Home About Network of subjects Linked subjects heatmap Book indices included Search by subject Search by reference Browse subjects Browse texts

Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



8004
Mishnah, Berachot, 5.3


הָאוֹמֵר עַל קַן צִפּוֹר יַגִּיעוּ רַחֲמֶיךָ, וְעַל טוֹב יִזָּכֵר שְׁמֶךָ, מוֹדִים מוֹדִים, מְשַׁתְּקִין אוֹתוֹ. הָעוֹבֵר לִפְנֵי הַתֵּיבָה וְטָעָה, יַעֲבֹר אַחֵר תַּחְתָּיו, וְלֹא יְהֵא סָרְבָן בְּאוֹתָהּ שָׁעָה. מִנַּיִן הוּא מַתְחִיל, מִתְּחִלַּת הַבְּרָכָה שֶׁטָּעָה בָהּ:The one who says, “On a bird’s nest may Your mercy be extended,” [or] “For good may Your name be blessed” or “We give thanks, we give thanks,” they silence him. One who was passing before the ark and made a mistake, another should pass in his place, and he should not be as one who refuses at that moment. Where does he begin? At the beginning of the blessing in which the other made a mistake.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

27 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 6.5, 11.13, 22.6-22.7 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

6.5. וְאָהַבְתָּ אֵת יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ בְּכָל־לְבָבְךָ וּבְכָל־נַפְשְׁךָ וּבְכָל־מְאֹדֶךָ׃ 11.13. וְהָיָה אִם־שָׁמֹעַ תִּשְׁמְעוּ אֶל־מִצְוֺתַי אֲשֶׁר אָנֹכִי מְצַוֶּה אֶתְכֶם הַיּוֹם לְאַהֲבָה אֶת־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם וּלְעָבְדוֹ בְּכָל־לְבַבְכֶם וּבְכָל־נַפְשְׁכֶם׃ 22.6. כִּי יִקָּרֵא קַן־צִפּוֹר לְפָנֶיךָ בַּדֶּרֶךְ בְּכָל־עֵץ אוֹ עַל־הָאָרֶץ אֶפְרֹחִים אוֹ בֵיצִים וְהָאֵם רֹבֶצֶת עַל־הָאֶפְרֹחִים אוֹ עַל־הַבֵּיצִים לֹא־תִקַּח הָאֵם עַל־הַבָּנִים׃ 22.7. שַׁלֵּחַ תְּשַׁלַּח אֶת־הָאֵם וְאֶת־הַבָּנִים תִּקַּח־לָךְ לְמַעַן יִיטַב לָךְ וְהַאֲרַכְתָּ יָמִים׃ 6.5. And thou shalt love the LORD thy God with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy might." 11.13. And it shall come to pass, if ye shall hearken diligently unto My commandments which I command you this day, to love the LORD your God, and to serve Him with all your heart and with all your soul," 22.6. If a bird’s nest chance to be before thee in the way, in any tree or on the ground, with young ones or eggs, and the dam sitting upon the young, or upon the eggs, thou shalt not take the dam with the young;" 22.7. thou shalt in any wise let the dam go, but the young thou mayest take unto thyself; that it may be well with thee, and that thou mayest prolong thy days."
2. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 5.22 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

5.22. וּבָאוּ הַמַּיִם הַמְאָרְרִים הָאֵלֶּה בְּמֵעַיִךְ לַצְבּוֹת בֶּטֶן וְלַנְפִּל יָרֵךְ וְאָמְרָה הָאִשָּׁה אָמֵן אָמֵן׃ 5.22. and this water that causeth the curse shall go into thy bowels, and make thy belly to swell, and thy thigh to fall away’; and the woman shall say: ‘Amen, Amen.’"
3. Dead Sea Scrolls, Community Rule, 1.2, 2.1, 2.18 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

4. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 18.9 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

18.9. Such were the consequences of this, that the customs of our fathers were altered, and such a change was made, as added a mighty weight toward bringing all to destruction, which these men occasioned by their thus conspiring together; for Judas and Sadduc, who excited a fourth philosophic sect among us, and had a great many followers therein, filled our civil government with tumults at present, and laid the foundations of our future miseries, by this system of philosophy, which we were before unacquainted withal 18.9. 3. But Vitellius came into Judea, and went up to Jerusalem; it was at the time of that festival which is called the Passover. Vitellius was there magnificently received, and released the inhabitants of Jerusalem from all the taxes upon the fruits that were bought and sold, and gave them leave to have the care of the high priest’s vestments, with all their ornaments, and to have them under the custody of the priests in the temple, which power they used to have formerly
5. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 2.123 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.123. They think that oil is a defilement; and if anyone of them be anointed without his own approbation, it is wiped off his body; for they think to be sweaty is a good thing, as they do also to be clothed in white garments. They also have stewards appointed to take care of their common affairs, who every one of them have no separate business for any, but what is for the use of them all.
6. Josephus Flavius, Against Apion, 2.282 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.282. Nay, farther, the multitude of mankind itself have had a great inclination of a long time to follow our religious observances; for there is not any city of the Grecians, nor any of the barbarians, nor any nation whatsoever, whither our custom of resting on the seventh day hath not come, and by which our fasts and lighting up lamps, and many of our prohibitions as to our food, are not observed;
7. Mishnah, Avot, 3.10 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

3.10. He used to say: one with whom men are pleased, God is pleased. But anyone from whom men are displeased, God is displeased. Rabbi Dosa ben Harkinas said: morning sleep, midday wine, children’s talk and sitting in the assemblies of the ignorant put a man out of the world."
8. Mishnah, Berachot, 9.5 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

9.5. One must bless [God] for the evil in the same way as one blesses for the good, as it says, “And you shall love the Lord your God with all your heart, with all your soul and with all your might” (Deuteronomy 6:5). “With all your heart,” with your two impulses, the evil impulse as well as the good impulse. “With all your soul” even though he takes your soul [life] away from you. “With all your might” with all your money. Another explanation, “With all your might” whatever treatment he metes out to you. One should not show disrespect to the Eastern Gate, because it is in a direct line with the Holy of Holies. One should not enter the Temple Mount with a staff, or with shoes on, or with a wallet, or with dusty feet; nor should one make it a short cut, all the more spitting [is forbidden]. All the conclusions of blessings that were in the Temple they would say, “forever [lit. as long as the world is].” When the sectarians perverted their ways and said that there was only one world, they decreed that they should say, “for ever and ever [lit. from the end of the world to the end of the world]. They also decreed that a person should greet his fellow in God’s name, as it says, “And behold Boaz came from Bethlehem and said to the reapers, ‘May the Lord be with you.’ And they answered him, “May the Lord bless you’” (Ruth 2:. And it also says, “The Lord is with your, you valiant warrior” (Judges 6:12). And it also says, “And do not despise your mother when she grows old” (Proverbs 23:22). And it also says, “It is time to act on behalf of the Lord, for they have violated Your teaching” (Psalms 119:126). Rabbi Natan says: [this means] “They have violated your teaching It is time to act on behalf of the Lord.”"
9. Mishnah, Hulin, 2.9 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

2.9. One may not slaughter [so that the blood runs] into the sea or into rivers, or into vessels, But one may slaughter into a pool (or vessel) of water. And when on board a ship on to vessels. One may not slaughter at all into a hole, but one may dig a hole in his own house for the blood to run into. In the street, however, he should not do so as not to follow the ways of the heretics."
10. Mishnah, Megillah, 4.8-4.9 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

4.8. If one says, “I will not pass before the ark in colored clothes,” even in white clothes he may not pass before it. [If one says], “I will not pass before it in shoes,” even barefoot he may not pass before it. One who makes his tefillin [for the head] round, it is dangerous and has no religious value. If he put them on his forehead or on the palm of his hand, behold this is the way of heresy. If he overlaid them with gold or put [the one for the hand] on his sleeve, behold this is the manner of the outsiders." 4.9. If one says “May the good bless you,” this is the way of heresy. [If one says], “May Your mercy reach the nest of a bird,” “May Your name be mentioned for the good,” “We give thanks, we give thanks,” they silence him. One who uses euphemisms in the portion dealing with forbidden marriages, he is silenced. If he says, [instead of] “And you shall not give any of your seed to be passed to Moloch,” (Leviticus 18:21) “You shall not give [your seed] to pass to a Gentile woman,” he silenced with a rebuke."
11. Mishnah, Parah, 3.3 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

3.3. They arrived at the Temple Mount and got down. Beneath the Temple Mount and the courts was a hollow which served as a protection against a grave in the depths. And at the entrance of the courtyard there was the jar of the ashes of the sin-offerings. They would bring a male from among the sheep and tie a rope between its horns, and a stick or a bushy twig was tied at the other end of the rope, and this was thrown into the jar. They then struck the male [sheep] was so that it started backwards. And [a child] took the ashes and put it [enough] so that it could be seen upon the water. Rabbi Yose said: do not give the Sadducees an opportunity to rule! Rather, [a child] himself took it and mixed it."
12. Mishnah, Rosh Hashanah, 2.1 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

2.1. If they don’t know him [the one who came to testify], they send another with him to testify concerning [his reliability]. Originally testimony concerning the new moon was accepted from anyone. When the minim disrupted this, it was decreed that testimony should be received only from persons known [to the court]."
13. Mishnah, Sanhedrin, 4.5 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

4.5. How did they admonish witnesses in capital cases? They brought them in and admonished them, [saying], “Perhaps you will say something that is only a supposition or hearsay or secondhand, or even from a trustworthy man. Or perhaps you do not know that we shall check you with examination and inquiry? Know, moreover, that capital cases are not like non-capital cases: in non-capital cases a man may pay money and so make atonement, but in capital cases the witness is answerable for the blood of him [that is wrongfully condemned] and the blood of his descendants [that should have been born to him] to the end of the world.” For so have we found it with Cain that murdered his brother, for it says, “The bloods of your brother cry out” (Gen. 4:10). It doesn’t say, “The blood of your brother”, but rather “The bloods of your brother” meaning his blood and the blood of his descendants. Another saying is, “The bloods of your brother” that his blood was cast over trees and stones. Therefore but a single person was created in the world, to teach that if any man has caused a single life to perish from Israel, he is deemed by Scripture as if he had caused a whole world to perish; and anyone who saves a single soul from Israel, he is deemed by Scripture as if he had saved a whole world. Again [but a single person was created] for the sake of peace among humankind, that one should not say to another, “My father was greater than your father”. Again, [but a single person was created] against the heretics so they should not say, “There are many ruling powers in heaven”. Again [but a single person was created] to proclaim the greatness of the Holy Blessed One; for humans stamp many coins with one seal and they are all like one another; but the King of kings, the Holy Blessed One, has stamped every human with the seal of the first man, yet not one of them are like another. Therefore everyone must say, “For my sake was the world created.” And if perhaps you [witnesses] would say, “Why should we be involved with this trouble”, was it not said, “He, being a witness, whether he has seen or known, [if he does not speak it, then he shall bear his iniquity] (Lev. 5:1). And if perhaps you [witnesses] would say, “Why should we be guilty of the blood of this man?, was it not said, “When the wicked perish there is rejoicing” (Proverbs 11:10).]"
14. Mishnah, Sotah, 7.1-7.2, 9.15 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

7.1. The following may be recited in any language:the section concerning the sotah, the confession made at the presentation of tithes, the shema, the prayer (the amidah), the grace after meals, the oath concerning testimony, the oath concerning a deposit." 7.2. The following are recited in the holy tongue (Hebrew):The reading made at the offering of the firstfruits, The recitation at halitzah, The blessings and curses, The priestly blessing, The blessing of the high priest, The section of the king, The section of the calf whose neck is broken, And the priest anointed [to accompany the army] in battle when he speaks to the people." 9.15. When Rabbi Meir died, the composers of fables ceased. When Ben Azzai died, the diligent students [of Torah] ceased. When Ben Zoma died, the expounders ceased. When Rabbi Joshua died, goodness ceased from the world. When Rabban Shimon ben Gamaliel died, locusts come and troubles multiplied. When Rabbi Elazar ben Azaryah died, the sages ceased to be wealthy. When Rabbi Akiba died, the glory of the Torah ceased. When Rabbi Hanina ben Dosa died, men of wondrous deeds ceased. When Rabbi Yose Katnuta died, the pious men (hasidim) ceased and why was his name called Katnuta? Because he was the youngest of the pious men. When Rabban Yoha ben Zakkai died, the splendor of wisdom ceased. When Rabban Gamaliel the elder died, the glory of the torah ceased, and purity and separateness perished. When Rabbi Ishmael ben Fabi died, the splendor of the priesthood ceased. When Rabbi died, humility and fear of sin ceased. Rabbi Phineas ben Yair says: when Temple was destroyed, scholars and freemen were ashamed and covered their head, men of wondrous deeds were disregarded, and violent men and big talkers grew powerful. And nobody expounds, nobody seeks, and nobody asks. Upon whom shall we depend? Upon our father who is in heaven. Rabbi Eliezer the Great says: from the day the Temple was destroyed, the sages began to be like scribes, scribes like synagogue-attendants, synagogue-attendants like common people, and the common people became more and more debased. And nobody seeks. Upon whom shall we depend? Upon our father who is in heaven. In the footsteps of the messiah insolence (hutzpah) will increase and the cost of living will go up greatly; the vine will yield its fruit, but wine will be expensive; the government will turn to heresy, and there will be no one to rebuke; the meeting-place [of scholars] will be used for licentiousness; the Galilee will be destroyed, the Gablan will be desolated, and the dwellers on the frontier will go about [begging] from place to place without anyone to take pity on them; the wisdom of the learned will rot, fearers of sin will be despised, and the truth will be lacking; youths will put old men to shame, the old will stand up in the presence of the young, “For son spurns father, daughter rises up against mother, daughter-in-law against mother-in-law a man’s own household are his enemies” (Micah 7:6). The face of the generation will be like the face of a dog, a son will not feel ashamed before his father. Upon whom shall we depend? Upon our father who is in heaven. Rabbi Pinchas ben Yair says, “Heedfulness leads to cleanliness, cleanliness leads to purity, purity leads to separation, separation leads to holiness, holiness leads to modesty, modesty leads to fear of sin, fear of sin leads to piety, piety leads to the Holy Spirit, The Holy Spirit leads to the resurrection of the dead, and the resurrection of the dead comes from Elijah, blessed be his memory, Amen.”"
15. Mishnah, Taanit, 2.1-2.2, 2.5 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

2.1. What is the order [of service] for fast days?They take the ark out to the open space of the city. And they put ashes on the ark and on the head of the Nasi and on the head of the head of the court (av bet. And everyone [else] puts ashes on his own head. The elder among them says in front of them words of admonition, “Brothers, it does not say of the people of Nineveh, ‘And God saw their sackcloth and their fasting,’ but, ‘And God saw their deeds, for they turned from their evil way. (Jonah 3:10)’ And in the prophets it says, ‘And rend your heart and not your garments” (Joel 2:13)." 2.2. [When] they stand up to pray they bring down before the ark an old man conversant [with the prayers], one who has children and whose house is empty [of food], so that his heart is complete prayer. He recites before them twenty-four benedictions, the eighteen recited daily, to which he adds six." 2.5. It happened in the days of Rabbi Halafta and Rabbi Hanina ben Tradyon that a man passed before the ark [as shaliah tzibbur] and completed the entire benediction and they did not respond, “amen.” [The hazzan called out]: Sound a tekiah, priests, sound a tekiah. [The shaliah tzibbur continued]: He who answered Abraham on Mt. Moriah, He shall answer you and hear the voice of your cry on this day. Then [the hazzan called out]: Sound a teru'ah, sons of Aaron, sound a teru'ah. [The shaliah tzibbur continued]: He who answered our fathers at the Sea of Reeds, He shall answer you and hear the voice of your cry on this day. And when the matter came up before the sages, they said: they only practiced in this way at the eastern gates on the Temple Mount."
16. Tosefta, Berachot, 3.25, 6.7 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

3.25. Eighteen Berachot (blessings) that the Sages have established [for the prayer of Shemoneh Esreh have been established] corresponding to eighteen mentionings [of God’s name] that are in [the chapter of Tehillim that begins with] “Ascribe to God, children of princes…” (Tehillim 29) And [a person] should include [the Beracha against] the heretics into [the Beracha] for the Rabbinical Jews, and [the Beracha] for the converts into [the Beracha] for the elders, and [the Beracha] for [King] David into [the Beracha] for [the rebuilding of] Jerusalem. But if he said each one of them separately he has fulfilled his obligation [of praying Shemoneh Esreh]." 6.7. [A person] that sees beautiful people and beautiful trees says [the following Beracha (blessing):] Baruch [Ata Hashem Eloheinu Melech Haolam] Mi Shekacha Lo Beriot Naot (Blessed are You Hashem, our God, King of the world, Who has such beautiful creations [in His world])."
17. Tosefta, Sanhedrin, 12.9-13.12 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

18. Tosefta, Shabbat, 13.5 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

19. Anon., Leviticus Rabba, 9.9 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

9.9. אָמַר רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן יוֹחָאי גָּדוֹל הַשָּׁלוֹם, שֶׁכָּל הַבְּרָכוֹת כְּלוּלוֹת בּוֹ, (תהלים כט, יא): ה' עֹז לְעַמּוֹ יִתֵּן ה' יְבָרֵךְ אֶת עַמּוֹ בַשָּׁלוֹם. חִזְקִיָּה אָמַר תַּרְתֵּי, חִזְקִיָּה אָמַר גָּדוֹל שָׁלוֹם שֶׁכָּל הַמִּצְווֹת כְּתִיב בְּהוּ (שמות כג, ד ה): כִּי תִרְאֶה, כִּי תִפְגַע, (דברים כב, ו): כִּי יִקָּרֵא, אִם בָּאת מִצְוָה לְיָדְךָ אַתָּה זָקוּק לַעֲשׂוֹתָהּ וְאִם לָאו אִי אַתָּה זָקוּק לַעֲשׂוֹתָהּ, בְּרַם הָכָא (תהלים לד, טו): בַּקֵּשׁ שָׁלוֹם וְרָדְפֵהוּ, בַּקְשֵׁהוּ לִמְקוֹמְךָ וְרָדְפֵהוּ לְמָקוֹם אַחֵר. חִזְקִיָּה אָמַר חוֹרֵי, גָּדוֹל הַשָּׁלוֹם שֶׁבְּכָל הַמַּסָּעוֹת כְּתִיב (במדבר לג, ה): וַיִּסְעוּ וַיַּחֲנוּ, נוֹסְעִים בְּמַחְלֹקֶת וְחוֹנִים בְּמַחְלֹקֶת, כֵּיוָן שֶׁבָּאוּ כֻלָּם לִפְנֵי הַר סִינַי נַעֲשׂוּ כֻּלָּם חֲנָיָה אַחַת, הֲדָא דִּכְתִיב (שמות יט, ב): וַיִּחַן שָׁם יִשְׂרָאֵל, וַיַּחֲנוּ שָׁם בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אֵין כְּתִיב כָּאן אֶלָּא וַיִּחַן שָׁם יִשְׂרָאֵל, אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא הֲרֵי שָׁעָה שֶׁאֲנִי נוֹתֵן תּוֹרָה לְבָנָי. בַּר קַפָּרָא אָמַר תְּלַת, בַּר קַפָּרָא אָמַר גָּדוֹל שָׁלוֹם שֶׁדִּבְּרוּ הַכְּתוּבִים דִּבְרֵי בַּדָּאוּת בַּתּוֹרָה בִּשְׁבִיל לְהַטִּיל שָׁלוֹם בֵּין אַבְרָהָם לְשָׂרָה, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (בראשית יח, יב): אַחֲרֵי בְלֹתִי הָיְתָה לִי עֶדְנָה וַאדֹנִי זָקֵן, אֲבָל לְאַבְרָהָם לֹא אָמַר כֵּן אֶלָּא (בראשית יח, יג): וַאֲנִי זָקַנְתִּי. בַּר קַפָּרָא אָמַר חוֹרֵי, גָּדוֹל שָׁלוֹם שֶׁדִּבְּרוּ הַכְּתוּבִים לָשׁוֹן בָּדוּי בַּנְּבִיאִים בִּשְׁבִיל לְהַטִּיל שָׁלוֹם בֵּין אִישׁ לְאִשְׁתּוֹ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שופטים יג, ג): הִנֵּה נָא אַתְּ עֲקָרָה וְלֹא יָלַדְתְּ וְהָרִית וְיָלַדְתְּ בֵּן, אֲבָל לְמָנוֹחַ לֹא אָמַר כֵּן אֶלָּא (שופטים יג, יג): מִכֹּל אֲשֶׁר אָמַרְתִּי אֶל הָאִשָּׁה תִּשָּׁמֵר, מִכָּל מָקוֹם סַמָּנִים הִיא צְרִיכָה. בַּר קַפָּרָא אָמַר חוֹרֵי גָּדוֹל שָׁלוֹם, מַה אִם הָעֶלְיוֹנִים שֶׁאֵין לָהֶם לֹא קִנְאָה וְלֹא שִׂנְאָה וְלֹא תַּחְרוּת וְלֹא מַצּוֹת וְרִיבוֹת וְלֹא מַחְלֹקֶת וְלֹא עַיִן רָעָה צְרִיכִין שָׁלוֹם, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (איוב כה, ב): עֹשֶׂה שָׁלוֹם בִּמְרוֹמָיו, הַתַּחְתּוֹנִים שֶׁיֵּשׁ בָּהֶם כָּל הַמִּדּוֹת הַלָּלוּ עַל אַחַת כַּמָּה וְכַמָּה. אָמַר רַבָּן שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן גַּמְלִיאֵל גָּדוֹל שָׁלוֹם שֶׁדִּבְּרוּ הַכְּתוּבִים לְשׁוֹן בַּדָּיוּת בַּתּוֹרָה לְהַטִּיל שָׁלוֹם בֵּין יוֹסֵף לְאֶחָיו, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (בראשית נ, יז): כֹּה תֹאמְרוּן לְיוֹסֵף אָנָא שָׂא נָא, וְלֹא אַשְׁכְּחָן בְּיַעֲקֹב דְּפַקַד כְּלוּם, אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹסֵי הַגְּלִילִי גָּדוֹל שָׁלוֹם שֶׁאֲפִלּוּ בִּשְׁעַת מִלְחָמָה אֵין פּוֹתְחִין אֶלָּא בְּשָׁלוֹם, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (דברים כ, י): כִּי תִקְרַב אֶל עִיר וגו', אָמַר רַבִּי יוּדָן בֶּן רַבִּי יוֹסֵי גָּדוֹל שָׁלוֹם שֶׁשְּׁמוֹ שֶׁל הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא נִקְרָא שָׁלוֹם, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (שופטים ו, כד): וַיִּקְרָא לוֹ ה' שָׁלוֹם. אָמַר רַבִּי תַּנְחוּם בַּר יוּדָן, מִכָּאן שֶׁאָסוּר לוֹ לְאָדָם לִשְׁאֹל בִּשְׁלוֹם חֲבֵרוֹ בְּמָקוֹם מְטֻנָּף. תָּנֵי רַבִּי יִשְׁמָעֵאל גָּדוֹל שָׁלוֹם שֶׁשֵּׁם הַגָּדוֹל שֶׁנִּכְתַּב בִּקְדֻשָּׁה אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא יִמָּחֶה בַּמַּיִם כְּדֵי לְהַטִּיל שָׁלוֹם בֵּין אִישׁ לְאִשְׁתּוֹ. רַבִּי מֵאִיר הֲוָה יָתִיב וְדָרִישׁ בְּלֵילֵי שַׁבַּתָּא הֲוָה תַּמָּן חָדָא אִתְּתָא יַצִּיבָא וְשָׁמְעָה לֵיהּ תָּנְתָא מִדְרָשָׁא, אַמְתִּינַת עַד דִּיחֲסַל מִמִּדְרָשׁ, אָזְלָה לְבֵיתָהּ אַשְׁכְּחָא בּוּצִינָא טָפֵי, אֲמַר לָהּ בַּעְלָהּ אָן הֲוֵית, אָמְרָה לֵיהּ אֲנָא יָתִיבָא וְשָׁמְעָה קָלֵיהּ דָּרוֹשָׁה, אֲמַר לָהּ כֵּן וְכֵן לָא אִעַיַּלְתְּ לְהָכָא עַד דַּאֲזַלְתְּ וְרוֹקַת בְּאַנְפֵּי דָרוֹשָׁה, יְתִיבָא שַׁבַּתָּא קַמַּיְיתָא תִּנְיָנָא וּתְלִיתָא, אֲמָרִין לָהּ מְגֵירָתָא כַּדּוּ אַתּוּן צְהִיבִין, אֲתֵינָן עִמָּךְ לְגַבֵּי דָּרוֹשָׁה, כֵּיוָן דְּחָמֵי יַתְהוֹן רַבִּי מֵאִיר צָפָה בְּרוּחַ הַקֹּדֶשׁ, אֲמַר לְהוֹ אִית מִנְּכוֹן אִתְּתָא דְּחַכִּימָא לְמִלְחַשׁ בְּעֵינָא, אֲמָרִין לָהּ מְגֵירָתָא כַּדּוּ אַתְּ אָזְלַת וְרוֹקַת בְּאַנְפֵּיהּ וְתִשְׁרֵי לְבַעֲלִךְ, כֵּיוָן דְּיָתְבָא קַמֵּי אִידְחִילַת מִינֵיהּ, אֲמָרָה לֵיהּ רַבִּי לֵית אֲנָא חַכִּימָא לְמִילְחַשׁ עֵינָא, אֲמַר לָהּ אֲפִלּוּ הָכֵי רוֹקִי בְּאַנְפִּי שְׁבַע זִמְנִין וַאֲנָא מִינְשִׁים, עָבְדָה הָכִין. אֲמַר לָהּ אִיזִילִי אִמְרִי לְבַעֲלִיךָ אַתְּ אֲמַרְתְּ חָדָא זִימְנָא וַאֲנָא רָקֵית שְׁבַע זִימְנִין. אָמְרוּ לוֹ תַּלְמִידָיו רַבִּי כָּךְ מְבַזִּין אֶת הַתּוֹרָה, לָא הֲוָה לָךְ לְמֵימַר לְחַד מִינָן לְמִלְחַשׁ לָךְ, אֲמַר לְהוֹ לָא דַּיּוֹ לְמֵאִיר לִהְיוֹת שָׁוֶה לְקוֹנוֹ, דְּתָנֵי רַבִּי יִשְׁמָעֵאל גָּדוֹל שָׁלוֹם שֶׁשֵּׁם הַגָּדוֹל שֶׁנִּכְתַּב בִּקְדֻשָּׁה אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא יִמָּחֶה עַל הַמַּיִם בִּשְׁבִיל לְהַטִּיל שָׁלוֹם בֵּין אִישׁ לְאִשְׁתּוֹ. אָמַר רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן חֲלַפְתָּא גָּדוֹל שָׁלוֹם שֶׁכְּשֶׁבָּרָא הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא אֶת עוֹלָמוֹ עָשָׂה שָׁלוֹם בֵּין הָעֶלְיוֹנִים לַתַּחְתּוֹנִים, בַּיּוֹם הָרִאשׁוֹן בָּרָא מִן הָעֶלְיוֹנִים וּמִן הַתַּחְתּוֹנִים, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (בראשית א, א): בְּרֵאשִׁית בָּרָא אֱלֹהִים אֵת הַשָּׁמַיִם וְאֵת הָאָרֶץ, בַּשֵּׁנִי בָּרָא מִן הָעֶלְיוֹנִים, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (בראשית א, ו): וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים יְהִי רָקִיעַ, בַּשְּׁלִישִׁי בָּרָא מִן הַתַּחְתּוֹנִים, (בראשית א, ט): וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים יִקָּווּ הַמַּיִם, בָּרְבִיעִי מִן הָעֶלְיוֹנִים, (בראשית א, יד): יְהִי מְאֹרֹת בִּרְקִיעַ הַשָּׁמַיִם, בַּחֲמִישִׁי בָּרָא מִן הַתַּחְתּוֹנִים, (בראשית א, כ): וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים יִשְׁרְצוּ הַמַּיִם, בַּשִּׁשִּׁי בָּא לִבְראוֹת אָדָם, אָמַר אִם אֲנִי בּוֹרֵא אוֹתוֹ מִן הָעֶלְיוֹנִים הֲרֵי הָעֶלְיוֹנִים רַבִּים מִן הַתַּחְתּוֹנִים בְּרִיאָה אַחַת, אִם אֲנִי בּוֹרֵא אוֹתוֹ מִן הַתַּחְתּוֹנִים הֲרֵי הַתַּחְתּוֹנִים רַבִּים עַל הָעֶלְיוֹנִים בְּרִיאָה אַחַת, מֶה עָשָׂה בְּרָאוֹ מִן הָעֶלְיוֹנִים וּמִן הַתַּחְתּוֹנִים, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (בראשית ב, ז): וַיִּיצֶר ה' אֱלֹהִים אֶת הָאָדָם עָפָר מִן הָאֲדָמָה מִן הַתַּחְתּוֹנִים, (בראשית ב, ז): וַיִּפַּח בְּאַפָּיו נִשְׁמַת חַיִּים מִן הָעֶלְיוֹנִים, רַבִּי מָנֵי דִּשְׁאַב וְרַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ דְּסִכְנִין בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי לֵוִי, גָּדוֹל שָׁלוֹם שֶׁכָּל הַבְּרָכוֹת וְטוֹבוֹת וְנֶחָמוֹת שֶׁהַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא מְבִיאָן עַל יִשְׂרָאֵל, חוֹתְמִין בְּשָׁלוֹם, בִּקְרִיאַת שְׁמַע פּוֹרֵס סֻכַּת שָׁלוֹם, בַּתְּפִלָּה עוֹשֶׂה שָׁלוֹם, בְּבִרְכַּת כֹּהֲנִים (במדבר ו, כו): וְיָשֵׂם לְךָ שָׁלוֹם. וְאֵין לִי אֶלָּא בַּבְּרָכוֹת בַּקָּרְבָּנוֹת מִנַיִן, (ויקרא ז, לז): זֹאת הַתּוֹרָה לָעֹלָה לַמִּנְחָה וְלַחַטָּאת וְלָאָשָׁם וְלַמִּלּוּאִים וּלְזֶבַח הַשְּׁלָמִים. אֵין לִי אֶלָּא בַּכְּלָל, בַּפְּרָט מִנַּיִן, (ויקרא ו, ב): זֹאת תּוֹרַת הָעֹלָה, (ויקרא ו, ז): זֹאת תּוֹרַת הַמִּנְחָה, (ויקרא ו, יח): זֹאת תּוֹרַת הַחַטָּאת, (ויקרא ז, א): זֹאת תּוֹרַת הָאָשָׁם, (ויקרא ז, יא): זֹאת תּוֹרַת זֶבַח הַשְּׁלָמִים, וְאֵין לִי אֶלָּא בְּקָרְבְּנוֹת יָחִיד, בְּקָרְבְּנוֹת צִבּוּר מִנַּיִן, תַּלְמוּד לוֹמַר (במדבר כט, לט): אֵלֶּה תַּעֲשׂוּ לַה' בְּמוֹעֲדֵיכֶם, וּמְסַיֵּם בִּשְׁלָמִים. וְאֵין לִי אֶלָּא בָּעוֹלָם הַזֶּה בָּעוֹלָם הַבָּא מִנַּיִן, (ישעיה סו, יב): הִנְנִי נֹטֶה אֵלֶיהָ כְּנָהָר שָׁלוֹם. רַבָּנָן אָמְרוּ גָּדוֹל שָׁלוֹם שֶׁכְּשֶׁמֶּלֶךְ הַמָּשִׁיחַ בָּא אֵינוֹ פּוֹתֵחַ אֶלָּא בְּשָׁלוֹם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ישעיה נב, ז): מַה נָּאווּ עַל הֶהָרִים רַגְלֵי מְבַשֵּׂר מַשְׁמִיעַ שָׁלוֹם. 9.9. Said Rabbi Shimon Bar Yochai: Peace is so great that all blessings are included in it (Ps. 29:11) “Hashem will give strength to His people, Hashem will bless His people with peace”. Hizkiah said two things. Hizkiah said: Peace is so great that all mitzvot are written [in the conditional form] (Exodus 23:4-5) “If you see” “If you encounter” (Deut. 22:6) “If you happen by” – if a mitzvah came to your hand, you are bound to do it. However, here (Ps. 34:15) “Seek peace and pursue it.” Seek – [this word applies] in your own place; pursue – [this word applies] in any other place. Hizkiah said gave another explanation: Peace is so great that about every travelling of the children of Israel it is written ‘and they travelled’ ‘and they encamped’ they travelled disputing [with each other] and encamped disputing. But when they arrived at Mount Sinai they did one single encampment, as it is written ‘and Israel encamped [verb in singular] there’ – it is not written ‘they encamped there’, rather, it is written ‘he encamped there.’ At the moment the Holy One of Blessing said ‘this is the moment I will give Torah to the children of Israel’"
20. Anon., Sifre Deuteronomy, 41 (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

21. Tertullian, On Fasting, Against The Psychics, 16 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

22. Babylonian Talmud, Berachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

13b. (דברים ו, ו) אשר אנכי מצוך היום על לבבך מכאן אתה למד שכל הפרשה כולה צריכה כוונה,אמר רבה בר בר חנה אמר ר' יוחנן הלכה כר"ע,איכא דמתני לה אהא דתניא הקורא את שמע צריך שיכוין את לבו ר' אחא משום ר' יהודה אומר כיון שכוון לבו בפרק ראשון שוב אינו צריך אמר רבה בר בר חנה אמר ר' יוחנן הלכה כר' אחא שאמר משום ר' יהודה,תניא אידך והיו שלא יקרא למפרע על לבבך ר' זוטרא אומר עד כאן מצות כוונה מכאן ואילך מצות קריאה רבי יאשיה אומר עד כאן מצות קריאה מכאן ואילך מצות כוונה,מ"ש מכאן ואילך מצות קריאה דכתיב לדבר בם הכא נמי הא כתיב ודברת בם,ה"ק עד כאן מצות כוונה וקריאה מכאן ואילך קריאה בלא כוונה,ומאי שנא עד כאן מצות כוונה וקריאה דכתיב על לבבך ודברת בם התם נמי הא כתיב על לבבכם לדבר בם,ההוא מבעי ליה לכדרבי יצחק דאמר (דברים יא, יח) ושמתם את דברי אלה צריכה שתהא שימה כנגד הלב:,אמר מר ר' יאשיה אומר עד כאן מצות קריאה מכאן ואילך מצות כוונה מ"ש מכאן ואילך מצות כוונה משום דכתיב על לבבכם הכא נמי הא כתיב על לבבך,ה"ק עד כאן מצות קריאה וכוונה מכאן ואילך כוונה בלא קריאה,ומ"ש עד כאן מצות קריאה וכוונה דכתיב על לבבך ודברת בם התם נמי הא כתיב על לבבכם לדבר בם,ההוא בדברי תורה כתיב וה"ק רחמנא אגמירו בנייכו תורה כי היכי דליגרסו בהו:,ת"ר (דברים ו, ד) שמע ישראל ה' אלהינו ה' אחד עד כאן צריכה כוונת הלב דברי ר"מ אמר רבא הלכה כר"מ,תניא סומכוס אומר כל המאריך באחד מאריכין לו ימיו ושנותיו אמר רב אחא בר יעקב ובדלי"ת אמר רב אשי ובלבד שלא יחטוף בחי"ת,ר' ירמיה הוה יתיב קמיה דר' [חייא בר אבא] חזייה דהוה מאריך טובא א"ל כיון דאמליכתיה למעלה ולמטה ולארבע רוחות השמים תו לא צריכת:,אמר רב נתן בר מר עוקבא אמר רב יהודה על לבבך בעמידה על לבבך סלקא דעתך אלא אימא עד על לבבך בעמידה מכאן ואילך לא ורבי יוחנן אמר כל הפרשה כולה בעמידה,ואזדא ר' יוחנן לטעמיה דאמר רבה בר בר חנה א"ר יוחנן הלכה כר' אחא שאמר משום ר' יהודה:,ת"ר שמע ישראל ה' אלהינו ה' אחד זו ק"ש של ר' יהודה הנשיא א"ל רב לר' חייא לא חזינא ליה לרבי דמקבל עליה מלכות שמים אמר ליה בר פחתי בשעה שמעביר ידיו על פניו מקבל עליו עול מלכות שמים,חוזר וגומרה או אינו חוזר וגומרה בר קפרא אומר אינו חוזר וגומרה רבי שמעון ברבי אומר חוזר וגומרה א"ל בר קפרא לר"ש ברבי בשלמא לדידי דאמינא אינו חוזר וגומרה היינו דמהדר רבי אשמעתא דאית בה יציאת מצרים אלא לדידך דאמרת חוזר וגומרה למה ליה לאהדורי,כדי להזכיר יציאת מצרים בזמנה,אמר ר' אילא בריה דרב שמואל בר מרתא משמיה דרב אמר שמע ישראל ה' אלהינו ה' אחד ונאנס בשינה יצא אמר ליה רב נחמן לדרו עבדיה בפסוקא קמא צערן טפי לא תצערן אמר ליה רב יוסף לרב יוסף בריה דרבה אבוך היכי הוה עביד אמר ליה בפסוקא קמא הוה קא מצער נפשיה טפי לא הוה מצער נפשיה,אמר רב יוסף פרקדן לא יקרא קריאת שמע מקרא הוא דלא ליקרי הא מיגנא שפיר דמי והא רבי יהושע בן לוי לייט אמאן דגני אפרקיד,אמרי מיגנא כי מצלי שפיר דמי מקרא אע"ג דמצלי נמי אסור,והא ר' יוחנן מצלי וקרי,שאני ר' יוחנן דבעל בשר הוה:,ובפרקים שואל וכו',משיב מחמת מאי אילימא מפני הכבוד השתא משאל שאיל אהדורי מבעיא אלא שואל מפני הכבוד ומשיב שלום לכל אדם אימא סיפא ובאמצע שואל מפני היראה ומשיב,משיב מחמת מאי אילימא מפני היראה השתא משאל שאיל אהדורי מבעיא אלא מפני הכבוד היינו דר"י דתנן ר"י אומר באמצע שואל מפני היראה ומשיב מפני הכבוד ובפרקים שואל מפני הכבוד ומשיב שלום לכל אדם,חסורי מחסרא והכי קתני בפרקים שואל מפני הכבוד ואין צריך לומר שהוא משיב ובאמצע שואל מפני היראה ואין צריך לומר שהוא משיב דברי ר"מ רבי יהודה אומר באמצע שואל מפני היראה ומשיב מפני הכבוד 13b. b“Which I command you this day, will be upon your heart.”Surely the word these, does not come to limit the mitzva of intent. On the contrary, bfrom here you derive that the entire portion requires intent. /b, bRabba bar bar Ḥana saidthat bRabbi Yoḥa said: The ihalakhais in accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Akiva;the entire portion requires intent., bSome teach this ihalakhastated by Rabbi Yoḥa bwith regard to that which was taughtin a iTosefta /i, where there is a tannaitic dispute. The first itannaholds: bOne who recites iShemamust focus his heartfor the entire iShema /i. bRabbi Aḥa says in the name of Rabbi Yehuda: Once he focused his heart for the first paragraphalone, bhe no longer requiresintent. With regard to this iTosefta /i, bRabba bar bar Ḥana saidthat bRabbi Yoḥa said: The ihalakhais in accordance with Rabbi Aḥa who said in the name of Rabbi Yehuda.While this differs from the previous version in form, it arrives at the same conclusion., bIt was taughtin banother ibaraitaon this subject, which cited different opinions. From: bAnd they will be,recited in iShema /i, it is derived that bit may not be recited out of order.From: bUpon your heart, Rav Zutra says: To this point,there is bthe mitzva of intent; from here on,beginning with the second paragraph, there is only bthe mitzva of recitation. Rabbi Yoshiya saysthat it means the opposite: bTo this point,there is bthe mitzva of recitation; from here onthere is only bthe mitzva of intent. /b,At first the Gemara understands that Rav Zutra required recitation only in the second paragraph, while in the first paragraph only intent was required. Therefore, the Gemara asks: bWhat is different,that bfrom here on,beginning with the second paragraph, there is bthe mitzva of recitation?Is it because bit is written:“And you shall teach them to your children, bto speak of them”(Deuteronomy 11:19)? This is no proof, as bhere too,in the first paragraph bit is written: “And you shall speak of them.”The mitzva of recitation applies to the first paragraph as well.,Rather, bhe is saying as follows: To this pointthere is bthe mitzva ofboth bintent and recitation,but bfrom here on,there is only the mitzva of brecitation without intent. /b,Again the Gemara asks: According to Rav Zutra, bwhat is different,that bto this point,in the first paragraph, there is bthe mitzva ofboth bintent and recitationbecause there are two requirements in the first paragraph, bas it is written: “Upon your heart…and you shall speak of them”? There, too,in the second paragraph bit is also written: “And you shall place these words upon your heart…to speak of them,”indicating that intent is also required in that paragraph.,The Gemara responds: bThat verse is necessary to derivethat which was taught by bRabbi Yitzḥak, who said: “And you shall place these words”refers literally to the paragraphs of iShemafound in the phylacteries. The verse teaches bthat the placementof the phylacteries of the arm bmust be opposite the heart. /b,The Gemara now attempts to clarify the second opinion in the ibaraita /i. bThe Master said, Rabbi Yoshiya says: To this pointat the end of the first paragraph, there is bthe mitzva of recitation; from here onthere is bthe mitzva of intent.The Gemara asks: bWhat is different,that bfrom here on,beginning with the second paragraph, there is bthe mitzva of intent?Is it bbecause it is writtenin the second paragraph: “And you shall place these words bupon your heart”?That is no proof, as bhere too,in the first paragraph bit is written: “Upon your heart.” /b,The Gemara responds that bhe is saying as follows: To this point,there is bthe mitzva ofboth brecitation and intent,but bfrom here on,there is only the mitzva of bintent without recitation. /b,The Gemara continues: bAnd what is different,that bto this point,in the first paragraph, there is bthe mitzva of recitation and intentbecause there are two requirements, bas it is written: Upon your heartas well as: bAnd you shall speak of them? There, too,with regard to the second paragraph bisn’t it written:And you shall place these words bupon your heart /b…and you shall teach them to your children, bto speak of them? /b,Rabbi Yoshiya responded: bThatverse refers to bTorah studyin general, not to the recitation of iShemain particular. bAnd the Torah says the following: Teach your children Torah, that they will be well-versed in them. /b, bThe Sages taughtin another ibaraitawith regard to one who recites iShemaand utters the verse, b“Hear, Israel, the Lord is our God, the Lord is One.” Intent of the heart isonly brequired to this point.This is bthe statement of Rabbi Meir. Rava said:In this matter, bthe ihalakhais in accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Meir. /b, bIt was taughtin a ibaraita /i, bSumakhos says: One who extendshis intonation bofthe word bOne [ ieḥad /i]while reciting iShema /i, is rewarded that bhis days and years are extended. Rav Aḥa bar Ya’akov said:This is only true if he extends btheletter idalet /i,so the word ieḥadis sounded in its entirety. bRav Ashi said:This is bonly so long as one does notpronounce the letter iḥethurriedly. /b,The Gemara relates that bRabbi Yirmeya was seated before Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba. He saw that he was greatly extendinghis pronunciation of ieḥad /i. bHe said to him: Once you have crowned Himin your thoughts bovereverything babove,in Heaven, bbelow,on earth, band in the four corners of the heavens, you need notextend any bfurther. /b, bRav Natan bar Mar Ukva saidthat bRav Yehuda said:One must recite bupon your heart, while standingin one place. The Gemara is perplexed: bDoes it enter your mindthat bupon your heartalone must be recited while standing in one place? What distinguishes that phrase from the rest of iShema /i? bRather, say:One must recite buntil upon your heartwhile bstandingin one place. bFrom here on,one need bnotstand in one place. bRabbi Yoḥa said:One must recite bthe entirefirst bportionwhile bstandingin one place.,The Gemara notes: bRabbi Yoḥais consistent band follows his reasoningexpressed elsewhere, as bRabba bar bar Ḥana saidthat bRabbi Yoḥa said: The ihalakhais in accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Aḥa who said in the name of Rabbi Yehuda;one is required to recite the entire first paragraph of iShemawith intent., bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: The single verse, b“Hear, Israel, the Lord is our God, the Lord is One”; this is Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi’s recitation of iShema /i.The Gemara relates: bRav said tohis uncle, bRabbi Ḥiyya: I did not see RabbiYehuda HaNasi baccept the kingship of Heaven upon himself,meaning that he did not see him recite iShema /i. Rabbi Ḥiyya bsaid to him: Son of noblemen [ ibar paḥtei/b], bwhenRabbi Yehuda HaNasi bpassed his hands over his facein the study hall in the middle of his lesson, bhe accepted the yoke of the kingdom of Heaven upon himself,as his iShemawas comprised of a single verse.,Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi’s students and members of his household disputed: bDoes he complete iShema blater or does he not complete it later? Bar Kappara says: He does not complete it later. Rabbi Shimon, son of RabbiYehuda HaNasi, bsays: He completes it later. Bar Kappara said to Rabbi Shimon, son of RabbiYehuda HaNasi: bGranted, according to myposition, bthat I say thatRabbi Yehuda HaNasi bdoes not complete iShema blater, that is whywhen he taught, bRabbiYehuda HaNasi would specifically bseek a topic that included the exodus from Egypt,as by so doing he fulfills the mitzva to remember the Exodus; a mitzva that others fulfill in their recitation of the last paragraph of iShema /i. bBut according to you, who says that he completeshis recitation of iShema blater, why,when he teaches, bwouldhe specifically bseeka topic that included the exodus from Egypt?,Rabbi Shimon responded: Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi did so bin order to mention the exodus from Egypt at itsappointed btime,during the time of the recitation of iShema /i.,Based on this ihalakha /i, bRabbi Ila, son of Rav Shmuel bar Marta, said in the name of Rav: One who recitedthe verse, b“Hear, Israel, the Lord is our God, the Lord is One,” and wasimmediately bovercome by sleep, fulfilledhis obligation to recite iShema /i. Similarly, bRav Naḥman said to his slave, Daru:If you see that I have fallen asleep, bbother meto recite bthe first verse, do not bother meto recite any bmorethan that. Similarly, bRav Yosef said to Rav Yosef, son of Rabba: What would your father do?Rav Yosef, son of Rabba, bsaid to him: He would exert himselfnot to fall asleep in order to recite bthe first verse, he would not exert himselfto recite any bmorethan that., bRav Yosef said: One who is lying [ iperakdan /i] on his back may not recite iShema /i,for lying that way is unbecoming. The Gemara asks: Is that to say that bone may not recite iShemain this position, bbut tosleep blyingin that position bis permissible? Didn’t Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi curse one whosleeps blying on his back? /b,The Gemara answers: bIf onelies on his back bwhile leaningslightly to the side, bit is permissible.Nonetheless, bto recite iShemain this position, beven though he is leaning, is prohibited. /b,The Gemara asks: bWouldn’t Rabbi Yoḥalie on his back, bleanslightly band recite iShema /i?,The Gemara responds: The case of bRabbi Yoḥa is different,because bhe was corpulentand it was difficult for him to read any other way.,The mishna cited Rabbi Meir’s statement: bAt thebreaks between bparagraphs, one may greetan individual due to the respect that he is obligated to show him, and may respond. And in the middle of each paragraph, one may greet an individual due to the fear that the individual may harm him if he fails do so, and may respond.,About this, the Gemara asks: He may brespond due to whatcircumstance? bIf you saythat one may respond bdue to respect; now thatwe learned that bone may greetanother due to respect, bis it necessaryto say that bone may responddue to respect? bRather,it must be explained as follows: bOne may greet due to respect and respond with a greeting to any person.But if that is the case, bsay the latter clauseof the mishna: bIn the middleof each paragraph bone may greet due to fear and returnanother’s greeting due to fear.,Here too, it must be clarified: He may brespond due to whatcircumstance? bIf you saythat one may respond bdue to fear; now thatwe have learned that bone may greetanother due to fear, bis it necessaryto say that bone may responddue to fear? bRather,it must mean that one may respond to another’s greeting even bdue to honor.If so, bthat isidentical to the opinion of bRabbi Yehuda, as we learnedin the mishna: bIn the middleof each paragraph, bone may greetanother bdue to fear and respond due to respect. At thebreaks between bparagraphs, one may greetanother bdue to respect and respond with a greeting to any person.If so, what is the dispute between them?,The Gemara says: The mishna bis incomplete;it is missing an important element, band it teaches the following: At thebreaks between the bparagraphs, one may greet due to respect, and, needless to say, he may responddue to respect. bIn the middleof each paragraph bone may greet due to fear, and, needless to say, he may responddue to fear. This is the bstatement of Rabbi Meir. Rabbi Yehuda says: In the middleof each paragraph bone may greet due to fear and respond due to respect. /b
23. Babylonian Talmud, Gittin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

7a. למימרינהו בניחותא כי היכי דליקבלו מיניה אמר ר' אשי אנא לא שמיעא לי הא דרבה בר בר חנה וקיימתיה מסברא,א"ר אבהו לעולם אל יטיל אדם אימה יתירה בתוך ביתו שהרי אדם גדול הטיל אימה יתירה בתוך ביתו והאכילוהו דבר גדול,ומנו ר' חנינא בן גמליאל האכילוהו ס"ד השתא בהמתן של צדיקים אין הקב"ה מביא תקלה על ידם צדיקים עצמן לא כ"ש,אלא בקשו להאכילו דבר גדול ומאי ניהו אבר מן החי,שלח ליה מר עוקבא לר' אלעזר בני אדם העומדים עלי ובידי למסרם למלכות מהו,שרטט וכתב ליה (תהלים לט, ב) אמרתי אשמרה דרכי מחטוא בלשוני אשמרה לפי מחסום בעוד רשע לנגדי אע"פ שרשע לנגדי אשמרה לפי מחסום,שלח ליה קא מצערי לי טובא ולא מצינא דאיקום בהו שלח ליה (תהלים לז, ז) דום לה' והתחולל לו דום לה' והוא יפילם לך חללים חללים השכם והערב עליהן לבהמ"ד והן כלין מאיליהן הדבר יצא מפי ר"א ונתנוהו לגניבא בקולר,שלחו ליה למר עוקבא זמרא מנא לן דאסיר שרטט וכתב להו (הושע ט, א) אל תשמח ישראל אל גיל בעמים,ולישלח להו מהכא (ישעיהו כד, ט) בשיר לא ישתו יין ימר שכר לשותיו אי מההוא ה"א ה"מ זמרא דמנא אבל דפומא שרי קמ"ל,א"ל רב הונא בר נתן לרב אשי מאי דכתיב (יהושע טו, כב) קינה ודימונה ועדעדה א"ל מתוותא דארץ ישראל קחשיב,א"ל אטו אנא לא ידענא דמתוותא דא"י קא חשיב אלא רב גביהא מארגיזא אמר בה טעמא כל שיש לו קנאה על חבירו ודומם שוכן עדי עד עושה לו דין,א"ל אלא מעתה (יהושע טו, לא) צקלג ומדמנה וסנסנה הכי נמ א"ל אי הוה רב גביהא מבי ארגיזא הכא הוה אמר בה טעמא רב אחא מבי חוזאה אמר בה הכי כל מי שיש לו צעקת לגימא על חבירו ודומם שוכן בסנה עושה לו דין,א"ל ריש גלותא לרב הונא כלילא מנא לן דאסור א"ל מדרבנן דתנן בפולמוס של אספסיינוס גזרו על עטרות חתנים ועל האירוס,אדהכי קם רב הונא לאפנויי א"ל רב חסדא קרא כתיב (יחזקאל כא, ג) כה אמר ה' אלהים הסר המצנפת והרם העטרה זאת לא זאת השפלה הגבה והגבוה השפיל,וכי מה ענין מצנפת אצל עטרה אלא לומר לך בזמן שמצנפת בראש כ"ג עטרה בראש כל אדם נסתלקה מצנפת מראש כ"ג נסתלקה עטרה מראש כל אדם,אדהכי אתא רב הונא אשכחינהו דהוי יתבי א"ל האלהים מדרבנן אלא חסדא שמך וחסדאין מילך,רבינא אשכחיה למר בר רב אשי דהוה גדיל כלילא לברתיה א"ל לא סבר לה מר הסר המצנפת והרם העטרה א"ל דומיא דכ"ג בגברי אבל בנשי לא,מאי זאת לא זאת דרש ר' עוירא זימנין א"ל משמיה דרב אמי וזימנין א"ל משמיה דרב אסי בשעה שאמר הקב"ה לישראל הסר המצנפת והרם העטרה אמרו מלאכי השרת לפני הקב"ה רבש"ע זאת להן לישראל שהקדימו לפניך בסיני נעשה לנשמע,אמר להן לא זאת להן לישראל שהשפילו את הגבוה והגביהו את השפל והעמידו צלם בהיכל,דרש רב עוירא זימנין א"ל משמיה דרב אמי וזימנין אמר לה משמיה דרב אסי מאי דכתיב (נחום א, יב) כה אמר ה' אם שלמים וכן רבים וכן נגוזו ועבר וגו' אם רואה אדם שמזונותיו מצומצמין יעשה מהן צדקה וכ"ש כשהן מרובין,מאי וכן נגוזו ועבר תנא דבי ר' ישמעאל כל הגוזז מנכסיו ועושה מהן צדקה ניצל מדינה של גיהנם משל לשתי רחילות שהיו עוברות במים אחת גזוזה ואחת אינה גזוזה גזוזה עברה ושאינה גזוזה לא עברה 7a. bsay them with calmness so that they will acceptinstruction bfrom him. Rav Ashi said: I did not hear thisstatement bof Rabba bar bar Ḥana, andyet bI fulfilled it throughmy own breasoning. /b, bRabbi Abbahu says: A person should never impose excessive fear uponthe members of bhis household, as a great man imposed excessive fear upon his household and they fed him somethingthat carried ba greatprohibition.,The Gemara asks: bAnd who wasthis individual? The Gemara answers: bRabbi Ḥanina ben Gamliel.The Gemara asks: bWould it enter your mindto say that btheyactually bfed himforbidden food? bNowconsider that bthe Holy One, Blessed be He, does not cause an errorto be performed bthrough the animals of the righteous.With regard to bthe righteous themselvesis it bnot all the more so?How can you say that Rabbi Ḥanina ben Gamliel ate forbidden food?, bRather,it means that bthey sought to feed him somethingthat carried ba greatprohibition. bAnd what was this? A limb from a livinganimal. One day the animal they brought him was missing a limb, and as the members of his household were very fearful they severed a limb from a living animal to make his meal appear whole, and he almost ate it.,§ After mentioning letters sent from Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia and the issue of scoring parchment, the Gemara relates: bMar Ukva,the Exilarch in Babylonia, bsenta letter bto Rabbi Elazar,who was in Eretz Yisrael, in which the following was written: With regard to bpeople who stand overand torment bme, and I have the power to deliver them intothe hands of bthe government, what isthe ihalakha /i? May I hand them over to the authorities or not?,Rabbi Elazar bscoredparchment band wrote to himthe following verse: b“I said: I will take heed to my ways, that I do not sin with my tongue; I will keep a curb upon my mouth, while the wicked is before me”(Psalms 39:2). Rabbi Elazar quoted this verse to allude to the following response: bEven though “the wicked is before me,” “I will keep a curb upon my mouth.” /b,Mar Ukva bsentword to bhimagain: bThey are tormenting me a great deal and I cannot stand them.Rabbi Elazar bsent to himin response: b“Resign yourself to the Lord, and wait patiently [ ihitḥolel /i] for Him;do not fret yourself because of he who prospers in his way, because of the man who brings wicked devices to pass” (Psalms 37:7). This verse indicates: b“Resign yourself to the Lord,”i.e., do not do anything, band He will strike them down as many corpses [ iḥalalim /i]. Rise before and stay later than themin your visits bto the study hall, and they will disappear on their own.The Gemara relates: bThe matter emerged from the mouth of Rabbi Elazar, and Geneiva,Mar Ukva’s tormentor, bwas placed in a neck iron [ ikolar /i],as one sentenced by the government.,The Gemara further relates: bThey sentthe following question bto Mar Ukva: From where do wederive that bsong is forbiddenin the present, following the destruction of the Temple? bHe scoredparchment band wrote to them: “Rejoice not, O Israel, to exultation, like the peoples”(Hosea 9:1).,The Gemara asks: bAnd let him send thema response bfrom here: “They do not drink wine with a song; strong drink is bitter to them who drink it”(Isaiah 24:9), indicating that song is no longer allowed. The Gemara answers: bIfhe had answered bbyciting bthatverse, bI would saythat bthis matterapplies only to binstrumental music,in accordance with the previous verse: “The mirth of tabrets ceases, the noise of them who rejoice ends, the joy of the harp ceases” (Isaiah 24:8); bhowever, vocalsong is bpermitted.Therefore, Mar Ukva bteaches usthat all types of song are forbidden.,In connection to the incident in which Mar Ukva was instructed not to take revenge against his tormentors, the Gemara relates similar discussions. bRav Huna bar Natan said to Rav Ashi: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “Kina, and Dimonah, and Adadah”(Joshua 15:22)? bHe said to him:The verse bis listing the cities of Eretz Yisrael. /b,Rav Huna bsaid to him: Is that to saythat you think bI don’t know thatthe verse bis listing the cities of Eretz Yisrael?This is certainly the straightforward meaning of the verse. bRather, Rav Geviha from Argiza said an explanation ofthis verse, suggesting that it is an allusion to the following idea: bAnyone who harbors jealousy [ ikina /i] toward another, andyet remains bsilent [ idomem /i], He who dwells for all eternity [ iadei ad /i] performs judgment on his behalf. /b,Rav Ashi bsaid to him: If that is so,you should balsoexpound the verse: b“Ziklag, and Madmannah, and Sansannah”(Joshua 15:31), in a similar manner. Rav Huna bsaid to him: If Rav Geviha from Bei Argiza was here, he would say an explanation for it.The Gemara relates: bRav Aḥa from Bei Ḥoza’a said this about thatverse: bAnyone who has a complaint against another over a sip [ itza’akat legima /i],i.e., he has a claim that someone did not give him food, bandremains bsilent [ idomem /i], the One who dwells in theburning bbush [ iseneh /i] performs judgment on his behalf. /b, bThe Exilarch said to Rav Huna: From where do wederive that it is bprohibitedto place ba garlandon a groom’s head? Rav Huna bsaid to him:It is prohibited bby rabbinic law, as we learnedin a mishna ( iSota49a): bIn the war [ ipulmus /i] of Vespasian they decreed upon the garlands of bridegrooms,meaning that bridegrooms may no longer wear garlands, bandthey decreed bupon the drum [ iirus /i],meaning they also banned the playing of drums., bIn the meantime Rav Huna stood to relieve himself,and after he left, bRav Ḥisda,who had not spoken up to that point out of reverence for his teacher, Rav Huna, bsaid tothe Exilarch: bA verse is writtenwith regard to this matter: b“Thus says the Lord God: The mitre shall be removed, and the garland taken off; this shall no more be the same; that which is low shall be exalted, and that which is high abased”(Ezekiel 21:31)., bBut in what way is a mitre connected to a garland?These two are not placed on the head of the same type of person. bRather,this verse serves bto say to you: When the mitre isfound bon the head of the High Priest,i.e., when the Temple is standing, then ba garlandmay be found bon the head of every manat his wedding. However, once bthe mitre is removed from the head of the High Priest, the garland is removed from the head of every man. /b, bIn the meantime, Rav Huna cameback and bhe found them sittingand discussing this matter. bHe said toRav Ḥisda in the form of an oath: bBy God!This prohibition applies bby rabbinic law. However, your name is Ḥisda and your words find favor [ iḥisda’in /i],as you have discovered a fine source for this ihalakha /i.,The Gemara relates: bRavina found Mar bar Rav Ashi braiding a garland for his daughterupon her marriage. bHe said to him: Doesn’t the Master holdin accordance with the aforementioned ihalakhaderived from the verse: b“The mitre shall be removed and the garland taken off”? He said to him:This prohibition was stated in reference to one who is bsimilar to a High Priest,and is only applicable bwith regard to men. However, with regard to women,the Sages did bnotissue this decree.,With regard to the above verse, the Gemara asks: bWhatis the meaning of the expression: b“This shall no more be the same”? Rabbi Avira interpretedthis verse bhomiletically. Sometimes he would say it in the name of Rav Ami, and sometimes he would say it in the name of Rav Asi: When the Holy One, Blessed be He, said to the Jewish peopleat the time of the destruction of the Temple: b“Remove the mitre and take off the garland,” the ministering angels said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe,is bthisthe appropriate treatment bfor the Jewish people, who,at the giving of the Torah bat Sinai, precededthe statement of: b“We will do” tothe statement: b“We will hear”(Exodus 22:7)?,God bsaid to them:Is bthis notappropriate bfor the Jewish people, who lowered the exalted and who exalted the lowly,i.e., they did not serve God, bandinstead worshiped idols when bthey established an idol in the Sanctuary?This response is alluded to in the verse: “This shall no more be the same.”,The Gemara cites another statement by the same Sages. bRav Avira interpreteda verse bhomiletically. Sometimes he would say it in the name of Rav Ami, and sometimes he would say it in the name of Rav Asi: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “Thus says the Lord: Though they be in full strength [ ishelemim /i], and likewise many, even so shall they be cut down, and he shall pass away;and though I have afflicted you, I will afflict you no more” (Nahum 1:12). This means: bIf a person sees that his sustece is limited he should use it for charity, and all the more so when it is plentiful.In other words, if his livelihood has finished [ inishlam /i] he should perform charity, and he should certainly act in this manner if his means are plentiful.,The Gemara asks: bWhatis the meaning of the phrase: b“Even so shall they be cut down [ inagozzu /i], and he shall pass away”?A Sage from bthe school of Rabbi Yishmael taught: Anyone who shears off [ igozez /i]some bof his property and performs charity with it will be saved from the judgment of Gehenna.The Gemara offers ba parablethat compares this case bto two sheep that were passing through the water. Oneof them was bshorn andthe other bonewas bunshorn.The bshornsheep bcrossedto the other side, bbut the unshornsheep bdid not cross,as its wool absorbed the water and it drowned. Similarly, one who shears off his property and gives it as charity will not descend to Gehenna.
24. Babylonian Talmud, Megillah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

25a. יברכוך טובים הרי זו דרך המינות על קן צפור יגיעו רחמיך ועל טוב יזכר שמך מודים מודים משתקין אותו,המכנה בעריות משתקין אותו האומר (ויקרא יח, כא) ומזרעך לא תתן להעביר למולך לא תתן לאעברא בארמיותא משתקין אותו בנזיפה:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big בשלמא מודים מודים דמיחזי כשתי רשויות ועל טוב יזכר שמך נמי דמשמע על טוב אין ועל רע לא ותנן חייב אדם לברך על הרעה כשם שהוא מברך על הטובה אלא על קן צפור יגיעו רחמיך מ"ט,פליגי בה תרי אמוראי במערבא ר' יוסי בר אבין ור' יוסי בר זבידא חד אמר מפני שמטיל קנאה במעשה בראשית וחד אמר מפני שעושה מדותיו של הקב"ה רחמים ואינן אלא גזירות,ההוא דנחית קמיה דרבה אמר אתה חסת על קן צפור אתה חוס ורחם עלינו (אתה חסת על אותו ואת בנו אתה חוס ורחם עלינו) אמר רבה כמה ידע האי מרבנן לרצויי למריה א"ל אביי והא משתקין אותו תנן,ורבה לחדודי לאביי הוא דבעא,ההוא דנחית קמיה דרבי חנינא אמר האל הגדול הגבור והנורא האדיר והחזק והאמיץ,אמר ליה סיימתינהו לשבחיה דמרך השתא הני תלתא אי לאו דכתבינהו משה באורייתא ואתו כנסת הגדולה ותקנינהו אנן לא אמרינן להו ואת אמרת כולי האי משל לאדם שהיו לו אלף אלפי אלפים דינרי זהב והיו מקלסין אותו (באלף) דינרי כסף לא גנאי הוא לו,אמר רבי חנינא הכל בידי שמים חוץ מיראת שמים שנאמר (דברים י, יב) ועתה ישראל מה ה' אלהיך שואל מעמך כי אם ליראה,מכלל דיראה מילתא זוטרתי היא אין לגבי משה רבינו מילתא זוטרתי היא משל לאדם שמבקשין הימנו כלי גדול ויש לו דומה עליו ככלי קטן קטן ואין לו דומה עליו ככלי גדול,אמר רבי זירא האומר שמע שמע כאומר מודים מודים דמי,מיתיבי הקורא את שמע וכופלה הרי זה מגונה מגונה הוא דהוי שתוקי לא משתקינן ליה לא קשיא הא דאמר מילתא מילתא ותני לה הא דאמר פסוקא פסוקא ותני לה,א"ל רב פפא לרבא ודלמא מעיקרא לא כיון דעתיה והשתא כיון דעתיה אמר ליה חברותא כלפי שמיא אי לא מכוין דעתיה מחינא ליה בארזפתא דנפחא עד דמכוין דעתיה:,המכנה בעריות משתקין אותו: תנא רב יוסף קלון אביו וקלון אמו:,האומר ומזרעך לא תתן להעביר וכו': תנא דבי רבי ישמעאל בישראל הבא על הכותית והוליד ממנה בן לע"ז הכתוב מדבר:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big מעשה ראובן נקרא ולא מתרגם מעשה תמר נקרא ומתרגם מעשה עגל הראשון נקרא ומתרגם והשני נקרא ולא מתרגם ברכת כהנים מעשה דוד ואמנון נקראין ולא מתרגמין,אין מפטירין במרכבה ורבי יהודה מתיר ר' אליעזר אומר אין מפטירין (יחזקאל טז, ב) בהודע את ירושלם:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big תנו רבנן יש נקרין ומתרגמין ויש נקרין ולא מתרגמין ויש לא נקרין ולא מתרגמין אלו נקרין ומתרגמין: בל"ת עק"ן נשפ"ה סימן:,מעשה בראשית נקרא ומתרגם פשיטא מהו דתימא אתו לשיולי מה למעלה מה למטה 25a. bMay the good bless You, this is a path of heresy,as heretics divide the world into two domains, good and evil. If one says the following in his prayers: Just as bYour mercy is extended to a bird’s nest,as You have commanded us to send away the mother before taking her chicks or eggs (see Deuteronomy 22:6–7), so too extend Your mercy to us; bor: May Your name be mentioned with the good;or: bWe give thanks, we give thanks,twice, he is suspected of heretical beliefs and they bsilence him. /b,If bone modifiesthe text while reading the laws of bforbidden sexual relations,i.e., he introduces euphemisms out of a sense of propriety, bthey silence him.Similarly, if bone sayswhile translating the verse: b“And you shall not give any of your seed to set them apart to Molekh”(Leviticus 18:21): And byou shall not giveany of your seed bto impregnate an Aramean woman, he is silenced with rebuke. /b, strongGEMARA: /strong The mishna cites three instances where the communal prayer leader is silenced. The Gemara clarifies: bGranted,they silence one who repeats: bWe give thanks, we give thanks, as it appears likehe is acknowledging and praying to btwo authorities. And,granted, bthey alsosilence one who says: bMay Your name be mentioned with the good,as this formulation bindicatesone is thanking God only bfor the good and not for the bad, and we learnedin a mishna ( iBerakhot54a): bOne is obligated to blessGod bfor the bad just as he blessesHim bfor the good. However,in the case of one who recites: Just as bYour mercy is extended to a bird’s nest, what is the reasonthat they silence him?, bTwo iamora’imin the West,Eretz Yisrael, bdisagreeabout bthisquestion, bRabbi Yosei bar Avin and Rabbi Yosei bar Zevida. One saidthat this was bbecauseone who says this bengenders jealousy among God’s creations,as it appears as though he is indicating that God favored one creature over all others. bAnd one saidthat saying this is prohibited bbecause one transforms the attributes of the Holy One, Blessed be He, intoexpressions of bmercy, and they are nothing but decreesof the King that must be fulfilled without inquiring into the reasons behind them.,The Gemara relates that ba particularindividual bdescendedbefore the ark as prayer leader bin the presence of Rabba,and bsaidin his prayers: bYou have shown mercy to birds,as expressed through the mitzva to chase away the mother bird before taking eggs from its bnest; have mercy and pity upon us. You have shown mercyto animals, as expressed through the prohibition against slaughtering an animal band its offspringon the same day; bhave mercy and pity upon us. Rabba said: How much does this rabbi know to appeasethe Lord, bhis Master! Abaye said to him: Didn’t we learnin the mishna that bthey silence him? /b,The Gemara explains: bAnd Rabba,too, held in accordance with this mishna but merely acted this way because bhe wanted to hone Abaye’sintellect. Rabba did not make his statement to praise the rabbi, but simply to test his nephew and student, Abaye, and to encourage him to articulate what he knows about the mishna.,With regard to additions to prayers formulated by the Sages, the Gemara relates that ba particularindividual bdescendedbefore the ark as prayer leader bin the presence of Rabbi Ḥanina.He extended his prayer and bsaid: God, the great, the mighty, and the awesome, the powerful, and the strong, and the fearless. /b,When he finished, Rabbi Ḥanina bsaid to him: Have you concludedall of bthe praises of your Master? Even these threepraises bthat we recite:The great, the mighty, and the awesome, bhad Moses our teacher not written them in the Torah(Deuteronomy 10:17), band had the members of the Great Assembly not come and incorporated theminto the iAmidaprayer (see Nehemiah 9:32), bwe would notbe permitted to brecite them. And you went on and recited all of these. It is comparable to a man who possessed many thousands of golden dinars, yet they were praising him forowning ba thousand silverones. bIsn’t that deprecatory toward him?All of the praises one can lavish upon the Lord are nothing but a few silver dinars relative to many thousands of gold dinars. Reciting a litany of praise does not enhance God’s honor.,Tangentially, the Gemara cites an additional statement by Rabbi Ḥanina, concerning principles of faith. bRabbi Ḥanina said: Everything is in the hands of Heaven, except for fear of Heaven.Man has free will to serve God or not, bas it is stated: “And now, Israel, what does the Lord your God ask of you other than to fearthe Lord your God” (Deuteronomy 10:12). The fact that God asks man to fear Him indicates that it is in man’s ability to do so.,The Gemara notes: This proves bby inference that fearof Heaven bis a minor matter,as the verse is formulated as though God is not asking anything significant. Can it in fact be maintained that fear of Heaven is a minor matter? The Gemara responds: bIndeed, for Moses our teacher,fear of Heaven bis a minor matter. It is comparable to one who is asked for a large vessel and he hasone; bit seems to him like a small vesselbecause he owns it. However, one who is asked for just ba smallvessel and he does not have one, bit seems to him like a large vessel.Therefore, Moses could say: What does the Lord your God ask of you other than to fear, because in his eyes it was a minor matter., bRabbi Zeira said: One whorepeats himself while reciting iShemaand bsays: ListenIsrael, blistenIsrael, bis like one who says: We give thanks, we give thanks. /b,The Gemara braises an objection:It was taught in a ibaraita /i: bOne who recites iShemaand repeats it, it is reprehensible.One may infer: bIt is reprehensible,but bthey do not silence him.The Gemara answers: bThisis bnot difficult. Thiscase, where one repeats iShemaand it is reprehensible but they do not silence him, is referring to bone who recites and repeats each individual word.In so doing, he ruins the recitation of iShema /i. However, bthatcase, where Rabbi Zeira holds that they silence one who repeats iShema /i, is referring to bone who recites and repeats an entire verse,as it appears that he is worshipping separate authorities., bRav Pappa said to Ravawith regard to this ihalakha /i: bAnd perhaps initially he did not focus his attentionon the recitation of iShemaand therefore had to repeat it, band now he focused his attention.Rava bsaid to him: Can one havethat degree of bfamiliarity with Heaven,to the extent that he can take his words lightly and say them however he likes? bIf he did not focus his attention, we beat him with a blacksmith’s hammer until he focuses his attention,as conduct of that sort is unacceptable.,We learned in the mishna: If bone modifiesthe text while reading the laws of bforbidden sexual relations, they silence him. Rav Yosef taughtthat this is referring to one who says: bThe shame of his father and the shame of his mother,instead of: “The nakedness of your father and the nakedness of your mother you shall not uncover” (Leviticus 18:7).,We learned in the mishna: If bone says,while translating the verse: b“And you shall not give any of your seed to set them apart to Molekh”(Leviticus 18:21): And you shall not give any of your seed to impregnate an Aramean woman, he is silenced with rebuke. A Sage bfrom the school of Rabbi Yishmael taught:One who translates the verse in this manner maintains that bthe verse speaks of a Jew who has relations with a gentile woman and fathered from her a sonwho will be raised to engage in bidol worship. /b, strongMISHNA: /strong bThe incident of Reuben,about which it says: “And Reuben went and lay with Bilhah, his father’s concubine” (Genesis 35:22), bis readfrom the Torah in public bbut not translated,so that the uneducated not come to denigrate Reuben. bThe incident of Tamar(Genesis, chapter 38) bis readin public bandalso btranslated. The firstreport of the bincident of theGolden bCalf,i.e., the Torah’s account of the incident itself (Exodus 32:1–20), bis read and translated, but the secondnarrative, i.e., Aaron’s report to Moses of what had taken place (Exodus 32:21–24) bis read but not translated.The verses constituting bthe Priestly Benediction(Numbers 6:24–26) band the incident of David and Amnon(II Samuel, chapter 13) are bread, but not translated. /b, bOne may not concludethe Torah reading bwithby reading from the Prophets btheaccount of the Divine bChariot(Ezekiel, chapter 1), so as not to publicize that which was meant to remain hidden. bAnd Rabbi Yehuda permitsit. bRabbi Eliezer says: One may not conclude withsection from the Prophets beginning with: b“Make known to Jerusalemher abominations” (Ezekiel 16:2), because it speaks derogatively of the Jewish people., strongGEMARA: /strong bThe Sages taughtin the iTosefta(3:31): bThere areportions of the Bible that are bread and translated; there areportions that bare read but not translated; and there areportions that bare neither read nor translated. The following are read and translated:The Hebrew acronym ibet /i, ilamed /i, itav /i; iayin /i, ikuf /i, inun /i; inun /i, ishin /i, ipeh /i, iheh /icomprise ba mnemonicfor the sections included in this category, as the Gemara will explain.,The Gemara enumerates the sections indicated by the letters of the mnemonic. The section bof the act of Creation [ ibereshit /i],alluded to by the letter ibet /i, bis read and translated.The Gemara comments: This bis obvious.Why might one think otherwise? The Gemara answers: bLest you saythat if the story of the Creation is read in public people bwill come to askquestions that should not be asked, for instance: bWhat is above and what is below, /b
25. Babylonian Talmud, Rosh Hashanah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

29b. ברכת הלחם של מצה וברכת היין של קידוש היום מהו כיון דחובה הוא מפיק או דלמא ברכה לאו חובה היא,ת"ש דאמר רב אשי כי הוינן בי רב פפי הוה מקדש לן וכי הוה אתי אריסיה מדברא הוה מקדש להו,ת"ר לא יפרוס אדם פרוסה לאורחין אלא אם כן אוכל עמהם אבל פורס הוא לבניו ולבני ביתו כדי לחנכן במצות ובהלל ובמגילה אף על פי שיצא מוציא:, br br big strongהדרן עלך ראוהו בית דין /strong /big br br,מתני׳ big strongיום /strong /big טוב של ר"ה שחל להיות בשבת במקדש היו תוקעין אבל לא במדינה משחרב בהמ"ק התקין רבן יוחנן בן זכאי שיהו תוקעין בכל מקום שיש בו ב"ד אמר רבי אלעזר לא התקין רבן יוחנן בן זכאי אלא ביבנה בלבד אמרו לו אחד יבנה ואחד כל מקום שיש בו בית דין,ועוד זאת היתה ירושלים יתירה על יבנה שכל עיר שהיא רואה ושומעת וקרובה ויכולה לבוא תוקעין וביבנה לא היו תוקעין אלא בב"ד בלבד:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big מנה"מ אמר רבי לוי בר לחמא אמר רבי חמא בר חנינא כתוב אחד אומר (ויקרא כג, כד) שבתון זכרון תרועה וכתוב אחד אומר (במדבר כט, א) יום תרועה יהיה לכם לא קשיא כאן ביו"ט שחל להיות בשבת כאן ביום טוב שחל להיות בחול,אמר רבא אי מדאורייתא היא במקדש היכי תקעינן ועוד הא לאו מלאכה היא דאצטריך קרא למעוטי,דתנא דבי שמואל (במדבר כט, א) כל מלאכת עבודה לא תעשו יצתה תקיעת שופר ורדיית הפת שהיא חכמה ואינה מלאכה,אלא אמר רבא מדאורייתא מישרא שרי ורבנן הוא דגזור ביה כדרבה דאמר רבה הכל חייבין בתקיעת שופר ואין הכל בקיאין בתקיעת שופר גזירה שמא יטלנו בידו וילך אצל הבקי ללמוד ויעבירנו ד' אמות ברה"ר,והיינו טעמא דלולב והיינו טעמא דמגילה:,משחרב בהמ"ק התקין רבי יוחנן בן זכאי כו': תנו רבנן פעם אחת חל ראש השנה להיות בשבת [והיו כל הערים מתכנסין] אמר להם רבן יוחנן בן זכאי לבני בתירה נתקע אמרו לו נדון,אמר להם נתקע ואחר כך נדון לאחר שתקעו אמרו לו נדון אמר להם כבר נשמעה קרן ביבנה ואין משיבין לאחר מעשה:,אמר רבי אלעזר לא התקין רבן יוחנן בן זכאי אלא ביבנה בלבד אמרו לו אחד יבנה ואחד כל מקום שיש בו ב"ד: אמרו לו היינו ת"ק,איכא בינייהו בי דינא דאקראי:,אמרו לו אחד יבנה ואחד כל מקום שיש בו ב"ד: אמר רב הונא 29b. With regard to bthe blessing over breadthat is recited before eating imatza /iat the Passover seder band the blessing over winerecited as part bof the sanctification of the dayof Shabbat or a Festival, bwhat isthe ihalakha /i? The Gemara analyzes the question: Do we say that bsince there is an obligationto recite these blessings due to the mitzva involved, therefore bone can dischargethe obligation for others, even if he himself has already fulfilled his obligation? bOr perhapswe say that bthe blessingitself bis not an obligation,but rather the obligation lies in the eating and drinking, and the blessing is recited over one’s physical enjoyment; therefore, if he already fulfilled his own obligation, he cannot recite the blessing for others, as he derives no pleasure at this time.,The Gemara answers: bComeand bhearan answer to this question from what bRav Ashi said: When we werestudying bin the school of Rav Pappi, he would recite ikiddushfor us, and when his tets would arrive from the field he would recite ikiddush /ionce again bon their behalf.Therefore, it is clear that one may recite ikiddushon behalf of others, including the blessing that is recited over the wine, even if he himself has already fulfilled his own obligation., bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: bOne should not break breadand recite a blessing bfor guests unless he is eating with them,so that he is obligated to recite a blessing for himself. bBut he may breakbread bfor his children and forthe other bmembers of his householdand recite the blessing, bin order to educate them toperform bthe mitzvot,so that they know how to recite a blessing. bAnd with regard to ihalleland the Scrollof Esther, the ihalakhais that beven if healready bfulfilledhis obligation, bhe canstill bdischargethe obligation of others.,, strongMISHNA: /strong With regard to the bFestival day of Rosh HaShana that occurs on Shabbat, in the Temple they would soundthe ishofaras usual. bHowever,they would bnotsound it bin therest of the bcountryoutside the Temple. bAfter the Temple was destroyed, Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai instituted thatthe people bshould soundthe ishofaron Shabbat bin every place where there is a courtof twenty-three judges. bRabbi Elazar said: Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai institutedthis practice bonly in Yavne,where the Great Sanhedrin of seventy-one judges resided in his time, but nowhere else. bThey said to him:He instituted the practice bbothin bYavne andin bany place where there is a court. /b,The mishna adds: bAnd Jerusalemin earlier times bhad this additional superiority over Yavneafter Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai instituted this practice, bforin bany city whoseresidents bcould seeJerusalem band hearthe sounding of the ishofarfrom there, bandwhich bwas nearto Jerusalem bandpeople bcould cometo Jerusalem from there, btheywould bsoundthe ishofarthere as well, as it was considered part of Jerusalem. bBut in Yavne they would soundthe ishofar bonly in the courtitself, not in the surrounding cities., strongGEMARA: /strong The Gemara asks: bFrom whereare bthese matters;from where is it derived that the ishofaris not sounded on Shabbat? bRabbi Levi bar Laḥma saidthat bRabbi Ḥama bar Ḥanina said: One verse says,with regard to Rosh HaShana: b“A solemn rest, a memorial of blasts”(Leviticus 23:24), which indicates that one should merely remember the ishofarwithout actually sounding it. bAnd another verse says: “It is a day of blowing for you”(Numbers 29:1), i.e., a day on which one must actually sound the ishofar /i. This apparent contradiction is bnot difficult: Here,the verse in which the ishofaris only being remembered but not sounded, is referring bto a Festival that occurs on Shabbat; there,the verse in which the ishofaris actually sounded, is referring bto a Festival that occurs on a weekday. /b, bRava said:This explanation is difficult, for bifthe distinction between Shabbat and the rest of the week applies bby Torah law, how does one soundthe ishofaron Shabbat bin the Temple?If it is prohibited to sound the ishofaron Shabbat, it should be prohibited everywhere. bAnd furthermore,there is an additional problem with this explanation: Although the Sages prohibited sounding a ishofarand playing other musical instruments on Shabbat, by Torah law sounding a ishofar bis not a prohibited laboron Shabbat such bthat a verse is necessary to excludeit when Rosh HaShana occurs on Shabbat.,The Gemara cites a proof for this last claim: bAsa Sage bof the school of Shmuel taughtin a ibaraita /i, with regard to the verse that prohibits performing prohibited labor on Festivals: b“Any prohibited labor of work you shall not perform”(Numbers 29:1). This comes bto excludefrom the category of prohibited labors bthe sounding of the ishofarand the removal of breadfrom the oven, each of bwhich is a skill and not a labor,and therefore they are not included in the category of prohibited labor. Apparently, sounding the ishofaris not prohibited by Torah law., bRather, Rava said: By Torah law one is permittedto sound the ishofaron Rosh HaShana even on Shabbat, band it was the Sages who decreedthat bitis prohibited. This is bin accordance withthe opinion of bRabba, as Rabba said: All are obligated to sound the ishofar /ion Rosh HaShana, bbut not all are experts in sounding the ishofar /i.Therefore, the Sages instituted ba decreethat the ishofarshould not be sounded on Shabbat, blest one takethe ishofar bin his hand and go to an expert to learnhow to sound it or to have him sound it for him, banddue to his preoccupation bhemight bcarry it four cubits in the public domain,which is a desecration of Shabbat.,The Gemara comments: bAnd this isalso bthe reason forthe rabbinical decree that bthe palm branch[ilulav/b] may not be taken on Shabbat, band this islikewise bthe reason forthe decree that bthe Megillaof Esther may not be read on Shabbat. The Sages were concerned that one might carry the ilulavor the Megilla four cubits in the public domain to take it to an expert who will teach him the proper manner to perform these mitzvot.,§ The mishna taught: bAfter the Temple was destroyed, Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai instituted thatthe people should sound the ishofareven on Shabbat in every place where there is a court of twenty-three judges. The background to this decree is related in greater detail in a ibaraita /i, as bthe Sages taught: Once Rosh HaShana occurred on Shabbat, and all the cities gatheredat the Great Sanhedrin in Yavne for the Festival prayers. bRabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai said to the sons of Beteira,who were the leading halakhic authorities of the generation: bLet us soundthe ishofar /i, as in the Temple. bThey said to him: Let us discusswhether or not this is permitted., bHe said to them:First blet us soundit, band afterward,when there is time, blet us discussthe matter. bAfter they soundedthe ishofar /i, the sons of Beteira bsaid toRabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai: bLet usnow bdiscussthe issue. bHe said to them: The horn has already been heard in Yavne, and one does not refutea ruling bafter actionhas already been taken. There is no point in discussing the matter, as it would be inappropriate to say that the community acted erroneously after the fact.,§ The mishna further stated that bRabbi Elazar said: Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai institutedthis practice bonly in Yavne. They said to him:He instituted the practice bbothin bYavne andin bany place where there is a court.The Gemara asks: This last statement of the Rabbis: bThey said to him,etc.; bisthe same as the opinion of bthe first itanna /iof the mishna. Why did the mishna repeat this opinion?,The Gemara answers: The practical difference bbetweenthe opinion of the first itannaand the opinion of the Rabbis who issued that last statement is with regard to ba temporary court,i.e., one that is not fixed in a certain place. According to the opinion of the first itanna /i, the ishofaris sounded there as well, whereas according to the opinion of the Rabbis who responded to Rabbi Elazar, the ishofaris sounded only in a place where there is a permanent court, similar to that in Yavne.,§ The mishna taught that bthey said to him:He instituted the practice bbothin bYavne andin bany place where there is a court. Rav Huna said: /b
26. Babylonian Talmud, Shabbat, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

32a. ראשית קראתי אתכם על עסקי ראשית הזהרתי אתכם נשמה שנתתי בכם קרויה נר על עסקי נר הזהרתי אתכם אם אתם מקיימים אותם מוטב ואם לאו הריני נוטל נשמתכם,ומ"ש בשעת לידתן אמר רבא נפל תורא חדד לסכינא אביי אמר תפיש תירוס אמתא בחד מחטרא ליהוי רב חסדא אמר שבקיה לרויא דמנפשיה נפיל מר עוקבא אמר רעיא חגרא ועיזי ריהטן אבב חוטרא מילי ואבי דרי חושבנא רב פפא אמר אבב חנואתא נפישי אחי ומרחמי אבב בזיוני לא אחי ולא מרחמי,וגברי היכא מיבדקי אמר ריש לקיש בשעה שעוברים על הגשר גשר ותו לא אימא כעין גשר רב לא עבר במברא דיתיב ביה עכו"ם אמר דילמא מיפקיד ליה דינא עליה ומתפיסנא בהדיה שמואל לא עבר אלא במברא דאית ביה עכו"ם אמר שטנא בתרי אומי לא שליט,ר' ינאי בדיק ועבר ר' ינאי לטעמיה דאמר לעולם אל יעמוד אדם במקום סכנה לומר שעושין לו נס שמא אין עושים לו נס ואם עושין לו נס מנכין לו מזכיותיו אמר רבי חנין מאי קראה (בראשית לב, יא) קטנתי מכל החסדים ומכל האמת רבי זירא ביומא דשותא לא נפיק לביני דיקלא,אמר ר' יצחק בריה דרב יהודה לעולם יבקש אדם רחמים שלא יחלה שאם יחלה אומרים לו הבא זכות והפטר אמר מר עוקבא מאי קראה (דברים כב, ח) כי יפול הנופל ממנו ממנו להביא ראיה תנא דבי רבי ישמעאל כי יפול הנופל ממנו (ממנו) ראוי זה ליפול מששת ימי בראשית שהרי לא נפל והכתוב קראו נופל אלא שמגלגלין זכות על ידי זכאי וחובה על ידי חייב.,ת"ר מי שחלה ונטה למות אומרים לו התודה שכן כל המומתין מתודין אדם יוצא לשוק יהי דומה בעיניו כמי שנמסר לסרדיוט חש בראשו יהי דומה בעיניו כמי שנתנוהו בקולר עלה למטה ונפל יהי דומה בעיניו כמו שהעלוהו לגרדום לידון שכל העולה לגרדום לידון אם יש לו פרקליטין גדולים ניצול ואם לאו אינו ניצול,ואלו הן פרקליטין של אדם תשובה ומעשים טובים ואפי' תשע מאות ותשעים ותשעה מלמדים עליו חובה ואחד מלמד עליו זכות ניצול שנאמר (איוב לג, כג) אם יש עליו מלאך מליץ אחד מני אלף להגיד לאדם ישרו ויחננו ויאמר פדעהו מרדת שחת וגו': ר' אליעזר בנו של ר' יוסי הגלילי אומר אפילו תשע מאות ותשעים ותשעה באותו מלאך לחובה ואחד לזכות ניצול שנאמר מליץ אחד מני אלף:,תנו רבנן על שלש עבירות נשים מתות יולדות רבי אלעזר אומר נשים מתות ילדות ר' אחא אומר בעון שמכבסות צואת בניהם בשבת וי"א על שקורין לארון הקודש ארנא.,תניא ר' ישמעאל בן אלעזר אומר בעון שני דברים עמי . הארצות מתים על שקורין לארון הקודש ארנא ועל שקורין לבית הכנסת בית עם תניא ר' יוסי אומר שלשה בדקי מיתה נבראו באשה ואמרי לה שלשה דבקי מיתה נדה וחלה והדלקת הנר חדא כר' אלעזר וחדא כרבנן,תניא רשב"ג אומר הלכות הקדש תרומות ומעשרות הן הן גופי תורה 32a. bI called you first,as it is stated: “Israel is the Lord’s hallowed portion, His first fruits of the increase” (Jeremiah 2:3) band I warned you about matters of the first:“of the first of your dough you shall set apart iḥallafor a gift” (Numbers 15:20). bThe soul that I have placed in you is called iner /i:“The spirit of man is the lamp [ iner /i] of the Lord” (Proverbs 20:27), and bI warned you about matters of theShabbat blamp. If you fulfill thesemitzvot, bfine, and if not, then I will take your soul. /b, bAnd,if so, bwhat is different during childbirth?Why does the divine attribute of judgment punish them for dereliction in fulfillment of these mitzvot specifically then? The Gemara cites several folk sayings expressing the concept that when a person is in danger, he is punished for his sins. bRava said:If bthe ox fell, sharpen the knifeto slaughter it. bAbaye said:If bthe maidservant’s insolence abounds, she will be struck by a single blowas punishment for all her sins. So too, when a woman is giving birth and her suffering is great due to Eve’s sin of eating from the Tree of Knowledge, all the punishments for her own sins are added to that suffering. bRav Ḥisda said: Leave the drunk, ashe bfalls on his own.Similarly, the time of birth is a time of danger, and if the Holy One, Blessed be He, does not come to her assistance at that time, that is sufficient to cause her death. bMar Ukva said: The shepherd is crippled, and the goats are running,and he cannot catch them. However, bnext to the gate,he speaks harsh bwords, and inside the penhe settles the baccount.Similarly, as long as a woman is in a healthy state, her sins are in abeyance, and she is not held accountable for them. However, when she is giving birth, which is a time of danger, she is held accountable for her sins and a calculation is made whether or not she is worthy of a miracle. bRav Pappa said: At the entrance to the stores,during a time of prosperity, bbrothers and loved ones abound.When a person is prospering ficially, everyone acts like his brother or friend. However, bat the gate of disgrace,during a time of loss and poverty, he has bno brothers and no loved ones;everyone abandons him.,And the Gemara asks: bAnd whereare bmen examined?When are men vulnerable to judgment and held accountable for their actions? bReish Lakish said: When they are crossing a bridge.The Gemara wonders: Only when they are crossing ba bridge and at no othertime? Rather, bsay:Anything blike a bridge,any place where danger is commonplace. On a similar note, the Gemara relates: bRav would not crossa river bin a ferry in which a gentile sat. He saidto himself: bPerhaps a judgment will be reckoned with him, and I will be caught together with himwhen he is punished. Whereas, bShmuel would only cross in a ferry if there was a gentile in it. He said: Satan does not have dominion over two nations.He settles his accounts with people from each nationality separately., bRabbi Yannai would examinethe ferry band cross.The Gemara comments that bRabbi Yannaiacted bin accordance with his reasoningstated elsewhere, as bhe said: A person should never stand in a place of danger saying that theyon High bwill perform a miracle for him, lestin the end bthey do not perform a miracle for him. And,moreover, even bif they do perform a miracle for him, they will deduct it from his merits. Rabbi Ḥanin said: What is the versethat alludes to this? When Jacob said: b“I am not worthy of all the mercies, and of all the truth,which You have shown unto Your servant” (Genesis 32:11), and he explains: Since You have bestowed upon me so much kindness and truth, my merits have been diminished. Similarly, the Gemara relates that bRabbi Zeira would not go outand walk bamong the palm trees on a day when there was a southern windblowing due to the fear that the trees might fall on him.,In a similar vein, bRav Yitzḥak, son of Rav Yehuda, said: A person should always pray that he will not become ill, as if he becomes ill they say to him: Bringproof of your bvirtue and exempt yourself.It is preferable for a person not to be forced to prove that he merits staying alive, as he might not be able to prove it. bMar Ukva said: What is the versethat alludes to this? As it says: “When you build a new house, then you shall make a parapet for your roof, that you bring not blood upon your house, bif the fallen falls imimenu /i”(Deuteronomy 22:8). He explains: iMimenu /i, from him proof must be brought.When one falls from his previous situation, it is his own responsibility to prove his innocence and emerge unharmed. bThe school of Rabbi Yishmael taught:What is the meaning of the phrase: bIf the fallen falls from it? Thisperson bwas destined to fallfrom that roof bfrom the six days of Creation,it was ingrained into nature. bAs,although bhe did notyet bfall, the verse calls him fallen. Nevertheless,the owner of the house is indicted for this, as bmerit is engendered by means ofthe binnocent and guilt by means ofthe bguilty. /b, bThe Sages taught: One who became ill and tended toward death, they say to him: Confess, as all those executedby the courts bconfess.Even if he is dying of natural causes, it is worthwhile for him to consider his death atonement for his sins. The Sages said: When ba person goes out to the marketplacewhere there are fights and disputes, bhe should consider himself as someone who has been handed over to a soldier [ iseradiyot /i].If bhis head hurt, he should consider it as if they placed him in a chain [ ikolar /i]around his neck. If bhe climbed into bed and fell ill, he should consider himself as if they took him up to the gallows to be judged, aswith regard to banyone who goes up to the gallows to be judged, if he has great advocates [ iperaklitin /i], he is spared, and if not, he is not spared. /b, bAndwith regard to divine judgment, bthese are a person’s advocates: Repentance and good deeds.The Gemara comments: bAnd evenif there are bnine hundred ninety-nine asserting his guilt andonly boneasserting his binnocence, he is spared,as bit is stated: “If there be for him an angel, an advocate, one among a thousand, to vouch for a man’s uprightness; then He is gracious unto him, and says: Deliver him from going down to the pit,I have found a ransom” (Job 33:23–24). bRabbi Eliezer, son of Rabbi Yosei HaGelili, says: Evenif there are bnine hundred ninety-nineportions bwithin that same angel accusinghim, band oneportion asserting bhis innocence, he is spared, as it stated: “An advocate, one among a thousand.”Even when the advocate who asserts his innocence finds only one-tenth of one percent of innocence in this man, even then, he is gracious unto him, and says: Deliver him from going down to the pit, I have found a ransom., bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: bFor three transgressions women die in childbirth [ iyoledot /i]. Rabbi Elazarhas a different version and bsaysthat bwomen diewhen they are byoung [ iyeladot /i].These transgressions are those enumerated in the mishna: The ihalakhotof a menstruating woman, iḥalla /i, and Shabbat lights. bRabbi Aḥa saysthey are punished bfor the sin of laundering their children’s fecesfrom clothing bon Shabbat. And some say: Because they call the Holy Arksimply bark. /b,Similarly, bwe learnedin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Yishmael ben Elazar says: On account of two sins, ignoramuses [ iamei ha /i’ iaretz /i] dieyoung (Rav Ya’akov Emden): bBecause they call the Holy Arksimply bark, and because they call the synagogue the house of the people. It was taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Yosei says: Three cruciblespotentially leading to bdeath were created in the woman, and some say: Three accelerants of death.They are: bMenstruation, iḥalla /i, and lighting the Shabbat lights.The Gemara explains that boneversion, accelerants of death, is bin accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Elazar,who said that women die young. bAndthe other bone,crucibles of death, is bin accordance withthe opinion of bthe Rabbis,who said that women die in childbirth.,Similarly, bit was taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Shimon ben Gamliel says: The ihalakhotof consecrated items, iterumot /i, and tithes are themselvesthe bessence of Torahand are extremely severe
27. Babylonian Talmud, Sotah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

2b. ממשמע שנאמר לא יקום עד באיש איני יודע שהוא אחד מה ת"ל אחד זה בנה אב כל מקום שנאמר עד הרי כאן שנים עד שיפרוט לך הכתוב אחד,ואמר רחמנא תרי לית בה אלא חד (במדבר ה, יג) והיא לא נתפשה אסורה,אלא טעמא דכתיב לא יקום עד אחד באיש הא לאו הכי הוה אמינא עד דסוטה חד הוא ואי אפילו חד ליכא אלא במאי מיתסרא,איצטריך סד"א עד אין בה אין נאמן בה,אין נאמן בה ואלא מאי בעי,עד דאיכא תרי לישתוק קרא מיניה דאתיא דבר דבר מממון ואנא ידענא מידי דהוה אכל עדיות שבתורה,איצטריך סד"א סוטה שאני דרגלים לדבר שהרי קינא לה ונסתרה ליתהימן בה עד אחד,ומי מצית אמרת דאין נאמן בה ושריא והא מדכתיב והיא לא נתפשה מכלל דאסורה,איצטריך סד"א אין נאמן בה עד דאיכא תרי ובתרי נמי היא דלא נתפשה קמ"ל,רבי יהושע אומר מקנא לה על פי שנים וכו' מ"ט דרבי יהושע אמר קרא (במדבר ה, יג) בה בה ולא בקינוי בה ולא בסתירה,ורבי אליעזר אומר בה ולא בקינוי,ואימא בה ולא בסתירה סתירה איתקש לטומאה דכתיב (במדבר ה, יג) ונסתרה והיא נטמאה,קינוי נמי איתקש לטומאה דכתיב (במדבר ה, יד) וקנא את אשתו והיא נטמאה הא מיעט רחמנא בה,ומה ראית מסתברא סתירה עדיפא שכן אוסרתה כטומאה,אדרבה קינוי עדיף שכן עיקר גרם לה,אי לאו סתירה קינוי מי איכא ואי לאו קינוי סתירה מאי אהני,אפ"ה סתירה עדיפא דאתחלתא דטומאה היא,מתני' דלא כי האי תנא דתניא רבי יוסי ברבי יהודה אומר משום ר' אליעזר המקנא לאשתו מקנא ע"פ עד אחד או ע"פ עצמו ומשקה לה על פי שנים השיבו חכמים לדברי רבי יוסי ברבי יהודה אין לדבר סוף,מ"ט דר' יוסי ברבי יהודה אמר קרא בה ולא בסתירה,ואימא בה ולא בקינוי קינוי איתקש לטומאה דכתיב וקנא את אשתו והיא נטמאה,סתירה נמי איתקש לטומאה דכתיב ונסתרה והיא נטמאה ההוא לכמה שיעור סתירה כדי טומאה הוא דאתא,השיבו חכמים לדברי ר' יוסי בר' יהודה אין לדבר סוף מאי ניהו דזמנין דלא קני ואמר קנאי,הא למשנתינו יש לדבר סוף זמנין דלא איסתתר ואמר איסתתר,אמר רב יצחק בר יוסף א"ר יוחנן אף לדברי רבי יוסי בר' יהודה אין לדבר סוף,אף לדברי רבי יוסי בר' יהודה ולא מיבעיא למשנתינו אדרבה למשנתינו איכא עיקר התם ליכא עיקר,אלא אי איתמר הכי איתמר א"ר יצחק בר יוסף א"ר יוחנן לדברי ר' יוסי בר' יהודה אף למשנתינו אין לדבר סוף,א"ר חנינא מסורא לא לימא איניש לאיתתיה בזמן הזה לא תיסתרי בהדי פלוני דילמא קי"ל כרבי יוסי בר' יהודה דאמר קינוי על פי עצמו ומיסתתרא וליכא האידנא מי סוטה למיבדקה וקאסר לה עילויה איסורא דלעולם,אמר ריש לקיש מה לשון קינוי דבר המטיל קנאה בינה לבין אחרים אלמא קסבר קינוי על פי עצמו וכולי עלמא לא ידעי דקני לה ואמרי מאי דקמא דקא בדלה ואתו למיעבד קנאה בהדה,ורב יימר בר ר' שלמיא משמיה דאביי אמר דבר המטיל קנאה בינו לבינה אלמא קסבר קינוי על פי שנים עדים כולי עלמא ידעי דקני לה ואיהו הוא דאתי למיעבד קנאה בהדה 2b. The ibaraitainfers a general principle from this verse by asking: bBy inference from thatwhich bis statedin the verse, even with the omission of the word “one”: b“A witness shall not rise up against a man”(Deuteronomy 19:15), bdo I not know that it isreferring to bonewitness, as the term “rise up [ iyakum /i]” is written in the singular form? bWhatis the meaning when bthe verse statesexplicitly: b“Onewitness,” since it is obviously referring to only one witness? The ibaraitaanswers: bThis established a paradigmthat bevery placewhere the word b“witness [ ied /i]” is statedin the Torah without specifying a number, bthere are twowitnesses bhere, unless the verse specifiesthat it is referring to only one witness by writing the word b“one.” /b,The ibaraitareturns to discuss the verse concerning a isota /i. bAnd the Merciful One states:“There is no witness [ ied /i] against her” (Numbers 5:13), which therefore means that bthere are not twowitnesses to the sexual intercourse that could testify bwith regard to her; rather,there is only bonewitness. The ibaraitacompletes its interpretation: Further in the verse it states: b“And she was not taken,”indicating that the verse is referring to a case in which it is known that the woman had not been raped. This knowledge is based on the testimony of only one witness, as the verse had already stated that there were not two witnesses, and since one witness saw her willingly engage in sexual intercourse with another man, bshe is forbidden. /b,The Gemara questions this reasoning: bButthis would seem to indicate that btheonly breasonto interpret the verse concerning a isotaas referring to a case where there is only one witness is bthat it is writtenin the other verse: b“One witness shall not rise up against a man”(Deuteronomy 19:15), indicating that any unspecified usage of the word iedin the Torah refers to two witnesses, bbutwere it bnotfor bthisinference, bI would saythat when the term bwitnessis employed in the verse bconcerning a isota /iit bisreferring to bonewitness. However, this would mean that the woman is forbidden to her husband even if there is not even one witness who saw the alleged sexual intercourse, band if there is not even onewitness to testify, bthen with whattestimony bdoes she become forbiddento her husband? Obviously, even without another verse, it must be understood that the verse is indicating that there are not two witnesses but there is one, or else there would be no testimony to her actions.,The Gemara answers: It bwas necessaryto infer the interpretation of the verse concerning the isotafrom the other verse mentioning one witness. Otherwise it might benter your mind to saythat the verse here that states: b“There is no witness against her,”means that a single witness testifying about the sexual intercourse bis not deemed credible with regard to herunder any circumstances, and the testimony of one witness is not accepted in the case of a isota /i.,The Gemara questions this analysis: What would be the logic in interpreting the verse as indicating that a single witness bis not deemed credible with regard to her? Butif that is the interpretation, bwhatdoes the verse brequirein order for a isotato be rendered forbidden?,The Gemara explains its question: If the verse is understood as indicating that a woman isn’t forbidden buntil there are two witnessesto testify to her infidelity, then blet the verse be silent fromany mention of witnesses, basthe requirement for two witnesses in matters of sexual impropriety bis derivedby means of a verbal analogy bfromthe word b“matter”written with regard to forbidden relations, and the word b“matter”written with regard to bmonetary matters.The verbal analogy by which it is learned that two witnesses are required is as follows: A verse concerning forbidden relations states: “Because he has found some unseemly matter about her” (Deuteronomy 24:1), and a verse concerning monetary matters states: “By the mouth of two witnesses or by the mouth of three witnesses shall a matter be established” (Deuteronomy 19:15). bAnd Iwould bknowthat the requirement that two witnesses testify applies in the case of a isota /i, bjust as it does in allother matters of btestimony in the Torah. /b,The Gemara answers: It bwas necessarythat the verse be stated in the case of a isotaas well, for it might benter your mind to saythat testimony concerning ba isotais differentfrom other testimony, and even testimony of one witness would be sufficient bbecausethere is ba basis foranticipating bthe matter. Sincethe husband bissued a warning to herabout this particular man band shethen bsecludedherself with him, perhaps even bone witness should be deemed credible with regard to her.Therefore, the verse informs us that one witness is not deemed credible to render her forbidden to her husband.,The Gemara asks another question concerning its earlier analysis: bBut how can youthink to bsaythat the verse would be stating that one witness bis not deemed credible with regard to herhaving engaged in sexual intercourse band shewould remain bpermittedto her husband? bBut fromthe continuation of the same verse, from the fact bthat it is written: “And she was not taken,”which indicates that the verse is referring to a case where she was not raped, one concludes bby inferencethat the verse is referring to a woman bwhobecomes bforbiddento her husband for engaging in consensual adulterous sexual intercourse.,The Gemara answers: Nevertheless, it still bwas necessaryto teach the principle derived from the other verse that the term “ ied /i” is referring to two witnesses even in the context of a isota /i, as it might benter your mind to saythat the verse should be understood to mean that one witness bis not deemed credible with regard to her,and she remains permitted buntil there are twowitnesses who testify to the sexual intercourse, band withthe testimony of btwo witnesses as well, it isonly bwhen she was not seizedand forced to cohabit with the man. Therefore, to refute this possible interpretation, the ibaraita bteaches usthat “ ied /i” always refers to two witnesses unless stated otherwise. Therefore, the phrase in the verse concerning a isotathat says: “There is no witness [ ied /i] against her,” means that there were not two witnesses, but if there was only one witness he is deemed credible.,The mishna teaches that bRabbi Yehoshua says:He both bissues a warning to her based on twowitnesses, and he gives the bitter water to her to drink based on the testimony of two witnesses who saw her secluded. The Gemara asks: bWhat is the reasoning of Rabbi Yehoshua?The Gemara answers: The bverse states:“And there is no witness [ ied /i] bagainst her [ ibah /i]”(Numbers 5:13), which was explained to mean there were not two witnesses, but only one, who testified concerning her defilement. Rabbi Yehoshua derives from the term ibah /i, which could also be understood as: bWith regard to it,that in this matter of defilement one witness suffices, bbut not with regard tothe bwarning.Additionally, he derives: bWith regard to it, but not with regard tothe bseclusion.Therefore, there must be two witnesses to testify about both the warning and the seclusion.,The Gemara now explains Rabbi Eliezer’s opinion. bAnd Rabbi Eliezer saysthat the only derivation to be learned is: bWith regard to it, but not with regard tothe bwarning.Therefore, the warning, unlike the defilement, requires two witnesses. The seclusion is not contrasted with the defilement, and, like the defilement, requires only one.,The Gemara questions Rabbi Eliezer’s opinion: bButwhy not bsaythat one should also derive: bWith regard to it, but not with regard tothe bseclusion,as does Rabbi Yehoshua? The Gemara answers: Rabbi Eliezer does not accept that derivation, as bseclusion is juxtaposed to defilementby the verse, bas it is written: “And she was defiled secretly”(Numbers 5:13), and the term “secretly” is referring to seclusion. Therefore, the same ihalakhashould apply to both.,The Gemara asks: But the bwarning is also juxtaposed to defilement, as it is written: “And he warned his wife, and she had become defiled”(Numbers 5:14) and the same ihalakhashould apply to both. The Gemara answers: bThe Merciful One excludedat least one of the two by use of the expression ibah /i,which teaches that in one matter other than defilement, two witnesses are required.,The Gemara asks: bAnd what did you seeto determine that the exclusion from the ihalakhaof one witness sufficing is with regard to the warning? Perhaps the exclusion from the ihalakhaof one witness sufficing is with regard to the seclusion. The Gemara answers: It bstands to reasonthat it is bpreferableto compare bseclusionto defilement, bastestimony with regard to seclusion bforbids herto her husband bjust astestimony with regard to bdefilementdoes.,The Gemara rejects this reasoning: bOn the contrary,it is bpreferableto compare the bwarningto the defilement, basit is the bmain causeof bherbecoming forbidden. Seclusion alone, absent a warning, would not cause her to be forbidden to her husband.,The Gemara counters: bIfthere is bno seclusion, is thereany significance to the bwarning?The warning results in a prohibition only after the warned woman secludes herself with the man. The Gemara counters: bAnd ifthere is bno warning, what effectiveness does seclusion have?Both the warning and the seclusion are required for her to be forbidden.,The Gemara concludes: bEven so,it is bpreferableto compare the bseclusionto the defilement, basthe seclusion bis the beginning of defilement.Therefore, just as the testimony of one witness suffices with regard to the defilement, the testimony of one witness suffices with regard to the seclusion.,The Gemara comments: bThe mishna is not in accordance withthe opinion of bthis itanna /i,who presents a different version of Rabbi Eliezer’s opinion, bas it is taughtin a ibaraita( iTosefta1:1) that bRabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Yehuda, says in the name of Rabbi Eliezer: One who issues a warning to his wife issues a warning based on one witness or based on his owntestimony, bandhe bgivesthe bitter water to her bto drink based onthe testimony of btwowitnesses who saw her secluded. The ibaraitafurther states that bthe Rabbis responded: According to the statement of Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Yehuda,as to Rabbi Eliezer’s opinion that one need not issue a warning in the presence of two witnesses, bthere is no end to the matter,as the Gemara will explain.,The Gemara explains: bWhat is the reasoning of Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Yehuda? The verse states: “ iBah /i,”from which he infers that one witness suffices to testify bwith regard to it,i.e., the defilement, bbut not with regard to seclusion,as above.,The Gemara asks: bButwhy not bsaythat one should also derive: bWith regard to it, but not with regard tothe bwarning?The Gemara answers: The bwarning is juxtaposed to defilement, as it is written: “And he warned his wife, and she had become defiled”(Numbers 5:14), and the same ihalakhashould apply to both.,The Gemara counters this argument: bSeclusion is also juxtaposedin the verse bto defilement, as it is written: “And she was defiled secretly”(Numbers 5:13). Therefore, the same ihalakhashould apply to both. The Gemara responds: bThatverse bis coming toteach bhow muchis the bmeasure of seclusion,i.e., the amount of time that the man and woman must be secluded together for it to be defined as seclusion, which, as the comparison indicates, is the amount of time bsufficient for defilement. /b,The Gemara continues to clarify the ibaraita /i. bThe Rabbis responded: According to the statement of Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Yehuda,as to Rabbi Eliezer’s opinion, bthere is no end to the matter.The Gemara asks: bWhat isthe meaning of: There is no end to the matter? The Gemara answers: It is bthatthere may be btimes whenthe husband bdid not warnhis wife bbutafter hearing of her seclusion with another man bsays: I warned her,which will be sufficient to render her forbidden to him until she drinks.,The Gemara is puzzled by this logic: bBut according to our mishna, does the matterin fact bhave an end?Rabbi Eliezer states in the mishna that a woman must drink the bitter water based upon her husband’s own statement that she secluded herself with the man about whom he had warned her. There too, one could ask whether there may be btimes when she did not seclude herselfwith the other man bandwhere bher husband says: She secluded herself,thereby rendering her forbidden to him until she drinks the bitter water. If so, why do the Rabbis take issue only with the version of Rabbi Eliezer’s opinion as presented by Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Yehuda, and not with the version recorded in the mishna?, bRav Yitzḥak bar Yosef saysthat bRabbi Yoḥa says:The Rabbis in the ibaraitameant to state that beven according to the statement of Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Yehuda, there is no end to the matter.The Rabbis wished to say that even according to his version of Rabbi Eliezer’s opinion, the husband can cause her to drink if he were to lie. The same is obviously true for the mishna.,The Gemara notes: The phrase beven according to the statement of Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Yehuda,indicates it is a lesser novelty to say that there is no end to the matter according to him, band it is not necessaryto say that the same would be true baccording tothe opinion of Rabbi Eliezer cited in bour mishna.The Gemara asks: bOn the contrary, according tothe opinion of Rabbi Eliezer cited in bour mishna,there bisa legitimate bbasisof suspicion with regard to the woman, as there are witnesses who saw the husband issue a warning to her, and therefore, it is understandable that the testimony of the husband may be relied upon when he testifies that she secluded herself with another man. By contrast, bthere,according to the opinion of Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Yehuda, bthere is nolegitimate bbasisto prohibit her to him, since there are no witnesses that she had been warned by her husband at all. Therefore, it may be that the Rabbis took issue only with the version of Rabbi Eliezer’s opinion presented by Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Yehuda.,The Gemara clarifies the statement of Rabbi Yoḥa: bRather, if it was stated, it was stated like this: Rav Yitzḥak bar Yosef saysthat bRabbi Yoḥa saysthat the Rabbis said: bAccording to the statement of Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Yehuda,who is not concerned that accepting the testimony of one person with regard to the warning will enable false claims by the husband, beven according tothe opinion of Rabbi Eliezer cited in bour mishna there is no end to the matter,since the concern there is less severe, as there is no legitimate basis to render her forbidden to her husband., bRav Ḥanina of Sura says: In the present a man should not say to his wife: Do not seclude yourself with so-and-so.The reason is that bperhaps we maintainthat the ihalakhais bin accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Yehuda, who saysthat ba warningis effective even bbased on his owntestimony, bandif she were then to bseclude herselfwith that man she would be required to drink the bitter water to render herself permitted to her husband, bandsince btodaythe bitter bwater of a isota /iis bnotused bto evaluate herfidelity and permit her to her husband, bhe willend up bforbidding her to himselfwith ban irrevocable prohibition. /b,§ bReish Lakish says: Whatis the meaning of the bterm: Warning [ ikinnui /i]?It means ba matter that causes anger [ ikina /i] between her and others,as other men will not understand why she does not wish to be friendly with them any longer. The Gemara comments: bApparently, he holdsthat ba warningis effective bbased onthe husband’s bowntestimony, bandtherefore beveryone else will not know that her husband issued a warning to her, and they will say: What is thismatter happening bbefore us that she separates herselffrom us, band they will come to act in anger with her. /b, bAnd Rav Yeimar bar Rabbi Shelemya says in the name of Abaye:The term ikinnuimeans ba matter that causes anger between him and her,i.e., between husband and wife. The Gemara comments: bApparently, he holdsthat ba warningis effective bbased onthe testimony of btwo witnesses.And since there are two witnesses, beveryone knows that he issued a warning to her.Therefore, the warning does not cause anger between her and others. bAnd the husband is he who will come to act in anger with her,as they will have mutual antagonism toward each other.


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abel Lieu, Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century (2015) 345
ahasuerus Segal, The Babylonian Esther Midrash: To the end of Esther chapter 1 (1994) 221
am haaretz Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 558
apocalyptic(ism) (see also dualism) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 426
aramaic, inscriptions Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 558
autonomy Hayes, What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives (2015) 270
azulai, h. Segal, The Babylonian Esther Midrash: To the end of Esther chapter 1 (1994) 221
babylonian, halakha/tradition Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 426
birkat haminim Cohen, The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism (2010) 59
boyce, m. Segal, The Babylonian Esther Midrash: To the end of Esther chapter 1 (1994) 221
churches, liturgy Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 558
disputes, schools (of shammai and hillel) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 426
dualism, dualist(ic) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 426
elders and synagogue, and amidah, prayer leader Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 558
epstein, j. Segal, The Babylonian Esther Midrash: To the end of Esther chapter 1 (1994) 221
expulsion of books from canon Cohen, The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism (2010) 59
fast days, public, elder Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 558
fast days, public, rabbis Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 558
fast days, synagogue, ritual Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 558
ferdowsi Segal, The Babylonian Esther Midrash: To the end of Esther chapter 1 (1994) 221
gahambar Segal, The Babylonian Esther Midrash: To the end of Esther chapter 1 (1994) 221
gamaliel (gamliel) the elder, r. Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 426
gymnasiarch, language Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 558
heinemann, isaac Hayes, What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives (2015) 270
heteronomy Hayes, What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives (2015) 270
hillel, school of Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 426
hillel the elder Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 426
irrationality of torah, rabbinic responses to Hayes, What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives (2015) 260, 270
iyyun yaaqov (by rabbi jacob reischer) Segal, The Babylonian Esther Midrash: To the end of Esther chapter 1 (1994) 221
jesus (christ) (see also yeshu) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 426
judah Segal, The Babylonian Esther Midrash: To the end of Esther chapter 1 (1994) 221
leadership, synagogue, prayer leader Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 209
love Lieu, Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century (2015) 345
meir, r. Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 426
mercy Lieu, Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century (2015) 345
mihrigan Segal, The Babylonian Esther Midrash: To the end of Esther chapter 1 (1994) 221
names Lieu, Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century (2015) 345
nehemiah Segal, The Babylonian Esther Midrash: To the end of Esther chapter 1 (1994) 221
paul (saul) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 426
pharisaic-rabbinic connection Cohen, The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism (2010) 59
priest, priests, synagogue ritual Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 475
qumran documents Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 426
r. halafta Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 558
r. hanania b. teradion Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 558
rashi Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 475
rashi (rabbi solomon b. isaac) Segal, The Babylonian Esther Midrash: To the end of Esther chapter 1 (1994) 221
rationality of torah, in rabbinic sources Hayes, What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives (2015) 260, 270
reading, and rabbis Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 558
reading, language Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 558
reasons for the commandments Hayes, What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives (2015) 270
segal, e. Segal, The Babylonian Esther Midrash: To the end of Esther chapter 1 (1994) 221
shammai, school Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 426
shammai (see also subject index) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 426
sheliah tzibbur, prayer leader Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 475
slavery and freedom, metaphoric Keener, First-Second Corinthians (2005) 78
support of teachers, financial Keener, First-Second Corinthians (2005) 78
synoptic, gospels Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 426
tannaim, treatment of heretics Cohen, The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism (2010) 59
targums Lieu, Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century (2015) 345
tefillin Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 475, 558
tertullian Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 558
tosafot Segal, The Babylonian Esther Midrash: To the end of Esther chapter 1 (1994) 221
two powers in heaven Lieu, Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century (2015) 345
urbach, e. e. Hayes, What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives (2015) 270
virtue and law, and the torah' Hayes, What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives (2015) 260
yose bar zebida Segal, The Babylonian Esther Midrash: To the end of Esther chapter 1 (1994) 221