirate marriage.,The Gemara discusses the ibaraita /i. bGranted, according to the one who saysthat her rebelliousness is referring to performing btasks, it is well. However, according to the one who saysthat she rebels bagainstengaging in bmarital relations,is ba menstruating woman fit toengage in bmarital relations?She is not, and therefore there would be no significance to her refusal. The Gemara answers: The one who advocates that opinion could have bsaid to you: One who has bread in his basket,i.e., one who has engaged in marital relations with his wife in the past, bis not comparable to one who does not havebread in his basket. Since she declares her refusal to engage in marital relations, he suffers from this refusal even when she is menstruating or ill., bThere arethose bwho saythat the objection was phrased differently. bGranted, according to the one who saysthat the rebellion discussed in the mishna is referring to bengaging in marital relations, thisexplanation bisconsistent with bthat which is taughtwith regard to ban ill woman,that she be fined as a rebellious woman, as even if she is not capable of working, she can still be rebellious with regard to marital relations.
93. Babylonian Talmud, Moed Qatan, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

16b. אף דברי תורה בסתר,יצא רבי חייא ושנה לשני בני אחיו בשוק לרב ולרבה בר בר חנה שמע ר' איקפד אתא ר' חייא לאיתחזויי ליה א"ל עייא מי קורא לך בחוץ ידע דנקט מילתא בדעתיה נהג נזיפותא בנפשיה תלתין יומין,ביום תלתין שלח ליה תא הדר שלח ליה דלא ליתי,מעיקרא מאי סבר ולבסוף מאי סבר מעיקרא סבר מקצת היום ככולו ולבסוף סבר לא אמרינן מקצת היום ככולו,לסוף אתא א"ל אמאי אתית א"ל דשלח לי מר דליתי והא שלחי לך דלא תיתי א"ל זה ראיתי וזה לא ראיתי קרי עליה (משלי טז, ז) ברצות ה' דרכי איש גם אויביו ישלים אתו,מ"ט עבד מר הכי א"ל דכתיב (משלי א, כ) חכמות בחוץ תרונה א"ל אם קרית לא שנית ואם שנית לא שילשת ואם שילשת לא פירשו לך,חכמות בחוץ תרונה כדרבא דאמר רבא כל העוסק בתורה מבפנים תורתו מכרזת עליו מבחוץ,והא כתיב (ישעיהו מח, טז) לא מראש בסתר דברתי ההוא ביומי דכלה,ור' חייא האי חמוקי ירכיך מאי עביד לה מוקי לה בצדקה ובגמילות חסדים,אלמא נזיפה דידהו תלתין יומין נזיפת נשיא שאני,ונזיפה דידן כמה הוי חד יומא כי הא דשמואל ומר עוקבא כי הוו יתבי גרס שמעתא הוה יתיב מר עוקבא קמיה דשמואל ברחוק ד' אמות וכי הוו יתבי בדינא הוה יתיב שמואל קמיה דמר עוקבא ברחוק ד' אמות והוו חייקי ליה דוכתא למר עוקבא בציפתא ויתיב עילויה כי היכי דלישתמען מיליה,כל יומא הוה מלוי ליה מר עוקבא לשמואל עד אושפיזיה יומא חד איטריד בדיניה הוה אזיל שמואל בתריה כי מטא לביתיה א"ל לא נגה לך לישרי לי מר בתיגריה ידע דנקט מילתא בדעתיה נהג נזיפותא בנפשיה חד יומא,ההיא איתתא דהוות יתבה בשבילא הוות פשטה כרעה וקא מניפה חושלאי והוה חליף ואזיל צורבא מרבנן ולא איכנעה מקמיה אמר כמה חציפא ההיא איתתא אתאי לקמיה דר"נ אמר לה מי שמעת שמתא מפומיה אמרה ליה לא אמר לה זילי נהוגי נזיפותא חד יומא בנפשיך,זוטרא בר טוביה הוה קפסיק סידרא קמיה דרב יהודה כי מטא להאי פסוקא (שמואל ב כג, א) ואלה דברי דוד האחרונים א"ל אחרונים מכלל דאיכא ראשונים ראשונים מאי נינהו,שתיק ולא אמר ליה ולא מידי הדר א"ל אחרונים מכלל דאיכא ראשונים ראשונים מאי היא א"ל מאי דעתך דלא ידע פירושא דהאי קרא לאו גברא רבה הוא ידע דנקט מילתא בדעתיה נהג נזיפותא בנפשיה חד יומא,ודאתן עלה מיהא אחרונים מכלל דאיכא ראשונים ראשונים מאי היא (שמואל ב כב, א) וידבר דוד לה' את דברי השירה הזאת ביום הציל ה' אותו מכף כל אויביו ומכף שאול,אמר לו הקב"ה לדוד דוד שירה אתה אומר על מפלתו של שאול אלמלי אתה שאול והוא דוד איבדתי כמה דוד מפניו,היינו דכתיב (תהלים ז, א) שגיון לדוד אשר שר לה' על דברי כוש בן ימיני וכי כוש שמו והלא שאול שמו אלא מה כושי משונה בעורו אף שאול משונה במעשיו,כיוצא בדבר אתה אומר (במדבר יב, א) על אודות האשה הכושית אשר לקח וכי כושית שמה והלא ציפורה שמה אלא מה כושית משונה בעורה אף ציפורה משונה במעשיה כיוצא בדבר אתה אומר (ירמיהו לח, ז) וישמע עבד מלך הכושי וכי כושי שמו והלא צדקיה שמו אלא מה כושי משונה בעורו אף צדקיה משונה במעשיו,כיוצא בדבר אתה אומר (עמוס ט, ז) הלא כבני כושיים אתם לי (בית) ישראל וכי כושיים שמן והלא ישראל שמן אלא מה כושי משונה בעורו אף ישראל משונין במעשיהן מכל האומות,א"ר שמואל בר נחמני א"ר יונתן מאי דכתיב (שמואל ב כג, א) נאם דוד בן ישי ונאם הגבר הוקם על נאם דוד בן ישי שהקים עולה של תשובה,(שמואל ב כג, ג) אמר אלהי ישראל לי דבר צור ישראל מושל באדם צדיק מושל יראת אלהים מאי קאמר א"ר אבהו ה"ק אמר אלהי ישראל לי דבר צור ישראל אני מושל באדם מי מושל בי צדיק שאני גוזר גזרה ומבטלה,(שמואל ב כג, ח) אלה שמות הגבורים אשר לדוד יושב בשבת וגו' מאי קאמר א"ר אבהו ה"ק ואלה שמות גבורותיו של דוד,יושב בשבת בשעה שהיה יושב בישיבה לא היה יושב על גבי כרים וכסתות אלא על גבי קרקע דכל כמה דהוה רביה עירא היאירי קיים הוה מתני להו לרבנן על גבי כרים וכסתות כי נח נפשיה הוה מתני דוד לרבנן והוה יתיב על גבי קרקע אמרו ליה ליתיב מר אכרים וכסתות לא קביל עליה,תחכמוני אמר רב אמר לו הקב"ה הואיל והשפלת עצמך תהא כמוני שאני גוזר גזרה ואתה מבטלה,ראש השלישים תהא ראש לשלשת אבות הוא עדינו העצני כשהיה יושב ועוסק בתורה היה מעדן עצמו כתולעת ובשעה שיוצא למלחמה היה מקשה עצמו כעץ,על שמונה מאות חלל בפעם אחת שהיה זורק חץ ומפיל שמונה מאות חלל בפעם אחת והיה מתאנח על מאתים דכתיב (דברים לב, ל) איכה ירדף אחד אלף,יצתה בת קול ואמרה (מלכים א טו, ה) רק בדבר אוריה החתי,אמר רבי תנחום בריה דרבי חייא איש כפר עכו אמר רבי יעקב בר אחא אמר ר' שמלאי ואמרי לה אמר ר' תנחום אמר רב הונא ואמרי לה אמר רב הונא לחודיה 16b. bso too, the words of Torah,which are “the work of the hands of an artist,” i.e., God, must remain bhiddenin the study hall.,Despite Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi’s decree, bRabbi Ḥiyya went out and taught his two nephews, Rav and Rabba bar bar Ḥana, in the marketplace. RabbiYehuda HaNasi bheardwhat he had done and bbecame angrywith him. When bRabbi Ḥiyya cameat some later date bto visit him,Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi mockingly bsaid to him: Iyya, who is calling you outside?By asking this question Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi was intimating that Rabbi Ḥiyya should leave his house. Rabbi Ḥiyya bunderstood thatRabbi Yehuda HaNasi bhad taken the matter to heartand was insulted, and so bhe conductedhimself as if he had been badmonished,as a self-imposed punishment, bfor thirty days. /b, bOn the thirtieth day,Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi bsent hima message, saying: bComeand visit me. However, bhe laterreversed his opinion and bsent himanother message, telling him bnot to come. /b,The Gemara asks: bAt the outset what did he hold, and ultimately what did he hold? Initially,Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi bheld thatthe legal status of bpart of the day is likethat bof an entireday, and since the thirtieth day already begun, Rabbi Ḥiyya’s time of admonition had ended. bBut ultimately he heldthat with regard to this issue bwe do not saythat the legal status of bpart of the day is likethat bof an entireday., bIn the endRabbi Ḥiyya bcameon that same day. Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi basked him: Why have you come?Rabbi Ḥiyya bresponded: Becauseyou, bMaster, sentme a message that bI should come.He said to him: bBut I sentyou a second message bthat you should not come. He responded: Thismessenger that you sent, i.e., the first one, bI sawhim and I did as he said, bbut thatmessenger, i.e., the second one, bI did not see.Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi breadthe verse baboutRabbi Ḥiyya: b“When a man’s ways please the Lord, He makes even his enemies to be at peace with him”(Proverbs 16:7), as it was clear to him that Rabbi Ḥiyya had merited divine assistance.,§ Concerning the issue with which the entire incident had begun, Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi asked Rabbi Ḥiyya: bWhat is the reason thatyou, bthe Master, acted asyou did, ignoring my instructions not to teach Torah in the marketplace? Rabbi Ḥiyya bsaid to him: As it is written: “Wisdom cries aloud in the streets”(Proverbs 1:20), which implies that Torah should be publicized in the streets. Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi bsaid to him: If you readthis verse once, byoucertainly bdid not readit ba second timein greater depth; band if you readit ba second time, youcertainly bdid not readit ba third time;and bif you readit ba third time,then bit was notadequately bexplained to you,as it is clear that you do not understand it properly.,The words: b“Wisdom cries aloud in the streets,”should be understood bin accordance withthe opinion bof Rava. As Rava said:With regard to beveryone who occupies himself with Torahstudy binsidethe privacy of his home, bhis Torahknowledge bwill proclaim hisgreatness boutside,as it will be revealed to the masses and they will see his greatness.,The Gemara asks: bBut isn’t it written: “From the beginning I have not spoken in secret”(Isaiah 48:16), implying that the Torah should be taught and proclaimed in public? The Gemara answers: bThatverse is referring to bthe days of the ikalla /i,the gathering for Torah study held during Elul and Adar, when many people come to listen to Torah discourses. During this time, it is not only permitted but even recommended to teach Torah to the masses. In this way, the verse can be explained in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi.,The Gemara asks: bAnd what did Rabbi Ḥiyya do with thisverse: b“Your rounded thighs are like jewels”?How did he understand it? This verse implies that the Torah must be kept hidden in the study hall and not publicized in the marketplace. The Gemara explains: bHe interprets itnot as a reference to Torah, but as referring btoacts of bcharity and loving-kindness,which should certainly be performed in private.,This incident demonstrates bthat, apparently, admonition of thosewho live in Eretz Yisrael lasts for bthirty daysand not for seven days. The Gemara answers that this is not a conclusive proof, since Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi was the iNasi /i. bThe admonition of the iNasi /iof the Sanhedrin bis differenti.e., more severe, than the admonition of anyone else.,The Gemara asks: bAnd howlong bis our admonitionin Babylonia? The Gemara answers: It is only bone day, as inthe case involving bShmuel andthe Exilarch bMar Ukva. When they would sit and study ihalakha /i, Mar Ukva would sit before Shmuel at a distance of four cubitsas a sign of respect. Mar Ukva would conduct himself as though Shmuel were his teacher because Shmuel was much greater than him in Torah matters. bAnd when they would sittogether bin judgment, Shmuel would sit before Mar Ukva at a distance of four cubitsbecause Mar Ukva was the Exilarch and the chief judge. bBut they would lower a place for Mar Ukva in the mattingupon which he sat, band he would sit on it so that he could hearShmuel’s bwordsof Torah even when they were engaged in judgment., bEvery day, Mar Ukva would accompany Shmuel to his lodgings,in the manner that a student would show honor toward his teacher. bOne day,Mar Ukva bwasso heavily bpreoccupied with a casethat had been brought before him for judgment that he did not realize that bShmuel was walking behind himto show him respect due to his position as the Exilarch. bWhenMar Ukva breached his home,Shmuel bsaid to him: Is it not enough for youthat I accompanied you until here? bRelease me, Master, from my obligation,so that I may return home. Mar Ukva bunderstood thatShmuel bhad taken the matter to heartand was insulted. Therefore, bhe conductedhimself as if he had been badmonished, for one dayas a self-imposed punishment.,It was related that ba certain woman was sitting alongside a pathwith bher leg extendedwhile bshe was sifting barley. A Torah scholar passedby her on this path, bbut she did not yield to himand move her leg to make room for him. bHe said: How rude is that woman!The woman bcame before Rav Naḥmanto ask if this statement should be deemed as excommunication. bHe said to her: Did you hearthe word bexcommunicationexplicitly issue bfrom his mouth? She said to him: No. He said to her:If this is the case, then bgo and observe an admonition for one day,as it appears that the Torah scholar sought only to admonish you.,§ bZutra bar Toviyya wasonce breading the portionof the Bible bbefore Rav Yehuda. When he reached the verse: “Now these are the last words of David”(II Samuel 23:1), Zutra bar Toviyya bsaid toRav Yehuda: If it is written that these are the blastof David’s words, bby inference there are firstwords as well. If this is the case, bwhat are these firstwords of David? Prior to this, it mentions only David’s song, but not his words.,Rav Yehuda bremained silent and said nothing to him.Zutra bar Toviyya thought that Rav Yehuda did not hear what he had said, so he bthen said to hima second time: If it is written that these are the blastof David’s words, bby inference there are firstwords as well. If this is the case, bwhat are these firstwords of David? bHe said to him: What do you think?Do you think that anyone bwho does not know the meaning of this verse is not a great man?Why are you stressing the fact that I do not know the answer to your question? Zutra bar Toviyya bunderstood thatRav Yehuda bhad taken the matter to heartand was insulted. Therefore, bhe conductedhimself as if had been badmonished for one dayas a self-imposed punishment.,The Gemara asks: bButnow bthat we have cometo discuss this issue, since the verse mentions David’s blastwords, bby inference there arealso bfirstwords. bWhatthen bare these firstwords of David? The Gemara answers: The first words are: b“And David spoke to the Lord the words of this song in the day that the Lord delivered him out of the hand of his enemies, and out of the hand of Saul”(II Samuel 22:1), as that song is also referred to as words.,The Gemara elaborates: bThe Holy One, Blessed be He, said to David: David, do you recite a song over the fall of Saul? Had you been Saul and he were David,then bI would have destroyed many Davids before him.Although I decreed that Saul’s kingdom would not continue, as an individual he was far greater and more important than you.,The response to this admonishment bisfound in the verse, bas it is written: “Shiggaion of David, which he sang to the Lord, concerning the words of Cush the Benjaminite”(Psalms 7:1). bIs Cush his name? Saul is his name. Rather,this is a designation that indicates: bJust as a Cushite,a native of the ancient kingdom of Cush in eastern Africa, bis distinguished by hisdark bskin, so too, Saul was distinguished by his actions,as he was absolutely righteous and performed many good deeds. Therefore, David uses the word ishiggaionas an allusion to the error [ ishegia /i] that he had made when he sang a song of praise over Saul’s downfall.,The Gemara notes: bSimilarly, you can explainthe verse: “And Miriam and Aaron spoke against Moses bdue to the Cushite woman whom he had married,for he had taken a Cushite woman” (Numbers 12:1). bBut is her name Cushite? Zipporah is her name. Rather, just as a Cushite is distinguished by hisdark bskin, so too, Zipporah was distinguished by her actions.The Gemara continues: bSimilarly, you can explainthe verse: b“Now when Ebed-Melech the Cushite heard”(Jeremiah 38:7). bIs his name Cushite? Zedekiah is his name. Rather, just as a Cushite is distinguished by hisdark bskin, so too, Zedekiah was distinguished by hisrighteous bactions. /b, bSimilarly, you can explainthe verse: b“Are you not as much Mine as the children of the Cushites, O children of Israel?”(Amos 9:7). bIs their name Cushite? Israel is their name. Rather, just as a Cushite is distinguished by hisdark bskin, so too, the Jewish people are distinguished by their actions,and they are different bfrom all theother bnations. /b,§ Having mentioned the last words of David, the Gemara continues to explain other expressions in that passage. bRabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani said in the name of Rabbi Yonatan: What isthe meaning of that bwhich is written: “The saying of David, son of Yishai, and the saying of the man who was raised up on high [ ial]”(II Samuel 23:1)? It means as follows: bThe saying of David, son of Yishai, who raised the yoke of [ iulla /i] repentance,as through his actions he taught the power of repentance. The word ial /i, on high, and the word iullaare comprised of the same consots in Hebrew.,The passage continues: b“The God of Israel said, the Rock of Israel spoke to me, He that rules over men must be righteous, ruling in the fear of God”(II Samuel 23:3). The Gemara asks: bWhat isthis verse bsaying?What does it mean? bRabbi Abbahu said: This is whatthe verse bis saying: The God of Israel said, the Rock of Israel spoke to me:Although bI rule over man, who rules over Me?It is ba righteous person.How is it possible to say that a righteous person rules over God, as it were? bAs I,God, bissue a decreeand the righteous person bnullifies it. /b,Similarly, the verse states there: b“These are the names of David’s warriors; Josheb-Basshebetha Tahchemonite, chief of the captains; the same was Adino the Eznite; he raised his spear against eight hundred, whom he slew at one time” (II Samuel 23:8). The Gemara asks: bWhat isthis verse bsaying? Rabbi Abbahu said: This is whatthe verse bis saying: These are the names of the mighty actions of David.These expressions should not be read as names of people but instead as descriptions of David’s good deeds., bJosheb-Basshebeth [ iyoshev bashevet /i]indicates that bwhenDavid bwould sit [ iyoshev /i] in the study hall, he would not sit upon pillows and cushions,as an important person ordinarily would. bRather,he would sit bon the groundlike one of the students. bFor as long asDavid’s bteacher, Ira the Jairite, was alive,Ira bwould teach the Sageswhile sitting bon pillows and cushions. WhenIra bpassed away, David would teach the Sages, and hedid this while bsitting on the ground. They said to him: Master,you bshould sit upon pillows and blankets. He did not accepttheir suggestions, since in his humility he did not wish to appear as the teacher of the Jewish people.,In this verse, David is described as b“a Tahchemonite [ itaḥkemoni /i].” Rav said: The Holy One, Blessed be He, said to him: Since you have humbled yourself, be younow blike Me [ itehe kamoni /i].How so? bAs I issue a decree, and you,owing to your righteousness, bmay nullify it. /b,David is also described here as b“chief of the captains [ irosh hashalishim /i]”because God said to him: bYou will be the head [ irosh /i] of the three [ isheloshet /i] Patriarchs. “The same was Adino the Eznite”;this alludes to the fact that bwhenDavid bwould sit and occupy himself with Torah, he would make himself soft [ ime’aden /i] as a worm, and when he would go out to war, he would make himself hardand strong bas a tree [ ietz /i]. /b,The expression: b“Against eight hundred people, which he slew at one time,”means bthat he would throw an arrowin the air bandwith it bkill eight hundred people at one time. AndDavid bwould sigh over the two hundredwho were missing from fulfillment of the Torah’s promise, bas it is written: “How should one man chase a thousand”(Deuteronomy 32:30)., bA Divine Voice issued forth and saidby way of explanation as to why the promise was not entirely fulfilled: “Because David did that which was right in the eyes of the Lord, and turned not aside from anything that He commanded him all the days of his life, bsave only the matter of Uriah the Hittite”(I Kings 15:5). Had David not committed this sin, then all of the promises mentioned in the Torah would have been fulfilled in their entirety through him.,The Gemara returns to the ihalakhotof ostracism and mentions that bRabbi Tanḥum, son of Rabbi Ḥiyya, of the village of Akko, saidthat bRabbi Ya’akov bar Aḥa saidthat bRabbi Simlai said, andsome bsaythat this tradition was transmitted in the following manner: bRabbi Tanḥum saidthat bRav Huna said, andothers bsaythat bRav Huna himselfmade this statement without the chain of transmission:
94. Babylonian Talmud, Nazir, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

52b. ואי ס"ד או שדרה או גולגולת הני שבעה הויין כי קתני (סימן יחיד שהוא גילח ואחד),כל היכא דפליגי עליה רבים לאפוקי עצם כשעורה דיחיד הוא דפליג עליה דתני' עצם כשעורה שנחלק לשנים ר"ע מטמא ורבי יוחנן בן נורי מטהר,ואי בעית אימא כי קתני אבר מן המת אבר מן החי לא קתני,ואיבעית אימא כי קתני כל היכא דנזיר מגלח על אהילו לאפוקי עצם כשעורה דלא,ואיבעית אימא כי קתני כל היכא דהדר ביה לאפוקי רביעית דם דלא הדר ביה דאמר ליה רבי לבר קפרא לא תשנה רביעית דם בחזרה שהרי למודו של ר' עקיבא בידו,ועוד המקרא מסייעו ועל כל נפשות מת לא יבא ר"ש אומר עד ימיו היה מטמא אם משמת חזר בו איני יודע תנא הושחרו שיניו מפני תעניותיו,ת"ש דתניא בש"א רובע עצמות מן העצמים או משנים או משלשה ובה"א רובע מן הגויה מרוב הבנין או מרוב המנין אמר רבי יהושע יכולני לעשות דברי ב"ש ודברי ב"ה כאחד,שב"ש אומרים משנים או משלשה או משני שוקיים וירך אחד או משני ירכיים ושוק אחד הואיל ורוב גובהו של אדם מגובה וב"ה אומרים מן הגויה או מרוב בנין או מרוב מנין הואיל וישנן במפרקי ידים ורגלים שמאי אומר אפילו עצם מן השדרה או מן הגולגולת,שאני שמאי דמחמיר ליפשוט מינה טעמא דבית שמאי דמחמיר הא רבנן עד דאיכא שדרה וגולגולת לא עד כאן לא פליגי רבנן עליה דשמאי אלא בעצם אחד דאתי מן השדרה ומן הגולגולת אבל היכא דאיתיה בעיניה אפילו חדא מינהון,בעי רמי בר חמא רובע עצמות מן שדרה וגולגולת מאי כי קתני חצי קב עצמות היכא דאיכא משאר אבריו אבל מן שדרה וגולגולת דחמירי אפי' רובע עצמות או דלמא לא שנא,אמר רבא ת"ש השדרה והגולגולת ואי סלקא דעתך רובע עצמות דאתי מן שדרה וגולגולת חמיר ליתני על רובע עצמות הבא מן השדרה כו' 52b. bAnd if it enters your mindthat the ihalakhaapplies to beither a spine or a skulland they are two separate ihalakhot /i, bthese are sevencases, rather than six. The Gemara rejects this claim: No proof can be brought from here, bas whenthe itanna bteachesthis tally he lists seven items. However, only six are fully relevant here, and therefore he said they were six. The Gemara inserts ba mnemonicdevice for the ensuing suggestions as to which item in the list is not necessary in this context: bAn individualdisagrees with him; bthat he;a nazirite bshavesfor it; band onequarter- ilog /i.,The first explanation is: Rabbi Akiva listed the spine and skull as separate items, but the six include banywhere that manySages bdisagree with him, to the exclusion ofthe case of a bone that is ba barley-grain-bulk,as here bit is an individual who disagrees withRabbi Akiva, bas it is taughtin a mishna ( iOholot2:7): If ba bone that is a barley-grain-bulk was divided into two, Rabbi Akiva deemsit bimpure and Rabbi Yoḥa ben Nuri deemsit bpure.In this case, only one Sage disagrees with Rabbi Akiva., bAnd if you wish, saya different item on the list that is omitted from the tally: bWhen he teachessix, he includes ba limbsevered bfrom a corpse,but bhe does not teach a limbsevered bfrom a livingperson, and that was the case that was not listed., bAnd if you wish, saya different item on the list that is omitted from the tally: bWhen he teachessix, he mentions banywhere that a nazirite shaves for his overlaying,i.e., he formed a tent over the remains of a corpse, bto the exclusion ofthe case of ba bone that is a barley-grain-bulk, asit bdoes notimpart ritual impurity in a tent. As stated in the mishna, this bone imparts impurity only through contact and carrying., bAnd if you wish, saya different item on the list that is omitted from the tally: bWhen he teachessix, he lists banywhere thatRabbi Akiva bretractedhis opinion, bto the exclusion of a quarter-ilog bof blood, as he did not retract hisopinion in that case, bas RabbiYehuda HaNasi bsaid to bar Kappara: Do not teach a quarter-ilog bof blood in thelist of Rabbi Akiva’s bretractions, as Rabbi Akiva held onto hisopinion in this regard., bAnd furthermore, the verse supports hisopinion, as it states: b“Neither shall he go in to any dead bodies”(Leviticus 21:11). The plural form “bodies” indicates that two corpses can join together, as stated by Rabbi Akiva. Similarly, bRabbi Shimon says: All his days,Rabbi Akiva bwould deema quarter- ilogof blood from two corpses britually impure. Whether he retracted hisopinion bafter he died,this bI do not know.A Sage btaught:Rabbi Shimon’s bteeth blackened due to his fasts,which he undertook for uttering this irreverent comment about Rabbi Akiva.,§ The Gemara returns to the earlier discussion. bComeand bhearan answer to the question of whether a spine and skull must be together to impart ritual impurity, bas it is taughtin a mishna ( iEduyyot1:7) that bBeit Shammai say:The bquarter-ikav bof bones,which imparts impurity in a tent, can be bfromseveral bbones [ iha’atzamim /i] or from two or from threebones, but they cannot be from one bone. bAnd Beit Hillel say:The bquarter /b- ikavof bones must come bfrom thesame bbody,either bfrom the majority of the structureof the skeleton bor from the majority of the numberof 248 bones in the body. bRabbi Yehoshua said: I can establish the statement of Beit Shammai and the statement of Beit Hillel as one.In other words, I can explain their opinions so that there is no dispute between them.,How so? bAswhen bBeit Shammai say: From two or threebones, they mean beither from two shins and one thigh, or from two thighs and one shin. Since the majority of a person’s heightis contained binthe bheightof these limbs, they are considered the majority of the structure of the body. bAnd Beit Hillel say:Parts bfrom the body, or from the majority of the structure, or from the majority of the numberof bones, bsince they include the joints of the hands and feet,which comprise many small bones, impart impurity. bShammai says: Even a bone from the spine or from the skullimparts impurity. In this source, Shammai explicitly refers to a spine or a skull.,The Gemara rejects this proof: One cannot establish a general ihalakhafrom this source, for bShammai is different, as he isinvariably bstringent,whereas the Rabbis might disagree. The Gemara inquires: If so, blet us resolvethe opposite bfromthis ibaraita /i: bThe reasonthat Shammai spoke of a spine or a skull bis that Beit Shammai are stringent,from which it may be inferred that according to bthe Rabbisa spine and skull are not ritually impure bunlessboth ba spine and skull are present.The Gemara rejects this proof too: bNo, the Rabbis disagree with Shammai only with regard to one bone that comes from the spine or from the skull, but when it is intact, evenif the bone is from bone of them,either the spine or the skull, they possibly agree that it imparts impurity.,§ bRami bar Ḥama raised a dilemma:With regard to ba quarter-ikav bof bones from a spine and a skull, whatis the ihalakha /i? Does a nazirite shave for them? The Gemara explains the two sides of the dilemma: bWhenthe mishna bteachesthat one shaves for ba half- ikavof bones,does this apply only bwhenthey bare from his other limbs, butin the case of bones bfromthe bspine and skull, which are stringent,as they impart ritual impurity on their own, beven a quarter-ikav bof bonesimparts impurity? bOr perhapsit bis no different. /b, bRava said: Comeand bheara resolution from the mishna, which teaches: bThe spine and the skull. And if it enters your mindthat ba quarter-ikav bof bones that come from a spine and skull ismore bstringentthan other limbs and imparts ritual impurity, bletthe itanna bteachthis ihalakhain a manner that presents a greater novelty, by stating: bFor a quarter-ikav bof bones that come from the spineand the skull.
95. Babylonian Talmud, Nedarim, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

32b. השטן בחושבניה תלת מאה ושיתין וארבעה ואמר רמי בר אבא כתיב אברם, וכתיב אברהם בתחילה המליכו הקב"ה על מאתיים וארבעים ושלושה איברים ולבסוף המליכו על מאתיים וארבעים ושמונה איברים,אלו הן שתי עינים ושתי אזניים וראש הגוייה,ואמר רמי בר אבא מאי דכתיב עיר קטנה ואנשים וגו' (קהלת ט, יד) עיר קטנה זה הגוף ואנשים בה מעט אלו איברים ובא אליה מלך גדול וסבב אותה זה יצר הרע ובנה עליה מצודים וחרמים אלו עוונות,ומצא בה איש מסכן וחכם זה יצר טוב ומלט הוא את העיר בחכמתו זו תשובה ומעשים טובים ואדם לא זכר את האיש המסכן ההוא דבשעת יצר הרע לית דמדכר ליה ליצר טוב,החכמה תעוז לחכם מעשרה שליטים (קהלת ז, יט) החכמה תעוז לחכם זו תשובה ומעשים טובים מעשרה שליטים שתי עיניים ושתי אזניים ושתי ידיים ושתי רגליים וראש הגוייה ופה,אמר רבי זכריה משום רבי ישמעאל ביקש הקב"ה להוציא כהונה משֵם שנאמר והוא כהן לאל עליון (בראשית יד, יח) כיוון שהקדים ברכת אברהם לברכת המקום הוציאה מאברהם,שנאמר ויברכהו ויאמר ברוך אברם לאל עליון קונה שמים וארץ וברוך אל עליון (בראשית יד יט-כ) אמר לו אברהם וכי מקדימין ברכת עבד לברכת קונו מיד נתנה לאברהם שנאמר נאם ה' לאדני שב לימיני עד אשית אויביך הדום לרגליך (תהלים קי, א) ובתריה כתיב נשבע ה' ולא ינחם אתה כהן לעולם על דברתי מלכי צדק (תהלים קי, ד) על דיבורו של מלכי צדק,והיינו דכתיב והוא כהן לאל עליון הוא כהן ואין זרעו כהן, br br big strongהדרן עלך ארבעה נדרים /strong /big br br,מתני׳ big strongאין /strong /big בין המודר הנאה מחבירו למודר הימנו מאכל אלא דריסת הרגל וכלים שאין עושין בהם אוכל נפש,המודר מאכל מחבירו לא ישאילנו נפה וכברה וריחיים ותנור אבל משאיל לו חלוק וטבעת וטלית ונזמים, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big מאן תנא אמר רב אדא בר אהבה רבי אליעזר היא דתניא רבי אליעזר אומר אפילו ויתור אסור במודר הנאה,המודר מאכל מחבירו לא ישאילנו כו' 32b. The letters of the term bthe Satan [ ihaSatan /i] in numerical valueis b364,which equals the number of days of the year, except for Yom Kippur, during which he has no power. bAnd Rami bar Abba said: It is written “Abram,” andafter he was commanded to perform circumcision bit is written “Abraham”(Genesis 17:5). bInitially the Holy One, Blessed be He, enthroned himas ruler bover 243 limbs,which is the numerical equivalent of the letters of the word Abram. bAnd in the end,after he was circumcised, bHe enthroned himas ruler bover 248 limbs,which is the numerical equivalent of the letters of the word Abraham., bThese arethe additional limbs: bTwo eyes, and two ears, and the tip of the sex organ.Following his circumcision, he had total control over them, and they performed only according to his will., bAnd Rami bar Abba said: What isthe meaning of that bwhich is written: “There was a little city andfew bmenin it, and there came a great king against it, and besieged it, and built great bulwarks against it. Now there was found in it a man poor and wise, and he by his wisdom delivered the city; yet no man remembered that same poor man” (Ecclesiastes 9:14–15)? b“A little city,” thisis referring to bthe body; “and few men in it,” thisis referring to bthe limbs; “and there came a great king against it and besieged it,” thisis referring to bthe evil inclination; “and built great bulwarks against it,” theseare bsins. /b,The Gemara expounds on the next section of the verse: b“Now there was found in it a man poor and wise,” thisis referring to bthe good inclination; “and he by his wisdom delivered the city,” thisis referring to brepentance and good deedsthat are cause by the good inclination. b“Yet no man remembered that same poor man”means bthat when the evil inclinationovercomes the good inclination bno one remembers the good inclination. /b,The Gemara interprets the following verse in a similar homiletical manner: b“Wisdom is a stronghold to the wise man more than ten rulersthat are in a city” (Ecclesiastes 7:19). b“Wisdom is a stronghold to the wise man,” thisis referring to brepentance and good deeds. “More than ten rulers,”these are bthe two eyes, and two ears, and two hands, and two legs, and the tip of the sex organ, and the mouth,which are the limbs that are used by a person to interact with the world., bRabbi Zekharya said in the name of Rabbi Yishmael: The Holy One, Blessed be He, wanted the priesthood to emerge from Shem,so that his children would be priests, bas it is stated:“And Melchizedek king of Salem brought forth bread and wine; band he was priest of God the Most High”(Genesis 14:18). bOnceMelchizedek, traditionally identified as Shem, bplaced the blessing of Abraham before the blessing of the Omnipresent,He had the priesthood bemerge from Abrahamin particular, and not from any other descendant of Shem., bAs it is stated: “And he blessed him and said: Blessed be Abram of God Most High, Maker of heaven and earth, and blessed be God the Most High”(Genesis 14:19–20). bAbraham said to him: And does one place the blessing of the servant before the blessing of his master?You should have blessed God first. bImmediatelythe Holy One, Blessed be He, bgavethe priesthood bto Abraham, as it is stated: “The Lord says to my lord: Sit at My right hand, until I make your enemies your footstool”(Psalms 110:1), band afterward it is written: “The Lord has sworn, and will not repent: you shall be a priest forever, because you are a king of righteousness [ ial divrati malki tzedek /i]”(Psalms 110:4), which is explained homiletically to mean: bDue to theimproper bwords [ idivrati /i] of Melchizedek,the offspring of Abraham shall be priests of God forever.,The Gemara comments: bAnd this is as it is written: “And he was priest of God the Most High”(Genesis 14:18), which emphasizes that bhe,Melchizedek, bis a priest, but his childrenwill bnotbe bpriests. /b,, strongMISHNA: /strong bThe difference between one for whom benefit from another is forbidden by vow [ ihamuddar hana’a meḥaveiro /i] and one for whombenefit bfrom his food is forbidden by vowconcerns bonly setting footon the other person’s property bandborrowing from that person butensils that one does not usein bpreparation of foodbut for other purposes. Those two benefits are forbidden to the former but permitted to the latter.,Therefore, with regard to bone for whombenefit bfrom another’s food is forbidden by vow,that person bmay not lend himutensils used in the preparation of food, e.g., ba sieve, or a strainer, or a millstone, or an oven. However, he may lend him a garment, or a finger ring, or a cloak, or nose rings,as these are not used in the preparation of food. However, he may not lend them to one for whom benefit from him is forbidden by vow., strongGEMARA: /strong bWho is the itanna /iwho taught this mishna? bRav Adda bar Ahava said: It is Rabbi Eliezer, as it is taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Eliezer said: Even overlooking [ ivittur /i]a matter for which one is typically indifferent to the actions of others, e.g., people setting foot on one’s property, bis prohibited inthe case of bone prohibited by vow from deriving benefitfrom another.,§ We learned in the mishna: With regard to bone for whombenefit bfrom another’s food is forbidden by vow,that person bmay not lend himutensils used in the preparation of food.
96. Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

11b. תקיפאי קדמאי לעינוותני בתראי,דתניא מעשה ברבן גמליאל שהיה יושב על גב מעלה בהר הבית והיה יוחנן סופר הלז עומד לפניו ושלש איגרות חתוכות לפניו מונחות,אמר לו טול איגרתא חדא וכתוב לאחנא בני גלילאה עילאה ולאחנא בני גלילאה תתאה שלומכון יסגא מהודעין אנחנא לכון דזמן ביעורא מטא לאפרושי מעשרא ממעטנא דזיתא וטול איגרתא חדא וכתוב לאחנא בני דרומא שלומכון יסגא מהודעין אנחנא לכון דזמן ביעורא מטא לאפרושי מעשרא מעומרי שיבליא,וטול איגרתא חדא וכתוב לאחנא בני גלוותא בבבל ולאחנא דבמדי ולשאר כל גלוותא דישראל שלומכון יסגא לעלם מהודעין אנחנא לכון דגוזליא רכיכין ואימריא ערקין וזמנא דאביבא לא מטא ושפרא מילתא באנפאי ובאנפי חביריי ואוסיפית על שתא דא יומין תלתין דילמא בתר דעברוהו:,תנו רבנן על שלשה דברים מעברין את השנה על האביב ועל פירות האילן ועל התקופה על שנים מהן מעברין ועל אחד מהן אין מעברין,ובזמן שאביב אחד מהן הכל שמחין רבי שמעון בן גמליאל אומר על התקופה איבעיא להו על התקופה שמחין או על התקופה מעברין תיקו:,ת"ר על שלשה ארצות מעברין את השנה יהודה ועבר הירדן והגליל על שתים מהן מעברין ועל אחת מהן אין מעברין ובזמן שיהודה אחת מהן הכל שמחין שאין עומר בא אלא מיהודה,ת"ר אין מעברין את השנים אלא ביהודה ואם עיברוה בגליל מעוברת העיד חנניה איש אונו אם עיברוה בגליל אינה מעוברת א"ר יהודה בריה דרבי שמעון בן פזי מאי טעמא דחנניה איש אונו אמר קרא (דברים יב, ה) לשכנו תדרשו ובאת שמה כל דרישה שאתה דורש לא יהיו אלא בשכנו של מקום,ת"ר אין מעברין את השנה אלא ביום ואם עיברוה בלילה אינה מעוברת ואין מקדשין את החדש אלא ביום ואם קידשוהו בלילה אינו מקודש א"ר אבא מאי קרא (תהלים פא, ד) תקעו בחדש שופר בכסה ליום חגנו איזהו חג שהחדש מתכסה בו הוי אומר זה ראש השנה וכתיב כי חוק לישראל הוא משפט לאלהי יעקב מה משפט ביום אף קידוש החדש ביום,ת"ר אין מעברין את השנה 11b. bthe earlier, sternauthorities band the later, humbleauthorities, for although Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel was known as particularly humble, his proclamation was written with less modesty than that of his father, Rabban Gamliel, who was known to be particularly stern., bAs it is taughtin a ibaraita( iTosefta2:6): There was ban incident involving Rabban Gamliel, who was sitting on a step on the Temple Mount, and Yoḥa, that scribe, was standing before him, and threeblank bdocuments cutfrom parchment and ready for writing bwere set before him. /b,Rabban Gamliel bsaid tothe scribe: bTake one document, and write: To our brothers, the people of the Upper Galilee, and to our brothers, the people of the Lower Galilee, may your peace increase. We are informing you that the time has comefor beradicationof tithes that had been separated from produce but not yet given to their designated recipients, as is to be done in the fourth and seventh years of the Sabbatical-Year cycle, bto separate the tithe from the vat of olives,because most of the local olives were grown in the Galilee. Rabban Gamliel continued, instructing the scribe: bAnd take one document, and write: To our brothers, the people of the South,meaning the area of Judea and its environs, bmay your peace increase. We are informing you that the time has comefor beradication, to separate the tithe from the mounds of stalksof grains, because most of the local grain was grown in the Judea region.,Rabban Gamliel continued to instruct the scribe: bAnd take one document, and write: To our brothers, the people of the Diaspora in Babylonia, and to our brothers who are in Medea, and to the rest of the entire Jewish Diaspora, may your peace increase forever. We are informing you that the fledglings are tender, and the lambs are thin, and time for the spring has not come. Andconsequently, bthe matter is good before me and before my colleagues,i.e., in our estimation, band I haveconsequently badded thirty days to this year.The third letter indicates that evidently Rabban Gamliel included others in his decision. The Gemara rejects this, and explains: bPerhapsthis incident occurred bafter they deposedRabban Gamliel from his position as iNasi /i. When he was reinstated, he shared his office with Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya. Therefore, he wrote the decision in the name of his colleagues as well.,§ bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita( iTosefta2:2): The court bmay intercalate the year for three matters: For the ripening of the grain,if it is not yet time for the barley to ripen; bfor the fruit of the trees,if they have not yet ripened; band for the equinox,i.e., to ensure that the autumnal equinox will precede iSukkot /i. If btwo ofthese concerns apply, the court bintercalatesthe year even if the third factor does not apply; bbut foronly bone of themthe court bdoes not intercalatethe year.,The ibaraitacontinues: bAnd when the ripening of the grainis bone of the concerns, everyone is happy.Since the grain is not yet ripe, the people do not mind waiting an extra month for Nisan. If the grain is already ripe, however, the extra month would simply prolong the period during which the grain may not be eaten due to the prohibition of the new crop, as the new crop may be harvested and eaten only after the sacrifice of the iomeroffering on the sixteenth of Nisan (see Leviticus 23:14). bRabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: For the equinox.The Gemara seeks to clarify this statement: bA dilemma was raised beforethe Sages. When he said: bFor the equinox,did he mean this is the reason that everyone is bhappy, ordid he mean that only bfor the equinoxmay the court bintercalatethe year? The dilemma bshall standunresolved., bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita( iTosefta2:2): The court bmay intercalate the year for threeregional blandsof Eretz Yisrael, meaning that the court considers the agricultural situation in three regions: bJudea, and Transjordan, and the Galilee.If there is a concern babout two of them,the court bintercalatesthe year even if the third region does not need it, bbutif there is a concern baboutonly bone of themthe court bdoes not intercalatethe year. bAnd when Judea is one of them, everyone is happy, because the iomer /ioffering bcomes only from Judea.If the court therefore ensures that the crops in Judea ripen just before the iomeris brought, the crops will certainly be ripe in the other regions as well, and there will be no complications with the prohibition of the new crop.,§ bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita( iTosefta2:2): The court bmay intercalate the years onlywhen located bin Judea. And if they intercalated itwhen located bin the Galilee,the year is nevertheless bintercalated. Ḥaya of Ono testified:Even bifthe court already formally bintercalatedthe year when located bin the Galilee, it is not intercalated. Rabbi Yehuda, son of Rabbi Shimon ben Pazi, says: What is the reasoning of Ḥaya of Ono? The verse states:“But to the place that the Lord your God shall choose out of all your tribes to put His name there, bto His abode shall you seek, and there you shall come”(Deuteronomy 12:5). This is interpreted as: bEvery pursuit that you shall pursuein the area of ihalakha bmust be only in the abode of the Omnipresent,in close proximity to Jerusalem, i.e., in Judea., bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita( iTosefta2:7): The court bmay intercalate the year only during the day; and ifthe court bintercalated it at night, it is not intercalated. Andthe court bmay sanctify the month only during the day; and ifthe court bsanctified it at night, it is not sanctified. Rav Abba says: What is the versefrom which this ihalakhais derived? b“Sound the shofar at the New Moon, at the concealed time for our Festival day”(Psalms 81:4). On bwhich Festival is the new moon concealed? You must say it is Rosh HaShana,which occurs on the first of the month, before the moon is visible, whereas the moon is visible during the other Festivals, which occur later in the month. bAnd it is writtenin the next verse: b“For it is a statute for Israel, a judgment of the God of Jacob”(Psalms 81:5). bJust asall civil bjudgment isdone bduring the day, so too isthe sanctification of Rosh HaShana, and bthe sanctification of the monthin general, done bduring the day. /b, bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita( iTosefta2:5): The court bdoes not intercalate the year /b
97. Babylonian Talmud, Shabbat, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

114a. מניין לשנוי בגדים מן התורה שנא' (ויקרא ו, ד) ופשט את בגדיו ולבש בגדים אחרים ותנא דבי רבי ישמעאל לימדך תורה דרך ארץ בגדים שבישל בהן קדירה לרבו אל ימזוג בהן כוס לרבו,אמר רבי חייא בר אבא אמר רבי יוחנן גנאי הוא לת"ח שיצא במנעלים המטולאים לשוק והא רבי אחא בר חנינא נפיק אמר רבי אחא בריה דרב נחמן בטלאי על גב טלאי,ואמר רבי חייא בר אבא אמר ר' יוחנן כל תלמיד חכם שנמצא רבב על בגדו חייב מיתה שנאמר (משלי ח, לו) כל משנאי אהבו מות אל תקרי משנאי אלא משניאי רבינא אמר רבד איתמר ולא פליגי הא בגלימא הא בלבושא,ואמר רבי חייא בר אבא אמר ר' יוחנן מאי דכתיב (ישעיהו כ, ג) כאשר הלך עבדי ישעיהו ערום ויחף ערום בבגדים בלואים ויחף במנעלים המטולאים,תנן התם רבב על המרדע חוצץ רשב"ג אומר עד כאיסר האיטלקי ועל הבגדים מצד אחד אינו חוצץ משני צדדין חוצץ רבי יהודה אומר משום רבי ישמעאל אף מצד אחד חוצץ,בעא מיניה רבי שמעון בן לקיש מר' חנינא מרדעת מצד אחד או משני צדדין אמר ליה זו לא שמעתי כיוצא בה שמעתי דתנן רבי יוסי אומר של בנאין מצד אחד ושל בור משני צדדין ולא תהא מרדעת חשובה מבגדו של עם הארץ,מאי בנאין אמר רבי יוחנן אלו תלמידי חכמים שעוסקין בבנינו של עולם כל ימיהן ואמר רבי יוחנן איזהו תלמיד חכם שמחזירין לו אבידה בטביעות העין זה המקפיד על חלוקו להופכו ואמר רבי יוחנן איזהו ת"ח שממנין אותו פרנס על הציבור זה ששואלין אותו דבר הלכה בכל מקום ואומר ואפי' במסכת כלה,ואמר רבי יוחנן איזהו ת"ח שבני עירו מצווין לעשות לו מלאכתו זה שמניח חפצו ועוסק בחפצי שמים והנ"מ למיטרח בריפתיה ואמר רבי יוחנן איזהו תלמיד חכם כל ששואלין אותו הלכה בכל מקום ואומרה למאי נפקא מינה למנוייה פרנס על הציבור אי בחדא מסכתא באתריה אי בכוליה תנויה בריש מתיבתא,ר' שמעון ב"ל אמר אלו כלים האוליירין הבאין ממדינת הים למימרא דחיורי נינהו והאמר להו רבי ינאי לבניו בני אל תקברוני לא בכלים לבנים ולא בכלים שחורים לבנים שמא לא אזכה ואהיה כחתן בין אבלים שחורים שמא אזכה ואהיה כאבל בין חתנים אלא בכלים האוליירין הבאין ממדינת הים אלמא סומקי נינהו לא קשיא הא בגלימי הא בלבושי:,ר' ישמעאל אומר מקפלין כו': ת"ר (במדבר כח, י) עולת שבת בשבתו לימד על חלבי שבת שקריבין ביום הכיפורים יכול אף של יוה"כ בשבת ת"ל בשבתו דברי רבי ישמעאל,ר' עקיבא אומר עולת שבת בשבתו לימד על חלבי שבת שקרבים ביו"ט יכול אף ביוה"כ ת"ל בשבתו,כשתמצא לומר לדברי רבי ישמעאל נדרים ונדבות קריבין ביו"ט וכי איצטריך קרא ליוה"כ לדברי ר"ע נדרים ונדבות אין קרבין ביו"ט וכי איצטריך קרא למישרא בי"ט אמר ר' זירא 114a. bFrom whereis it derived bthat changing clothesis a display of honor? bAs it is stated: “And he will remove his garments and will don other garments,and he will bring the ashes outside of the camp to a pure location” (Leviticus 6:4). bThe school of Rabbi Yishmael taught: The Torah taught you etiquette. The clothes in which one prepared food for his master, one does notwear bto pour his master wine.Since cooking makes one’s clothes dirty, he should wear fresh clothes when serving his master., bRabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba saidthat bRabbi Yoḥa said: It is disgraceful for a Torah scholar to go out to the marketplace in patched shoes.The Gemara asks: bDidn’t Rabbi Aḥa bar Ḥanina go outin patched shoes? bRabbi Aḥa, son of Rav Naḥman, said:They only prohibited patched shoes bif there is a patch upon a patch. /b, bAnd Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba saidthat bRabbi Yoḥa said: A Torah scholar on whose clothes a fat stain is found is liableto receive the bdeathpenalty, bas it is stated: “All those who hate me love death”(Proverbs 8:36), and the Sages said: bDo not read: Those who hate me [ imesanai /i]. Rather,read: bThose who cause me to be hated [ imasniai /i].Those who cause people to hate the Torah by creating the impression that those who study Torah are unclean deserve the death penalty. bRavina said:A fat stain [ irevav /i] was not stated, but rather ba bloodstain [ irevad /i] was stated(Rabbeinu Ḥael), which is a greater disgrace. The Gemara adds: bThey did not disagreeover the ihalakha /i. Rather, the dispute is whether bthatwhich we learned concerning stains on a Torah scholar’s clothes refers bto an overgarmentthat people wear over the rest of their clothes, while bthatwhich we learned with regard to a bloodstain refers bto an undergarment,where a bloodstain is disgraceful but other types of spots are not., bAndsimilarly, bRabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba saidthat bRabbi Yoḥa said: That which is written: “As My servant Isaiah went naked and barefootfor three years” (Isaiah 20:3), is not to be understood literally. Rather, bnakedmeans that he wore btattered clothing, and barefootmeans that he walked bwith patched shoes. /b, bWe learnedin a mishna bthere: A fat stain ona donkey’s bsaddle interposes, i.e.,if the saddle becomes impure, its immersion in a ritual bath is invalid unless the stain is removed. bRabban Shimon ben Gamliel says:A stain interposes only when it is as large bas an Italian iissar /ibut not smaller. bAndif there were a fat stain bon clothing on one side, it does not interpose,but if the stain is bon both sides it interposes. Rabbi Yehuda says in the name of Rabbi Yishmael: It interposes even on one side. /b, bRabbi Shimon ben Lakish raised a dilemma before Rabbi Ḥanina:Is a stain on a bsaddlean interposition even if it is bon just one side, oronly if it is bon both sides?Rabbi Ḥanina bsaid to him: That, I did not hearexplicitly. However, bI heardsomething bsimilar to it. As we learnedin that same mishna that bRabbi Yosei says:A garment belonging to bbuilders [ ibanna’in /i]is considered to have an interposition if it has a stain bon one side, and that of an ignoramus,who is not meticulous, is considered to have an interposition when the stain is bon both sides. Andcertainly a donkey’s bsaddle cannot be more important than the garment of an iam ha’aretz /i. /b,The Gemara asks: bWhoare the bbuildersmentioned here? bRabbi Yoḥa said: These are Torah scholars, who are engaged in building the world all of their days. Andwith regard to this, bRabbi Yoḥa said: Who is a Torah scholarof whom the Sages said bthat onemust breturn a lost object to him based on visual identification,even if he does not provide an identifying sign for it? bThat is one who makes sure his upper undergarment is turned inwardso that the uneven stitching is not visible. This means that he conducts himself like a Torah scholar in all his ways, even in matters of cleanliness and order (Maharsha). On a related note, the Gemara adds that which bRabbi Yoḥa said: Who is a Torah scholar whomay be bappointedas a bleader of the community? This is one who is askedabout bmatters of ihalakhaon any topic and heis able to banswer, and evenif he were asked about btractate iKalla /i,a tractate that few have mastered., bAnd Rabbi Yoḥa said: Who is the Torah scholar for whom the inhabitants of his city are commanded to perform his labor for him? This is one who sets his own matters aside and engages in matters of Heaven.It is therefore fitting for the community to support him. bAnd that applies only to exerting themselvesto provide him with bhis bread,as it is appropriate that they sustain him. bAnd Rabbi Yoḥa said: Who isincluded in the category of ba Torah scholar? Anyone who is askedabout the ihalakhawith regard to any topic andis able to bstate it.And they say: bWhat are the practical consequencesof this question? It is bto appoint him a leader of the community. Ifhe is an expert bin a single tractate,they appoint him as a leader bin his place; ifhe is an expert bin all of his learning,they appoint him bas the head of the yeshiva. /b, bRabbi Shimon ben Lakish said: Thesegarments of the ibanna’inmentioned in the mishna are bthe clothes of the bath attendants [ iulairin /i] that come from a country overseas,on which stains are apparent, and these men are meticulous about their cleanliness. The Gemara asks: bIs that to say that these are white garments? Didn’t Rabbi Yannai say to his sons: My sons, do not bury me in white garments nor in black garments.Not in bwhite, lest I not be acquittedin judgment, band I will beamong the wicked blike a groom among mourners.And not in bblack, lest I be acquittedin judgment, band I will beamong the righteous blike a mourner among grooms. Rather,bury me bin the clothes of the bath attendants who come from a country overseas,which are neither black nor white. bApparently, theseclothes of the bath attendants bare red.The Gemara answers: This is bnot difficult,as a distinction can be made. When Rabbi Yannai indicates that they are red, bthatis referring bto overgarments;the statement of Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish that indicated that they are white, bthatis referring bto undergarments. /b,We learned in the mishna that bRabbi Yishmael says: One may foldclothes and make beds on Yom Kippur for Shabbat if Yom Kippur occurs on Friday, and the fats of the sacrifices that were brought on Shabbat were offered on Yom Kippur that occurs on Sunday. The verse b“The burnt-offering of Shabbat on its Shabbat,besides the daily offering and its libation” (Numbers 28:10) btaught, with regard to the fats of Shabbat, thatthey bare offered on Yom Kippur,because Yom Kippur is also called Shabbat, and the verse indicates that the Shabbat offering is offered on another Shabbat. I bmighthave thought beventhe fats bfrom Yom Kippurofferings could be sacrificed bon Shabbat;therefore, bthe verse states “on its Shabbat”to specify that it is not so; this is bthe statement of Rabbi Yishmael. /b, bRabbi Akiva saysthat when the verse says: b“The burnt-offering of Shabbat on its Shabbat,”it teaches bthatthe bfats of Shabbat are offered on a Festivalthat occurs on the following day. bI mighthave thought that they could bevenbe offered bon Yom Kippurthat occurred on the day after Shabbat. Therefore, bthe verse states “on its Shabbat”and not on another one., bWhen youanalyze the matter you bwill findthat you can bsay that, in accordance with the statement of Rabbi Yishmael, vows and free-will offerings are offered on a Festival.If sacrifices that fulfill vows can be postponed to a weekday but are nevertheless brought on a Festival, certainly fats from Shabbat can be offered on a Festival that follows it. bAnd the verse is needed topermit offering Shabbat fats on bYom Kippurthat follows it. However, baccording to Rabbi Akiva vows and free-will offerings are not brought on a Festival, andtherefore bthe verse is needed to permitsacrificing the fats from Shabbat bon a Festivalthat follows it, but on Yom Kippur it is prohibited. bRabbi Zeira said: /b
98. Babylonian Talmud, Sotah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

13b. קיים זה כל מה שכתוב בזה,ואי לא עסיק ביה משה ישראל לא הוו מיעסקי ביה והכתיב (יהושע כד, לב) ואת עצמות יוסף אשר העלו בני ישראל ממצרים קברו בשכם ותו אי לא איעסקו ביה ישראל בניו לא הוו מיעסקי ביה והכתיב (יהושע כד, לב) ויהיו לבני יוסף לנחלה,אמרו הניחו לו כבודו במרובים יותר מבמועטין ותו אמרו הניחו לו כבודו בגדולים יותר מבקטנים,קברו בשכם מאי שנא בשכם אמר ר' חמא בר' חנינא משכם גנבוהו ולשכם נחזיר אבידתו,קשו קראי אהדדי כתיב (שמות יג, יט) ויקח משה את עצמות יוסף עמו וכתיב ואת עצמות יוסף אשר העלו בני ישראל וגו',א"ר חמא בר' חנינא כל העושה דבר ולא גמרו ובא אחר וגמרו מעלה עליו הכתוב על שגמרו כאילו עשאו,רבי אלעזר אומר אף מורידין אותו מגדולתו דכתיב (בראשית לח, א) ויהי בעת ההיא וירד יהודה,רבי שמואל בר נחמני אמר אף קובר אשתו ובניו דכתיב (בראשית לח, יב) ותמת בת שוע אשת יהודה וגו' וכתיב וימת ער ואונן,אמר רב יהודה אמר רב מפני מה נקרא יוסף עצמות בחייו מפני שלא מיחה בכבוד אביו דקאמרי ליה (בראשית מד, כד) עבדך אבינו ולא אמר להו ולא מידי,ואמר רב יהודה אמר רב ואיתימא רבי חמא ברבי חנינא מפני מה מת יוסף קודם לאחיו מפני שהנהיג עצמו ברבנות,(בראשית לט, א) ויוסף הורד מצרימה א"ר אלעזר אל תיקרי הורד אלא הוריד שהוריד איצטגניני פרעה מגדולתן,ויקנהו פוטיפר סריס פרעה אמר רב שקנאו לעצמו (בא גבריאל וסירסו) בא גבריאל ופירעו מעיקרא כתיב פוטיפר ולבסוף פוטיפרע,מי לנו גדול ממשה וכו' (דברים ג, כו) ויאמר ה' אלי רב לך א"ר לוי ברב בישר ברב בישרוהו ברב בישר (במדבר טז, ג) רב לכם ברב בישרוהו רב לך,דבר אחר רב לך רב יש לך ומנו יהושע,דבר אחר רב לך שלא יאמרו הרב כמה קשה ותלמיד כמה סרבן וכל כך למה תנא דבי ר' ישמעאל לפום גמלא שיחנא,(דברים לא, ב) ויאמר אליהם בן מאה ועשרים שנה אנכי היום שאין ת"ל היום היום מלאו ימי ושנותי ללמדך שהקב"ה משלים שנותיהם של צדיקים מיום ליום ומחדש לחדש דכתיב (שמות כג, כו) את מספר ימיך אמלא,לא אוכל עוד לצאת ולבא מאי לצאת ולבא אילימא לצאת ולבא ממש והכתיב (דברים לד, ז) ומשה בן מאה ועשרים שנה במותו לא נס ליחה וכתיב (דברים לד, א) ויעל משה מערבות מואב אל הר נבו ותניא שתים עשרה מעלות היו שם ופסען משה בפסיעה אחת,א"ר שמואל בר נחמני א"ר יונתן לצאת ולבוא בדברי תורה מלמד שנסתתמו ממנו שערי חכמה,(דברים לא, יד) וילך משה ויהושע ויתיצבו באהל מועד תנא אותה שבת של דיו זוגי היתה ניטלה רשות מזה וניתנה לזה,(ותניא) א"ר יהודה אילמלא מקרא כתוב אי אפשר לאומרו היכן משה מת בחלקו של ראובן דכתיב (דברים לד, א) ויעל משה מערבות מואב אל הר נבו ונבו בחלקו של ראובן קיימא דכתיב (במדבר לב, לז) ובני ראובן בנו וגו' ואת נבו וגו',(נבו ששם מתו ג' נביאים משה ואהרן ומרים),והיכן משה קבור בחלקו של גד דכתיב (דברים לג, כא) וירא ראשית לו וגו' ומחלקו של ראובן עד חלקו של גד כמה הוי ארבעה מילין אותן ארבעה מילין מי הוליכו,מלמד שהיה משה מוטל בכנפי שכינה ומלאכי השרת אומרים (דברים לג, כא) צדקת ה' עשה ומשפטיו עם ישראל והקדוש ברוך הוא אומר (תהלים צד, טז) מי יקום לי עם מרעים מי יתיצב לי עם פועלי און,ושמואל אמר (קהלת ח, א) מי כהחכם ומי יודע פשר דבר ורבי יוחנן אמר (איוב כח, יב) החכמה מאין תמצא ורב נחמן אמר (דברים לד, ה) וימת שם משה וגו' סמליון אמר וימת שם משה ספרא רבה דישראל,תניא רבי אליעזר הגדול אומר שנים עשר מיל על שנים עשר מיל כנגד מחנה ישראל בת קול משמיע ואומר וימת משה ספרא רבה דישראל ויש אומרים לא מת משה כתיב הכא וימת שם וכתיב התם (שמות לד, כח) ויהי שם עם ה' מה להלן עומד ומשמש אף כאן עומד ומשמש,(דברים לד, ו) ויקבר אותו בגיא בארץ מואב מול בית פעור א"ר ברכיה סימן בתוך סימן ואפ"ה ולא ידע איש את קבורתו,וכבר שלחה מלכות הרשעה אצל 13b. bThisone, i.e., the deceased Joseph, bfulfilled all that is written in this.Therefore, it is fitting that the two arks should lie side by side.,The Gemara asks: bAnd if Moses had not dealt withthe burial of Joseph, bwould the Jewish people not have dealt with it? But isn’t it writtenthat after Moses died: b“And the bones of Joseph, which the children of Israel brought up out of Egypt, they buried in Shechem”(Joshua 24:32), which indicates that the Jewish people completed the burial of Joseph? bAnd furthermore, if the Jewish people had not dealt withJoseph’s burial, bwould his children not have dealt with it? But isn’t it writtenin that same verse: b“And they became the inheritance of the children of Joseph,”as Joseph was buried in Shechem, which was then given to his descendants? Therefore, the question arises: Why did Joseph’s descendants initially leave the task of his burial to the Jewish people and Moses?,The Gemara answers: bThey said: LeaveJoseph for others. bIt is more of an honor forJoseph to be buried bby the many than by the few,and therefore it is better that the Jewish people be involved in the burial. bAnd furthermore, they said: LeaveJoseph for others. bIt is more of an honor forJoseph to be buried bbyone of bthe greatmen like Moses bthan by lesser oneslike us.,In the aforementioned verse it states: “And the bones of Joseph, which the children of Israel brought up out of Egypt, bthey buried in Shechem,in the parcel of ground that Jacob bought from the sons of Hamor the father of Shechem for a hundred pieces of money” (Joshua 24:32). The Gemara asks: bWhat is different about Shechemthat they specifically chose to bury Joseph there? bRabbi Ḥama, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, saysthat the Jewish people said: His brothers bkidnapped him from Shechem(see Genesis 37:12–28), band to Shechem we should return his lostbody.,The Gemara comments: bThe verses contradict each other,as bit is written: “And Moses took the bones of Joseph with him”(Exodus 13:19), band it is writtenelsewhere: b“And the bones of Joseph, which the children of Israel brought upout of Egypt” (Joshua 24:32). Who in fact took Joseph’s bones?, bRabbi Ḥama, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, says: Anyone who performs a matter but does not complete it, and then another comes and completes it, the verse ascribes credit to the one who completed it as if he hadactually bperformedthe entire act. Due to the fact that the children of Israel completed Joseph’s burial, the Torah ascribes them credit as if they had performed the entire act., bRabbi Elazar sayswith regard to one who initiates performance of a mitzva but does not complete it when capable of doing so: bHe is also demoted [ imoridin /i] from hisposition of bgreatness, as it is written: “And it came to pass at that time, that Judah went down [ ivayyered /i]from his brethren, and turned in to a certain Adullamite, whose name was Hirah” (Genesis 38:1). Usage of the term “went down” indicates that the rest of Judah’s brothers had demoted him from his position of greatness because he began the process of saving Joseph, but he did not complete it., bRabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani says:The episode with regard to Judah also indicates that one who initiates performance of a mitzva but does not complete it will balso bury his wife and childrenas Judah did, bas it is written: “Andin process of time bShua’s daughter, the wife of Judah, died”(Genesis 38:12), band it is writtenfurther: “And the sons of Judah: Er, and O, and Shelah, and Perez, and Zerah; bbut Er and O diedin the land of Canaan” (Genesis 46:12)., bRav Yehuda saysthat bRav says: For whatreason bwas Joseph called: Bones,even bduring his lifetime,as he had his brothers take an oath that “God will surely remember you, and you shall carry up my bones from here” (Genesis 50:25)? bBecause he did not protest for the honor of his father, asthe brothers bsaid toJoseph while unaware of his true identity: b“Your servant our father”(Genesis 43:28, 44:31), bandJoseph bsaid nothing to themin protest that they referred to his father Jacob as Joseph’s servant., bAnd Rav Yehuda saysthat bRav says, and some saythat this was said by bRabbi Ḥama, son of Rabbi Ḥanina: For whatreason bdid Joseph predecease his brothers,as is indicated from his requesting of them to take care of his burial needs? bBecauseJoseph bacted authoritatively,and such behavior can reduce one’s life span.,After describing that Judah “went down” from his greatness, the Gemara discusses a similar term employed with regard to Joseph, as the verse states: b“And Joseph was brought down [ ihurad /i] to Egypt”(Genesis 39:1). bRabbi Elazar says: Do not readthe word as b“ ihurad /i,”meaning that he was passively brought down, bbutrather read it as ihorid /i,meaning: He, Joseph, brought down others, basJoseph bbrought down the astrologers [ iitztagninei /i] of Pharaoh from theirposition of beminencebecause he knew the interpretation of Pharaoh’s dreams when they did not.,The continuation of that verse states: b“And Potiphar, an officer [ iseris /i] of Pharaoh’s,the captain of the guard, an Egyptian, bbought himfrom the hand of the Ishmaelites, who had brought him down there” (Genesis 39:1). bRav says: He purchasedthe handsome Joseph bfor himself,for the intended purpose of homosexual intercourse, but was unable to fulfill his desires, as the angel bGabriel came and castratedPotiphar b[ iseireso /i].Then bGabriel cameagain bandfurther bmutilatedhim b[ ifero /i]in the same part of his body. This is alluded to in the verses that write Potiphar’s name differently: bInitially, it is written “Potiphar”(Genesis 39:1) band in the end it is written “Poti-phera”(Genesis 41:45). The change in his name indicates that a part of himself was mutilated.,§ The mishna teaches: bWho, to us,had ba greaterburial bthan Moses,as no one involved himself in his burial other than the Omnipresent Himself. The Gemara teaches: When Moses relates how God responded to him when denying his request to enter Eretz Yisrael, he states: b“And the Lord said to me: Let it suffice for you [ irav lakh /i];speak no more to Me of this matter” (Deuteronomy 3:26). bRabbi Levi says:Moses bproclaimedto the Jewish people when rebuking them bwiththe term b“ irav /i,”and therefore bit was proclaimed to him withthe term b“ irav /i”that he would not enter Eretz Yisrael. The Gemara explains: bHe proclaimed withthe term b“ irav /i”when speaking with the congregation of Korah: b“You take too much upon you [ irav lakhem /i],you sons of Levi” (Numbers 16:7), and bit was proclaimed to him withthe term b“ irav /i,”as God denied his request and said: b“Let it suffice for you [ irav lakh /i].” /b, bAlternatively:God’s telling Moses b“ irav lakh /i”was intended to mean: bYounow bhave a irav /i,a master, band who is it?It is bJoshua,who has been chosen to lead the Jewish people., bAlternatively:God’s telling Moses b“ irav lakh /i”was intended to mean: You have a irav /i, i.e., God, Who says that you may not enter Eretz Yisrael. You must not importune Me anymore, bso thatpeople bshould not say: How difficult is the Master and how obstinate is the student.The Gemara asks: bAnd whywas Moses punished bso muchin that he was not allowed to enter Eretz Yisrael, despite being so righteous? bThe school of Rabbi Yishmael taughtthat the reason is based on the common aphorism: bBased on the camel is the burden.In other words, a person is judged in accordance with his stature, and therefore a righteous individual will be punished greatly due to any sins he committed.,The verse relates what Moses said to the Jewish people at the end of his life: b“And he said to them: I am a hundred and twenty years old this day;I can no longer go out and come in; and the Lord has said to me: You shall not go over this Jordan” (Deuteronomy 31:2). The wording is problematic, basthere is bnoneed for bthe verse to statethe term b“this day.”Moses said it in order to indicate: On bthis day, my days and years have been completedto be precisely one hundred and twenty, in order bto teach you that the Holy One, Blessed be He, completes the years of the righteous from day to day and from month to month, as it is written: “The number of your days I will fill”(Exodus 23:26), indicating that the righteous will live out their years fully.,The verse continues: b“I can no longer go out and come in”(Deuteronomy 31:2). The Gemara asks: bWhatis the meaning of b“go out and come in”? If we sayit means literally that Moses was bactuallyphysically restricted from bgoing out and coming in, but isn’t it written: “And Moses was a hundred and twenty years old when he died,his eye was not dim, bnor his natural force abated”(Deuteronomy 34:7), indicating that he was at full physical strength? bAnd it is writtenfurther: b“And Moses went up from the plains of Moab to Mount Nebo”(Deuteronomy 34:1). bAnd it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bThere were twelve steps thereto ascend the mountain, band Moses stepped over themall in bone step,also indicating that he was at full physical strength., bRabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani saysthat bRabbi Yonatan says:The verse means that he could no longer bgo out and come in with words of Torah.This bteaches that the gates of wisdom were closed off to him. /b,The verse discussing when Joshua was appointed to be the successor of Moses states: b“And Moses and Joshua went, and presented themselves in the Tent of Meeting”(Deuteronomy 31:14). A Sage btaught: That Sabbathwhen Moses died bwasa day bof two pairs [ ideyo zugei /i],i.e., two wise men, Moses and Joshua, serving together in one place. bAuthority was taken from one and given to the other. /b, bAnd it is taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Yehuda said: If not foran explicitly bwritten verse, one could not saywhat is written with regard to the death and burial of Moses. bWhere did Moses die? In the portion of Reuben, as it is written: “And Moses went up from the plains of Moab to Mount Nebo”(Deuteronomy 34:1), bandit is known from elsewhere that bNebo is situated in the portion of Reuben, as it is written: “And the children of Reuben builtHeshbon, and Elealeh, and Kiriathaim, band Nebo”(Numbers 32:37–38).,The name is also expounded: It is called b“Nebo [ iNevo /i],” for three prophets [ inevi’im /i] died there: Moses, and Aaron, and Miriam. /b,Rabbi Yehuda continues: bAnd where is Moses buried? In the portion of Gad, as it is writtenin the blessing of Moses to the tribe of Gad: b“And he chose a first part for himself,for there a portion of a ruler was reserved” (Deuteronomy 33:21), indicating that Moses, the ruler, is buried in the portion of Gad. bAnd how much isthe distance bfrom the portion of Reuben to the portion of Gad? Four imil /i.Rabbi Yehuda asks: For bthose four imil /ifrom Mount Nebo in the portion of Reuben to the burial place of Moses in the portion of Gad, bwho transported him? /b,He answers: The contradiction between the two verses bteaches that Moses was lying in the wings of the Divine Presence,as Moses was carried out by God Himself, band the ministering angels were saying: “He executed the righteousness of the Lord, and His ordices with Israel”(Deuteronomy 33:21). bAnd the Holy One, Blessed be He, was saying: “Who will rise up for Me against the evildoers? Who will stand up for Me against the workers of iniquity?”(Psalms 94:16). In other words, God asked: Who will now defend the Jewish people against its accusers? The idea that God Himself transported Moses to his burial could not have been said if not for the proof from the resolution between the contradictory verses., bAnd Shmuel saysthat God was saying the verse: b“Who is as the wise man and who knows the interpretation [ ipesher /i] of a matter?”(Ecclesiastes 8:1), referring to the greatness of Moses, who was able to forge compromises, ipesharim /i, between God and the Jewish people. bAnd Rabbi Yoḥa saysthat God was saying the verse: b“Wisdom, where can it be found?”(Job 28:12). bAnd Rav Naḥman saysthat God was saying the verse: b“And Moses,the servant of God, bdied there”(Deuteronomy 34:5). bSemalyon saysthat God was saying: bAnd Moses, the great scribe of Israel, died there. /b, bIt is taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Eliezer the Great says:Over an area of btwelve imilby twelve imil /i, equivalent to thesize of the bcamp of Israel, a Divine Voice proclaimed and said: And Moses, the great scribe of Israel, died. And some say: Moses did notactually bdie,as bit is written here: “AndMoses, the servant of the Lord, bdied there”(Deuteronomy 34:5), band it is written there: “And he was there with the Lordforty days and forty nights” (Exodus 34:28). bJust as there,where it says: “And he was there with the Lord,” it means that bhe was standing and servingbefore God; bso too, here,when it says: “And Moses, the servant of the Lord, died there,” it means that bhe was standing and servingbefore God.,The verse describing the burial of Moses states: b“And He buried him in the valley in the land of Moab over against Beth Peor;and no man knows of his grave to this day” (Deuteronomy 34:6). bRabbi Berekhya says:This verse provides ba sign within a sign,i.e., a very precise description of the location of his burial, band even with thisthe verse concludes: b“And no man knows of his graveto this day” (Deuteronomy 34:6).,The Gemara relates: bAnd the evil monarchyof the Roman Empire balready sentmessengers bto /b
99. Babylonian Talmud, Sukkah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

14a. יורדין לידי טומאה במחשבה ואין עולין מטומאתן אלא בשינוי מעשה מעשה מוציא מיד מעשה ומיד מחשבה מחשבה אינה מוציאה לא מיד מעשה ולא מיד מחשבה,וכי תימא הני מילי כלים דחשיבי אבל ידות דלצורך אכילה נינהו במחשבה נעשה ובמחשבה סלקא והתנן כל ידות האוכלין שבססן בגורן טהורות (ור' יוסי מטמא),בשלמא למאן דאמר בססן התיר אגודן שפיר אלא למאן דאמר מאי בססן בססן ממש מאי איכא למימר,הכא נמי שבססן ממש אי הכי מאי טעמייהו דאחרים דאמור כרבי יוסי דתנן רבי יוסי מטמא,האי מאי בשלמא התם טעמא דרבי יוסי חזיא לכדרבי שמעון בן לקיש דאמר רבי שמעון בן לקיש הואיל וראויות להופכן בעתר,אלא הכא למאי חזיא חזיא לכי סתר למנקט להו בגילייהו,גופא כל ידות האוכלין שבססן בגורן טהורות ורבי יוסי מטמא מאי בססן רבי יוחנן אמר בססן ממש ר' (אליעזר) אומר התיר אגדן,בשלמא לרבי (אליעזר) דאמר בססן התיר אגדן היינו דמטמא רבי יוסי אלא לרבי יוחנן דאמר בססן ממש אמאי מטמא רבי יוסי א"ר שמעון בן לקיש הואיל וראויות להופכן בעתר,א"ר (אליעזר) למה נמשלה תפלתן של צדיקים כעתר לומר לך מה עתר זה מהפך את התבואה בגורן ממקום למקום אף תפלתן של צדיקים מהפכת דעתו של הקב"ה ממדת אכזריות למדת רחמנות:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big מסככין בנסרים דברי רבי יהודה ורבי מאיר אוסר נתן עליה נסר שהוא רחב ארבעה טפחים כשרה ובלבד שלא יישן תחתיו:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big אמר רב מחלוקת בנסרין שיש בהן ארבעה דרבי מאיר אית ליה גזרת תקרה ורבי יהודה לית ליה גזרת תקרה אבל בנסרין שאין בהן ארבעה דברי הכל כשרה ושמואל אמר בשאין בהן ארבעה מחלוקת אבל יש בהן ארבעה דברי הכל פסולה,אין בהן ארבעה ואפי' פחות משלשה הא קנים בעלמא נינהו,א"ר פפא הכי קאמר יש בהן ארבעה דברי הכל פסולה פחות משלשה דברי הכל כשרה מ"ט קנים בעלמא נינהו כי פליגי משלשה עד ארבעה מר סבר כיון דליתנהו שיעור מקום לא גזרינן ומר סבר כיון דנפקי להו מתורת לבוד גזרינן,תנן נתן עליה נסר שהוא רחב ארבעה טפחים כשרה ובלבד שלא יישן תחתיו בשלמא לשמואל דאמר בשאין בהן ארבעה מחלוקת אבל יש בהן ארבעה דברי הכל פסולה משום הכי לא יישן תחתיו אלא לרב דאמר בשיש בהן ארבעה מחלוקת אבל אין בהן ארבעה דברי הכל כשרה לר' יהודה אמאי לא יישן תחתיו,מי סברת דברי הכל היא סיפא אתאן לרבי מאיר,תא שמע שני סדינין מצטרפין 14a. bdescend into theirstate of britual impurity by means of thought?Although an unfinished vessel ordinarily cannot become ritually impure, if the craftsman decided to leave it in its unfinished state, it immediately assumes the legal status of a completed vessel and can become ritually impure. bHowever, they ascend from theirstate of britual impurity only by means of a changeresulting from an baction.Merely deciding to complete the unfinished vessel does not alter its status. It loses its status as a vessel only when he takes action to complete it. bAction negatesstatus created by baction andstatus created by bthought;however, bthought negates neitherstatus created by baction norstatus created by bthought.Therefore, once the straw of the grain harvested for food is considered a handle and is susceptible to ritual impurity, its status cannot be negated by thought alone., bAnd if you say:There is a distinction between the cases, as bthisprinciple bapplies onlyto bvessels, which are significant, butwith regard to bhandles that arenot independently significant but are merely bfor the purpose ofhandling bfood,perhaps bby means of thought they becomehandles band by means of thought they emergefrom that status; bbut didn’t we learnin the mishna to the contrary? bAll handles of food that one ibesasanon the threshing floor are ritually pure,as through one’s actions he indicated that has no use for them and does not consider them significant. bAnd Rabbi Yosei deemsthem capable of becoming britually impure. /b,The Gemara elaborates: bGranted, according to the one who saidthat ibesasan /imeans that bone untied their binding,it works out bwell.Although no action was performed on the sheaves, nevertheless, since their only purpose is to facilitate binding the sheaves, he indicated by unbinding them that the handles no longer suit his needs. bHowever, according to the one who said: What isthe meaning of ibesasan /i?It means bhe actually trampled them, what can be said?According to that opinion, only an action can negate the status of the handles. What, then, is the rationale for the opinion of the Rabbis, who hold that thought alone can negate their status?,The Gemara answers: bHere too,the dispute between the Rabbis and iAḥerimwith regard to using grain for roofing the isukkais in a case bwhere one actually trampled them,and that is the reason that they are no longer susceptible to ritual impurity. The Gemara asks: bIf so,and a change was made to the grain itself, bwhat is the rationalefor the opinion bof iAḥerim /i,who nevertheless prohibit their use as roofing? The Gemara answers: It is bbecause iAḥerim bstatetheir opinion bin accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Yosei, as we learnedin the previously cited mishna: bRabbi Yosei deemsthem capable of becoming britually impureeven after trampling.,The Gemara asks: bWhat isthe basis of bthiscomparison between the cases? bGranted, there,in the dispute concerning the ritual impurity of the grain on the threshing floor, bthe rationalefor the opinion bof Rabbi Yosei,i.e., that the handles remain susceptible to ritual impurity, is that bthey are suitablefor use. This is bin accordance withthe statement of bRabbi Shimon ben Lakish, as Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish said:Even after the grain is trampled the straw suits his needs, bsincethe straw bis suited tofacilitate bturning overthe grain bwith a pitchfork,as the straw prevents the grain from falling between the prongs of the pitchfork., bHowever, here,where one needs the straw only for roofing the isukka /i, for bwhat arethe handles bsuitedafter they have been trampled? They serve no purpose in terms of handling the grain. The Gemara answers: bThey are suited when one dismantlesthe roofing, in order bto holdthe grain bby the straw,so that it will scatter. Therefore, iAḥerimhold that the straw remains capable of contracting ritual impurity.,Apropos the dispute between the Rabbis and Rabbi Yosei, the Gemara discusses bthematter bitself: All handles of food that one ibesasanon the threshing floor are ritually pure, and Rabbi Yosei deemsthem capable of becoming britually impure.The Gemara asks: bWhat isthe meaning of ibesasan /i? Rabbi Yoḥa said:It means that bone actually trampledthem under foot. bRabbi Elazar says:It means bhe untied their binding. /b,The Gemara notes: bGranted, according to Rabbi Elazar, who said that ibesasan /imeans that bhe untied their binding, this isthe reason bthat Rabbi Yosei deemsthe handles bcapable of contracting ritual impurity. However, according to Rabbi Yoḥa, who saidthat ibesasan /imeans that one bactually trampled them, why does Rabbi Yosei deemthe handles bcapable of contracting ritual impurity?Didn’t one thereby render them insignificant? bRabbi Shimon ben Lakish said:Even after the grain is trampled, the straw suits his needs, bsincethe straw bis suited tofacilitate bturning overthe grain bwith a pitchfork. /b,Apropos a pitchfork, the Gemara cites a related aggadic teaching: bRabbi Elazar said: Why are the prayers of the righteous likened to a pitchfork [ ieter /i]?It is written: “And Isaac entreated [ ivayetar /i] the Lord for his wife, because she was barren” (Genesis 25:21), bto say to you: Just as this pitchfork overturns the grain on the threshing floor from place to place, so too, the prayers of the righteous overturn the mind of the Holy One, Blessed be He, from the attribute of cruelty to the attribute of mercy,and He accepts their prayers., strongMISHNA: /strong bOnemay broofthe isukka bwith boardslike those used in the ceiling of a house; this is bthe statement of Rabbi Yehuda. Rabbi Meir prohibitstheir use. bIf one placed a board that is four handbreadths wide atopthe isukka /i, the isukka bis fit.He fulfills his obligation, bprovided he does not sleep beneaththe board., strongGEMARA: /strong bRav said: The dispute is with regard to boards that have fourhandbreadths bin theirwidth, the standard size for boards used in house ceilings, as bRabbi Meir is ofthe opinion that the Sages issued bthe decree of the roof.In that case, the roofing of the isukkawith boards that wide could be confused with a ceiling. If it were permitted to roof the isukkawith a board that size, one might come to sleep beneath the ceiling of his own home during the Festival. bAnd Rabbi Yehuda is not ofthe opinion that the Sages issued bthe decree of the roof. However, with regard to boards that do not have fourhandbreadths bin theirwidth, beveryone agrees thatthe isukka bis fit. And Shmuel said: The dispute is with regard to boards that do not have fourhandbreadths bin theirwidth; bhowever,if bthey have fourhandbreadths bin theirwidth, beveryone agrees that it is unfit. /b,The Gemara asks: According to Shmuel, the dispute is with regard to boards that bdo not have fourhandbreadths in their width, bandapparently the same would hold true bevenif their width were bless than threehandbreadths. In that case, baren’t they merely reeds;why would Rabbi Meir prohibit their use?, bRav Pappa saidthat bthis is whatShmuel bis saying:If bthey have fourhandbreadths bin theirwidth, beveryone agrees thatthe isukkais bunfit.If their width is bless than threehandbreadths, beveryone agrees thatthe isukkais bfit. What is the reason?It is because bthey are merely reeds. When they disagreein the mishna, their disagreement pertains to a case where the boards are bfrom three to fourhandbreadths wide. In that case, one bSage,Rabbi Yehuda, bholdsthat bsince they are not the measure ofa significant bplace, we do not issue a decreeprohibiting their use. bAndone bSage,Rabbi Meir, bholdsthat bsince they have departed from thehalakhic bstatus ofbeing bjoined [ ilavud /i],which applies only to gaps of less than three handbreadths, bwe issue a decreeprohibiting their use as roofing.,The Gemara cites proof with regard to the dispute between Rav and Shmuel. bWe learnedin the mishna: bIf one placed a board that is four handbreadths wide atopthe isukka /i, the isukka bis fit.He fulfills his obligation, bprovided he does not sleep beneaththe board. bGranted, according to Shmuel, who saidthat bthe dispute is with regard to boards that do not have fourhandbreadths bin theirwidth, bhowever,if bthey have fourhandbreadths bin theirwidth, beveryone agrees that it is unfitroofing, it is bdue to thatreason that bone should not sleep beneaththe board. bHowever, according to Rav,who bsaidthat bthe dispute is with regard to boards that have fourhandbreadths bin theirwidth, bhowever,if bthey do not have fourhandbreadths bin theirwidth, beveryone agrees that it is fit, according to Rabbi Yehuda, whymay bone not sleep beneath it? /b,The Gemara answers: bDo you holdthat this last ihalakhain the mishna, about not sleeping beneath the board, bisa ruling with which beveryone,including Rabbi Yehuda bagrees?Rather, in bthe latter clauseof the mishna bwe have come tothe opinion of bRabbi Meir.He alone, not Rabbi Yehuda, holds that one may not sleep beneath the board. Therefore, no proof can be cited from the mishna.,The Gemara cites an additional proof. bComeand bhear: Two sheetsplaced over the roofing of the isukka bjoin togetherto constitute four handbreadths, the measure of unfit roofing that renders a isukkaunfit.
100. Babylonian Talmud, Taanit, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

16a. למתבייש מאחרים והיכא מנח להו אמר רבי יצחק במקום תפילין שנאמר (ישעיהו סא, ג) לשום לאבילי ציון לתת להם פאר תחת אפר:,רחוב תיבה ושקים אפר אפר קבורה ומוריה סימן: למה יוצאין לרחוב ר' חייא בר אבא אמר לומר זעקנו בצנעא ולא נענינו נבזה עצמנו בפרהסיא,ריש לקיש אמר גלינו גלותינו מכפרת עלינו מאי בינייהו איכא בינייהו דגלי מבי כנישתא לבי כנישתא,ולמה מוציאין את התיבה לרחובה של עיר אמר ר' יהושע בן לוי לומר כלי צנוע היה לנו ונתבזה בעוונינו,ולמה מתכסין בשקים אמר ר' חייא בר אבא לומר הרי אנו חשובין כבהמה ולמה נותנין אפר מקלה על גבי תיבה אמר רבי יהודה בן פזי כלומר (תהלים צא, טו) עמו אנכי בצרה ריש לקיש אמר (ישעיהו סג, ט) בכל צרתם לו צר אמר ר' זירא מריש כי הוה חזינא להו לרבנן דיהבי אפר מקלה על גבי תיבה מזדעזע לי כוליה גופאי,ולמה נותנין אפר בראש כל אחד ואחד פליגי בה ר' לוי בר חמא ור' חנינא חד אמר הרי אנו חשובין לפניך כאפר וחד אמר כדי שיזכור לנו אפרו של יצחק מאי בינייהו איכא בינייהו עפר סתם,למה יוצאין לבית הקברות פליגי בה ר' לוי בר חמא ור' חנינא חד אמר הרי אנו חשובין לפניך כמתים וחד אמר כדי שיבקשו עלינו מתים רחמים מאי בינייהו איכא בינייהו קברי עכו"ם,מאי (דברי הימים ב ג, א) הר המוריה פליגי בה ר' לוי בר חמא ור' חנינא חד אמר הר שיצא ממנו הוראה לישראל וחד אמר הר שיצא ממנו מורא לעובדי כוכבים:,הזקן שבהן אומר לפניהן דברי כבושין: ת"ר אם יש זקן אומר זקן ואם לאו אומר חכם ואם לאו אומר אדם של צורה אטו זקן דקאמרי אף על גב דלאו חכם הוא אמר אביי הכי קאמר אם יש זקן והוא חכם אומר זקן והוא חכם ואם לאו אומר חכם ואם לאו אומר אדם של צורה,אחינו לא שק ותענית גורמים אלא תשובה ומעשים טובים גורמים שכן מצינו באנשי נינוה שלא נאמר בהם וירא האלהים את שקם ואת תעניתם אלא (יונה ג, י) וירא האלהים את מעשיהם כי שבו מדרכם הרעה,(יונה ג, ח) ויתכסו שקים האדם והבהמה מאי הוו עבדי אסרא הבהמות לחוד ואת הוולדות לחוד אמרו לפניו רבונו של עולם אם אין אתה מרחם עלינו אין אנו מרחמים על אלו,(יונה ג, ח) ויקראו אל אלהים בחזקה מאי אמור אמרו לפניו רבונו של עולם עלוב ושאינו עלוב צדיק ורשע מי נדחה מפני מי,(יונה ג, ח) וישובו איש מדרכו הרעה ומן החמס אשר בכפיהם מאי ומן החמס אשר בכפיהם אמר שמואל אפילו גזל מריש ובנאו בבירה מקעקע כל הבירה כולה ומחזיר מריש לבעליו,אמר רב אדא בר אהבה אדם שיש בידו עבירה ומתודה ואינו חוזר בה למה הוא דומה לאדם שתופס שרץ בידו שאפי' טובל בכל מימות שבעולם לא עלתה לו טבילה זרקו מידו כיון שטבל בארבעים סאה מיד עלתה לו טבילה,שנאמר (משלי כח, יג) ומודה ועוזב ירוחם ואומר (איכה ג, מא) נשא לבבינו אל כפים אל אל בשמים:,עמדו בתפלה מורידין לפני התיבה זקן כו': תנו רבנן עמדו בתפלה אע"פ שיש שם זקן וחכם אין מורידין לפני התיבה אלא אדם הרגיל (איזהו רגיל) ר' יהודה אומר מטופל ואין לו ויש לו יגיעה בשדה וביתו ריקם,ופרקו נאה ושפל ברך ומרוצה לעם ויש לו נעימה וקולו ערב ובקי לקרות בתורה ובנביאים ובכתובים ולשנות במדרש בהלכות ובאגדות ובקי בכל הברכות כולן ויהבו ביה רבנן עינייהו בר' יצחק בר אמי 16a. bone who is humiliated by others.Accordingly, ashes are placed on the heads of the leaders of the community by others, to increase the appearance of their suffering. The Gemara asks: bAnd whereexactly barethe ashes bplacedupon their heads? bRabbi Yitzḥak said: On the placeof the bphylacteriesof the head, bas it is stated: “To appoint to those who mourn in Zion, to give to them an ornament [ ipe’er /i] instead of ashes”(Isaiah 61:3). This verse likens the placement of ashes on one’s head to an ornament, and the term ipe’eris traditionally interpreted as a reference to phylacteries.,§ The Gemara provides ba mnemonicdevice for the forthcoming statements. bSquare; ark; and sackcloth; ashes; ashes; cemetery; and Moriah.The Gemara asks: bWhy do they go out to the square? Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba said:This is a symbolic action, as though bto say: We cried out in privateinside the synagogue band we were not answered. We willtherefore bdisgrace ourselves in public,so that our prayers will be heard., bReish Lakish saidthat the move into the square symbolizes exile, as though they are saying: bWe have been exiled; may our exile atone for us.The Gemara asks: bWhat isthe practical difference bbetweenthese two explanations? The Gemara answers that the practical difference between bthemis in a case bwhere they are exiled,i.e., they move, bfromone bsynagogue toanother bsynagogue.According to the opinion of Reish Lakish, they have exiled themselves, and therefore this ceremony is adequate. Conversely, Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba maintains that as the ritual is performed in private, it is insufficient.,The Gemara asks another question concerning the meaning of the ritual. bAnd why do they remove the ark to the city square? Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said:This is done as though bto say: We had a modest vessel,which was always kept concealed, bbut it has beenpublicly bexposed due to our transgressions. /b,The Gemara further asks: bAnd why do they cover themselves in sackcloth? Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba said:This is as though bto say: We are consideredbefore You blike animals,which are likewise covered with hide. bAnd why do they place burnt ashes on top of the ark? Rabbi Yehuda ben Pazi said:This is bas though to sayin God’s name: b“I will be with him in trouble”(Psalms 91:15). bReish Lakish saidthat the same idea can be derived from a different verse: b“In all their affliction, He was afflicted”(Isaiah 63:9). By placing burnt ash on the ark, which is the symbol of the Divine Presence, it is as though God Himself joins the Jews in their pain. bRabbi Zeira said: At first, when I saw the Sages place burnt ashes upon the ark, my entire body trembledfrom the intensity of the event., bAnd why do they place ashes upon the head of each and everyindividual? bRabbi Levi bar Ḥama and Rabbi Ḥanina disagree with regard to thismatter. bOne saidthat this is as though to say: bWe are considered like ashes before You. And one saidthat these ashes are placed bin order to remindGod of bthe ashes ofour forefather bIsaac, on our behalf.The Gemara asks: bWhat isthe practical difference bbetweenthese two explanations? The Gemara answers that the practical difference bbetween themis in a case where one placed bordinary earthupon the heads of the individuals instead of ashes. Although earth does symbolize self-nullification and may be used according to the first explanation, it has no connection to the sacrifice of Isaac, and therefore it does not satisfy the second explanation.,The Gemara further asks: bAnd why do they go out to the cemeteryon a fast day? Again, bRabbi Levi bar Ḥama and Rabbi Ḥanina disagree with regard to thismatter. bOne saidthis is as though to say: bWe are like the dead before You. And one saidthat one goes out to the cemetery bin order thatthe deceased will brequest mercy on our behalf.The Gemara asks: bWhat isthe practical difference bbetween them?The Gemara answers that the practical difference bbetween themconcerns bgraves of gentiles.If the purpose of going to graves is to say that they stand before God like the dead, graves of gentiles would suffice. However, if they go to the cemetery for the deceased to ask for mercy on their behalf, they should visit specifically Jewish graves.,§ Apropos disputes between Rabbi Levi bar Ḥama and Rabbi Ḥanina, the Gemara mentions another dispute between them. bWhatis the meaning of the name bMount [ iHar /i] Moriah,the Temple Mount? bRabbi Levi bar Ḥama and Rabbi Ḥanina disagreewith regard to bthismatter. bOne saidthat the name alludes to the Great Sanhedrin that convened there, as it is the bmountain from which instruction [ ihora’a /i] went out to the Jewish people. And one saidthat it is the bmountain from which fear [ imora /i] went out to the nations of the world,as this place signifies God’s choice of the Jewish people.,§ The mishna taught: bThe eldest ofthe community bsays to them statements of reproof. The Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: bIf there is an elder,then bthe elder saysthe admonition, band if not, a Sage saysthe admonition. bAnd if not, a person ofimposing bappearance saysit. The Gemara asks: bIs that to saythat the belderof whom bwe spokeis preferred to a scholar simply by virtue of his age, beven though he is not a scholar? Abaye saidthat bthis is whatthe mishna bis saying: If there is an elder, and he isalso ba scholar,this belder scholar saysthe admonition. bAnd if not,even a young bscholar saysthe reproof. bAnd ifthere is bnoscholar of any kind available, ba person ofimposing bappearance saysit.,What does he say? bOur brothers,it is bnot sackcloth and fastingthat bcauseatonement for our sins. bRather, repentance and good deedswill bcauseour atonement. This is bas we find with regard to the people of Nineveh, that it is not stated about them: And God saw their sackcloth and their fasting. Rather,the verse states: b“And God saw their deeds, that they had turned from their evil way”(Jonah 3:10).,§ Apropos the repentance of the inhabitants of Nineveh, the Gemara discusses their behavior further. The verse states: b“But let them be covered with sackcloth, both man and beast”(Jonah 3:8). bWhat did they do? They confined thefemale banimals alone, andtheir byoung alone,in a different place. bTheythen bsaid beforeGod: bMaster of the Universe, if You do not have mercy on us, we will not have mercy on theseanimals. Even if we are not worthy of Your mercy, these animals have not sinned.,It is further stated with regard to the people of Nineveh: b“And let them cry mightily to God”(Jonah 3:8). The Gemara asks: bWhat did they saythat could be described as calling out “mightily”? The Gemara explains that bthey said beforeGod: bMaster of the Universe,if there is a dispute between ba submissive one and an intractable one,or between ba righteous one and a wicked one, who must yield before whom?Certainly the righteous forgives the wicked. Likewise, You must have mercy on us.,The verse states: b“And let them turn, every one from his evil way, and from the violence that is in their hands”(Jonah 3:8). bWhat isthe meaning of the phrase b“and from the violence that is in their hands”? Shmuel saidthat the king of Nineveh proclaimed: bEvenif bone stole a beam and built it intohis bbuilding,he must btear down the entire building and return the beam to its owner.Although the Sages decreed that one need only pay ficial compensation in a case of this kind, these people wanted to repent completely by removing any remt of stolen property from their possession.,§ Similarly, bRav Adda bar Ahava said: A person who has a transgression in his hand, and he confesses but does not repent forhis sin, bto what is he comparable? To a person who holds in his handa dead bcreeping animal,which renders one ritually impure by contact. bAsin this situation, beven if he immerses in all the waters of the world, his immersion is ineffective for him,as long as the source of ritual impurity remains in his hand. However, if he has bthrownthe animal bfrom his hand, once he has immersed ina ritual bath of bforty ise’a /i, the immersion is immediately effective for him. /b, bAs it is stated:“He who covers his transgressions shall not prosper, bbut whoever confesses and forsakes them shall obtain mercy”(Proverbs 28:13). That is, confession alone is futile, but one who also abandons his transgressions will receive mercy. bAnd it stateselsewhere: b“Let us lift up our heart with our hands to God in Heaven”(Lamentations 3:41), which likewise indicates that it is not enough to lift one’s hands in prayer; rather, one must also raise his heart and return to God.,§ The mishna teaches: bThey stood for prayer,and the congregation appoints ban elder. The Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: bThey stood for prayer,and beven if there isa man bthere who is elderly and a scholar, theyappoint bto descend before the arkas prayer leader bonly a person who is accustomedto lead in prayer. Who is considered an accustomed prayer leader in this sense? bRabbi Yehuda says:One who has ficially bdependentchildren bbut he does not havethe means to support them, band he hasno choice but to btoil in the field, and whose house is empty,and who will therefore pray for rain with great devotion.,Rabbi Yehuda continues with his depiction of the worthy prayer leader. bAnd his youth was becoming, andhe is bhumble and accepted by the people,as he is likable. bAndfurthermore, he must be bfamiliar with songs and his voice pleasant, andhe is bexpert in reading the Torah, the Prophets, and the Writings, andhe knows how bto study midrash, ihalakha /i, and iaggada /i. Andfinally, he must be bexpert in all of the blessings.Clearly, it is hard to find someone with all these qualities. bAndthe Gemara relates that when this worthy person was described, those bSagespresent bturned their eyes toward Rav Yitzḥak bar Ami,who possessed all of these virtues.
101. Babylonian Talmud, Yevamot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

63b. מן החטא מקרי ליה רב יהודה לרב יצחק בריה (קהלת ז, כו) ומוצא אני מר ממות את האשה א"ל כגון מאן כגון אמך,והא מתני ליה רב יהודה לרב יצחק בריה אין אדם מוצא קורת רוח אלא מאשתו ראשונה שנאמר (משלי ה, יח) יהי מקורך ברוך ושמח מאשת נעוריך וא"ל כגון מאן כגון אמך מתקיף תקיפא ועבורי מיעברא במלה,היכי דמי אשה רעה אמר אביי מקשטא ליה תכא ומקשטא ליה פומא רבא אמר מקשטא ליה תכא ומהדרא ליה גבא,אמר רבי חמא בר חנינא כיון שנשא אדם אשה עונותיו מתפקקין שנאמר (משלי יח, כב) מצא אשה מצא טוב ויפק רצון מה' במערבא כי נסיב אינש איתתא אמרי ליה הכי מצא או מוצא מצא דכתיב מצא אשה מצא טוב מוצא דכתיב ומוצא אני מר ממות את האשה,אמר רבא אשה רעה מצוה לגרשה דכתיב (משלי כב, י) גרש לץ ויצא מדון וישבות דין וקלון ואמר רבא אשה רעה וכתובתה מרובה צרתה בצדה דאמרי אינשי בחברתה ולא בסילתא ואמר רבא קשה אשה רעה כיום סגריר שנאמר (משלי כז, טו) דלף טורד ביום סגריר ואשת מדינים נשתוה,ואמר רבא בא וראה כמה טובה אשה טובה וכמה רעה אשה רעה כמה טובה אשה טובה דכתיב מצא אשה מצא טוב אי בגוה משתעי קרא כמה טובה אשה טובה שהכתוב משבחה אי בתורה משתעי קרא כמה טובה אשה טובה שהתורה נמשלה בה כמה רעה אשה רעה דכתיב ומוצא אני מר ממות את האשה אי בגוה משתעי קרא כמה רעה אשה רעה שהכתוב מגנה אי בגיהנם משתעי קרא כמה רעה אשה רעה שגיהנם נמשלה בה,(ירמיהו יא, יא) הנני מביא רעה אשר לא יוכלו לצאת ממנה אמר רב נחמן אמר רבה בר אבוה זו אשה רעה וכתובתה מרובה (איכה א, יד) נתנני ה' בידי לא אוכל קום אמר רב חסדא אמר מר עוקבא בר חייא זו אשה רעה וכתובתה מרובה במערבא אמרו זה שמזונותיו תלוין בכספו,(דברים כח, לב) בניך ובנותיך נתונים לעם אחר אמר רב חנן בר רבא אמר רב זו אשת האב (דברים לב, כא) בגוי נבל אכעיסם אמר רב חנן בר רבא אמר רב זו אשה רעה וכתובתה מרובה רבי אליעזר אומר אלו הצדוקים וכן הוא אומר (תהלים יד, א) אמר נבל בלבו אין אלהים וגו',במתניתא תנא אלו אנשי ברבריא ואנשי מרטנאי שמהלכין ערומים בשוק שאין לך משוקץ ומתועב לפני המקום יותר ממי שמהלך בשוק ערום רבי יוחנן אמר אלו חברים אמרו ליה לר' יוחנן אתו חברי לבבל שגא נפל אמרו ליה מקבלי שוחדא תריץ יתיב,גזרו על ג' מפני ג' גזרו על הבשר מפני המתנות גזרו על המרחצאות מפני הטבילה,קא מחטטי שכבי מפני ששמחים ביום אידם שנאמר (שמואל א יב, טו) והיתה יד ה' בכם ובאבותיכם אמר רבה בר שמואל זו חטוטי שכבי דאמר מר בעון חיים מתים מתחטטין,א"ל רבא לרבה בר מארי כתיב (ירמיהו ח, ב) לא יאספו ולא יקברו לדומן על פני האדמה יהיו וכתיב (ירמיהו ח, ג) ונבחר מות מחיים אמר ליה נבחר מות לרשעים שלא יחיו בעולם הזה ויחטאו ויפלו בגיהנם,כתוב בספר בן סירא אשה טובה מתנה טובה לבעלה וכתיב טובה בחיק ירא אלהים תנתן אשה רעה צרעת לבעלה מאי תקנתיה יגרשנה ויתרפא מצרעתו אשה יפה אשרי בעלה מספר ימיו כפלים,העלם עיניך מאשת חן פן תלכד במצודתה אל תט אצל בעלה למסוך עמו יין ושכר כי בתואר אשה יפה רבים הושחתו ועצומים כל הרוגיה רבים היו פצעי רוכל המרגילים לדבר ערוה כניצוץ מבעיר גחלת ככלוב מלא עוף כן בתיהם מלאים מרמה,אל תצר צרת מחר כי לא תדע מה ילד יום שמא מחר בא ואיננו נמצא מצטער על העולם שאין שלו מנע רבים מתוך ביתך ולא הכל תביא ביתך רבים יהיו דורשי שלומך גלה סוד לאחד מאלף,אמר רבי אסי אין בן דוד בא עד שיכלו כל הנשמות שבגוף שנאמר (ישעיהו נז, טז) כי רוח מלפני יעטוף ונשמות אני עשיתי תניא רבי אליעזר אומר כל מי שאין עוסק בפריה ורביה כאילו שופך דמים שנאמר (בראשית ט, ו) שופך דם האדם באדם דמו ישפך וכתיב בתריה ואתם פרו ורבו,רבי יעקב אומר כאילו ממעט הדמות שנאמר (בראשית ט, ו) כי בצלם אלהים עשה את האדם וכתיב בתריה ואתם פרו וגו' בן עזאי אומר כאילו שופך דמים וממעט הדמות שנאמר ואתם פרו ורבו,אמרו לו לבן עזאי יש נאה דורש ונאה מקיים נאה מקיים ואין נאה דורש ואתה נאה דורש ואין נאה מקיים אמר להן בן עזאי ומה אעשה שנפשי חשקה בתורה אפשר לעולם שיתקיים על ידי אחרים,תניא אידך רבי אליעזר אומר כל מי שאין עוסק בפריה ורביה כאילו שופך דמים שנאמר שופך דם האדם וסמיך ליה ואתם פרו וגו' רבי אלעזר בן עזריה אומר כאילו ממעט הדמות בן עזאי אומר וכו' אמרו לו לבן עזאי יש נאה דורש וכו',ת"ר (במדבר י, לו) ובנחה יאמר שובה ה' רבבות אלפי ישראל 63b. bfrom sin.We should therefore show our gratitude to them. The Gemara cites a related incident: bRav Yehudawas bteachingTorah bto Rav Yitzḥak, his son,and they encountered the verse: b“And I find more bitter than death the woman”(Ecclesiastes 7:26). His son bsaid to him: For example, whom?His father replied: bFor example, your mother. /b,The Gemara asks: bDidn’t Rav Yehuda teach Rav Yitzḥak, his son,the following ibaraita /i: bA man finds peace of mind only with his first wife, as it is stated: “Let your fountain be blessed, and have joy from the wife of your youth”(Proverbs 5:18), bandhis son bsaid to him: For example, whom,and his father responded in this case as well: bFor example, your mother.This indicates that Rav Yehuda did find peace of mind with his wife. The Gemara answers: She was aggressive and bforceful, butshe was beasily appeased. /b,The Gemara asks: bWhat are the circumstanceswhen a woman is considered ba bad wife? Abaye said: She arranges a table for him and arrangesher bmouth for himat the same time. In other words, although she prepares food for him, she verbally abuses him while he eats. bRava said: She arranges a table for him andthen bturnsher bback to him,displaying her lack of interest in his company., bRabbi Ḥama bar Ḥanina said: Once a man marries a woman his iniquities crumble [ imitpakekin /i], as it is stated: “Whoever finds a wife finds good, and obtains [ iveyafek /i] favor of the Lord”(Proverbs 18:22). bIn the West,i.e., Eretz Yisrael, bwhen a man married a woman they would say to him as follows: iMatzaor imotze /i?In other words, they would ask the groom if the appropriate passage for his wife is that verse, which begins with the word imatza /i, as it is written: Whoever finds [ imatza /i] a wife finds good,or whether the more appropriate verse is the one beginning with the word imotze /i, as it is written: “And I find [ imotze /i] more bitter than death the woman”(Ecclesiastes 7:26)., bRava said: It is a mitzva to divorce a bad wife, as it is written: “Cast out the scorner and contention will depart; strife and shame will cease”(Proverbs 22:10). bAnd Rava said: A bad wife whose marriage contractsettlement bistoo blargefor her husband to pay in the event of a divorce, bher rival wife is at her side.In other words, the only way for him to improve matters is to take another wife. bAs people sayin the well-known adage: The way to trouble a woman is bwith her peer and not with a thorn. And Rava said: A bad wife is as troublesome as a day of heavy rain, as it is stated: “A continual dropping on a very rainy day and a contentious woman are alike”(Proverbs 27:15)., bAnd Rava said: Come and see how good a good wife is and how bad a bad wife is. How good is a good wife? As it is written: Whoever finds a wife finds good. If the verse speaks of her,a wife, this demonstrates bhow good a good wife is, as the Bible praises her. If the verse speaksmetaphorically bof the Torah,it nevertheless indicates bhow good a good wife is, as the Torah is compared to her.Conversely, bhow bad is a bad wife? As it is written: “And I find more bitter than death the woman.” If the verse speaks of her,this demonstrates bhow bad a bad wife is, as the Bible condemns her. If the verse speaksmetaphorically bof Gehenna,it still demonstrates bhow bad a bad wife is, as Gehenna is compared to her. /b,The Gemara cites further statements on the same issue. The verse states: b“Behold, I will bring evil upon them, which they shall not be able to escape”(Jeremiah 11:11). bRav Naḥman saidthat bRabba bar Avuh said: This is a bad wife whose marriage contract is large.Similarly, with regard to the verse: b“The Lord has given me into the hands of those against whom I cannot stand”(Lamentations 1:14), bRav Ḥisda saidthat bMar Ukva bar Ḥiyya said: This is a bad wife whose marriage contract is large. In the West,Eretz Yisrael, bthey said thisverse is referring to one bwhose food is dependent on his money.He is forced to purchase his food with cash, as he does not possess land of his own.,With regard to the verse: b“Your sons and your daughters shall be given to another people”(Deuteronomy 28:32), bRav Ḥa bar Rava saidthat bRav said: This isa reference to the children’s bfather’s wife,their stepmother. With regard to the verse: b“I will provoke them with a vile nation”(Deuteronomy 32:21), bRav Ḥa bar Rava saidthat bRav said: This is a bad wife whose marriage contract is large. Rabbi Eliezer saysthat bthese are apostates, and so toothe verse bstates: “The vile man has said in his heart: There is no God,they have dealt corruptly” (Psalms 14:1), which proves that an apostate is called vile., bIt was taught in a ibaraita /iwith regard to the verse: “I will provoke them with a vile nation,” that bthese are the inhabitants of Barbarya and the inhabitants of Martenai, who walk naked in the marketplace, as none is more despised and abominable before the Omnipresent than one who walks naked in the marketplace. Rabbi Yoḥa said: These arethe iḤabbarim /i,a sect of Persian priests. The Gemara relates: When bthey said to Rabbi Yoḥa:The iḤabbarimhave come to Babylonia, he shuddered and fellof his chair, out of concern for the Jews living there. bThey said to him:There is a way to deal with their persecution, as bthey accept bribes.Upon hearing that not all was lost, bhe straightened himselfand bsatin his place once again.,Apropos the iḤabbarim /i, the Gemara cites the following statement of the Sages: The iḤabbarimwere able to bissue decrees againstthe Jewish people with regard to bthreematters, bdue to threetransgressions on the part of the Jewish people. bThey decreed against meat,i.e., they banned ritual slaughter, bdue tothe failure of the Jewish people to give the priests bthe giftsof the foreleg, the jaw, and the maw. bThey decreed againstJews bathing in bbathhouses, due totheir neglect of ritual bimmersion. /b,Third, bthey exhumed the deadfrom their graves bbecausethe Jews brejoice onthe bholidaysof the gentiles, bas it is stated: “Then shall the hand of the Lord be against you and against your fathers”(I Samuel 12:15). bRabba bar Shmuel said: Thisverse is referring to bexhuming the dead,which upsets both the living and the dead, bas the Master said:Due bto the iniquity of the living, the dead are exhumed. /b, bRava said to Rabba bar Mari: It is written: “They shall not be gathered nor buried; they shall be for dung upon the face of the earth”(Jeremiah 8:2), band it is written: “And death shall be chosen rather than life”(Jeremiah 8:3). If death will be so indecent that their bodies will not even be buried, why would people choose death over life? Rabba bar Mari bsaid to him:The latter verse does not refer to the previously described state of affairs, but rather it means: bDeath is preferable for the wicked,as it is better bthat they not live in this world and sin andconsequently bdescend into Gehenna. /b,The Gemara cites more statements concerning women. bIt is written in the book of Ben Sira: A good wife is a good gift for her husband. And it is written: A good one will be placed in the bosom of a God-fearing man; a bad wife is a plague to her husband. What is his remedy? He should divorce her and he will be cured of his plague. A beautiful wife, happy is her husband; the number of his days are doubled.His pleasure in her beauty makes him feel as though he has lived twice as long., bTurn your eyes from a graceful womanwho is married to another man, blest you be caught in her trap. Do not turn to her husband to mix wine and strong drink with him,which can lead to temptation. bFor onaccount of bthe countece of a beautiful woman many have been destroyed, and her slain is a mighty host.Furthermore, bmany have been the wounded peddlers.This is referring to men who travel from place to place to sell women’s jewelry. Their frequent dealings with women lead their husbands to harm the peddlers. bThose who accustomthemselves bto licentious matters are like a spark that ignites a coal. As a cage is full of birds, so are their houses full of deceit. /b,The Gemara quotes additional statements from the book of Ben Sira: bDo not suffer from tomorrow’s trouble,that is, do not worry about problems that might arise in the future, bas you do not know what a day will bring. Perhapswhen btomorrow comes,the individual who was so worried will bnotbe among the living, and bhewas bconsequently upset over a world that is not his. Prevent a crowd from inside your house,do not let many people enter, band do noteven bbring allyour friends into byour house.Make sure, however, that ba crowd seeks your welfare,and that you have many allies. bReveal a secret toonly bone in a thousand,since most people are unable to keep a secret., bRabbi Asi said: TheMessiah, bson of David, will not come until all the souls of the body have been finished,i.e., until all souls that are destined to inhabit physical bodies will do so. bAs it is stated: “For the spirit that enwraps itself is from Me, and the souls that I have made”(Isaiah 57:16). bIt is taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Eliezer says: Anyone who does not engage inthe mitzva to be bfruitful and multiplyis considered bas though he sheds blood, as it is stated: “Whoever sheds the blood of man, by man shall his blood be shed”(Genesis 9:6), band it is writtenimmediately bafterward: “And you, be fruitful and multiply”(Genesis 9:7)., bRabbi Ya’akov says: It is as though he diminishes theDivine bImage, as it is stated: “For in the image of God He made man”(Genesis 9:6), band it is writtenimmediately bafterward: “And you, be fruitfuland multiply” (Genesis 9:7). bBen Azzai says:It is bas though he sheds blood andalso bdiminishes theDivine bImage, as it is stated: “And you, be fruitful and multiply,”after the verse that alludes to both shedding blood and the Divine Image., bThey said to ben Azzai: Thereis a type of scholar who bexpounds well and fulfillshis own teachings bwell,and another who bfulfills well and does not expound well. But you,who have never married, bexpound wellon the importance of procreation, bandyet byou do not fulfill wellyour own teachings. bBen Azzai said to them: What shall I do, as my soul yearns for Torah,and I do not wish to deal with anything else. bIt is possible for the world to be maintained by others,who are engaged in the mitzva to be fruitful and multiply., bIt issimilarly btaughtin banother ibaraitathat bRabbi Eliezer says: Anyone who does not engage inthe mitzva to be bfruitful and multiplyis considered bas though he sheds blood, as it is stated: “Whoever sheds the blood of man,” andit is stated bnear it: “And you, be fruitfuland multiply.” bRabbi Elazar ben Azarya says:It is bas though he diminishes theDivine bImage. Ben Azzai says:It is as though he both sheds blood and diminishes the Divine Image. bThey said to ben Azzai: There isa type of scholar who bexpounds well, etc. /b, bThe Sages taughtwith regard to the mitzva to be fruitful and multiply: b“And when it rested, he would say: Return, Lord, to the ten thousands of the thousands of Israel”(Numbers 10:36).
102. Babylonian Talmud, Yoma, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

29a. הרהורי עבירה קשו מעבירה וסימניך ריחא דבישרא שילהי דקייטא קשיא מקייטא וסימניך תנורא שגירא,אישתא דסיתוא קשיא מדקייטא וסימניך תנורא קרירא מיגמר בעתיקתא קשיא מחדתא וסימניך טינא בר טינא,א"ר אבהו מ"ט דרבי דכתיב (תהלים כב, א) למנצח על אילת השחר מה אילה זו קרניה מפצילות לכאן ולכאן אף שחר זה מפציע לכאן ולכאן,א"ר זירא למה נמשלה אסתר לאילה לומר לך מה אילה רחמה צר וחביבה על בעלה כל שעה ושעה כשעה ראשונה אף אסתר היתה חביבה על אחשורוש כל שעה ושעה כשעה ראשונה א"ר אסי למה נמשלה אסתר לשחר לומר לך מה שחר סוף כל הלילה אף אסתר סוף כל הנסים,והא איכא חנוכה ניתנה לכתוב קא אמרינן הניחא למאן דאמר אסתר ניתנה לכתוב אלא למאן דאמר אסתר לא ניתנה לכתוב מאי איכא למימר,מוקים לה כר' בנימין בר יפת אמר ר' אלעזר דאמר רבי בנימין בר יפת אמר רבי אלעזר למה נמשלו תפלתן של צדיקים כאילת לומר לך מה אילה זו כל זמן שמגדלת קרניה מפצילות אף צדיקים כל זמן שמרבין בתפלה תפלתן נשמעת,שחטו את התמיד אימת אילימא בשאר ימות השנה לא סגיא דלאו כהן גדול אלא ביום הכפורים מאור הלבנה מי איכא,הכי קאמר וביום הכפורים כי אמר ברק ברקאי הורידו כ"ג לבית הטבילה,תני אבוה דרבי אבין לא זו בלבד אמרו אלא אף מליקת העוף וקמיצת מנחה בלילה תשרף בשלמא עולת העוף מאי דהוה הוה אלא קומץ 29a. bThoughts of transgression are worse than transgressionitself, band your mnemonic is the odor of meat.The smell of roasting meat is more appetizing than actually eating the meat. The heat of bthe end of summer is more oppressive than theheat of the bsummeritself, band your mnemonic is a heated oven.After an oven has been heated several times in the course of a day, lighting it again, even slightly, will produce powerful heat. So too, at the end of the summer, since everything is hot, the heat is more oppressive., bA fever inthe bwinter is more powerful thana fever binthe bsummer, and your mnemonic is a cold oven.Heating a cold oven requires greater heat than heating a hot oven. A fever that succeeds in raising the body temperature in the winter must be more powerful than a fever that raises the body temperature in the summer. bRelearning oldmaterial that was known and forgotten bis more difficult than learning from newmaterial. bAnd your mnemonic ismixing bmortar from mortar.It is harder to take hardened mortar, crush it, and mix new mortar than it is to simply mix new mortar.,Apropos moonlight and sunlight discussed previously, bRabbi Abbahu said: What is the rationalefor the statement of bRabbiYehuda HaNasi that sunlight diffuses and in that sense is dissimilar to moonlight? It is bas it is written: “For the leader, about the morning hind”(Psalms 22:1); bjust as the antlers of a hind branch out to here and to there, so too,the light of bdawn diffuses to here and to there. /b,In tractate iMegilla /i, the Gemara states that Queen Esther prophetically recited this Psalm in reference to her situation as she was about to come before King Ahasuerus without being summoned. bRabbi Zeira said: Why is Esther likened to a hind?It is bto tell you: Just asin the case of ba hind its womb is narrow and it is desirable to its mate at each and every hour likeit is at bthe first hour, so too, Esther was desirable to Ahasuerus at each and every hour likeshe was at bthe first hour. Rabbi Asi said: Why was Esther likened to the dawn?It is bto tell you: Just as the dawn is the conclusion of the entire night, so too, Esther was the conclusion of all miraclesperformed for the entire Jewish people.,The Gemara asks: bBut isn’t therethe miracle of bHanukkah,which was performed many years later? The Gemara answers: It is true that additional miracles were performed after the miracle of Purim; however, it is with regard to miracles for which permission bwas granted to writethem in the Bible that bwe are sayingthat the miracle of Purim was the last one. The Gemara asks: bThatworks out bwell according to the one who said:Permission bwas granted to writethe Scroll of bEstherin the Bible as a book whose sanctity equals that of the other books of the Bible. bHowever, according to the one who said:Permission bwas not granted to writethe Scroll of bEstherin the Bible, and its sanctity does not reach the level of the other books of the Bible, bwhat can be said? /b,The Gemara answers: Actually, Purim was not the conclusion of all miracles performed for the entire Jewish people, and the one who holds that permission was not granted for the Scroll of Esther to be written bestablishesthe analogy between Esther and the hind bin accordance withthe statement that bRabbi Binyamin bar Yefetsaid bthat Rabbi Elazar said; as Rabbi Binyamin bar Yefet saidthat bRabbi Elazar said: Why are the prayers of the righteous likened to a hind?It is bto tell you: Just aswith regard to ba hind, as long as it grows its antlers theycontinue to bbranch out; so too,with regard to bthe righteous, as long as theyengage bmore in prayer their prayer is heard. /b,§ The mishna relates that as a result of the confusion, bthey slaughtered the daily offeringbefore dawn. The Gemara asks: bWhendid this incident occur? bIf we sayit occurred bduring the rest of the days of the year, is there no alternativeto having the service performed by bthe High Priest?The mishna states that after slaughtering the daily offering, they led the High Priest down to the Hall of Immersion. On all the other days of the year, the High Priest need not perform the service and it may be performed by a common priest. bRather,it must be that this incident occurred bon Yom Kippur,when the service is performed exclusively by the High Priest. However, in that case, bis there moonlight?According to the lunar cycle, the moon never rises in the east adjacent to dawn on Yom Kippur.,The Gemara answers that bthis is whatthe mishna bis saying:The incident occurred during the rest of the year, at which point they instituted that the appointed priest announce the arrival of dawn in the Temple. bAnd on Yom Kippur, whenthe appointed priest bsaid: The light flashed, theyimmediately bled the High Priest down to the Hall of Immersion. /b,Apropos this fundamental ihalakha /i, bthe father of Rabbi Avin taughta ibaraita /i: bNot only this,that a daily offering slaughtered before dawn is disqualified and burned, bdid they say; rather, evenin the case of bthe pinching of theneck of ba bird and the taking of the handful of a meal-offeringthat are performed bat night,these items must bbe burned.The Gemara analyzes the ibaraita /i: bGranted, a birdsacrificed as ba burnt-offeringis disqualified if pinched before dawn; bwhat was, was.The situation can no longer be remedied, and the bird must be burned. bHowever,why should bthe handfulof a meal-offering be burned?
103. Nag Hammadi, Apocalypse of Peter, 2.12-2.13 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

104. Origen, Against Celsus, 1.28, 1.32, 3.55 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

1.28. And since, in imitation of a rhetorician training a pupil, he introduces a Jew, who enters into a personal discussion with Jesus, and speaks in a very childish manner, altogether unworthy of the grey hairs of a philosopher, let me endeavour, to the best of my ability, to examine his statements, and show that he does not maintain, throughout the discussion, the consistency due to the character of a Jew. For he represents him disputing with Jesus, and confuting Him, as he thinks, on many points; and in the first place, he accuses Him of having invented his birth from a virgin, and upbraids Him with being born in a certain Jewish village, of a poor woman of the country, who gained her subsistence by spinning, and who was turned out of doors by her husband, a carpenter by trade, because she was convicted of adultery; that after being driven away by her husband, and wandering about for a time, she disgracefully gave birth to Jesus, an illegitimate child, who having hired himself out as a servant in Egypt on account of his poverty, and having there acquired some miraculous powers, on which the Egyptians greatly pride themselves, returned to his own country, highly elated on account of them, and by means of these proclaimed himself a God. Now, as I cannot allow anything said by unbelievers to remain unexamined, but must investigate everything from the beginning, I give it as my opinion that all these things worthily harmonize with the predictions that Jesus is the Son of God. 1.32. But let us now return to where the Jew is introduced, speaking of the mother of Jesus, and saying that when she was pregt she was turned out of doors by the carpenter to whom she had been betrothed, as having been guilty of adultery, and that she bore a child to a certain soldier named Panthera; and let us see whether those who have blindly concocted these fables about the adultery of the Virgin with Panthera, and her rejection by the carpenter, did not invent these stories to overturn His miraculous conception by the Holy Ghost: for they could have falsified the history in a different manner, on account of its extremely miraculous character, and not have admitted, as it were against their will, that Jesus was born of no ordinary human marriage. It was to be expected, indeed, that those who would not believe the miraculous birth of Jesus would invent some falsehood. And their not doing this in a credible manner, but (their) preserving the fact that it was not by Joseph that the Virgin conceived Jesus, rendered the falsehood very palpable to those who can understand and detect such inventions. Is it at all agreeable to reason, that he who dared to do so much for the human race, in order that, as far as in him lay, all the Greeks and Barbarians, who were looking for divine condemnation, might depart from evil, and regulate their entire conduct in a manner pleasing to the Creator of the world, should not have had a miraculous birth, but one the vilest and most disgraceful of all? And I will ask of them as Greeks, and particularly of Celsus, who either holds or not the sentiments of Plato, and at any rate quotes them, whether He who sends souls down into the bodies of men, degraded Him who was to dare such mighty acts, and to teach so many men, and to reform so many from the mass of wickedness in the world, to a birth more disgraceful than any other, and did not rather introduce Him into the world through a lawful marriage? Or is it not more in conformity with reason, that every soul, for certain mysterious reasons (I speak now according to the opinion of Pythagoras, and Plato, and Empedocles, whom Celsus frequently names), is introduced into a body, and introduced according to its deserts and former actions? It is probable, therefore, that this soul also, which conferred more benefit by its residence in the flesh than that of many men (to avoid prejudice, I do not say all), stood in need of a body not only superior to others, but invested with all excellent qualities. 3.55. But as Celsus delights to heap up calumnies against us, and, in addition to those which he has already uttered, has added others, let us examine these also, and see whether it be the Christians or Celsus who have reason to be ashamed of what is said. He asserts, We see, indeed, in private houses workers in wool and leather, and fullers, and persons of the most uninstructed and rustic character, not venturing to utter a word in the presence of their elders and wiser masters; but when they get hold of the children privately, and certain women as ignorant as themselves, they pour forth wonderful statements, to the effect that they ought not to give heed to their father and to their teachers, but should obey them; that the former are foolish and stupid, and neither know nor can perform anything that is really good, being preoccupied with empty trifles; that they alone know how men ought to live, and that, if the children obey them, they will both be happy themselves, and will make their home happy also. And while thus speaking, if they see one of the instructors of youth approaching, or one of the more intelligent class, or even the father himself, the more timid among them become afraid, while the more forward incite the children to throw off the yoke, whispering that in the presence of father and teachers they neither will nor can explain to them any good thing, seeing they turn away with aversion from the silliness and stupidity of such persons as being altogether corrupt, and far advanced in wickedness, and such as would inflict punishment upon them; but that if they wish (to avail themselves of their aid) they must leave their father and their instructors, and go with the women and their playfellows to the women's apartments, or to the leather shop, or to the fuller's shop, that they may attain to perfection;- and by words like these they gain them over.
105. Origen, Homilies On Leviticus, 8 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

106. Anon., Exodus Rabbah, 1.13 (4th cent. CE - 9th cent. CE)

1.13. כְּשֶׁרָאָה שֶׁהֵם פָּרִים וְרָבִים, גָּזַר עַל הַזְּכָרִים, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (שמות א, טו): וַיֹּאמֶר מֶלֶךְ מִצְרַיִם לַמְיַלְּדֹת וגו'. מִי הָיוּ הַמְיַלְּדוֹת, רַב אָמַר כַּלָּה וַחֲמוֹתָהּ, יוֹכֶבֶד וֶאֱלִישֶׁבַע בַּת עֲמִינָדָב. רַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל בַּר נַחְמָן אָמַר, אִשָּׁה וּבִתָּהּ, יוֹכֶבֶד וּמִרְיָם. וְלֹא הָיוּ לְמִרְיָם אֶלָּא חָמֵשׁ שָׁנִים, שֶׁאַהֲרֹן גָּדוֹל מִמּשֶׁה שָׁלשׁ שָׁנִים. אָמְרוּ רַבּוֹתֵינוּ זִכְרוֹנָם לִבְרָכָה הוֹלֶכֶת הָיְתָה עִם יוֹכֶבֶד אִמָּהּ וְעוֹשָׂה צְרָכֶיהָ, וְהָיְתָה זְרִיזָה, שֶׁעַד שֶׁהַתִּינוֹק קָטָן הוּא נִכָּר. הוּא שֶׁאָמַר שְׁלֹמֹה (משלי כ, יא): גַּם בְּמַעֲלָלָיו יִתְנַכֶּר נָעַר וגו'. אֲשֶׁר שֵׁם הָאַחַת שִׁפְרָה, שֶׁהָיְתָה מְשַׁפֶּרֶת אֶת הַתִּינוֹק, כְּשֶׁהוּא יוֹצֵא מָלֵא דָּם, פּוּעָה שֶׁהָיְתָה נוֹפַעַת יַיִן בַּתִּינוֹק אַחַר אִמָּהּ. דָּבָר אַחֵר, שִׁפְרָה, שֶׁפָּרוּ וְרָבוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל עָלֶיהָ. פּוּעָה, שֶׁהָיְתָה מַפִּיעָה אֶת הַתִּינוֹק כְּשֶׁהָיוּ אוֹמְרִים מֵת. דָּבָר אַחֵר, שִׁפְרָה, שֶׁשִּׁפְּרָה מַעֲשֶׂיהָ לִפְנֵי הָאֱלֹהִים. דָּבָר אַחֵר, פּוּעָה, שֶׁהוֹפִיעָה אֶת יִשְׂרָאֵל לֵאלֹהִים. דָּבָר אַחֵר, פּוּעָה, שֶׁהוֹפִיעָה פָּנִים כְּנֶגֶד פַּרְעֹה, וְזָקְפָה חָטְמָהּ בּוֹ, וְאָמְרָה לוֹ, אוֹי לוֹ לְאוֹתוֹ הָאִישׁ כְּשֶׁיָּבוֹא הָאֱלֹהִים לִפָּרַע מִמֶּנּוּ. נִתְמַלֵּא עָלֶיהָ חֵמָה לְהָרְגָהּ. שִׁפְרָה, שֶׁהָיְתָה מְשַׁפֶּרֶת עַל דִּבְרֵי בִתָּהּ וּמְפַיֶּסֶת עָלֶיהָ. אָמְרָה לוֹ, אַתָּה מַשְׁגִּיחַ עָלֶיהָ, תִּינֹקֶת הִיא וְאֵינָהּ יוֹדַעַת כְּלוּם. רַבִּי חֲנִינָא בַּר רַב יִצְחָק אָמַר, שִׁפְרָה, שֶׁהֶעֱמִידָה יִשְׂרָאֵל לֵאלֹהִים, שֶׁבִּשְׁבִילָם נִבְרְאוּ הַשָּׁמַיִם, שֶׁכָּתוּב בָּהֶם (איוב כו, יג): בְּרוּחוֹ שָׁמַיִם שִׁפְרָה. פּוּעָה, שֶׁהוֹפִיעָה פָּנִים כְּנֶגֶד אָבִיהָ, שֶׁהָיָה עַמְרָם רֹאשׁ סַנְהֶדְּרִין בְּאוֹתָהּ שָׁעָה, כֵּיוָן שֶׁגָּזַר פַּרְעֹה וְאָמַר (שמות א, כב): כָּל הַבֵּן הַיִּלּוֹד, אָמַר עַמְרָם וְלָרִיק יִשְׂרָאֵל מוֹלִידִים, מִיָּד הוֹצִיא אֶת יוֹכֶבֶד וּפֵרַשׁ עַצְמוֹ מִתַּשְׁמִישׁ הַמִּטָּה, וְגֵרַשׁ אֶת אִשְׁתּוֹ כְּשֶׁהִיא מְעֻבֶּרֶת מִשְׁלשָׁה חֳדָשִׁים, עָמְדוּ כָּל יִשְׂרָאֵל וְגֵרְשׁוּ אֶת נְשׁוֹתֵיהֶן. אָמְרָה לוֹ בִּתּוֹ גְּזֵרָתְךָ קָשָׁה מִשֶּׁל פַּרְעֹה, שֶׁפַּרְעֹה לֹא גָזַר אֶלָּא עַל הַזְּכָרִים, וְאַתָּה עַל הַזְּכָרִים וּנְקֵבוֹת. פַּרְעֹה רָשָׁע הוּא וּגְזֵרָתוֹ סָפֵק מִתְקַיֶּמֶת סָפֵק אֵינָהּ מִתְקַיֶּמֶת, אֲבָל אַתָּה צַדִּיק וּגְזֵרָתְךָ מִתְקַיֶּמֶת. עָמַד הוּא וְהֶחֱזִיר אֶת אִשְׁתּוֹ, עָמְדוּ כָּל יִשְׂרָאֵל וְהֶחֱזִירוּ נְשׁוֹתֵיהֶם. הֱוֵי פּוּעָה, שֶׁהוֹפִיעָה פָּנִים כְּנֶגֶד אָבִיהָ. 1.13. And the king of Egypt said to the midwives, etc. Who are the midwives. Rav says a woman and her daughter in law - Yocheved and Elisheva bat Aminadav. And Rabi Shmuel bar Nachman says a woman and her daughter Yocheved and Miriam. That one of their names was Shifra - she beautified the baby when it would come out full of blood. Puah - that she squirted wine into the babies mouth after it came out of its mother. Another thing, Shifra: that B\"Y were fruitful and multiplied under her. Puah: that she would cause the newborn to cry out when it was thought to be stillborn. Another thing, Shifra that she beautified her actions before Hashem Another thing, Puah - that she appeared to B\"Y for Hashem - she taught B\"Y. Puah - she was insolent (hofi’ah panim) toward Pharaoh and looked down her nose at him. She told him: “Woe to you on the day of judgment, when God will come to demand punishment of you.” Pharaoh immediately became enraged and wanted to kill her. Shifra, that she beautified her daughters words to Paraoh and mollified him and said to him: “Do you take notice of her? She is a baby, and knows nothing” (Ex. Rabbah, loc. cit.). Rav Chanina the son of Rav Yitzchak said: Shifra: that she supported Yisrael for Hashem that for them the world was created that it says, By His breath He made the heavens. In another midrashic account, she was called Puah because of her insolence which, in this depiction, was directed against her father Amram. When Pharaoh ordered the Israelite boys to be cast into the Nile, Amram said: “Shall an Israelite lie with his wife for nothing?” He immediately separated from Jochebed and divorced her. When the Israelites saw this action by Amram, who was the head of the Sanhedrin at the time, they also divorced their wives. Puah told her father: “Father, your decree is harsher than that of Pharaoh! He only decreed against the males, but you have decreed against both the males and the females. It is doubtful whether the decree of the wicked Pharaoh will come to pass, but you are righteous, and so your decree will be fulfilled.” Amram immediately took back his wife, and following his lead, all the other Israelite men did the same. Miriam was accordingly given the name of Puah, since she was insolent (hofi’ah panim) to her father."
107. Anon., Midrash Psalms, 114.6 (4th cent. CE - 9th cent. CE)

108. Anon., Numbers Rabba, 2.3, 14.4 (4th cent. CE - 9th cent. CE)

2.3. חִבָּה גְּדוֹלָה חִבְּבָן הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא שֶׁעֲשָׂאָם דְּגָלִים כְּמַלְאֲכֵי הַשָּׁרֵת, כְּדֵי שֶׁיִהְיוּ נִכָּרִין, וּמִנַּיִן שֶׁהוּא אַהֲבָה לְיִשְׂרָאֵל, שֶׁכֵּן שְׁלֹמֹה אוֹמֵר (שיר השירים ב, ד): הֱבִיאַנִי אֶל בֵּית הַיָּיִן וְדִגְלוֹ עָלַי אַהֲבָה, אָמַר רַבִּי אַבָּהוּ מַה תַּלְמוּד לוֹמַר הֱבִיאַנִי אֶל בֵּית הַיָּיִן וגו', לְמָה הַדָּבָר דּוֹמֶה לְעָשִׁיר שֶׁהָיָה לוֹ אוֹצָר מָלֵא יַיִן וְנִכְנַס לְבָדְקוֹ וּמְצָאוֹ כֻּלּוֹ חֹמֶץ, בָּא לָצֵאת מִתּוֹךְ הָאוֹצָר וּמָצָא חָבִית אַחַת יַיִן טוֹב, אָמַר חָבִית זוֹ עוֹמֶדֶת עָלַי כִּמְלֹא אוֹצָר. כָּךְ בָּרָא הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא שִׁבְעִים אֻמּוֹת וּמִכֻּלָּם לֹא מָצָא הֲנָיָה אֶלָּא בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: הֱבִיאַנִי אֶל בֵּית הַיָּיִן, וּמִנַּיִן שֶׁיַּיִן עוֹלֶה שִׁבְעִים, י' עֲשָׂרָה, י' עֲשָׂרָה, נ' חֲמִשִּׁים, הֲרֵי שִׁבְעִים. וּמִכֻּלָּם וְדִגְלוֹ עָלַי אַהֲבָה. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר הֱבִיאַנִי אֶל בֵּית הַיָּין, לַמַּרְתֵּף הַגָּדוֹל שֶׁל יַיִן, זֶה סִינַי, וְלִמְדַנִי משֶׁה תּוֹרָה שֶׁהִיא נִדְרֶשֶׁת מ"ט פָּנִים. וְדִגְל"וֹ עָלַי אַהֲבָה, אָמַר רַבִּי חֲנִינָא בָּרִאשׁוֹנָה כָּל מִי שֶׁהָיָה מַרְאֶה אִיקוֹנִין שֶׁל מֶלֶךְ בָּאֶצְבַּע הָיָה נֶהֱרָג, וְהַתִּינוֹקוֹת הוֹלְכִים לְבֵית הַמִּדְרָשׁ וּמַרְאִים אֶת הָאַזְכָּרוֹת בָּאֶצְבַּע, אָמַר הָאֱלֹהִים וְדִגְלוֹ עָלַי אַהֲבָה, וְגוּדָלוֹ עָלַי אַהֲבָה. רַבִּי יִשָׂשכָר אוֹמֵר וְדִגְלוֹ עָלַי אַהֲבָה, אֲפִלּוּ אָדָם יוֹשֵׁב וְעוֹסֵק בַּתּוֹרָה וּמְדַלֵּג מֵהֲלָכָה לַהֲלָכָה וּמִפָּסוּק לְפָסוּק, אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא חָבִיב הוּא עָלַי, וְדִגְלוֹ עָלַי אַהֲבָה, וְדִלּוּגוֹ עָלַי אַהֲבָה. דָּבָר אַחֵר, וְדִגְלוֹ עָלַי אַהֲבָה, אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא יֵשׁ לָאֻמּוֹת דְּגָלִים וְאֵין חָבִיב עָלַי אֶלָּא דִגְלוֹ שֶׁל יַעֲקֹב, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב: וְדִגְלוֹ עָלַי אַהֲבָה. דָּבָר אַחֵר, הֱבִיאַנִי אֶל בֵּית הַיָּיִן, בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁנִּגְלָה הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא עַל הַר סִינַי יָרְדוּ עִמּוֹ כ"ב רְבָבוֹת שֶׁל מַלְאָכִים, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים סח, יח): רֶכֶב אֱלֹהִים רִבֹּתַיִם אַלְפֵי שִׁנְאָן, וְהָיוּ כֻלָּם עֲשׂוּיִם דְּגָלִים דְּגָלִים, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שיר השירים ה, י): דָּגוּל מֵרְבָבָה, כֵּיוָן שֶׁרָאוּ אוֹתָן יִשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁהֵם עֲשׂוּיִם דְּגָלִים דְּגָלִים, הִתְחִילוּ מִתְאַוִּים לִדְגָלִים, אָמְרוּ אַלְוַאי כָּךְ אָנוּ נַעֲשִׂים דְּגָלִים כְּמוֹתָן, לְכָךְ נֶאֱמַר: הֱבִיאַנִי אֶל בֵּית הַיָּיִן, זֶה סִינַי שֶׁנִּתְּנָה בּוֹ הַתּוֹרָה שֶׁנִּמְשְׁלָה בַּיַּיִן (משלי ט, ה): וּשְׁתוּ בְּיַיִן מָסָכְתִּי, הֱוֵי: אֶל בֵּית הַיָּיִן, זֶה סִינָי. וְדִגְלוֹ עָלַי אַהֲבָה, אָמְרוּ אִלּוּלֵי הוּא מַגְדִּיל עָלַי אַהֲבָה, וְכֵן הוּא אוֹמֵר (תהלים כ, ו): נְרַנְּנָה בִּישׁוּעָתֶךָ וגו', אָמַר לָהֶם הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא מַה נִּתְאַוִּיתֶם לַעֲשׂוֹת דְּגָלִים, חַיֵּיכֶם שֶׁאֲנִי מְמַלֵּא מִשְׁאֲלוֹתֵיכֶם, (תהלים כ, ו): יְמַלֵּא ה' כָּל מִשְׁאֲלוֹתֶיךָ, מִיָּד הוֹדִיעַ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא אוֹתָם לְיִשְׂרָאֵל וְאָמַר לְמשֶׁה לֵךְ עֲשֵׂה אוֹתָם דְּגָלִים כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְאַוּוּ. 14.4. בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי וגו', הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (קהלת יב, יא): דִּבְרֵי חֲכָמִים כַּדָּרְבֹנוֹת וּכְמַשְׂמְרוֹת נְטוּעִים בַּעֲלֵי אֲסֻפּוֹת נִתְּנוּ מֵרֹעֶה אֶחָד, תָּנֵי מַעֲשֶׂה בְּרַבִּי יוֹחָנָן בֶּן בְּרוֹקָא וְרַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר חִסְמָא שֶׁהָלְכוּ לְהַקְבִּיל אֶת פְּנֵי רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בִּפְקִיעִים, אָמַר לָהֶם מָה חִדּוּשׁ הָיָה בְּבֵית הַמִּדְרָשׁ הַיּוֹם, אָמְרוּ לוֹ תַּלְמִידֶיךָ אָנוּ וּמֵימֶיךָ אָנוּ שׁוֹתִים. אָמַר לָהֶם אַף עַל פִּי כֵן אִי אֶפְשָׁר לְבֵית הַמִּדְרָשׁ בְּלֹא חִדּוּשׁ, שַׁבָּת שֶׁל מִי הָיְתָה, שַׁבָּת שֶׁל רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר בֶּן עֲזַרְיָה הָיְתָה, וּבַמֶּה הָיְתָה הַגָּדָה הַיּוֹם, אָמְרוּ לוֹ בְּפָרָשַׁת הַקְהֵל, וּמַה דָּרַשׁ בָּהּ (דברים לא, יב): הַקְהֵל אֶת הָעָם הָאֲנָשִׁים וְהַנָּשִׁים וְהַטַּף, אִם אֲנָשִׁים בָּאִים לִלְמֹד וְנָשִׁים בָּאוֹת לִשְׁמֹעַ, טַף לָמָּה, כְּדֵי לְקַבֵּל שָׂכָר לִמְבִיאֵיהֶם. אָמַר לָהֶם מַרְגָּלִית טוֹבָה הָיְתָה בְּיֶדְכֶם וּבִקַּשְׁתֶּם לְאַבְּדָהּ מִמֶּנִּי. וְעוֹד דָּרַשׁ בָּהּ (דברים כו, יז יח): אֶת ה' הֶאֱמַרְתָּ הַיּוֹם וגו' וַה' הֶאֱמִירְךָ הַיּוֹם וגו', אָמַר לָהֶם הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לְיִשְׂרָאֵל אַתֶּם עֲשִׂיתוּנִי חֲטִיבָה בָּעוֹלָם, דִּכְתִיב (דברים ו, ד): שְׁמַע יִשְׂרָאֵל ה' אֱלֹהֵינוּ ה' אֶחָד, וַאֲנִי אֶעֱשֶׂה אֶתְכֶם חֲטִיבָה בָּעוֹלָם, (שמואל ב ז, כג): וּמִי כְעַמְּךָ כְּיִשְׂרָאֵל גּוֹי אֶחָד בָּאָרֶץ. וְאַף הוּא פָּתַח וְדָרַשׁ: דִּבְרֵי חֲכָמִים כַּדָּרְבֹנוֹת, לָמָּה נִמְשְׁלוּ דִּבְרֵי תוֹרָה כַּדָּרְבָן, לוֹמַר לָךְ מַה דָּרְבָן זֶה מְכַוֵּן אֶת הַפָּרָה לִתְלָמֶיהָ לְהָבִיא חַיִּים לָעוֹלָם, אַף דִּבְרֵי תוֹרָה מְכַוְּנִין לֵב לוֹמְדֵיהֶן מִדַּרְכֵי מִיתָה לְדַרְכֵי חַיִּים. אִי מַה דָּרְבָן זֶה מִטַּלְטֵל אַף דִּבְרֵי תוֹרָה מִטַּלְטְלִים, תַּלְמוּד לוֹמַר: וּכְמַשְׂמְרוֹת נְטוּעִים. אִי מַה מַּסְמֵר זֶה חָסֵר וְלֹא יָתֵר, אַף דִּבְרֵי תוֹרָה חֲסֵרִים וְלֹא יְתֵרִים, תַּלְמוּד לוֹמַר: נְטוּעִים, מַה נְּטִיעָה זוֹ פָּרָה וְרָבָה, אַף דִּבְרֵי תוֹרָה פָּרִים וְרָבִים. בַּעֲלֵי אֲסֻפּוֹת, אֵלּוּ תַּלְמִידֵי חֲכָמִים שֶׁיּוֹשְׁבִין אֲסֻפּוֹת אֲסֻפּוֹת וְעוֹסְקִין בַּתּוֹרָה, הַלָּלוּ מְטַמְאִין וְהַלָּלוּ מְטַהֲרִין, הַלָּלוּ אוֹסְרִין וְהַלָּלוּ מַתִּירִין, הַלָּלוּ פּוֹסְלִין וְהַלָּלוּ מַכְשִׁירִין, שֶׁמָּא יֹאמַר אָדָם הוֹאִיל וְהַלָּלוּ מְטַמְאִין וְהַלָּלוּ מְטַהֲרִין, הַלָּלוּ אוֹסְרִין וְהַלָּלוּ מַתִּירִין, הַלָּלוּ פּוֹסְלִין וְהַלָּלוּ מַכְשִׁירִין, הֵיאַךְ אֲנִי לוֹמֵד תּוֹרָה מֵעַתָּה, תַּלְמוּד לוֹמַר: נִתְּנוּ מֵרֹעֶה אֶחָד, אֵל אֶחָד נְתָנָן, פַּרְנָס אֶחָד אֲמָרָן, מִפִּי אֲדוֹן כָּל הַמַּעֲשִׂים בָּרוּךְ הוּא, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות כ, א): וַיְדַבֵּר אֱלֹהִים אֶת כָּל הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה, אַף אַתָּה עֲשֵׂה אָזְנְךָ כַּאֲפַרְכֶּסֶת וּקְנֵה לְךָ לֵב שׁוֹמֵעַ אֶת דִּבְרֵי הַמְטַמְּאִין וְאֶת דִּבְרֵי הַמְטַהֲרִין, אֶת דִּבְרֵי הָאוֹסְרִין וְאֶת דִּבְרֵי הַמַּתִּירִין, אֶת דִּבְרֵי הַפּוֹסְלִין וְאֶת דִּבְרֵי הַמַּכְשִׁירִין, בַּלָּשׁוֹן הַזֶּה אָמַר לָהֶם אֵין דּוֹר יָתוֹם שֶׁרַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר בֶּן עֲזַרְיָה שָׁרוּי בְּתוֹכוֹ. דָּבָר אַחֵר, דִּבְרֵי חֲכָמִים כַּדָּרְבֹנוֹת, אָמַר רַבִּי תַּנְחוּמָא בַּר אַבָּא מַה הַדָּרְבָן הַזֶּה מְכַוֵּן אֶת הַפָּרָה לַחֲרשׁ בַּתֶּלֶם שֶׁלָּהּ, כָּךְ דִּבְרֵי חֲכָמִים מְכַוְּנִים אֶת הָאָדָם הַזֶּה לִדְרָכָיו שֶׁל הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא. אָמַר רַבִּי תַּנְחוּמָא הַמִּשְׁנָה קָרְאָה אוֹתוֹ מַרְדֵּעַ, וְהַמִּקְרָא קָרָא אוֹתוֹ דָּרְבָן וּמַלְמָד, דִּכְתִיב (שופטים ג, לא): בְּמַלְמַד הַבָּקָר, וְכֵן (שמואל א יג, כא): וּלְהַצִּיב הַדָּרְבָן. אָמַר רַבִּי נָתָן לָמָּה נִקְרָא מַרְדֵּעַ, שֶׁמּוֹרֶה דֵעָה בַּפָּרָה, לָמָּה נִקְרָא שְׁמוֹ דָּרְבָן, שֶׁדָּר בִּינָה בַּפָּרָה, וְלָמָּה נִקְרָא מַלְמַד, שֶׁמְלַמֵּד אֶת הַפָּרָה לַחֲרשׁ בַּתֶּלֶם שֶׁלָּהּ, כָּךְ הֵם דִּבְרֵי חֲכָמִים, דָּרִים בִּינָה בִּבְנֵי אָדָם וּמוֹרִים דֵּעָה בָּהֶם וּמְלַמְּדִים אוֹתָם דְּרָכָיו שֶׁל הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא. וּכְמַשְׂמְרוֹת נְטוּעִים, נְטוּעִים הֵם בָּאָדָם כְּשֶׁהוּא מְשַׁמְּרָם, וְלָמָּה נִמְשְׁלוּ בַּנְּטִיעָה, כְּשֵׁם שֶׁשָּׁרָשָׁיו שֶׁל אִילָן מִשְׁתָּרְשִׁים לְכָל מָקוֹם, כָּךְ דִּבְרֵי חֲכָמִים נִכְנָסִים וּמִשְׁתָּרְשִׁים בְּכָל הַגּוּף. בַּעֲלֵי אֲסֻפּוֹת, אֵימָתַי הֵם כְּמַשְׂמְרוֹת נְטוּעִים בָּאָדָם, בִּזְמַן שֶׁבַּעַל תּוֹרָה נִכְנַס לְתַלְמוּד וְהֵם נֶאֱסָפִים לִשְׁמֹעַ. נִתְּנוּ מֵרֹעֶה אֶחָד, רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן מְבָרֵךְ יוֹם הָרִאשׁוֹן שֶׁל חַג בָּרוּךְ אַתָּה ה' אֱלֹהֵינוּ מֶלֶךְ הָעוֹלָם אֲשֶׁר קִדְּשָׁנוּ בְּמִצְוֹתָיו וְצִוָּנוּ עַל מִצְוַת לוּלָב, וּשְׁאָר כָּל הַיָּמִים עַל מִצְוַת הַזְּקֵנִים. רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ מְבָרֵךְ כָּל יוֹם עַל נְטִילַת לוּלָב, וְאֵין רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ מוֹדֶה לְרַבִּי יוֹחָנָן שֶׁיּוֹם טוֹב הָרִאשׁוֹן דְּבַר תּוֹרָה הוּא, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא כג, מ): וּלְקַחְתֶּם לָכֶם בַּיּוֹם הָרִאשׁוֹן וגו', וּשְׁאָר כָּל הַיָּמִים מִדִּבְרֵיהֶם הֵם, אָמַר רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן חֲלַפְתָּא בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי אַחָא סָבַר רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ כֵּן, וּמַה טַּעַם עֲבַד כֵּן, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁכָּתוּב: דִּבְרֵי חֲכָמִים כַּדָּרְבֹנוֹת וגו' נִתְּנוּ מֵרֹעֶה אֶחָד, דִּבְרֵי תוֹרָה וְדִבְרֵי חֲכָמִים מֵרוֹעֶה אֶחָד נִתְּנוּ. (קהלת יב, יב): וְיֹתֵר מֵהֵמָּה בְּנִי הִזָּהֵר עֲשׂוֹת סְפָרִים הַרְבֵּה אֵין קֵץ וְלַהַג הַרְבֵּה יְגִעַת בָּשָׂר, וְיֹתֵר מֵהֵמָּה בְּנִי הִזָּהָר, יוֹתֵר מִדִּבְרֵי תוֹרָה הֱוֵי זָהִיר בְּדִבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים, וְכֵן הוּא אוֹמֵר (שיר השירים א, ב): כִּי טוֹבִים דֹּדֶיךָ מִיָּיִן, טוֹבִים דִּבְרֵי דּוֹדִים מִיֵּינָהּ שֶׁל תּוֹרָה, לָמָּה, שֶׁאֵין אָדָם מוֹרֶה כָּרָאוּי מִדִּבְרֵי תוֹרָה, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהִיא סְתוּמָה, וְכֻלָּהּ סִימָנִין, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים לא, יט): וְלַמְּדָהּ אֶת בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל שִׂימָה בְּפִיהֶם, סִימָנִין בְּפִיהֶם, אֲבָל מִתּוֹךְ דִּבְרֵי חֲכָמִים אָדָם מוֹרֶה כָּרָאוּי מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהֵם פּוֹרְשִׁים אֶת הַתּוֹרָה, וּלְכָךְ נִמְשְׁלוּ דִּבְרֵי חֲכָמִים כַּדָּרְבֹנוֹת, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהֵן מְדַיְּרִין בִּינָה בִּבְנֵי אָדָם. דָּבָר אַחֵר, וְיֹתֵר מֵהֵמָּה בְּנִי הִזָּהֵר, אָמַר רַבִּי אַבָּא סַדְרוֹנַנְיָא אִם יֹאמַר לְךָ אָדָם לָמָּה לֹא נִתְּנוּ בִּכְתַב דִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים כְּשֵׁם שֶׁנִּתְּנוּ דִּבְרֵי תוֹרָה, אֱמֹר לוֹ לְפִי שֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר לִכְתֹּב כָּל דִּבְרֵיהֶם, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב: וְיֹתֵר מֵהֵמָּה בְּנִי הִזָּהֵר, מַהוּ מֵהֵמָּה, מַה נִּכְנְסָה בָּךָ אִם בָּאתָ לִכְתֹּב דִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים, לָמָּה, שֶׁאִלּוּ בָּאתָ לִכְתֹּב דִּבְרֵיהֶם אֵין קֵץ וְסוֹף לַדְּבָרִים לַעֲשׂוֹת סְפָרִים, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב: עֲשׂוֹת סְפָרִים הַרְבֵּה אֵין קֵץ, אֲבָל מַה יֵּשׁ לוֹ לָאָדָם לַעֲשׂוֹת, שֶׁיְהֵא מְיַגֵּעַ בְּשָׂרוֹ הַרְבֵּה לַהְגּוֹת דִּבְרֵי חֲכָמִים, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב: וְלַהַג הַרְבֵּה יְגִעַת בָּשָׂר. דָּבָר אַחֵר, וְלַהַג הַרְבֵּה, אִם יָגַעְתָּ הַרְבֵּה בְּדִבְרֵיהֶם הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא מֵסִיר יֵצֶר הָרָע מִמְּךָ, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב: בָּשָׂר, כְּמָה דְתֵימָא (יחזקאל לו, כו): וְנָתַתִּי לָכֶם לֵב בָּשָׂר. דָּבָר אַחֵר, וְלַהַג הַרְבֵּה יְגִעַת בָּשָׂר, אִם יָגַעְתָּ הַרְבֵּה בְּלַהַג דִּבְרֵי חֲכָמִים, הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא מְבַשֶֹּׂרְךָ בְּשׂוֹרוֹת טוֹבוֹת, הֱוֵי: בָּשָׂר. דָּבָר אַחֵר, אִם יָגַעְתָּ בְּדִבְרֵי חֲכָמִים אַתָּה נַעֲשָׂה בָּשָׂר, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב בָּשָׂר, וְכֵן הוּא אוֹמֵר (משלי ח, טז): בִּי שָׂרִים יָשׂרוּ. דָּבָר אַחֵר, דִּבְרֵי חֲכָמִים כַּדָּרְבֹנוֹת, אָמַר רַבִּי בֶּרֶכְיָה הַכֹּהֵן כַּדּוּר שֶׁל בָּנוֹת, כַּהֲדָא סְפַיְרָה שֶׁל תִּינוֹקוֹת שֶׁהֵן מְלַקְטוֹת וְזוֹרְקוֹת לְכָאן וּלְכָאן, כָּךְ הֵם דִּבְרֵי חֲכָמִים, זֶה אוֹמֵר טַעְמוֹ וְזֶה אוֹמֵר טַעְמוֹ, יָכוֹל מִפְּנֵי שֶׁזֶּה אוֹמֵר טַעַם אֶחָד וְזֶה אוֹמֵר טַעַם שֵׁנִי, שֶׁמָּא דִבְרֵיהֶם פּוֹרְחִים הֵם, תַּלְמוּד לוֹמַר (קהלת יב, יא): וּכְמַשְׂמְרוֹת נְטוּעִים, לֹא אָמַר וּכְמַשְׂמְרוֹת קְבוּעִים, אֶלָּא נְטוּעִים, לָמָּה, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁעָשָׂה אוֹתָם כְּמַסְמְרוֹת, וְהַמַּסְמֵר שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ שׁוֹשַׁנָּה נוֹחַ לִשְׁלוֹף, לְכָךְ אָמַר: וּכְמַשְׂמְרוֹת נְטוּעִים, שָׁרָשִׁין שֶׁל אִילָן הַנְּטוּעִים קָשִׁים לֵעָקֵר, וְלָמָּה נִמְשְׁלוּ דִּבְרֵיהֶם כַּמַּסְמֵר, לְפִי שֶׁהַמַּסְמֵר שֶׁל בַּרְזֶל שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ שׁוֹשַׁנָּה, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁקָּשֶׁה, נוֹחַ הוּא לֵעָקֵר, וְשָׁרָשִׁים שֶׁל אִילָן הַנְּטוּעִים אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁקָּשִׁים לֵעָקֵר, אֲבָל אֵין בָּהֶם כֹּחַ כְּכֹחוֹ שֶׁל בַּרְזֶל, לְכָךְ נֶאֱמַר: וּכְמַשְׂמְרוֹת נְטוּעִים, נִתַּן לְדִבְרֵי תוֹרָה כֹּחַ שֶׁל בַּרְזֶל וּכְמַטָּעֵי שָׁרָשָׁיו שֶׁל אִילָן. אָמַר רַבִּי בֶּרֶכְיָה הַכֹּהֵן בְּרַבִּי אָנוּ קוֹרְאִין מַסְמֵרוֹת, וְאֵין כְּתִיב אֶלָּא מַשְׂמְרוֹת, מַה מִּשְׁמָרוֹת כְּהֻנָּה וּלְוִיָּה עֶשְׂרִים וְאַרְבָּעָה, אַף סְפָרִים עֶשְׂרִים וְאַרְבָּעָה, הֵקִישׁ דִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים לְדִבְרֵי תוֹרָה שֶׁהֵן אֲמִתִּים כְּמוֹתָם. דָּבָר אַחֵר, וּכְמַשְׂמְרוֹת, מַשְׂמְרוֹת כְּתִיב, מַה מִּשְׁמָרוֹת עֶשְׂרִים וְאַרְבָּעָה, אַף הַמַּשְׂמֵרִין עֶשְׂרִים וְאַרְבָּעָה. בָּעֵי כַּמָּה מַסְמֵרִין יִהְיוּ בּוֹ בַּסַּנְדָּל, רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן אָמַר חֲמִשָּׁה כְּנֶגֶד חֲמִשָּׁה סִפְרֵי תוֹרָה. רַב הוּנָא אָמַר שִׁבְעָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים לג, כה): בַּרְזֶל וּנְחשֶׁת מִנְעָלֶךָ וּכְיָמֶיךָ דָּבְאֶךָ. דָּרַשׁ רַב אַחָא בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי חֲנִינָא תִּשְׁעָה. רַבִּי הָיָה נוֹתֵן אַחַד עָשָׂר עַל זֶה וּשְׁלשָׁה עָשָׂר עַל זֶה, מִנְיַן מִשְׁמָרוֹת. דָּבָר אַחֵר, וּכְמַשְׂמְרוֹת נְטוּעִים, הַמַּסְמֵר הַזֶּה אַתְּ קוֹבְעוֹ וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁתַּחְזֹר וְתִטְלֶנּוּ מְקוֹמוֹ נִכָּר, כָּךְ כָּל מִי שֶׁפָּשְׁטוּ בּוֹ חֲכָמִים יָד, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁחָזְרוּ וְקִבְּלוּהוּ, סוֹפוֹ לִטֹּל שֶׁלּוֹ מִתַּחַת יְדֵיהֶם. דָּבָר אַחֵר, וּכְמַשְׂמְרוֹת נְטוּעִים, בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁדִּבְרֵי תוֹרָה יוֹצְאִין מִפִּי בַּעֲלֵיהֶם כְּתִקֻּנָּן הֵם עֲרֵבִים לְשׁוֹמְעֵיהֶם. כְּמַשְׂמְרוֹת נְטוּעִים, בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁהֵם יוֹצְאִים מְמֻסְמָסִים הֵם מָרוֹת לְשׁוֹמְעֵיהֶן, כְּמַשְׂמְרוֹת, כְּמַסְמָרוֹת. בַּעֲלֵי אֲסֻפּוֹת, אֵימָתַי הֵם נְטוּעִים דִּבְרֵי תוֹרָה בָּאָדָם הַזֶּה, בִּזְּמַן שֶׁבַּעֲלֵיהֶן נֶאֱסָפִים מֵהֶן, כָּל זְמַן שֶׁרַבּוֹ קַיָּם הוּא הָיָה מַפְלִיג לוֹמַר כָּל זְמַן שֶׁנִּצְרַךְ הֲרֵי רַבִּי לְפָנַי וַאֲנִי שׁוֹאֲלוֹ, מֵת רַבּוֹ, הֲרֵי יָגֵעַ בַּיּוֹם וּבַלַּיְלָה לְקַיֵּם תַּלְמוּדוֹ, יוֹדֵעַ הוּא שֶׁאֵין לוֹ לְמִי לִשְׁאֹל, הֱוֵי אֵימָתַי הֵן נְטוּעִין בָּאָדָם הַזֶּה, בִּזְּמַן שֶׁבַּעֲלֵיהֶן נֶאֱסָפִים מֵהֶן. נִתְּנוּ מֵרֹעֶה אֶחָד, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁזֶּה אוֹמֵר טַעְמוֹ וְזֶה אוֹמֵר טַעְמוֹ, דִּבְרֵיהֶם שֶׁל אֵלֶּה וְשֶׁל אֵלֶּה כֻּלָּם נִתְּנוּ מִן משֶׁה הָרוֹעֶה מַה שֶּׁקִּבֵּל מִיחִידוֹ שֶׁל עוֹלָם. דִּבְרֵי חֲכָמִים כַּדָּרְבֹנוֹת, תָּנֵי מִנַּיִן אַתָּה אוֹמֵר שֶׁאִם שָׁמַע אָדָם דָּבָר מִפִּי קָטָן שֶׁבְּיִשְׂרָאֵל יְהֵא בְּעֵינָיו כְּשׁוֹמֵעַ מִפִּי חָכָם שֶׁבְּיִשְׂרָאֵל, תַּלְמוּד לוֹמַר (דברים יא, יג): וְהָיָה אִם שָׁמֹעַ תִּשְׁמְעוּ אֶל מִצְוֹתַי אֲשֶׁר אָנֹכִי מְצַוֶּה אֶתְכֶם הַיּוֹם, וְלֹא כְּשׁוֹמֵעַ מִפִּי חָכָם אֶלָּא כְּשׁוֹמֵעַ מִפִּי חֲכָמִים, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: דִּבְרֵי חֲכָמִים כַּדָּרְבֹנוֹת, מַה דָּרְבָן זֶה מְכַוֵּן אֶת הַפָּרָה לִתְלָמֶיהָ לְהָבִיא חַיִּים לָעוֹלָם, כָּךְ דִּבְרֵי תוֹרָה מְכַוְּנִים דַּעְתּוֹ שֶׁל אָדָם לָדַעַת אֶת הַמָּקוֹם, וְלֹא כְּשׁוֹמֵעַ מִפִּי חֲכָמִים אֶלָּא כְּשׁוֹמֵעַ מִפִּי סַנְהֶדְּרִין, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: בַּעֲלֵי אֲסֻפּוֹת, וְאֵין אֲסֻפּוֹת אֶלָּא סַנְהֶדְרִין, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (במדבר יא, טז): אֶסְפָה לִי שִׁבְעִים אִישׁ מִזִּקְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל. וְלֹא כְּשׁוֹמֵעַ מִפִּי סַנְהֶדְרִין אֶלָּא כְּשׁוֹמֵעַ מִפִּי משֶׁה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: נִתְּנוּ מֵרֹעֶה אֶחָד, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ישעיה סג, יא): וַיִּזְכֹּר יְמֵי עוֹלָם משֶׁה עַמּוֹ. וְאוֹמֵר (שמות ג, א): וּמשֶׁה הָיָה רֹעֶה, לֹא כְּשׁוֹמֵעַ מִפִּי משֶׁה אֶלָּא כְּשׁוֹמֵעַ מִפִּי הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: נִתְּנוּ מֵרֹעֶה אֶחָד, (תהלים פ, ב): רֹעֵה יִשְׂרָאֵל הַאֲזִינָה. אֶחָד, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים ו, ד): ה' אֶחָד, הֲרֵי הוּא אוֹמֵר (שיר השירים ז, ה): עֵינַיִךְ בְּרֵכוֹת בְּחֶשְׁבּוֹן עַל שַׁעַר בַּת רַבִּים אַפֵּךְ כְּמִגְדַּל הַלְּבָנוֹן צוֹפֶה פְּנֵי דַמָּשֶׂק, עֵינַיִךְ, אֵלּוּ זְקֵנִים הַמִּתְמַנִּים עַל הַצִּבּוּר, וְכֵן הוּא אוֹמֵר (ישעיה כט, י): כִּי נָסַךְ עֲלֵיכֶם ה' רוּחַ תַּרְדֵּמָה וַיְעַצֵּם אֶת עֵינֵיכֶם. בְּרֵכוֹת, מַה בְּרֵכָה זוֹ אֵין אָדָם יוֹדֵעַ מַה שֶּׁבְּתוֹכָהּ, כָּךְ אֵין אָדָם עוֹמֵד עַל דִּבְרֵי חֲכָמִים. בְּחֶשְׁבּוֹן, שֶׁנִּגְמָרִים בְּעֵצָה וּמַחְשָׁבָה, וְהֵיכָן נִגְמָרִים בְּבָתֵּי מִדְרָשׁוֹת עַל שַׁעַר בַּת רַבִּים, אַפֵּךְ כְּמִגְדַּל הַלְּבָנוֹן צוֹפֶה פְּנֵי דַמָּשֶׂק, עֲשִׂיתֶם אֶת הַתּוֹרָה קַוּוּ לְאֵלִיָּהוּ, שֶׁאָמַרְתִּי לוֹ (מלכים א יט, טו): שׁוּב לְדַרְכְּךָ מִדְבַּרָה דַמָּשֶׂק, וְאוֹמֵר (מלאכי ג, כב כג): זִכְרוּ תּוֹרַת משֶׁה עַבְדִּי וגו' הִנֵּה אָנֹכִי שֹׁלֵחַ לָכֶם אֶת אֵלִיָּה הַנָּבִיא וגו'. וְיֹתֵר מֵהֵמָּה בְּנִי הִזָּהֵר, אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא עֶשְׂרִים וְאַרְבָּעָה סְפָרִים כָּתַבְתִּי לְךָ הִזָּהֵר וְאַל תּוֹסֶף עֲלֵיהֶם, לָמָּה, עֲשׂוֹת סְפָרִים הַרְבֵּה אֵין קֵץ, כָּל מִי שֶׁקּוֹרֵא פָּסוּק שֶׁאֵינוֹ מֵעֶשְׂרִים וְאַרְבָּעָה סְפָרִים כְּאִלּוּ קוֹרֵא בַּסְּפָרִים הַחִיצוֹנִים, הֱוֵי: הִזָּהֵר עֲשׂוֹת סְפָרִים הַרְבֵּה, שֶׁכָּל הָעוֹשֶׂה כֵּן אֵין לוֹ חֵלֶק לָעוֹלָם הַבָּא, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב: אֵין קֵץ, כְּמָה דְתֵימָא (דניאל יב, יג): וְאַתָּה לֵךְ לַקֵּץ, הֲרֵי לְךָ הַמּוֹסִיף סֵפֶר מַהוּ עָנְשׁוֹ, וּמִנַּיִן שֶׁאַף הַהוֹגֶה מִתְיַגֵּעַ בָּהֶן, תַּלְמוּד לוֹמַר וְלַהַג הַרְבֵּה יְגִעַת בָּשָׂר, שֶׁאֵין בְּשָׂרוֹ נִנְעֶרֶת מִן עֲפָרָהּ, כְּהַהִיא דִתְנֵינַן וְאֵלּוּ שֶׁאֵין לָהֶם חֵלֶק לָעוֹלָם הַבָּא וְהַקּוֹרֵא בַּסְּפָרִים הַחִיצוֹנִים. דָּבָר אַחֵר, דִּבְרֵי חֲכָמִים כַּדָּרְבֹנוֹת וּכְמַשְׂמְרוֹת נְטוּעִים, מַה הַמַּסְמֵר הַזֶּה הַנָּטוּעַ בַּדֶּלֶת הוּא מְקַיֵּם הַדַּפִּין, כָּךְ כְּשֶׁהַצַּדִּיקִים גּוֹזְרִים הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא מְקַיֵּם דִּבְרֵיהֶם, תֵּדַע לְךָ מִיַּעֲקֹב, בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁבֵּרַךְ מְנַשֶּׁה וְאֶפְרַיִם עָשָׂה אֶת הַקָּטָן קֹדֶם לַגָּדוֹל, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (בראשית מח, כ): וַיָּשֶׂם אֶת אֶפְרַיִם לִפְנֵי מְנַשֶּׁה, וְקִיֵּם הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא גְּזֵרָתוֹ, וְעָלָיו נֶאֱמַר: דִּבְרֵי חֲכָמִים כַּדָּרְבֹנוֹת, אַל תִּקְרֵי כַּדָּרְבֹנוֹת אֶלָּא כִּדְרַבָּנוּת, כְּשֶׁיַּעֲקֹב גָּזַר שֶׁתְּהֵא הָרַבָּנוּת לְאֶפְרַיִם קִיֵּם הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא דְּבָרוֹ כְּמַסְמֵר הַנָּטוּעַ, וְאָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא הוֹאִיל וְגָזַר יַעֲקֹב עַל אֶפְרַיִם שֶׁיְהֵא רִאשׁוֹן אַף אֲנִי אֲשִׂימֶנּוּ רִאשׁוֹן לְכָל דָּבָר, בַּשּׁוֹפְטִים וּבַדְּגָלִים וּבַמְּלָכִים וּבַקָּרְבָּנוֹת. בַּשּׁוֹפְטִים, יְהוֹשֻׁעַ, שֶׁהָיָה שׁוֹפֵט, (במדבר יג, ח): לְמַטֵּה אֶפְרָיִם הוֹשֵׁעַ בִּן נוּן, וְאַחַר כָּךְ גִּדְעוֹן בֶּן יוֹאָשׁ, שֶׁהוּא מִשֵּׁבֶט מְנַשֶּׁה. בַּדְּגָלִים, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (במדבר ב, יח): דֶּגֶל מַחֲנֵה אֶפְרַיִם, וְאַחַר כָּךְ (במדבר ב, כ): וְעָלָיו מַטֵּה מְנַשֶּׁה. בַּמְּלָכִים, יָרָבְעָם בֶּן נְבָט הָיָה מִשֶּׁל אֶפְרָיִם, וְאַחַר כָּךְ יֵהוּא בֶּן נִמְשִׁי מִשֶּׁל מְנַשֶּׁה, אַף קָרְבָּנוֹת הַנְּשִׂיאִים כְּשֶׁבָּאוּ לְהַקְרִיב, אֶפְרַיִם מַקְרִיב רִאשׁוֹן, בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי, וּמְנַשֶּׁה אַחֲרוֹן, בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁמִינִי. וְכֵן הוּא אוֹמֵר: בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי נָשִׂיא לִבְנֵי אֶפְרָיִם, וְאַחַר כָּךְ (במדבר ז, נד): בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁמִינִי נָשִׂיא לִבְנֵי מְנַשֶּׁה, וְעָלָיו הַכָּתוּב אוֹמֵר (איוב כב, כח): וְתִגְזַר אֹמֶר וְיָקָם לָךְ:
109. John Chrysostom, De Diabolo Tentatore (Homiliae 13), 3.5 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

110. Jerome, Letters, 133, 100 (5th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

111. Jerome, Letters, 133, 100 (5th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

112. Jerome, Letters, 133, 100 (5th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

113. Anon., 2 Enoch, 4.6, 30.8, 30.10-30.12, 30.16

114. Anon., 3 Enoch, 11-16, 3-10

115. Anon., Pesikta Rabbati, 3

116. Anon., Midrash On Song of Songs, 1.1, 5.12, 6.9

1.1. Regarding the verse that was written by Shlomo which says, \"See a man that is diligent with his labor, before Kings he will stand; he will not stand before mean men.\" \"See a man diligent with his labor\", this is Joseph, as it is written about him: \"And he went to the house to perform his labor (Genesis 39).\" Rabbi Judah and Rabbi Nehemiah...Rabbi Judah says, \"It was a disgraceful day, it was a festival, a day of performances.\" Rabbi Nehemiah says, \"It was a day of performances of the Nile River, they all went to look at it. He (Joseph) entered to perform his labor, to calculate the calculations of his Master.\" Rabbi Phineas says in the name of Rabbi Samuel bar Abba, \"Everyone that serves his master properly, he will go out to freedom. From where do we learn this? From Joseph! Through his serving his master fittingly, he went out to freedom. Therefore, \"Before kings he will stand\", that is Pharaoh, as it says, \"And Pharaoh sent, and they called Joseph and they brought him up from the pit (Genesis 41).\" \"He will not stand before mean men\", that is Potiphar, for The Holy One Blessed Be He darkened(lit., i.e. blinded) his eyes and castrated him."
117. Anon., Apocalypse of Peter, 2.12-2.13

118. Anon., Pirqe Rabbi Eliezer, 8

119. Anon., Testament of Adam, 3.2

120. Anon., Semahot, 8.11

121. Anon., Kallah Rabbati Higge, 9.13

122. Anon., Kallah, 23

123. Babylonian Talmud, Avodah Zarah, None

17a. והנאך ועליו נתפסת אמר לו עקיבא הזכרתני פעם אחת הייתי מהלך בשוק העליון של ציפורי ומצאתי אחד ומתלמידי ישו הנוצרי ויעקב איש כפר סכניא שמו אמר לי כתוב בתורתכם (דברים כג, יט) לא תביא אתנן זונה [וגו'] מהו לעשות הימנו בהכ"ס לכ"ג ולא אמרתי לו כלום,אמר לי כך לימדני ישו הנוצרי (מיכה א, ז) כי מאתנן זונה קבצה ועד אתנן זונה ישובו ממקום הטנופת באו למקום הטנופת ילכו,והנאני הדבר על ידי זה נתפסתי למינות ועברתי על מה שכתוב בתורה (משלי ה, ח) הרחק מעליה דרכך זו מינות ואל תקרב אל פתח ביתה זו הרשות ואיכא דאמרי הרחק מעליה דרכך זו מינות והרשות ואל תקרב אל פתח ביתה זו זונה וכמה אמר רב חסדא ארבע אמות,ורבנן [האי] מאתנן זונה מאי דרשי ביה כדרב חסדא דאמר רב חסדא כל זונה שנשכרת לבסוף היא שוכרת שנאמר (יחזקאל טז, לד) ובתתך אתנן ואתנן לא נתן לך [ותהי להפך],ופליגא דרבי פדת דא"ר פדת לא אסרה תורה אלא קריבה של גלוי עריות בלבד שנא' (ויקרא יח, ו) איש איש אל כל שאר בשרו לא תקרבו לגלות ערוה,עולא כי הוה אתי מבי רב הוה מנשק להו לאחתיה אבי ידייהו ואמרי לה אבי חדייהו ופליגא דידיה אדידיה דאמר עולא קריבה בעלמא אסור משום לך לך אמרין נזירא סחור סחור לכרמא לא תקרב,(משלי ל, טו) לעלוקה שתי בנות הב הב מאי הב הב אמר מר עוקבא [קול] שתי בנות שצועקות מגיהנם ואומרות בעוה"ז הבא הבא ומאן נינהו מינות והרשות איכא דאמרי אמר רב חסדא אמר מר עוקבא קול גיהנם צועקת ואומרת הביאו לי שתי בנות שצועקות ואומרות בעולם הזה הבא הבא,(משלי ב, יט) כל באיה לא ישובון ולא ישיגו אורחות חיים וכי מאחר שלא שבו היכן ישיגו ה"ק ואם ישובו לא ישיגו אורחות חיים,למימרא דכל הפורש ממינות מיית והא ההיא דאתאי לקמיה דרב חסדא ואמרה ליה קלה שבקלות עשתה בנה הקטן מבנה הגדול ואמר לה רב חסדא טרחו לה בזוודתא ולא מתה,מדקאמרה קלה שבקלות עשתה מכלל דמינות [נמי] הויא בה ההוא דלא הדרא בה שפיר ומש"ה לא מתה,איכא דאמרי ממינות אין מעבירה לא והא ההיא דאתאי קמיה דרב חסדא וא"ל [ר"ח זוידו לה זוודתא] ומתה מדקאמרה קלה שבקלות מכלל דמינות נמי הויא בה,ומעבירה לא והתניא אמרו עליו על ר"א בן דורדיא שלא הניח זונה אחת בעולם שלא בא עליה פעם אחת שמע שיש זונה אחת בכרכי הים והיתה נוטלת כיס דינרין בשכרה נטל כיס דינרין והלך ועבר עליה שבעה נהרות בשעת הרגל דבר הפיחה אמרה כשם שהפיחה זו אינה חוזרת למקומה כך אלעזר בן דורדיא אין מקבלין אותו בתשובה,הלך וישב בין שני הרים וגבעות אמר הרים וגבעות בקשו עלי רחמים אמרו לו עד שאנו מבקשים עליך נבקש על עצמנו שנאמר (ישעיהו נד, י) כי ההרים ימושו והגבעות תמוטינה אמר שמים וארץ בקשו עלי רחמים אמרו עד שאנו מבקשים עליך נבקש על עצמנו שנאמר (ישעיהו נא, ו) כי שמים כעשן נמלחו והארץ כבגד תבלה,אמר חמה ולבנה בקשו עלי רחמים אמרו לו עד שאנו מבקשים עליך נבקש על עצמנו שנאמר (ישעיהו כד, כג) וחפרה הלבנה ובושה החמה אמר כוכבים ומזלות בקשו עלי רחמים אמרו לו עד שאנו מבקשים עליך נבקש על עצמנו שנאמר (ישעיהו לד, ד) ונמקו כל צבא השמים,אמר אין הדבר תלוי אלא בי הניח ראשו בין ברכיו וגעה בבכיה עד שיצתה נשמתו יצתה בת קול ואמרה ר"א בן דורדיא מזומן לחיי העולם הבא [והא הכא בעבירה הוה ומית] התם נמי כיון דאביק בה טובא כמינות דמיא,בכה רבי ואמר יש קונה עולמו בכמה שנים ויש קונה עולמו בשעה אחת ואמר רבי לא דיין לבעלי תשובה שמקבלין אותן אלא שקורין אותן רבי,ר' חנינא ור' יונתן הוו קאזלי באורחא מטו להנהו תרי שבילי חד פצי אפיתחא דעבודת כוכבים וחד פצי אפיתחא דבי זונות אמר ליה חד לחבריה ניזיל אפיתחא דעבודת כוכבים 17a. band you derived pleasure from it, and because ofthis byou were held responsibleby Heaven. Rabbi Eliezer bsaid to him: Akiva,you are right, as byou have reminded methat bonce I was walking in the upper marketplace of Tzippori, and I found a manwho was one bof the students of Jesus the Nazarene, and his name was Ya’akov of Kefar Sekhanya. He said to me: It is written in your Torah: “You shall not bring the payment to a prostitute,or the price of a dog, into the house of the Lord your God” (Deuteronomy 23:19). bWhat isthe ihalakha /i: Is it permitted bto make fromthe payment to a prostitute for services rendered ba bathroom for a High Priestin the Temple? bAnd I said nothing to himin response., bHe said to me: Jesus the Nazarene taught me the following:It is permitted, as derived from the verse: b“For of the payment to a prostitute she has gathered them, and to the payment to a prostitute they shall return”(Micah 1:7). Since the coins bcame from a place of filth, let them go to a place of filthand be used to build a bathroom., bAnd I derived pleasure from the statement,and bdue to this, I was arrested for heresyby the authorities, because bI transgressed that which is written in the Torah:“Remove your way far from her, and do not come near the entrance of her house” (Proverbs 5:8). b“Remove your way far from her,” thisis a reference to bheresy; “and do not come near the entrance of her house,” thisis a reference to bthe ruling authority.The Gemara notes: bAnd there arethose bwho saya different interpretation: b“Remove your way far from her,” thisis a reference to bheresy and the ruling authority; “and do not come near the entrance of her house,” thisis a reference to ba prostitute. And how muchdistance must one maintain from a prostitute? bRav Ḥisda said: Four cubits. /b,With regard to the derivation of the verse by Jesus the Nazarene, the Gemara asks: bAnd what do the Sages derive from thisphrase: b“Payment to a prostitute”?The Gemara answers: They explain it bin accordance withthe opinion bof Rav Ḥisda, as Rav Ḥisda says: Any prostitute who hires herselfout to others for money will become so attached to this practice that bultimately,when others no longer wish to hire her, bshewill bhireothers to engage in intercourse with her. bAs it is stated: “And in that you gave payment, and no payment is given to you, therefore you are contrary”(Ezekiel 16:34).,The Gemara comments: bAndRav Ḥisda, who stated above that the Torah requires one to maintain a distance of four cubits from a prostitute, bdisagrees withthe opinion bof Rabbi Pedat. As Rabbi Pedat says: The Torah prohibited only intimacy that involves engaging in prohibited sexual relations, as it is stated: “None of you shall approach to any that is near of kin to him, to uncover their nakedness”(Leviticus 18:6). The prohibition against intimacy in the Torah applies exclusively to sexual intercourse, and all other kinds of intimacy that do not include actual intercourse are not included in the prohibition.,The Gemara relates: bWhen Ulla would come from the study hall, he would kiss his sisters on their hands. And some say: On their chests. Andthe Gemara points out that this action of bhis disagrees withanother ruling that Ulla bhimselfissued, bas Ulla says: Mere intimacywith a woman with whom one is prohibited from engaging in sexual intercourse is bprohibited, due tothe maxim: bGo, go, we say to a nazirite, go around, go aroundbut bdo not come near to the vineyard.Just as a nazirite is warned not even to come into close proximity of a vineyard lest he consume a product of the vine, so too one is obligated to distance himself from anyone with whom intercourse is forbidden.,§ In connection to the earlier mention of heresy and the ruling authorities, the Gemara cites a verse: b“The horseleech has two daughters: Give, give”(Proverbs 30:15). bWhatis meant by b“give, give”? Mar Ukva says:This is the bvoiceof bthe two daughters who cryout bfrom Gehennadue to their suffering; bandthey are the ones who bsay in this world: Give, give,demanding dues and complete allegiance. bAnd who are they?They are bheresy and the ruling authority. There arethose bwho saythat bRav Ḥisda saysthat bMar Ukva says: The voice of Gehenna criesout band says: Bring me two daughters who cry and say in this world: Give, give. /b,The following verse in Proverbs makes reference to a foreign woman, which according to the Sages is a euphemism for heresy: b“None that go to her return, neither do they attain the paths of life”(Proverbs 2:19). The Gemara asks: bSincethose that are drawn to heresy bdo not return,from bwhere would they attainthe path of life? Why is it necessary for the verse to add that they do not attain the paths of life? The Gemara explains that bthisis what the verse bis saying:In general, those who go to her do not return, bandeven bif they return, they do not attain the paths of life,i.e., the pain of their regret will shorten their lives.,The Gemara asks: Is this bto say that anyone who separateshimself bfrom heresyand returns from his mistaken ways must bdie? Butwhat about bthatwoman bwho came before Rav Ḥisdato confess to him, band she said to him: The lightest of the light,i.e., the least of the sins that she committed, is that bshe conceived her younger son fromengaging in intercourse with bher older son. And Rav Ḥisda said to her: Prepare funeral shrouds for her,i.e., yourself, as you will certainly die soon, bbut she did not die. /b,The above incident refutes the claim that anyone who repents for the sin of heresy must die, as bfromthe fact bthat she saidthat bthe lightest of the lightof her sins was that bshe conceivedone son from engaging in intercourse with another son, bby inferenceone can learn bthat she was also involved in heresy,and yet she did not die. The Gemara answers: bThatis a case bwherethe woman bdid not repent properly, and due to thatreason bshe did not die. /b, bThere arethose bwho saythere is a different version of the objection to the Gemara’s statement that those who repent for the sin of heresy must die: Is that to say that if one repents bforthe sin of bheresy, yes,the result is death, whereas if one repents bforthe bsinof forbidden sexual intercourse he does bnotdie? bButwhat about bthatwoman bwho came before Rav Ḥisdato confess to him band Rav Ḥisda said tothose present: bPrepare funeral shrouds for her, and she died?The Gemara answers: bFromthe fact bthat she said: The lightest of the light, by inferenceone can learn bthat she was also involved in heresy. /b,The Gemara asks: bAndis it correct that one who repents bof the sinof forbidden sexual intercourse does bnotdie? bBut isn’t it taughtin a ibaraita /i: bThey said about Rabbi Elazar ben Durdayya thathe was so promiscuous that bhe did not leave one prostitute in the world with whom he did not engage in sexual intercourse. Once, he heard that there was one prostitute inone of the bcities overseas who would take a pursefull of bdinars as her payment. He took a pursefull of bdinars and went and crossed seven riversto reach bher. Whenthey were engaged in the bmattersto which they were baccustomed,a euphemism for intercourse, bshe passed windand bsaid: Just as this passed windwill bnot return to its place, so too Elazar ben Durdayya will not be accepted in repentance,even if he were to try to repent.,This statement deeply shocked Elazar ben Durdayya, and bhe went and sat between two mountains and hillsand bsaid: Mountains and hills, pray for mercy on mybehalf, so that my repentance will be accepted. bThey said to him: Before we pray for mercy on yourbehalf, bwe must pray for mercy on our ownbehalf, bas it is stated: “For the mountains may depart, and the hills be removed”(Isaiah 54:10). bHe said: Heaven and earth, pray for mercy on mybehalf. bThey saidto him: bBefore we pray for mercy on yourbehalf, bwe must pray for mercy on our ownbehalf, bas it is stated: “For the heavens shall vanish away like smoke, and the earth shall wax old like a garment”(Isaiah 51:6)., bHe said: Sun and moon, pray for mercy on mybehalf. bThey said to him: Before we pray for mercy on yourbehalf, bwe must pray for mercy on our ownbehalf, bas it is stated: “Then the moon shall be confounded, and the sun ashamed”(Isaiah 24:23). bHe said: Stars and constellations, pray for mercy on mybehalf. bThey said to him: Before we pray for mercy on yourbehalf, bwe must pray for mercy on our ownbehalf, bas it is stated: “And all the hosts of heaven shall molder away”(Isaiah 34:4).,Elazar ben Durdayya bsaid:Clearly bthe matter depends on nothing other than myself. He placed his head between his knees and cried loudly until his soul lefthis body. bA Divine Voice emerged and said: Rabbi Elazar ben Durdayya is destined for life in the World-to-Come.The Gemara explains the difficulty presented by this story: bAnd hereElazar ben Durdayya bwasguilty of bthe sinof forbidden sexual intercourse, bandyet bhe diedonce he repented. The Gemara answers: bThere too, since he was attached so stronglyto the sin, to an extent that transcended the physical temptation he felt, bit is similar to heresy,as it had become like a form of idol worship for him.,When bRabbiYehuda HaNasi heard this story of Elazar ben Durdayya, bhe wept and said: There isone who bacquires hisshare in the World-to-Come only bafter many yearsof toil, band there isone who bacquires hisshare in the World-to-Come bin one moment. And RabbiYehuda HaNasi further bsays: Not only are penitents accepted, but they are even called: Rabbi,as the Divine Voice referred to Elazar ben Durdayya as Rabbi Elazar ben Durdayya.,§ In relation to the issue of distancing oneself from idol worship and prostitution, the Gemara relates: bRabbi Ḥanina and Rabbi Yonatan wereonce bwalking along the roadwhen bthey came to a certain two paths, oneof which bbranched off toward the entrance ofa place of bidol worship, andthe other bone branched off toward the entrance of a brothel. One said to the other: Let us go bythe path that leads to bthe entranceof the place bof idol worship, /b
124. Babylonian Talmud, Zevahim, None

115b. כדרב הונא אמר רב דאמר רב הונא אמר רב אשם שניתק לרעיה ושחטו סתם כשר לעולה:,המעלה מבשר חטאת [וכו']: ת"ר מנין למעלה מבשר חטאת ומבשר אשם ומבשר קדשי קדשים ומבשר קדשים קלים וממותר העומר ושתי הלחם ולחם הפנים ושירי מנחות שפטור,ת"ל עולה מה עולה שהיא ראויה להעלאה אף כל שראויה להעלאה,מנין שאף היוצק והבולל והפותת והמולח והמניף והמגיש והמסדר השלחן והמטיב את הנרות והקומץ והמקבל בחוץ שפטור,ת"ל (ויקרא טז, ט) אשר יעלה עולה או זבח מה העלאה שהיא גמר עבודה אף כל שהוא גמר עבודה:,עד שלא הוקם המשכן [וכו']: יתיב רב הונא בר רב קטינא קמיה דרב חסדא וקא קרי (שמות כד, ה) וישלח את נערי בני ישראל א"ל הכי אמר ר' אסי (קרבו) ופסקו,סבר לאותוביה ממתניתין שמעיה דקאמר משמיה דרב אדא בר אהבה עולה שהקריבו ישראל במדבר אינה טעונה הפשט וניתוח אותביה ברייתא דשויא בכולהו,דתני' עד שלא הוקם המשכן הבמות מותרות ועבודה בבכורות והכל כשירין להקריב בהמה חיה ועוף זכרים ונקבות תמימין ובעלי מומין טהורין אבל לא טמאין,והכל קרבו עולות ועולה שהקריבו ישראל במדבר טעונה הפשט וניתוח ונכרים בזמן הזה רשאין לעשות כן,תנאי היא דתניא (שמות יט, כב) וגם הכהנים הנגשים אל ה' יתקדשו ר' יהושע בן קרחה אומר זו פרישות בכורות רבי אומר זו פרישות נדב ואביהוא,בשלמא למ"ד זו פרישות נדב ואביהוא היינו דכתיב (ויקרא י, ג) הוא אשר דבר ה' לאמר בקרובי אקדש,אלא למ"ד זו פרישות בכורות היכא רמיזא דכתיב (שמות כט, מג) ונועדתי שמה לבני ישראל ונקדש בכבודי אל תקרי בכבודי אלא במכובדיי,דבר זה אמר הקב"ה למשה ולא ידעו עד שמתו בני אהרן כיון שמתו בני אהרן אמר לו אהרן אחי לא מתו בניך אלא להקדיש שמו של הקב"ה כיון שידע אהרן שבניו ידועי מקום הן שתק וקבל שכר שנאמר (ויקרא י, ג) וידום אהרן,וכן בדוד הוא אומר (תהלים לז, ז) דום לה' והתחולל לו אע"פ שמפיל לך חללים חללים את שתוק וכן בשלמה הוא אומר (קהלת ג, ז) עת לחשות ועת לדבר פעמים ששותק ומקבל שכר על השתיקה פעמים מדבר ומקבל שכר על הדבור,והיינו דא"ר חייא בר אבא א"ר יוחנן מאי דכתיב (תהלים סח, לו) נורא אלהים ממקדשך אל תיקרי ממקדשך אלא ממקודשיך בשעה שעושה הקב"ה דין בקדושיו מתיירא ומתעלה ומתהלל,אלא קשיא עולה תרי תנאי היא דתניא ר' ישמעאל אומר כללות נאמרו בסיני ופרטות באהל מועד,ר"ע אומר כללות ופרטות נאמרו בסיני ונשנו באהל מועד ונשתלשו בערבות מואב,אמר מר הכל כשירין להקריב מנא הני מילי אמר רב הונא דאמר קרא (בראשית ח, כ) ויבן נח מזבח לה' ויקח מכל הבהמה הטהורה ומכל עוף הטהור בהמה כמשמעו חיה בכלל בהמה 115b. This is bin accordance withthe statement that bRav Hunasays that bRav says. As Rav Huna saysthat bRav says:With regard to ba guilt offeringwhose owner died or achieved atonement through a different guilt offering and which bwas consigned to grazingin the field until it develops a blemish, bandprior to its being consigned one bslaughtered it without specificationof its purpose, it is bfit as a burnt offering. /b,§ The mishna teaches: bOne who offers upoutside the Temple courtyard a portion bof the meat of a sin offeringthat is eaten, or who offers up a portion of several other items, is exempt. With regard to the reasoning behind this ihalakha /i, bthe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: bFrom whereis it derived bthat one who offers upoutside the Temple courtyard a portion bof the meat of a sin offering, ora portion bof the meat of a guilt offering, ora portion bof the meat of offerings of the most sacred order, ora portion bof the meat of offerings of lesser sanctity, ora portion bof the surplus of the iomeroffering, or the two loaves, or the shewbread, or the remainder of meal offeringsis bexempt,as all these are eaten by the priests and not sacrificed on the altar?, bThe verse stateswith regard to the prohibition against sacrificing outside the Temple courtyard: “Whatever man…that sacrifices ba burnt offeringor sacrifice, and brings it not to the entrance of the Tent of Meeting, to sacrifice it to the Lord, that man shall be cut off from his people” (Leviticus 17:8–9). The term “burnt offering” teaches: bJust as a burnt offering is fit for offering upupon the altar, bso too, anything that is fit for offering upis included in the prohibition. All of the offerings listed in the ibaraitaare not sacrificed upon the altar but given to the priests., bFrom whereis it derived bthat evenwith regard to bone who poursoil onto the meal offering, band one who mixesthe oil into the flour of the meal offering, band one who breaksthe loaves of the meal offering into pieces, band one who saltsthe meal offering or other offerings, band one who wavesthe meal offering, band one who bringsthe meal offering to the corner of an altar that he constructs outside the courtyard, band one who arrangesthe shewbread on bthe tableoutside the Sanctuary, band one who removes the ashesfrom bthe lampsof the Candelabrum, band one who removes a handfulfrom a meal offering, band one who collects the bloodof an offering in a vessel, if he did so boutsidethe Temple courtyard he is bexempt. /b, bThe verse states: “That sacrifices a burnt offering or sacrifice”(Leviticus 17:8). bJust as sacrificing is the conclusion ofthe sacri-ficial bservice, so too, anyrite bthat is the conclusion ofa sacrificial bserviceis included. All of these are excluded from the prohibition, as there are rites that follow them.,§ The mishna teaches: bUntil the Tabernacle was established,private altars were permitted and the sacrificial service was performed by the firstborn. The Gemara relates that bRav Huna bar Rav Ketina was sitting before Rav Ḥisda and was readingthis verse with regard to the revelation at Sinai: b“And he sent the young men of the children of Israel,who offered burnt offerings and sacrificed peace offerings of oxen to the Lord” (Exodus 24:5). The young men referred to in the verse were the firstborn of the Jewish people. Rav Ḥisda bsaid to him: Thisis what bRabbi Asi said: They sacrificedthe offerings bandthen bceasedto serve; after that day, the firstborn no longer performed the sacrificial service.,Rav Huna bthought to raise a contradiction from the mishna,which states that the firstborn performed not only the sacrificial service on that day, but also did so until the Tabernacle was established the following year. In the meanwhile, bhe heardRav Ḥisda bsay in the name of Rav Adda bar Ahavathat the bburnt offering that thechildren of bIsrael sacrificed in the wildernessbefore the establishment of the Tabernacle bdid not require flayingof the skin band cuttinginto pieces; it was sacrificed as it was. He therefore braised the contradictionfrom ba ibaraitathat is equal with regard to both of them,i.e., from which Rav Huna could raise a contradiction to both of Rav Ḥisda’s statements., bAs it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bUntil the Tabernacle was established,private baltarswere bpermitted, thesacrificial bservicewas performed bby the firstborn, and allanimals were bfit to be sacrificed: A domesticated animal, an undomesticated animal, or a bird; males and females; unblemished and blemishedanimals. All animal sacrifices were brought from animals and birds that were bkosher, but notfrom bnon-kosherspecies., bAnd allofferings brought before the construction of the Tabernacle were bsacrificedas bburnt offerings. Andthe bburnt offering that the Jewish people sacrificed in the wildernessbefore the Tabernacle was established brequired flayingof the skin band cuttinginto pieces. bAnd today, gentiles are permitted tosacrifice offerings on private altars. The ibaraitastates explicitly that until the Tabernacle was constructed, the sacrificial service was performed by the firstborn, and the burnt offering required flaying and cutting.,Rav Ḥisda replied that with regard to the firstborn, it bisa dispute between itanna’im /i, as it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: God said to Moses on Mount Sinai: b“And let the priests also that come near to the Lord sanctify themselves,lest the Lord break forth upon them” (Exodus 19:22). In other words, they should separate themselves and not approach the mountain. This command was given one day after the burnt offerings and peace offerings were sacrificed in anticipation of the revelation at Sinai. With regard to this command, bRabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa says: Thiscommand is a reference to bthe separation ofthe bfirstborn,as they functioned as priests. bRabbiYehuda HaNasi bsays: Thiscommand is a reference to bthe separation of Nadav and Avihu,who were priests.,The Gemara asks: bGranted, according to the one who saysthat the command for the priests to sanctify themselves is referring to bthe separation of Nadav and Avihu, this isthe meaning of that bwhich is writtenafter their death on the eighth day of the inauguration of the Tabernacle: “Then Moses said to Aaron: bThis is it that the Lord spoke, saying: Through them that are near to Me I will be sanctified… /band Aaron held his peace” (Leviticus 10:3). Nadav and Avihu had already been warned not to draw too close: “Lest the Lord break forth upon them.”, bBut according to the one who saysthat the command for the priests to sanctify themselves is referring to bthe separation ofthe bfirstborn, where is the allusionto the fact that God would be sanctified through Nadav and Avihu? The Gemara replies: bAs it is written: “And there I will meet with the children of Israel; and it shall be sanctified by My glory”(Exodus 29:43). bDo not readit as b“by My glory [ ibikhvodi /i]”; rather,read it as: bBy My honored ones [ ibimekhubadai /i].God will be sanctified by those considered honored by God when He reveals Himself in the Tabernacle., bThe Holy One, Blessed be He, said this statement to Moses, butMoses bdid not knowits meaning buntil the sons of Aaron died. Once the sons of Aaron died,Moses bsaid to him: Aaron, my brother, your sons died only to sanctify the name of the Holy One, Blessed be He. When Aaron knew that his sons were beloved by the Omnipresent, he was silent and received a reward, as it is stated: “And Aaron held his peace [ ivayidom /i].” /b, bAnd likewise ina verse written by bDavidit bstates: “Resign yourself [ idom /i] to the Lord, and wait patiently [ ivehitḥolel /i] for Him”(Psalms 37:7). bAlthough He strikes down many corpses [ iḥalalim /i]around byou, you be silentand do not complain. bAnd likewise ina verse written by bSolomonit bstates: “A time to keep silence, and a time to speak”(Ecclesiastes 3:7). There are btimes thatone bis silent and receives reward for the silence,and at btimesone bspeaks and receives reward for the speech. /b, bAnd this is what Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba saysthat bRabbi Yoḥa says: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “Awesome is God out of your holy places”(Psalms 68:36)? bDo not readit as: b“From your holy places [ imimikdashekha /i]”; rather,read it as: bFrom your holy ones [ imimekudashekha /i]. When the Holy One, Blessed be He, carries out judgment upon His holy ones, He is feared, and exalted, and praisedby all. In any event, there is no contradiction from the ibaraitawhich teaches that the first-born performed the sacrificial service before the Tabernacle was established, as this matter is the subject of a dispute between itanna’im /i., bButthere is still ba difficultywith regard to the bburnt offering,as it was stated in the name of Rav Adda bar Ahava that the burnt offering that the Jewish people sacrificed in the wilderness did not require flaying of the skin or cutting into pieces, while the ibaraitastates that it did. The Gemara replies: This bisa dispute between the opinions of btwo itanna’im /i. As it is taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Yishmael says:The bgeneral statements,i.e., the principles of the Torah, bwere said at Sinai, andthe bdetailsof the mitzvot that are explicated in Leviticus were said to Moses bin the Tent of Meeting.This includes the ihalakhathat the burnt offering must be flayed and cut into pieces. Consequently, it could not have been in effect before the construction of the Tabernacle., bRabbi Akiva says:Both bgeneral statements andthe bdetailsof mitzvot bwere said at Sinai andlater btaught again in the Tent of Meeting, andtaught ba third timeby Moses to the Jewish people bin the plains of Moab,when he taught the Torah to the people (see Deuteronomy 1:1). According to Rabbi Akiva’s opinion, the ihalakhaof flaying and cutting into pieces was in effect when the Torah was given, even before the construction of the Tabernacle.,§ bThe Master saidin the ibaraita /i: Before the Tabernacle was established, ballanimals were bfit to be sacrificed:A domesticated animal, an undomesticated animal, or a bird. The Gemara asks: bFrom where are these mattersderived? bRav Huna said: As the verse stateswith regard to the offering that was sacrificed after the flood: b“And Noah built an altar to the Lord, and took of every pure animal, and of every pure fowl,and offered burnt offerings on the altar” (Genesis 8:20). The Gemara explains: b“Animal [ ibehema /i],”is understood bin accordance with its plain meaning,a domesticated animal, and the same is true of fowl; ban undomesticated animal [ iḥayya /i]is bincluded inthe term b“ ibehema /i”that is stated in the verse.
125. John Malalas, History, 8

126. Pseudo-Tertullian, Martyrdom of Perpetua And Felicitas, 1.1-1.2, 10.14, 21.11



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
actions of israelite farmer Brooks (1983), Support for the Poor in the Mishnaic Law of Agriculture: Tractate Peah, 188
agent Eilberg-Schwartz (1986), The Human Will in Judaism: The Mishnah's Philosophy of Intention, 26
albeck,hanoch' ... '37.0_196.0@niche Brooks (1983), Support for the Poor in the Mishnaic Law of Agriculture: Tractate Peah, 188
orientation of synagogue Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 196
sanctity of,bima' Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 196