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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



8004
Mishnah, Berachot, 2.2


אֵלּוּ הֵן בֵּין הַפְּרָקִים, בֵּין בְּרָכָה רִאשׁוֹנָה לִשְׁנִיָּה, בֵּין שְׁנִיָּה לִשְׁמַע, וּבֵין שְׁמַע לִוְהָיָה אִם שָׁמֹעַ, בֵּין וְהָיָה אִם שָׁמֹעַ לְוַיֹּאמֶר, בֵּין וַיֹּאמֶר לֶאֱמֶת וְיַצִּיב. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, בֵּין וַיֹּאמֶר לֶאֱמֶת וְיַצִּיב לֹא יַפְסִיק. אָמַר רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בֶּן קָרְחָה, לָמָּה קָדְמָה שְׁמַע לִוְהָיָה אִם שָׁמֹעַ, אֶלָּא כְדֵי שֶׁיְּקַבֵּל עָלָיו עֹל מַלְכוּת שָׁמַיִם תְּחִלָּה, וְאַחַר כָּךְ יְקַבֵּל עָלָיו עֹל מִצְוֹת. וְהָיָה אִם שָׁמֹעַ לְוַיֹּאמֶר, שֶׁוְהָיָה אִם שָׁמֹעַ נוֹהֵג בַּיּוֹם וּבַלַּיְלָה, וַיֹּאמֶר אֵינוֹ נוֹהֵג אֶלָּא בַּיּוֹם:These are the breaks between the sections: between the first blessing and the second, between the second and “Shema,” between “Shema” and “And it shall come to pass if you listen” between “And it shall come to pass if you listen” and “And the Lord said” and between “And the Lord said” and “Emet veYatziv” (true and firm). Rabbi Judah says: between “And the Lord said” and “Emet veYatziv” one should not interrupt. Rabbi Joshua ben Korhah said: Why was the section of “Shema” placed before that of “And it shall come to pass if you listen”? So that one should first accept upon himself the yoke of the Kingdom of Heaven and then take upon himself the yoke of the commandments. Why does the section of “And it shall come to pass if you listen” come before that of “And the Lord said”? Because “And it shall come to pass if you listen” is customary during both day and night, whereas [the section] “And the Lord said” is customary only during the day.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

32 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Song of Songs, 6.4 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

6.4. יָפָה אַתְּ רַעְיָתִי כְּתִרְצָה נָאוָה כִּירוּשָׁלִָם אֲיֻמָּה כַּנִּדְגָּלוֹת׃ 6.4. Thou art beautiful, O my love, as Tirzah, Comely as Jerusalem, Terrible as an army with banners.
2. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 5.6, 6.4-6.9, 11.13-11.21, 28.48 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

5.6. אָנֹכִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ אֲשֶׁר הוֹצֵאתִיךָ מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם מִבֵּית עֲבָדִים׃ 6.4. שְׁמַע יִשְׂרָאֵל יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵינוּ יְהוָה אֶחָד׃ 6.5. וְאָהַבְתָּ אֵת יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ בְּכָל־לְבָבְךָ וּבְכָל־נַפְשְׁךָ וּבְכָל־מְאֹדֶךָ׃ 6.6. וְהָיוּ הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה אֲשֶׁר אָנֹכִי מְצַוְּךָ הַיּוֹם עַל־לְבָבֶךָ׃ 6.7. וְשִׁנַּנְתָּם לְבָנֶיךָ וְדִבַּרְתָּ בָּם בְּשִׁבְתְּךָ בְּבֵיתֶךָ וּבְלֶכְתְּךָ בַדֶּרֶךְ וּבְשָׁכְבְּךָ וּבְקוּמֶךָ׃ 6.8. וּקְשַׁרְתָּם לְאוֹת עַל־יָדֶךָ וְהָיוּ לְטֹטָפֹת בֵּין עֵינֶיךָ׃ 6.9. וּכְתַבְתָּם עַל־מְזוּזֹת בֵּיתֶךָ וּבִשְׁעָרֶיךָ׃ 11.13. וְהָיָה אִם־שָׁמֹעַ תִּשְׁמְעוּ אֶל־מִצְוֺתַי אֲשֶׁר אָנֹכִי מְצַוֶּה אֶתְכֶם הַיּוֹם לְאַהֲבָה אֶת־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם וּלְעָבְדוֹ בְּכָל־לְבַבְכֶם וּבְכָל־נַפְשְׁכֶם׃ 11.14. וְנָתַתִּי מְטַר־אַרְצְכֶם בְּעִתּוֹ יוֹרֶה וּמַלְקוֹשׁ וְאָסַפְתָּ דְגָנֶךָ וְתִירֹשְׁךָ וְיִצְהָרֶךָ׃ 11.15. וְנָתַתִּי עֵשֶׂב בְּשָׂדְךָ לִבְהֶמְתֶּךָ וְאָכַלְתָּ וְשָׂבָעְתָּ׃ 11.16. הִשָּׁמְרוּ לָכֶם פֶּן יִפְתֶּה לְבַבְכֶם וְסַרְתֶּם וַעֲבַדְתֶּם אֱלֹהִים אֲחֵרִים וְהִשְׁתַּחֲוִיתֶם לָהֶם׃ 11.17. וְחָרָה אַף־יְהוָה בָּכֶם וְעָצַר אֶת־הַשָּׁמַיִם וְלֹא־יִהְיֶה מָטָר וְהָאֲדָמָה לֹא תִתֵּן אֶת־יְבוּלָהּ וַאֲבַדְתֶּם מְהֵרָה מֵעַל הָאָרֶץ הַטֹּבָה אֲשֶׁר יְהוָה נֹתֵן לָכֶם׃ 11.18. וְשַׂמְתֶּם אֶת־דְּבָרַי אֵלֶּה עַל־לְבַבְכֶם וְעַל־נַפְשְׁכֶם וּקְשַׁרְתֶּם אֹתָם לְאוֹת עַל־יֶדְכֶם וְהָיוּ לְטוֹטָפֹת בֵּין עֵינֵיכֶם׃ 11.19. וְלִמַּדְתֶּם אֹתָם אֶת־בְּנֵיכֶם לְדַבֵּר בָּם בְּשִׁבְתְּךָ בְּבֵיתֶךָ וּבְלֶכְתְּךָ בַדֶּרֶךְ וּבְשָׁכְבְּךָ וּבְקוּמֶךָ׃ 11.21. לְמַעַן יִרְבּוּ יְמֵיכֶם וִימֵי בְנֵיכֶם עַל הָאֲדָמָה אֲשֶׁר נִשְׁבַּע יְהוָה לַאֲבֹתֵיכֶם לָתֵת לָהֶם כִּימֵי הַשָּׁמַיִם עַל־הָאָרֶץ׃ 28.48. וְעָבַדְתָּ אֶת־אֹיְבֶיךָ אֲשֶׁר יְשַׁלְּחֶנּוּ יְהוָה בָּךְ בְּרָעָב וּבְצָמָא וּבְעֵירֹם וּבְחֹסֶר כֹּל וְנָתַן עֹל בַּרְזֶל עַל־צַוָּארֶךָ עַד הִשְׁמִידוֹ אֹתָךְ׃ 5.6. I am the LORD thy God, who brought thee out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of bondage." 6.4. HEAR, O ISRAEL: THE LORD OUR GOD, THE LORD IS ONE." 6.5. And thou shalt love the LORD thy God with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy might." 6.6. And these words, which I command thee this day, shall be upon thy heart;" 6.7. and thou shalt teach them diligently unto thy children, and shalt talk of them when thou sittest in thy house, and when thou walkest by the way, and when thou liest down, and when thou risest up." 6.8. And thou shalt bind them for a sign upon thy hand, and they shall be for frontlets between thine eyes." 6.9. And thou shalt write them upon the door-posts of thy house, and upon thy gates." 11.13. And it shall come to pass, if ye shall hearken diligently unto My commandments which I command you this day, to love the LORD your God, and to serve Him with all your heart and with all your soul," 11.14. that I will give the rain of your land in its season, the former rain and the latter rain, that thou mayest gather in thy corn, and thy wine, and thine oil." 11.15. And I will give grass in thy fields for thy cattle, and thou shalt eat and be satisfied." 11.16. Take heed to yourselves, lest your heart be deceived, and ye turn aside, and serve other gods, and worship them;" 11.17. and the anger of the LORD be kindled against you, and He shut up the heaven, so that there shall be no rain, and the ground shall not yield her fruit; and ye perish quickly from off the good land which the LORD giveth you." 11.18. Therefore shall ye lay up these My words in your heart and in your soul; and ye shall bind them for a sign upon your hand, and they shall be for frontlets between your eyes." 11.19. And ye shall teach them your children, talking of them, when thou sittest in thy house, and when thou walkest by the way, and when thou liest down, and when thou risest up." 11.20. And thou shalt write them upon the door-posts of thy house, and upon thy gates;" 11.21. that your days may be multiplied, and the days of your children, upon the land which the LORD swore unto your fathers to give them, as the days of the heavens above the earth." 28.48. therefore shalt thou serve thine enemy whom the LORD shall send against thee, in hunger, and in thirst, and in nakedness, and in want of all things; and he shall put a yoke of iron upon thy neck, until he have destroyed thee."
3. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 13.1-13.16, 20.2, 24.7 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

13.1. וַיְדַבֵּר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה לֵּאמֹר׃ 13.1. וְשָׁמַרְתָּ אֶת־הַחֻקָּה הַזֹּאת לְמוֹעֲדָהּ מִיָּמִים יָמִימָה׃ 13.2. וַיִּסְעוּ מִסֻּכֹּת וַיַּחֲנוּ בְאֵתָם בִּקְצֵה הַמִּדְבָּר׃ 13.2. קַדֶּשׁ־לִי כָל־בְּכוֹר פֶּטֶר כָּל־רֶחֶם בִּבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל בָּאָדָם וּבַבְּהֵמָה לִי הוּא׃ 13.3. וַיֹּאמֶר מֹשֶׁה אֶל־הָעָם זָכוֹר אֶת־הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה אֲשֶׁר יְצָאתֶם מִמִּצְרַיִם מִבֵּית עֲבָדִים כִּי בְּחֹזֶק יָד הוֹצִיא יְהֹוָה אֶתְכֶם מִזֶּה וְלֹא יֵאָכֵל חָמֵץ׃ 13.4. הַיּוֹם אַתֶּם יֹצְאִים בְּחֹדֶשׁ הָאָבִיב׃ 13.5. וְהָיָה כִי־יְבִיאֲךָ יְהוָה אֶל־אֶרֶץ הַכְּנַעֲנִי וְהַחִתִּי וְהָאֱמֹרִי וְהַחִוִּי וְהַיְבוּסִי אֲשֶׁר נִשְׁבַּע לַאֲבֹתֶיךָ לָתֶת לָךְ אֶרֶץ זָבַת חָלָב וּדְבָשׁ וְעָבַדְתָּ אֶת־הָעֲבֹדָה הַזֹּאת בַּחֹדֶשׁ הַזֶּה׃ 13.6. שִׁבְעַת יָמִים תֹּאכַל מַצֹּת וּבַיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי חַג לַיהוָה׃ 13.7. מַצּוֹת יֵאָכֵל אֵת שִׁבְעַת הַיָּמִים וְלֹא־יֵרָאֶה לְךָ חָמֵץ וְלֹא־יֵרָאֶה לְךָ שְׂאֹר בְּכָל־גְּבֻלֶךָ׃ 13.8. וְהִגַּדְתָּ לְבִנְךָ בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא לֵאמֹר בַּעֲבוּר זֶה עָשָׂה יְהוָה לִי בְּצֵאתִי מִמִּצְרָיִם׃ 13.9. וְהָיָה לְךָ לְאוֹת עַל־יָדְךָ וּלְזִכָּרוֹן בֵּין עֵינֶיךָ לְמַעַן תִּהְיֶה תּוֹרַת יְהוָה בְּפִיךָ כִּי בְּיָד חֲזָקָה הוֹצִאֲךָ יְהֹוָה מִמִּצְרָיִם׃ 13.11. וְהָיָה כִּי־יְבִאֲךָ יְהוָה אֶל־אֶרֶץ הַכְּנַעֲנִי כַּאֲשֶׁר נִשְׁבַּע לְךָ וְלַאֲבֹתֶיךָ וּנְתָנָהּ לָךְ׃ 13.12. וְהַעֲבַרְתָּ כָל־פֶּטֶר־רֶחֶם לַיהֹוָה וְכָל־פֶּטֶר שֶׁגֶר בְּהֵמָה אֲשֶׁר יִהְיֶה לְךָ הַזְּכָרִים לַיהוָה׃ 13.13. וְכָל־פֶּטֶר חֲמֹר תִּפְדֶּה בְשֶׂה וְאִם־לֹא תִפְדֶּה וַעֲרַפְתּוֹ וְכֹל בְּכוֹר אָדָם בְּבָנֶיךָ תִּפְדֶּה׃ 13.14. וְהָיָה כִּי־יִשְׁאָלְךָ בִנְךָ מָחָר לֵאמֹר מַה־זֹּאת וְאָמַרְתָּ אֵלָיו בְּחֹזֶק יָד הוֹצִיאָנוּ יְהוָה מִמִּצְרַיִם מִבֵּית עֲבָדִים׃ 13.15. וַיְהִי כִּי־הִקְשָׁה פַרְעֹה לְשַׁלְּחֵנוּ וַיַּהֲרֹג יְהֹוָה כָּל־בְּכוֹר בְּאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם מִבְּכֹר אָדָם וְעַד־בְּכוֹר בְּהֵמָה עַל־כֵּן אֲנִי זֹבֵחַ לַיהוָה כָּל־פֶּטֶר רֶחֶם הַזְּכָרִים וְכָל־בְּכוֹר בָּנַי אֶפְדֶּה׃ 13.16. וְהָיָה לְאוֹת עַל־יָדְכָה וּלְטוֹטָפֹת בֵּין עֵינֶיךָ כִּי בְּחֹזֶק יָד הוֹצִיאָנוּ יְהוָה מִמִּצְרָיִם׃ 20.2. אָנֹכִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ אֲשֶׁר הוֹצֵאתִיךָ מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם מִבֵּית עֲבָדִים׃ 20.2. לֹא תַעֲשׂוּן אִתִּי אֱלֹהֵי כֶסֶף וֵאלֹהֵי זָהָב לֹא תַעֲשׂוּ לָכֶם׃ 24.7. וַיִּקַּח סֵפֶר הַבְּרִית וַיִּקְרָא בְּאָזְנֵי הָעָם וַיֹּאמְרוּ כֹּל אֲשֶׁר־דִּבֶּר יְהוָה נַעֲשֶׂה וְנִשְׁמָע׃ 13.1. And the LORD spoke unto Moses, saying:" 13.2. ’Sanctify unto Me all the first-born, whatsoever opens the womb among the children of Israel, both of man and of beast, it is Mine.’" 13.3. And Moses said unto the people: ‘Remember this day, in which ye came out from Egypt, out of the house of bondage; for by strength of hand the LORD brought you out from this place; there shall no leavened bread be eaten." 13.4. This day ye go forth in the month Abib." 13.5. And it shall be when the LORD shall bring thee into the land of the Canaanite, and the Hittite, and the Amorite, and the Hivite, and the Jebusite, which He swore unto thy fathers to give thee, a land flowing with milk and honey, that thou shalt keep this service in this month." 13.6. Seven days thou shalt eat unleavened bread, and in the seventh day shall be a feast to the LORD." 13.7. Unleavened bread shall be eaten throughout the seven days; and there shall no leavened bread be seen with thee, neither shall there be leaven seen with thee, in all thy borders." 13.8. And thou shalt tell thy son in that day, saying: It is because of that which the LORD did for me when I came forth out of Egypt." 13.9. And it shall be for a sign unto thee upon thy hand, and for a memorial between thine eyes, that the law of the LORD may be in thy mouth; for with a strong hand hath the LORD brought thee out of Egypt." 13.10. Thou shalt therefore keep this ordice in its season from year to year." 13.11. And it shall be when the LORD shall bring thee into the land of the Canaanite, as He swore unto thee and to thy fathers, and shall give it thee," 13.12. that thou shalt set apart unto the LORD all that openeth the womb; every firstling that is a male, which thou hast coming of a beast, shall be the LORD’s." 13.13. And every firstling of an ass thou shalt redeem with a lamb; and if thou wilt not redeem it, then thou shalt break its neck; and all the first-born of man among thy sons shalt thou redeem." 13.14. And it shall be when thy son asketh thee in time to come, saying: What is this? that thou shalt say unto him: By strength of hand the LORD brought us out from Egypt, from the house of bondage;" 13.15. and it came to pass, when Pharaoh would hardly let us go that the LORD slew all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, both the first-born of man, and the first-born of beast; therefore I sacrifice to the LORD all that openeth the womb, being males; but all the first-born of my sons I redeem." 13.16. And it shall be for a sign upon thy hand, and for frontlets between your eyes; for by strength of hand the LORD brought us forth out of Egypt.’" 20.2. I am the LORD thy God, who brought thee out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of bondage." 24.7. And he took the book of the covet, and read in the hearing of the people; and they said: ‘All that the LORD hath spoken will we do, and obey.’"
4. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 26.13 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

26.13. אֲנִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם אֲשֶׁר הוֹצֵאתִי אֶתְכֶם מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם מִהְיֹת לָהֶם עֲבָדִים וָאֶשְׁבֹּר מֹטֹת עֻלְּכֶם וָאוֹלֵךְ אֶתְכֶם קוֹמְמִיּוּת׃ 26.13. I am the LORD your God, who brought you forth out of the land of Egypt, that ye should not be their bondmen; and I have broken the bars of your yoke, and made you go upright."
5. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 15.37-15.41 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

15.37. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה לֵּאמֹר׃ 15.38. דַּבֵּר אֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאָמַרְתָּ אֲלֵהֶם וְעָשׂוּ לָהֶם צִיצִת עַל־כַּנְפֵי בִגְדֵיהֶם לְדֹרֹתָם וְנָתְנוּ עַל־צִיצִת הַכָּנָף פְּתִיל תְּכֵלֶת׃ 15.39. וְהָיָה לָכֶם לְצִיצִת וּרְאִיתֶם אֹתוֹ וּזְכַרְתֶּם אֶת־כָּל־מִצְוֺת יְהוָה וַעֲשִׂיתֶם אֹתָם וְלֹא־תָתֻרוּ אַחֲרֵי לְבַבְכֶם וְאַחֲרֵי עֵינֵיכֶם אֲשֶׁר־אַתֶּם זֹנִים אַחֲרֵיהֶם׃ 15.41. אֲנִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם אֲשֶׁר הוֹצֵאתִי אֶתְכֶם מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם לִהְיוֹת לָכֶם לֵאלֹהִים אֲנִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם׃ 15.37. And the LORD spoke unto Moses, saying:" 15.38. ’Speak unto the children of Israel, and bid them that they make them throughout their generations fringes in the corners of their garments, and that they put with the fringe of each corner a thread of blue." 15.39. And it shall be unto you for a fringe, that ye may look upon it, and remember all the commandments of the LORD, and do them; and that ye go not about after your own heart and your own eyes, after which ye use to go astray;" 15.40. that ye may remember and do all My commandments, and be holy unto your God." 15.41. I am the LORD your God, who brought you out of the land of Egypt, to be your God: I am the LORD your God.’"
6. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 12.1, 17.14, 81.10-81.11, 119.164 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

12.1. לַמְנַצֵּחַ עַל־הַשְּׁמִינִית מִזְמוֹר לְדָוִד׃ 17.14. מִמְתִים יָדְךָ יְהוָה מִמְתִים מֵחֶלֶד חֶלְקָם בַּחַיִּים וצפינך [וּצְפוּנְךָ] תְּמַלֵּא בִטְנָם יִשְׂבְּעוּ בָנִים וְהִנִּיחוּ יִתְרָם לְעוֹלְלֵיהֶם׃ 81.11. אָנֹכִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ הַמַּעַלְךָ מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם הַרְחֶב־פִּיךָ וַאֲמַלְאֵהוּ׃ 119.164. שֶׁבַע בַּיּוֹם הִלַּלְתִּיךָ עַל מִשְׁפְּטֵי צִדְקֶךָ׃ 12.1. For the Leader; on the Sheminith. A Psalm of David." 17.14. From men, by Thy hand, O LORD, From men of the world, whose portion is in this life, And whose belly Thou fillest with Thy treasure; Who have children in plenty, And leave their abundance to their babes." 81.10. There shall no strange god be in thee; neither shalt thou worship any foreign god." 81.11. I am the LORD thy God, who brought thee up out of the land of Egypt; open thy mouth wide, and I will fill it." 119.164. Seven times a day do I praise Thee, because of Thy righteous ordices."
7. Hebrew Bible, 1 Kings, 12.4, 12.10 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

12.4. אָבִיךָ הִקְשָׁה אֶת־עֻלֵּנוּ וְאַתָּה עַתָּה הָקֵל מֵעֲבֹדַת אָבִיךָ הַקָּשָׁה וּמֵעֻלּוֹ הַכָּבֵד אֲשֶׁר־נָתַן עָלֵינוּ וְנַעַבְדֶךָּ׃ 12.4. ’Thy father made our yoke grievous; now therefore make thou the grievous service of thy father, and his heavy yoke which he put upon us, lighter, and we will serve thee.’" 12.10. And the young men that were grown up with him spoke unto him, saying: ‘Thus shalt thou say unto this people that spoke unto thee, saying: Thy father made our yoke heavy, but make thou it lighter unto us; thus shalt thou speak unto them: My little finger is thicker than my father’s loins."
8. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 9.4, 14.25, 47.6, 58.6 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

9.4. כִּי כָל־סְאוֹן סֹאֵן בְּרַעַשׁ וְשִׂמְלָה מְגוֹלָלָה בְדָמִים וְהָיְתָה לִשְׂרֵפָה מַאֲכֹלֶת אֵשׁ׃ 14.25. לִשְׁבֹּר אַשּׁוּר בְּאַרְצִי וְעַל־הָרַי אֲבוּסֶנּוּ וְסָר מֵעֲלֵיהֶם עֻלּוֹ וְסֻבֳּלוֹ מֵעַל שִׁכְמוֹ יָסוּר׃ 47.6. קָצַפְתִּי עַל־עַמִּי חִלַּלְתִּי נַחֲלָתִי וָאֶתְּנֵם בְּיָדֵךְ לֹא־שַׂמְתְּ לָהֶם רַחֲמִים עַל־זָקֵן הִכְבַּדְתְּ עֻלֵּךְ מְאֹד׃ 58.6. הֲלוֹא זֶה צוֹם אֶבְחָרֵהוּ פַּתֵּחַ חַרְצֻבּוֹת רֶשַׁע הַתֵּר אֲגֻדּוֹת מוֹטָה וְשַׁלַּח רְצוּצִים חָפְשִׁים וְכָל־מוֹטָה תְּנַתֵּקוּ׃ 9.4. For every boot stamped with fierceness, and every cloak rolled in blood, shall even be for burning, for fuel of fire." 14.25. That I will break Asshur in My land, And upon My mountains tread him under foot; then shall his yoke depart from off them, And his burden depart from off their shoulder." 47.6. I was wroth with My people, I profaned Mine inheritance, And gave them into thy hand; Thou didst show them no mercy; Upon the aged hast thou very heavily Laid thy yoke." 58.6. Is not this the fast that I have chosen? To loose the fetters of wickedness, To undo the bands of the yoke, And to let the oppressed go free, And that ye break every yoke?"
9. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 2.20, 5.5 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

5.5. אֵלֲכָה־לִּי אֶל־הַגְּדֹלִים וַאֲדַבְּרָה אוֹתָם כִּי הֵמָּה יָדְעוּ דֶּרֶךְ יְהוָה מִשְׁפַּט אֱלֹהֵיהֶם אַךְ הֵמָּה יַחְדָּו שָׁבְרוּ עֹל נִתְּקוּ מוֹסֵרוֹת׃ 2.20. For of old time I have broken thy yoke, and burst thy bands, and thou saidst: ‘I will not transgress’; upon every high hill And under every leafy tree Thou didst recline, playing the harlot." 5.5. I will get me unto the great men, And will speak unto them; For they know the way of the LORD, And the ordice of their God.’ But these had altogether broken the yoke, And burst the bands."
10. Hebrew Bible, 2 Chronicles, 10.4 (5th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

10.4. אָבִיךָ הִקְשָׁה אֶת־עֻלֵּנוּ וְעַתָּה הָקֵל מֵעֲבֹדַת אָבִיךָ הַקָּשָׁה וּמֵעֻלּוֹ הַכָּבֵד אֲשֶׁר־נָתַן עָלֵינוּ וְנַעַבְדֶךָּ׃ 10.4. ’Thy father made our yoke grievous; now therefore make thou the grievous service of thy father, and his heavy yoke which he put upon us, lighter, and we will serve thee.’"
11. Anon., 1 Enoch, 95.6-95.7, 103.11, 103.14-103.15 (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

95.6. Woe to you, lying witnesses, And to those who weigh out injustice, For suddenly shall ye perish. 95.7. Woe to you, sinners, for ye persecute the righteous; For ye shall be delivered up and persecuted because of injustice, And heavy shall its yoke be upon you. 103.11. We hoped to be the head and have become the tail: We have toiled laboriously and had no satisfaction in our toil; And we have become the food of the sinners and the unrighteous, And they have laid their yoke heavily upon us. 103.14. And are complained to the rulers in our tribulation, And cried out against those who devoured us, But they did not attend to our cries And would not hearken to our voice. 103.15. And they helped those who robbed us and devoured us and those who made us few; and they concealed their oppression, and they did not remove from us the yoke of those that devoured us and dispersed us and murdered us, and they concealed their murder, and remembered not that they had lifted up their hands against us.
12. Dead Sea Scrolls, Damascus Covenant, 6 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

13. Dead Sea Scrolls, (Cairo Damascus Covenant) Cd-A, 6 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

14. Septuagint, 1 Maccabees, 8.17-8.18, 8.20, 8.22, 8.24, 8.31, 13.41 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

8.17. So Judas chose Eupolemus the son of John, son of Accos, and Jason the son of Eleazar, and sent them to Rome to establish friendship and alliance 8.18. and to free themselves from the yoke; for they saw that the kingdom of the Greeks was completely enslaving Israel. 8.20. Judas, who is also called Maccabeus, and his brothers and the people of the Jews have sent us to you to establish alliance and peace with you, that we may be enrolled as your allies and friends. 8.22. and this is a copy of the letter which they wrote in reply, on bronze tablets, and sent to Jerusalem to remain with them there as a memorial of peace and alliance: 8.24. If war comes first to Rome or to any of their allies in all their dominion 8.31. And concerning the wrongs which King Demetrius is doing to them we have written to him as follows, `Why have you made your yoke heavy upon our friends and allies the Jews? 13.41. In the one hundred and seventieth year the yoke of the Gentiles was removed from Israel
15. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 6.30, 26.7, 28.19-28.20, 30.13, 33.27, 40.1, 51.26 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

26.7. An evil wife is an ox yoke which chafes;taking hold of her is like grasping a scorpion. 28.19. Happy is the man who is protected from it,who has not been exposed to its anger,who has not borne its yoke,and has not been bound with its fetters; 30.13. Discipline your son and take pains with him,that you may not be offended by his shamelessness. 33.27. Put him to work, that he may not be idle,for idleness teaches much evil. 40.1. Much labor was created for every man,and a heavy yoke is upon the sons of Adam,from the day they come forth from their mothers womb till the day they return to the mother of all. 40.1. All these were created for the wicked,and on their account the flood came. 51.26. Put your neck under the yoke,and let your souls receive instruction;it is to be found close by.
16. Anon., 2 Baruch, 41.3 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

17. Anon., Didache, 14, 2-4, 1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

1. There are two ways, one of life and one of death; but a great difference between the two ways. The way of life, then, is this: First, you shall love God who made you; second, your neighbour as yourself; and all things whatsoever you would should not occur to you, do not also do to another. And of these sayings the teaching is this: Bless those who curse you, and pray for your enemies, and fast for those who persecute you. For what reward is there, if you love those who love you? Do not also the Gentiles do the same? But love those who hate you, and you shall not have an enemy. Abstain from fleshly and worldly lusts. If someone gives you a blow upon your right cheek, turn to him the other also, and you shall be perfect. If someone impresses you for one mile, go with him two. If someone takes away your cloak, give him also your coat. If someone takes from you what is yours, ask it not back, for indeed you are not able. Give to every one that asks you, and ask it not back; for the Father wills that to all should be given of our own blessings (free gifts). Happy is he that gives according to the commandment; for he is guiltless. Woe to him that receives; for if one having need receives, he is guiltless; but he that receives not having need, shall pay the penalty, why he received and for what, and, coming into straits (confinement), he shall be examined concerning the things which he has done, and he shall not escape thence until he pay back the last farthing. Matthew 5:26 But also now concerning this, it has been said, Let your alms sweat in your hands, until you know to whom you should give.
18. Mishnah, Avot, 3.5 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

3.5. Rabbi Nehunia ben Hakkanah said: whoever takes upon himself the yoke of the Torah, they remove from him the yoke of government and the yoke of worldly concerns, and whoever breaks off from himself the yoke of the Torah, they place upon him the yoke of government and the yoke of worldly concerns."
19. Mishnah, Berachot, 1.5, 4.3-4.4, 5.2 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

1.5. They mention the Exodus from Egypt at night. Rabbi Elazar ben Azaryah said: \"Behold, I am almost a seventy-year old man and I have not succeeded in [understanding why] the Exodus from Egypt should be mentioned at night, until Ben Zoma explained it from a verse (Deuteronomy 16:3): ‘In order that you may remember the day you left Egypt all the days of your life.’ ‘The days of your life’ refers to the days. ‘All the days of your life’ refers to the nights. And the sages say: ‘the days of your life’ refers to this world. ‘All the days of your life’ includes the days of the Messiah." 4.3. Rabban Gamaliel says: every day a man should pray the eighteen [blessings]. Rabbi Joshua says: an abstract of the eighteen. Rabbi Akiva says: if he knows it fluently he prays the eighteen, and if not an abstract of the eighteen." 4.4. Rabbi Eliezer says: if a man makes his prayers fixed, it is not [true] supplication. Rabbi Joshua says: if one is traveling in a dangerous place, he says a short prayer, saying: Save, O Lord, Your people the remt of Israel. In every time of crisis may their needs be before You. Blessed are You, O Lord, who hears prayer." 5.2. They mention [God’s] power to bring rain in the blessing for the resurrection of the dead. And they ask for rain in the blessing for [fruitful] years. And havdalah in “Who grant knowledge.” Rabbi Akiva says: he says it as a fourth blessing by itself. Rabbi Eliezer says: in the thanksgiving blessing."
20. Mishnah, Rosh Hashanah, 4.5 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

4.5. The order of blessings [in the Musaf Amidah of Rosh Hashanah]:He says “patriarchs”, “powers” and the “sanctification of the name” and includes the kingship verses with them and does not blow [the shofar]. The sanctification of the day and blows [the shofar], the remembrance-verses and blows [the shofar], and the shofar-verses and blows [the shofar]. Then he says the blessing of the Temple service and “thanksgiving” and the blessing of the priests, the words of Rabbi Yoha ben Nuri. Rabbi Akiva said to him: if he does not blow the shofar for the kingship-verses, why should he say them? Rather he says: “patriarchs”, “powers” and the “sanctification of the name” and includes the kingship verse with the sanctification of the day and blows the shofar, then he says the remembrance-verses and blows, and the shofar-verses and blows. Then he says the Temple service and “thanksgiving” and the blessing of the priest."
21. Mishnah, Sotah, 7.7 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

7.7. How were the benedictions of the high priest [performed]?The hazzan of the synagogue takes the Torah scroll and gives it to the president of the synagogue; the vice-president of the synagogue gives it to the high priest, and the high priest stands, receives [the scroll] and reads [the following portions]: “After the death” (Leviticus 16:1-34), and “But on the tenth day” (Leviticus 23:26-32). Then he rolls the Torah (scroll), places it in his bosom and exclaims, “More than I have read before you is written here!” [The portion], “On the tenth day” (Numbers 29:7-11), which is in the book of Numbers, he reads by heart. And he blesses upon it eight benedictions: “For the Torah”, “For the Temple service”, “For thanksgiving”, “For the pardon of sin”, “For the Temple”, “For Israel”, “For the priests”, viii) and the rest of the prayer."
22. Mishnah, Taanit, 2.2 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

2.2. [When] they stand up to pray they bring down before the ark an old man conversant [with the prayers], one who has children and whose house is empty [of food], so that his heart is complete prayer. He recites before them twenty-four benedictions, the eighteen recited daily, to which he adds six."
23. Mishnah, Tamid, 5.1 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

5.1. The superintendent said to them: Bless one blessing! And they blessed. They then read the Ten Commandments, the Shema, the “And it will be if you hearken” (the second paragraph of Shema) and Vayomer (the third paragraph of Shema), and they blessed the people with three blessings: Emet veYatziv, and Avodah, and the priestly benediction. On Shabbat they added a blessing to be said by the watch which was leaving."
24. Mishnah, Yoma, 7.1 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

7.1. The high priest [then] came to read. If he wished to read in linen garments, he reads, and if not he reads in his own white cloak. The synagogue attendant would take a Torah scroll and give it to the head of the synagogue, and the head of the synagogue gives it to deputy high priest, and the deputy high priest gives it to the high priest, and the high priest stands and receives it, and reads, [section] beginning] “After the death …” (Leviticus 16:1-34) and “But on the tenth…” (Leviticus 23:26-32). Then he would roll up the Torah scroll and put it in his bosom and say, “More than what I have read out before you is written here.” And “On the tenth …” (Numbers 29:7-11) which is in the Book of Numbers he recites by heart. And he recites on it eight benedictions: “For the law”, “For the Temple service,” “For thanksgiving,” “For the forgiveness of sins” and “For the Temple” on its own, and “For Israel” on its own and “For Jerusalem” on its own, “For the priests” on their own and “For the rest of the prayer.”"
25. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 11.27-11.34 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

11.27. Therefore whoever eats this bread or drinks the Lord's cup i unworthy manner will be guilty of the body and the blood of theLord. 11.28. But let a man examine himself, and so let him eat of thebread, and drink of the cup. 11.29. For he who eats and drinks in anunworthy manner eats and drinks judgment to himself, if he doesn'tdiscern the Lord's body. 11.30. For this cause many among you are weakand sickly, and not a few sleep. 11.31. For if we discerned ourselves,we wouldn't be judged. 11.32. But when we are judged, we are punishedby the Lord, that we may not be condemned with the world. 11.33. Therefore, my brothers, when you come together to eat, wait one foranother. 11.34. But if anyone is hungry, let him eat at home, lestyour coming together be for judgment. The rest I will set in orderwhenever I come.
26. New Testament, Acts, 15.10 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

15.10. Now therefore why do you tempt God, that you should put a yoke on the neck of the disciples which neither our fathers nor we were able to bear?
27. New Testament, Luke, 11.1-11.4 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

11.1. It happened, that when he finished praying in a certain place, one of his disciples said to him, "Lord, teach us to pray, just as John also taught his disciples. 11.2. He said to them, "When you pray, say, 'Our Father in heaven, May your name be kept holy. May your kingdom come. May your will be done on Earth, as it is in heaven. 11.3. Give us day by day our daily bread. 11.4. Forgive us our sins, For we ourselves also forgive everyone who is indebted to us. Bring us not into temptation, But deliver us from the evil one.'
28. New Testament, Matthew, 6.33, 7.15, 7.28-7.29, 24.24 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

6.33. But seek first God's Kingdom, and his righteousness; and all these things will be given to you as well. 7.15. Beware of false prophets, who come to you in sheep's clothing, but inwardly are ravening wolves. 7.28. It happened, when Jesus had finished saying these things, that the multitudes were astonished at his teaching 7.29. for he taught them with authority, and not like the scribes. 24.24. For there will arise false Christs, and false prophets, and they will show great signs and wonders, so as to lead astray, if possible, even the elect.
29. Tosefta, Berachot, 2.1, 3.6 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

2.1. One who says the Shema must remember the exodus from Egypt when saying \"Emet V'Yatziv\". Rabbi [Yehuda] says that one must remember the [Davidic] kingship. Aherim say that one must remember the slaying of the first born and the dividing of the Red Sea. " 3.6. [A person] who prays [Shmoneh Esreh] must pay attention [to the meaning of the words]. Abba Shaul says, “There is a reference for [the need of attention in] prayer [in the Tanach], ‘Prepare their hearts, pay attention.’ “ (Psalms 10:17)"
30. Anon., Sifre Deuteronomy, 36 (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

31. Anon., Sifre Numbers, 115 (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

32. Babylonian Talmud, Berachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

12a. אלא אי אמרת אהבה רבה הוו אמרי מאי ברכות אין מעכבות זו את זו דלמא האי דלא אמרי יוצר אור משום דלא מטא זמן יוצר אור וכי מטא זמן יוצר אור הוו אמרי,ואי מכללא מאי,דאי מכללא לעולם אהבה רבה הוו אמרי וכי מטא זמן יוצר אור הוו אמרי ליה ומאי ברכות אין מעכבות זו את זו סדר ברכות:,וקורין עשרת הדברות שמע והיה אם שמוע ויאמר אמת ויציב ועבודה וברכת כהנים.,א"ר יהודה אמר שמואל אף בגבולין בקשו לקרות כן אלא שכבר בטלום מפני תרעומת המינין,תניא נמי הכי ר' נתן אומר בגבולין בקשו לקרות כן אלא שכבר בטלום מפני תרעומת המינין,רבה בב"ח סבר למקבעינהו בסורא א"ל רב חסדא כבר בטלום מפני תרעומת המינין,אמימר סבר למקבעינהו בנהרדעא א"ל רב אשי כבר בטלום מפני תרעומת המינין:,ובשבת מוסיפין ברכה אחת למשמר היוצא. מאי ברכה אחת א"ר חלבו משמר היוצא אומר למשמר הנכנס מי ששכן את שמו בבית הזה הוא ישכין ביניכם אהבה ואחוה ושלום וריעות:,מקום שאמרו להאריך: פשיטא היכא דקא נקיט כסא דחמרא בידיה וקסבר דשכרא הוא ופתח ומברך אדעתא דשכרא וסיים בדחמרא יצא דאי נמי אם אמר שהכל נהיה בדברו יצא דהא תנן על כולם אם אמר שהכל נהיה בדברו יצא,אלא היכא דקא נקיט כסא דשכרא בידיה וקסבר דחמרא הוא פתח ובריך אדעתא דחמרא וסיים בדשכרא מאי,בתר עיקר ברכה אזלינן או בתר חתימה אזלינן,ת"ש שחרית פתח ביוצר אור וסיים במעריב ערבים לא יצא פתח במעריב ערבים וסיים ביוצר אור יצא,ערבית פתח במעריב ערבים וסיים ביוצר אור לא יצא פתח ביוצר אור וסיים במעריב ערבים יצא,כללו של דבר הכל הולך אחר החתום,שאני התם דקאמר ברוך יוצר המאורות,הניחא לרב דאמר כל ברכה שאין בה הזכרת השם אינה ברכה שפיר אלא לר' יוחנן דאמר כל ברכה שאין בה מלכות אינה ברכה מאי איכא למימר,אלא כיון דאמר רבה בר עולא כדי להזכיר מדת יום בלילה ומדת לילה ביום כי קאמר ברכה ומלכות מעיקרא אתרוייהו קאמר,ת"ש מסיפא כללו של דבר הכל הולך אחר החתום כללו של דבר לאתויי מאי לאו לאתויי הא דאמרן,לא לאתויי נהמא ותמרי ה"ד אילימא דאכל נהמא וקסבר דתמרי אכל ופתח אדעתא דתמרי וסיים בדנהמא היינו בעיין,לא צריכא כגון דאכל תמרי וקסבר נהמא אכל ופתח בדנהמא וסיים בדתמרי [יצא] דאפילו סיים בדנהמא נמי יצא,מאי טעמא דתמרי נמי מיזן זייני:,אמר רבה בר חיננא סבא משמיה דרב כל שלא אמר אמת ויציב שחרית ואמת ואמונה ערבית לא יצא ידי חובתו שנאמר (תהלים צב, ג) להגיד בבקר חסדך ואמונתך בלילות:,ואמר רבה בר חיננא [סבא] משמיה דרב המתפלל כשהוא כורע כורע בברוך וכשהוא זוקף זוקף בשם,אמר שמואל מאי טעמא דרב דכתיב (תהלים קמו, ח) ה' זוקף כפופים,מיתיבי (מלאכי ב, ה) מפני שמי נחת הוא,מי כתיב בשמי מפני שמי כתיב,אמר ליה שמואל לחייא בר רב בר אוריאן תא ואימא לך מלתא מעלייתא דאמר אבוך הכי אמר אבוך כשהוא כורע כורע בברוך כשהוא זוקף זוקף בשם. 12a. bHowever, if you say that theywould omit: Who creates light, and bwould recite: An abounding love,on bwhatbasis would you conclude that failure to recite one of the bblessingsrecited before iShema bdoes not preventone from reciting the bother?In that case, one could offer another reason why only a single blessing is recited. bPerhapsthe fact bthat they did not recite: Who creates light was because the time for the recitation of: Who creates light, had not yet arrived,as the sun had yet to rise. The blessings of the priestly watch are recited in the early morning hours, long before sunrise. bHowever,afterward, bwhen the timeto recite: bWho creates light arrived, they would recite it.From the conclusion drawn by Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish, that failure to recite one of the blessings recited before iShema /idoes not prevent one from reciting the other, it is clear that the blessing recited by the members of the priestly watch was: Who creates light.,As this deductive reasoning seems coherent and convincing, the Gemara asks: bAnd ifthis ihalakhais bbased on inference,and not on an explicit statement, bwhatof it? There seems to be no other way to interpret Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish’s statement.,The Gemara answers: bIfthis conclusion bwere based on an inference,one could say that bactually they recited: An abounding love, and when the timeto recite: bWho creates light arrived, they would recite it.In that case, bwhatis the meaning of: Failure to recite one of the bblessingsrecited before iShema bdoes not preventone from reciting the bother?Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish meant that failure to recite bthecorrect border of the blessingsdoes not prevent one from fulfilling his obligation. Even if one recites: An abounding love before: Who creates light, he fulfills his obligation. Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish did not refer to a case where only one of the blessings was recited. Consequently, one cannot infer from his statement his opinion regarding the identity of the single blessing.,The Gemara related above that the priests in the Temple bread the Ten Commandments,along with the sections of iShema /i, iVeHaya im Shamoa /i, iVaYomer /i, True and Firm, iAvoda,and the priestly benediction. /b, bRav Yehuda saidthat bShmuel said: Even in the outlying areas,outside the Temple, bthey sought to recitethe Ten Commandments bin this mannerevery day, as they are the basis of the Torah (Rambam), bbut they had already abolishedrecitation of the Ten Commandments bdue to the grievance of the heretics,who argued that the entire Torah, with the exception of the Ten Commandments, did not emanate from God (Jerusalem Talmud). If the Ten Commandments were recited daily, that would lend credence to their claim, so their recitation was expunged from the daily prayers., bThat was also taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Natan says: In the outlying areas, they sought to recitethe Ten Commandments bin this manner, but they had already abolishedtheir recitation bdue to the grievance of the heretics. /b,The Gemara relates that several Sages sought to reinstitute recitation of the Ten Commandments, as bRabba bar bar Ḥana thought to institute this inthe city of bSura,but bRav Ḥisda said to him: They already abolished them due to the grievance of the heretics. /b,So too, bAmeimar thought to institute this inthe city of bNeharde’a. Rav Ashi,the most prominent of the Sages in that generation, bsaid to him: They already abolished them due to the grievance of the heretics. /b,We learned in a mishna in tractate iTamidthat bon Shabbat a single blessing is added tobless bthe outgoing priestly watch.The Gemara asks: bWhat isthat bsingle blessing? Rabbi Ḥelbo said:As they finished their service, bthe outgoing priestly watch would say to the incoming priestly watch: May He who caused His Name to dwell in this house cause love and brotherhood, peace and camaraderie to dwell among you. /b,We learned in the mishna: bWherethe Sages bsaidto recite ba longblessing, one may not shorten it, and vice-versa. The Gemara proceeds to address a particular problem arising from conclusions drawn from this mishna. Before addressing the primary problem, however, a simpler, secondary issue is raised: bObviously, in a case where one took a cup of wine in his hand and thought it was beer, and began reciting the blessing thinking it was beer,i.e., he intended to recite the appropriate blessing on beer: By Whose word all things came to be, bandupon realizing that it was wine, bhe concludedthe blessing bwith thatwhich is recited over bwine:Who creates the fruit of the vine, bhe fulfilledhis obligation. In that case, beven had he recited: By Whose word all things came to be,as he originally intended, bhewould have bfulfilledhis obligation, bas we learnedin a mishna: bIf onerecited the general blessing: bBy Whose word all things came to be, over allfood items, bhe fulfilledhis obligation after the fact, even if iab initioanother blessing was instituted to recite before eating that food. Therefore, if he reconsidered and concluded the blessing with the ending of the blessing over wine, he fulfilled his obligation., bHowever in a case where one took a cup of beer in his hand and thought it was wine, and began reciting the blessing thinking it was wine,meaning he intended to recite: Who creates the fruit of the vine, bandupon realizing that it was beer bhe concludedthe blessing bwith thatwhich is recited over bbeer:By Whose word all things came to be, bwhatis the ihalakha /i?,Ostensibly, this blessing is comprised of two sections. The first section, during which he intended to recite: Who creates the fruit of the vine, cannot fulfill his obligation as it is an inappropriate blessing to recite over beer. However, in the second section he recited: By Whose word all things came to be, the appropriate blessing. The dilemma, then, is: bDo we follow the essenceof the blessing, the first section, bor do we follow the conclusionof the blessing?, bCome and heara proof from what was taught in a ibaraitawith regard to a similar case: If, in bthe morning prayer /b, one bbeganthe blessings prior to the recitation of iShemaappropriately bwith: Who creates light, and concluded withthe formula of the evening prayer: bWho brings on evenings, he did not fulfillhis obligation. However, if one did the opposite, and bcommenced with: Who brings on evenings, and concluded with: Who creates light, he fulfilledhis obligation.,Similarly, if, in bthe evening prayer /b, bone commencedthe recitation of iShema bwith: Who brings on evenings and concluded with: Who creates light, he did not fulfillhis obligation. If bone commenced with: Who creates light and concluded with: Who brings on evenings, he fulfilledhis obligation.,The ibaraitasummarizes that bthe general principle is: Everything follows the conclusionof the blessing. Based on this principle, the question with regard to a blessing recited over food and drink posed above can be resolved.,This proof is rejected: bThere,in the case of the blessing recited over the radiant lights, bit is different, as one recites: Blessed /b…Who bforms the radiant lights,and similarly, in the evening one recites: Blessed…Who brings on evenings. Since these are long blessings that conclude with a second blessing summarizing their content, one could assert that everything follows the conclusion. However, in the case of short blessings, such as: By Whose word all things came to be, or: Who creates the fruit of the vine, ostensibly, if there is a problem with the first part of the blessing, the entire blessing is nullified.,The distinction between the blessing recited over the radiant lights and the blessings recited over food and drink stems from the assumption that the conclusion: Blessed…Who fashions the radiant lights, is a complete, independent blessing. However, this is not necessarily so. bThis works out well according to Rav, who said: Any blessing that does not include mention of God’s name is notconsidered ba blessing,and since: Who creates light, includes God’s name, it constitutes a complete, independent blessing. bHowever, according to Rabbi Yoḥa, who said: Any blessing that does not include mention ofGod’s bsovereignty,i.e., our God, King of the universe, bis notconsidered ba blessing, what can be saidto distinguish between the conclusion of the blessings over food and drink and the blessing over the radiant lights? Since the conclusion: Who creates light, does not mention God’s sovereignty, it does not constitute a complete, independent blessing.,The Gemara responds: bRather,Rabbi Yoḥa also holds that the blessing over the radiant lights is a complete blessing. bSince Rabba bar Ulla said:Who creates darkness, is mentioned during the day and: Rolling away the light before the darkness, is mentioned at night bin order to mention the attribute of day at night and the attribute of night in the day,the beginning of the blessing in which God’s sovereignty is mentioned day and night is appropriate to both day and night, and bwhen one recites the blessingwith God’s name bandmentions God’s bsovereignty at the beginning of the blessing,it refers bto bothday and night. Therefore, no proof can be cited from the blessing over the radiant lights to the blessings recited over food and drink.,The Gemara attempts to cite an additional proof: bCome and hearanother solution based on what we learned bin the latter clauseof the ibaraitacited above: bThe general principle is: Everything follows the conclusionof the blessing. bWhat doesthe phrase: The general principle is, come bto includebeyond the detailed example cited in the ibaraita /i? bDoes it not come to includethe case bthat we stated,that both in the case of a long blessing and the case of a short blessing, the conclusion of the blessing is the determining factor?,The Gemara rejects this: bNo,the principle is cited bto includea case of bbread and dates.The Gemara clarifies: bWhat are the circumstancesof the dilemma with regard to the blessings on these food items? bIf you say thatit is a case bwhere one ate bread and thought that he ate dates, and commencedreciting the blessing bthinking it was dates;then, upon realizing that it was bread, bhe concludedthe blessing bwith thatwhich is recited bover bread, isn’t that our dilemma,as this case is identical to the one involving wine and beer?,The Gemara answers: bNo; thisgeneral principle bisonly bnecessaryto teach a special bcase /b, bwhere one ate dates and thought that he ate bread, and commencedreciting the blessing bthinking they were bread.Upon realizing that they were dates, bhe concludedthe blessing bwith thatwhich is recited bover dates.In that case bhe fulfilledhis obligation, as beven had he concludedthe blessing bwith thatwhich is recited bover bread, hewould have bfulfilled his obligation. /b, bWhat is the reasonthat had he concluded with the blessing recited over bread he would have fulfilled his obligation to recite a blessing over dates? This is bbecause dates also providea person bsustece.While iab initioone should not recite the blessing for bread over dates, after the fact, if one did so, he fulfilled his obligation. It is with regard to this particular situation that the ibaraitaestablished the principle: Everything follows the conclusion of the blessing. Ultimately, the dilemma regarding a blessing with an inappropriate opening and an appropriate conclusion remains unresolved. brThe Gemara proceeds to discuss the formula for the blessings recited along with iShema /i., bRabba bar Ḥina Sava said in the name of Rav: One who did not recite: True and Firm [ iemet veyatziv /i]at the beginning of the blessing of redemption that follows iShema bin the morning prayer, and: True and Trustworthy [ iemet ve’emuna /i] in the evening prayer, he did not fulfill his obligation.An allusion to the difference in formulation between morning and evening is, bas it is stated: “To declare Your kindness in the morning and Your faith in the nights”(Psalms 92:3). In the morning, one must mention God’s loving-kindness, while in the evening one is required to emphasize the aspect of faith., bAnd Rabba bar Ḥina Sava said in the name of Rav: One who is praying, when he bowsin the appropriate places, bhe bows whenhe says: bBlessed, and when hesubsequently bstands upright, he stands upright when he saysGod’s bname. /b, bShmuel,who was Rav’s colleague and significantly outlived him, bsaid: What is Rav’s reasonfor saying that one should stand upright at the mention of God’s name? bAs it is written: “The Lord, who raises the bowed”(Psalms 146:8); one stands upright at the mention of God’s name to recall that it is God who raises the bowed.,The Gemara braises an objectionbased on what we learned in praise of a priest: b“And he was afraid before My name”(Malachi 2:5), indicating that one must be humbled and not upright before God’s name.,The Gemara responds: bIs it written: At My name? Before My name, is written,meaning that one is humbled and bows prior to the mention of God’s name, when he says: Blessed.,The Gemara relates: bShmuel said to Ḥiyya bar Rav: Son of Torah, come and I will tell you a great saying that your father said. Your father said the following: When one bows, he bows whenhe says: bBlessed, and when he stands upright, he stands upright when he saysGod’s bname. /b


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
afterlife, eschatological punishment Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 282
amidah" '123.0_119.0@classical world Reif, Problems with Prayers: Studies in the Textual History of Early Rabbinic Liturgy (2006) 286
amoraic literature, questions of theodicy Avemarie, van Henten, and Furstenberg, Jewish Martyrdom in Antiquity (2023) 174
angelic mediators Avemarie, van Henten, and Furstenberg, Jewish Martyrdom in Antiquity (2023) 174
anthology Stern, From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season (2004) 25
baumgarten, albert Alexander, Gender and Timebound Commandments in Judaism (2013) 139
benedictions and graces Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 184
christian, early christian, anti-christian, christianity Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 122
circumcision Kaplan, My Perfect One: Typology and Early Rabbinic Interpretation of Song of Songs (2015) 113
cohn, yehudah Alexander, Gender and Timebound Commandments in Judaism (2013) 142
covenant Alexander, Gender and Timebound Commandments in Judaism (2013) 150
david Kaplan, My Perfect One: Typology and Early Rabbinic Interpretation of Song of Songs (2015) 113
decalogue Alexander, Gender and Timebound Commandments in Judaism (2013) 139
dialogue during martyrdom, rabbinic martyrs Avemarie, van Henten, and Furstenberg, Jewish Martyrdom in Antiquity (2023) 174
emet ve, emunah Reif, Problems with Prayers: Studies in the Textual History of Early Rabbinic Liturgy (2006) 286
emet ve, yasiv' "123.0_286.0@ge'ulah" Reif, Problems with Prayers: Studies in the Textual History of Early Rabbinic Liturgy (2006) 286
eschatological prophet, non-eschatological Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 122
eschatology, eschatological, belonging to the end-of-days, messianic age Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 122
eucharistic prayer Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 205
exegesis, exegetical, interpretation of scripture, jesus command of scriptural exegesis Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 122
exegesis, exegetical, interpretation of scripture Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 122
god, unity of Alexander, Gender and Timebound Commandments in Judaism (2013) 142
haftarot Stern, From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season (2004) 25
hebrew bible/old testament/scripture Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 122
heinemann j. Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 184
hope Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 122
jesus, as a prophetic anointed of the spirit Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 122
jesus, divine status Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 122
jesus messianic biography Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 122
keel, othmar Alexander, Gender and Timebound Commandments in Judaism (2013) 142
kimelman, reuven Alexander, Gender and Timebound Commandments in Judaism (2013) 139, 150
kingdom of god/heaven, sons of the kingdom Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 122
labour Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 282
levenson, jon Alexander, Gender and Timebound Commandments in Judaism (2013) 139
mezuzah Kaplan, My Perfect One: Typology and Early Rabbinic Interpretation of Song of Songs (2015) 113; Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 551
mintz, alan Alexander, Gender and Timebound Commandments in Judaism (2013) 139
misiwi/commands/precepts Reif, Problems with Prayers: Studies in the Textual History of Early Rabbinic Liturgy (2006) 119
nakman, david Alexander, Gender and Timebound Commandments in Judaism (2013) 142
nash papyrus Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 551
pappus ben yehuda Avemarie, van Henten, and Furstenberg, Jewish Martyrdom in Antiquity (2023) 174
papyrological evidence, prayer Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 551
persecution Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 282
pesikta de-rav kahana, on haftarot of rebuke Stern, From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season (2004) 25
pesikta de-rav kahana, rebuke, haftarot of Stern, From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season (2004) 25
pesukei dezimra, shema Stern, From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season (2004) 25
pesukei dezimra Stern, From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season (2004) 25
prayer, daily Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 551
priests, reciting the shema Alexander, Gender and Timebound Commandments in Judaism (2013) 139, 150
prophets, gods messengers, false prophets Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 122
punishment of wrongdoers Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 282
r. akiva, martyrdom Avemarie, van Henten, and Furstenberg, Jewish Martyrdom in Antiquity (2023) 174
r. joshua b. qorha Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 551
r. simeon b. yohai Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 551
rabbinic Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 122
rabbinic judaism, pesikta de-rav kahana and Stern, From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season (2004) 25
religious ideas/theology/relations with Reif, Problems with Prayers: Studies in the Textual History of Early Rabbinic Liturgy (2006) 286
rosh hashanah Stern, From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season (2004) 25
schechter s. Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 184
schiffman, lawrence Alexander, Gender and Timebound Commandments in Judaism (2013) 139
second temple period, shema verses in Alexander, Gender and Timebound Commandments in Judaism (2013) 150
sermon on the mount Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 122
servitude/slavery Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 282
shema'" '123.0_119.0@tsitsit (fringes) Reif, Problems with Prayers: Studies in the Textual History of Early Rabbinic Liturgy (2006) 286
shema, as doctrinal affirmation Alexander, Gender and Timebound Commandments in Judaism (2013) 150, 223
shema, biblical passages Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 551
shema, in tannaitic texts Alexander, Gender and Timebound Commandments in Judaism (2013) 150
shema, linked to decalogue Alexander, Gender and Timebound Commandments in Judaism (2013) 150
shema, nash papyrus Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 551
shema, rabbinic Alexander, Gender and Timebound Commandments in Judaism (2013) 139, 142
shema, scriptural basis for Alexander, Gender and Timebound Commandments in Judaism (2013) 139, 142
shema, themes Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 551
shema Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 184, 205; Stern, From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season (2004) 25
shema rituals, r. shimons application of rule to Alexander, Gender and Timebound Commandments in Judaism (2013) 223
shema yisrael, rabbi akivas recitation Avemarie, van Henten, and Furstenberg, Jewish Martyrdom in Antiquity (2023) 174
sinai, covenant, revelation Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 122
spirit (of god), holy spirit, gift of Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 122
stern, david Stern, From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season (2004) 25
sunday, christian Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 205
tabory, joseph Alexander, Gender and Timebound Commandments in Judaism (2013) 139
tefillin Kaplan, My Perfect One: Typology and Early Rabbinic Interpretation of Song of Songs (2015) 113; Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 551
temple, sacrificial cult (in jerusalem) Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 122
tephillah Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 184
theodicy, emphasis in bavli Avemarie, van Henten, and Furstenberg, Jewish Martyrdom in Antiquity (2023) 174
tisha bav lectionary cycle, anthology genre Stern, From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season (2004) 25
tisha bav lectionary cycle, shema and Stern, From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season (2004) 25
tongues, evil Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 282
torah Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 122
torah and prophets, commandments Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 122
torah and torah study Reif, Problems with Prayers: Studies in the Textual History of Early Rabbinic Liturgy (2006) 119
tsitsit' Kaplan, My Perfect One: Typology and Early Rabbinic Interpretation of Song of Songs (2015) 113
tunius rufus/tunus rufus Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 122
urbach, ephraim e. Alexander, Gender and Timebound Commandments in Judaism (2013) 139
weinfeld, moshe Alexander, Gender and Timebound Commandments in Judaism (2013) 139, 142
wisdom, for/of the elect/righteous Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 282
wisdom Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 282
withdrawal/rejection of/without Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 282
worship, daily and weekly Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 184, 205
yoke Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 282