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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



8004
Mishnah, Berachot, 1.2-1.3


מֵאֵימָתַי קוֹרִין אֶת שְׁמַע בְּשַׁחֲרִית. מִשֶּׁיַּכִּיר בֵּין תְּכֵלֶת לְלָבָן. רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר אוֹמֵר, בֵּין תְּכֵלֶת לְכַרְתִּי. וְגוֹמְרָהּ עַד הָנֵץ הַחַמָּה. רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ אוֹמֵר, עַד שָׁלֹשׁ שָׁעוֹת, שֶׁכֵּן דֶּרֶךְ בְּנֵי מְלָכִים לַעֲמֹד בְּשָׁלֹשׁ שָׁעוֹת. הַקּוֹרֵא מִכָּאן וְאֵילָךְ לֹא הִפְסִיד, כְּאָדָם הַקּוֹרֵא בַתּוֹרָה:From what time may one recite the Shema in the morning?From the time that one can distinguish between blue and white. Rabbi Eliezer says: between blue and green. And he must finish it by sunrise. Rabbi Joshua says: until the third hour of the day, for such is the custom of the children of kings, to rise at the third hour. If one recites the Shema later he loses nothing, like one who reads in the Torah.


בֵּית שַׁמַּאי אוֹמְרִים, בָּעֶרֶב כָּל אָדָם יַטּוּ וְיִקְרְאוּ, וּבַבֹּקֶר יַעַמְדוּ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים ו) וּבְשָׁכְבְּךָ וּבְקוּמֶךָ. וּבֵית הִלֵּל אוֹמְרִים, כָּל אָדָם קוֹרֵא כְדַרְכּוֹ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שם) וּבְלֶכְתְּךָ בַדֶּרֶךְ. אִם כֵּן, לָמָּה נֶאֱמַר וּבְשָׁכְבְּךָ וּבְקוּמֶךָ, בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁבְּנֵי אָדָם שׁוֹכְבִים, וּבְשָׁעָה שֶׁבְּנֵי אָדָם עוֹמְדִים. אָמַר רַבִּי טַרְפוֹן, אֲנִי הָיִיתִי בָא בַדֶּרֶךְ, וְהִטֵּתִי לִקְרוֹת, כְּדִבְרֵי בֵית שַׁמַּאי, וְסִכַּנְתִּי בְעַצְמִי מִפְּנֵי הַלִּסְטִים. אָמְרוּ לוֹ, כְּדַי הָיִיתָ לָחוּב בְּעַצְמְךָ, שֶׁעָבַרְתָּ עַל דִּבְרֵי בֵית הִלֵּל:Bet Shammai say: in the evening every man should recline and recite [the Shema], and in the morning he should stand, as it says, “And when you lie down and when you get up” (Deuteronomy 6:7). Bet Hillel say that every man should recite in his own way, as it says, “And when you walk by the way” (ibid). Why then is it said, “And when you lies down and when you get up?” At the time when people lie down and at the time when people rise up. Rabbi Tarfon said: I was once walking by the way and I reclined to recite the Shema according to the words of Bet Shammai, and I incurred danger from robbers. They said to him: you deserved to come to harm, because you acted against the words of Bet Hillel.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

16 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 6.4-6.9, 11.13-11.21 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

6.4. שְׁמַע יִשְׂרָאֵל יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵינוּ יְהוָה אֶחָד׃ 6.5. וְאָהַבְתָּ אֵת יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ בְּכָל־לְבָבְךָ וּבְכָל־נַפְשְׁךָ וּבְכָל־מְאֹדֶךָ׃ 6.6. וְהָיוּ הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה אֲשֶׁר אָנֹכִי מְצַוְּךָ הַיּוֹם עַל־לְבָבֶךָ׃ 6.7. וְשִׁנַּנְתָּם לְבָנֶיךָ וְדִבַּרְתָּ בָּם בְּשִׁבְתְּךָ בְּבֵיתֶךָ וּבְלֶכְתְּךָ בַדֶּרֶךְ וּבְשָׁכְבְּךָ וּבְקוּמֶךָ׃ 6.8. וּקְשַׁרְתָּם לְאוֹת עַל־יָדֶךָ וְהָיוּ לְטֹטָפֹת בֵּין עֵינֶיךָ׃ 6.9. וּכְתַבְתָּם עַל־מְזוּזֹת בֵּיתֶךָ וּבִשְׁעָרֶיךָ׃ 11.13. וְהָיָה אִם־שָׁמֹעַ תִּשְׁמְעוּ אֶל־מִצְוֺתַי אֲשֶׁר אָנֹכִי מְצַוֶּה אֶתְכֶם הַיּוֹם לְאַהֲבָה אֶת־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם וּלְעָבְדוֹ בְּכָל־לְבַבְכֶם וּבְכָל־נַפְשְׁכֶם׃ 11.14. וְנָתַתִּי מְטַר־אַרְצְכֶם בְּעִתּוֹ יוֹרֶה וּמַלְקוֹשׁ וְאָסַפְתָּ דְגָנֶךָ וְתִירֹשְׁךָ וְיִצְהָרֶךָ׃ 11.15. וְנָתַתִּי עֵשֶׂב בְּשָׂדְךָ לִבְהֶמְתֶּךָ וְאָכַלְתָּ וְשָׂבָעְתָּ׃ 11.16. הִשָּׁמְרוּ לָכֶם פֶּן יִפְתֶּה לְבַבְכֶם וְסַרְתֶּם וַעֲבַדְתֶּם אֱלֹהִים אֲחֵרִים וְהִשְׁתַּחֲוִיתֶם לָהֶם׃ 11.17. וְחָרָה אַף־יְהוָה בָּכֶם וְעָצַר אֶת־הַשָּׁמַיִם וְלֹא־יִהְיֶה מָטָר וְהָאֲדָמָה לֹא תִתֵּן אֶת־יְבוּלָהּ וַאֲבַדְתֶּם מְהֵרָה מֵעַל הָאָרֶץ הַטֹּבָה אֲשֶׁר יְהוָה נֹתֵן לָכֶם׃ 11.18. וְשַׂמְתֶּם אֶת־דְּבָרַי אֵלֶּה עַל־לְבַבְכֶם וְעַל־נַפְשְׁכֶם וּקְשַׁרְתֶּם אֹתָם לְאוֹת עַל־יֶדְכֶם וְהָיוּ לְטוֹטָפֹת בֵּין עֵינֵיכֶם׃ 11.19. וְלִמַּדְתֶּם אֹתָם אֶת־בְּנֵיכֶם לְדַבֵּר בָּם בְּשִׁבְתְּךָ בְּבֵיתֶךָ וּבְלֶכְתְּךָ בַדֶּרֶךְ וּבְשָׁכְבְּךָ וּבְקוּמֶךָ׃ 11.21. לְמַעַן יִרְבּוּ יְמֵיכֶם וִימֵי בְנֵיכֶם עַל הָאֲדָמָה אֲשֶׁר נִשְׁבַּע יְהוָה לַאֲבֹתֵיכֶם לָתֵת לָהֶם כִּימֵי הַשָּׁמַיִם עַל־הָאָרֶץ׃ 6.4. HEAR, O ISRAEL: THE LORD OUR GOD, THE LORD IS ONE." 6.5. And thou shalt love the LORD thy God with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy might." 6.6. And these words, which I command thee this day, shall be upon thy heart;" 6.7. and thou shalt teach them diligently unto thy children, and shalt talk of them when thou sittest in thy house, and when thou walkest by the way, and when thou liest down, and when thou risest up." 6.8. And thou shalt bind them for a sign upon thy hand, and they shall be for frontlets between thine eyes." 6.9. And thou shalt write them upon the door-posts of thy house, and upon thy gates." 11.13. And it shall come to pass, if ye shall hearken diligently unto My commandments which I command you this day, to love the LORD your God, and to serve Him with all your heart and with all your soul," 11.14. that I will give the rain of your land in its season, the former rain and the latter rain, that thou mayest gather in thy corn, and thy wine, and thine oil." 11.15. And I will give grass in thy fields for thy cattle, and thou shalt eat and be satisfied." 11.16. Take heed to yourselves, lest your heart be deceived, and ye turn aside, and serve other gods, and worship them;" 11.17. and the anger of the LORD be kindled against you, and He shut up the heaven, so that there shall be no rain, and the ground shall not yield her fruit; and ye perish quickly from off the good land which the LORD giveth you." 11.18. Therefore shall ye lay up these My words in your heart and in your soul; and ye shall bind them for a sign upon your hand, and they shall be for frontlets between your eyes." 11.19. And ye shall teach them your children, talking of them, when thou sittest in thy house, and when thou walkest by the way, and when thou liest down, and when thou risest up." 11.20. And thou shalt write them upon the door-posts of thy house, and upon thy gates;" 11.21. that your days may be multiplied, and the days of your children, upon the land which the LORD swore unto your fathers to give them, as the days of the heavens above the earth."
2. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 30.8 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

30.8. וּבְהַעֲלֹת אַהֲרֹן אֶת־הַנֵּרֹת בֵּין הָעֲרְבַּיִם יַקְטִירֶנָּה קְטֹרֶת תָּמִיד לִפְנֵי יְהוָה לְדֹרֹתֵיכֶם׃ 30.8. And when Aaron lighteth the lamps at dusk, he shall burn it, a perpetual incense before the LORD throughout your generations."
3. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 10.2-10.3, 10.10, 15.37-15.41 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

10.2. עֲשֵׂה לְךָ שְׁתֵּי חֲצוֹצְרֹת כֶּסֶף מִקְשָׁה תַּעֲשֶׂה אֹתָם וְהָיוּ לְךָ לְמִקְרָא הָעֵדָה וּלְמַסַּע אֶת־הַמַּחֲנוֹת׃ 10.2. וְעַל־צְבָא מַטֵּה בְנֵי־גָד אֶלְיָסָף בֶּן־דְּעוּאֵל׃ 10.3. וְתָקְעוּ בָּהֵן וְנוֹעֲדוּ אֵלֶיךָ כָּל־הָעֵדָה אֶל־פֶּתַח אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד׃ 10.3. וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלָיו לֹא אֵלֵךְ כִּי אִם־אֶל־אַרְצִי וְאֶל־מוֹלַדְתִּי אֵלֵךְ׃ 15.37. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה לֵּאמֹר׃ 15.38. דַּבֵּר אֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאָמַרְתָּ אֲלֵהֶם וְעָשׂוּ לָהֶם צִיצִת עַל־כַּנְפֵי בִגְדֵיהֶם לְדֹרֹתָם וְנָתְנוּ עַל־צִיצִת הַכָּנָף פְּתִיל תְּכֵלֶת׃ 15.39. וְהָיָה לָכֶם לְצִיצִת וּרְאִיתֶם אֹתוֹ וּזְכַרְתֶּם אֶת־כָּל־מִצְוֺת יְהוָה וַעֲשִׂיתֶם אֹתָם וְלֹא־תָתֻרוּ אַחֲרֵי לְבַבְכֶם וְאַחֲרֵי עֵינֵיכֶם אֲשֶׁר־אַתֶּם זֹנִים אַחֲרֵיהֶם׃ 15.41. אֲנִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם אֲשֶׁר הוֹצֵאתִי אֶתְכֶם מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם לִהְיוֹת לָכֶם לֵאלֹהִים אֲנִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם׃ 10.2. ’Make thee two trumpets of silver; of beaten work shalt thou make them; and they shall be unto thee for the calling of the congregation, and for causing the camps to set forward." 10.3. And when they shall blow with them, all the congregation shall gather themselves unto thee at the door of the tent of meeting." 10.10. Also in the day of your gladness, and in your appointed seasons, and in your new moons, ye shall blow with the trumpets over your burnt-offerings, and over the sacrifices of your peace-offerings; and they shall be to you for a memorial before your God: I am the LORD your God.’" 15.37. And the LORD spoke unto Moses, saying:" 15.38. ’Speak unto the children of Israel, and bid them that they make them throughout their generations fringes in the corners of their garments, and that they put with the fringe of each corner a thread of blue." 15.39. And it shall be unto you for a fringe, that ye may look upon it, and remember all the commandments of the LORD, and do them; and that ye go not about after your own heart and your own eyes, after which ye use to go astray;" 15.40. that ye may remember and do all My commandments, and be holy unto your God." 15.41. I am the LORD your God, who brought you out of the land of Egypt, to be your God: I am the LORD your God.’"
4. Dead Sea Scrolls, Community Rule, 10.10 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

5. Hebrew Bible, Daniel, 6.11 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

6.11. וְדָנִיֵּאל כְּדִי יְדַע דִּי־רְשִׁים כְּתָבָא עַל לְבַיְתֵהּ וְכַוִּין פְּתִיחָן לֵהּ בְּעִלִּיתֵהּ נֶגֶד יְרוּשְׁלֶם וְזִמְנִין תְּלָתָה בְיוֹמָא הוּא בָּרֵךְ עַל־בִּרְכוֹהִי וּמְצַלֵּא וּמוֹדֵא קֳדָם אֱלָהֵהּ כָּל־קֳבֵל דִּי־הֲוָא עָבֵד מִן־קַדְמַת דְּנָה׃ 6.11. And when Daniel knew that the writing was signed, he went into his house—now his windows were open in his upper chamber toward Jerusalem—and he kneeled upon his knees three times a day, and prayed, and gave thanks before his God, as he did aforetime."
6. Philo of Alexandria, On The Contemplative Life, 27 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

27. And they are accustomed to pray twice every day, at morning and at evening; when the sun is rising entreating God that the happiness of the coming day may be real happiness, so that their minds may be filled with heavenly light, and when the sun is setting they pray that their soul, being entirely lightened and relieved of the burden of the outward senses, and of the appropriate object of these outward senses, may be able to trace out truth existing in its own consistory and council chamber.
7. Anon., Didache, 8.3 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

8. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 4.212, 10.255, 14.65 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4.212. 13. Let every one commemorate before God the benefits which he bestowed upon them at their deliverance out of the land of Egypt, and this twice every day, both when the day begins and when the hour of sleep comes on, gratitude being in its own nature a just thing, and serving not only by way of return for past, but also by way of invitation of future favors. 10.255. Accordingly, all the rest took care not to transgress those injunctions, and rested in quiet; but Daniel had no regard to them, but, as he was wont, he stood and prayed to God in the sight of them all; 14.65. And any one may hence learn how very great piety we exercise towards God, and the observance of his laws, since the priests were not at all hindered from their sacred ministrations by their fear during this siege, but did still twice a day, in the morning and about the ninth hour, offer their sacrifices on the altar; nor did they omit those sacrifices, if any melancholy accident happened by the stones that were thrown among them;
9. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 6.423 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

6.423. So these high priests, upon the coming of that feast which is called the Passover, when they slay their sacrifices, from the ninth hour till the eleventh, but so that a company not less than ten belong to every sacrifice (for it is not lawful for them to feast singly by themselves), and many of us are twenty in a company
10. Mishnah, Berachot, 1.1, 1.3, 4.1 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

1.1. From what time may one recite the Shema in the evening? From the time that the priests enter [their houses] in order to eat their terumah until the end of the first watch, the words of Rabbi Eliezer. The sages say: until midnight. Rabban Gamaliel says: until dawn. Once it happened that his sons came home [late] from a wedding feast and they said to him: we have not yet recited the [evening] Shema. He said to them: if it is not yet dawn you are still obligated to recite. And not in respect to this alone did they so decide, but wherever the sages say “until midnight,” the mitzvah may be performed until dawn. The burning of the fat and the pieces may be performed till dawn. Similarly, all [the offerings] that are to be eaten within one day may be eaten till dawn. Why then did the sages say “until midnight”? In order to keep a man far from transgression." 1.3. Bet Shammai say: in the evening every man should recline and recite [the Shema], and in the morning he should stand, as it says, “And when you lie down and when you get up” (Deuteronomy 6:7). Bet Hillel say that every man should recite in his own way, as it says, “And when you walk by the way” (ibid). Why then is it said, “And when you lies down and when you get up?” At the time when people lie down and at the time when people rise up. Rabbi Tarfon said: I was once walking by the way and I reclined to recite the Shema according to the words of Bet Shammai, and I incurred danger from robbers. They said to him: you deserved to come to harm, because you acted against the words of Bet Hillel." 4.1. The morning Tefillah (Shacharit) is until midday. Rabbi Judah says until the fourth hour. The afternoon Tefillah (Minhah) until evening. Rabbi Judah says: until the middle of the afternoon. The evening prayer has no fixed time. The time for the additional prayers (musaf) is the whole day. Rabbi Judah says: until the seventh hour."
11. Mishnah, Pesahim, 5.1 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

5.1. The [afternoon] tamid is slaughtered at eight and a half hours and is offered at nine and a half hours. On the eve of Pesah it is slaughtered at seven and a half hours and offered at eight and a half hours, whether it is a weekday or Shabbat. If the eve of Pesah fell on the eve of Shabbat it is slaughtered at six and a half hours and offered at seven and a half hours, and the pesah offering after it."
12. Mishnah, Tamid, 5.1 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

5.1. The superintendent said to them: Bless one blessing! And they blessed. They then read the Ten Commandments, the Shema, the “And it will be if you hearken” (the second paragraph of Shema) and Vayomer (the third paragraph of Shema), and they blessed the people with three blessings: Emet veYatziv, and Avodah, and the priestly benediction. On Shabbat they added a blessing to be said by the watch which was leaving."
13. New Testament, Acts, 3.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

3.1. Peter and John were going up into the temple at the hour of prayer, the ninth hour.
14. New Testament, Mark, 12.29-12.30 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

12.29. Jesus answered, "The greatest is, 'Hear, Israel, the Lord our God, the Lord is one: 12.30. you shall love the Lord your God with all your heart, and with all your soul, and with all your mind, and with all your strength.' This is the first commandment.
15. Babylonian Talmud, Berachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

12a. אלא אי אמרת אהבה רבה הוו אמרי מאי ברכות אין מעכבות זו את זו דלמא האי דלא אמרי יוצר אור משום דלא מטא זמן יוצר אור וכי מטא זמן יוצר אור הוו אמרי,ואי מכללא מאי,דאי מכללא לעולם אהבה רבה הוו אמרי וכי מטא זמן יוצר אור הוו אמרי ליה ומאי ברכות אין מעכבות זו את זו סדר ברכות:,וקורין עשרת הדברות שמע והיה אם שמוע ויאמר אמת ויציב ועבודה וברכת כהנים.,א"ר יהודה אמר שמואל אף בגבולין בקשו לקרות כן אלא שכבר בטלום מפני תרעומת המינין,תניא נמי הכי ר' נתן אומר בגבולין בקשו לקרות כן אלא שכבר בטלום מפני תרעומת המינין,רבה בב"ח סבר למקבעינהו בסורא א"ל רב חסדא כבר בטלום מפני תרעומת המינין,אמימר סבר למקבעינהו בנהרדעא א"ל רב אשי כבר בטלום מפני תרעומת המינין:,ובשבת מוסיפין ברכה אחת למשמר היוצא. מאי ברכה אחת א"ר חלבו משמר היוצא אומר למשמר הנכנס מי ששכן את שמו בבית הזה הוא ישכין ביניכם אהבה ואחוה ושלום וריעות:,מקום שאמרו להאריך: פשיטא היכא דקא נקיט כסא דחמרא בידיה וקסבר דשכרא הוא ופתח ומברך אדעתא דשכרא וסיים בדחמרא יצא דאי נמי אם אמר שהכל נהיה בדברו יצא דהא תנן על כולם אם אמר שהכל נהיה בדברו יצא,אלא היכא דקא נקיט כסא דשכרא בידיה וקסבר דחמרא הוא פתח ובריך אדעתא דחמרא וסיים בדשכרא מאי,בתר עיקר ברכה אזלינן או בתר חתימה אזלינן,ת"ש שחרית פתח ביוצר אור וסיים במעריב ערבים לא יצא פתח במעריב ערבים וסיים ביוצר אור יצא,ערבית פתח במעריב ערבים וסיים ביוצר אור לא יצא פתח ביוצר אור וסיים במעריב ערבים יצא,כללו של דבר הכל הולך אחר החתום,שאני התם דקאמר ברוך יוצר המאורות,הניחא לרב דאמר כל ברכה שאין בה הזכרת השם אינה ברכה שפיר אלא לר' יוחנן דאמר כל ברכה שאין בה מלכות אינה ברכה מאי איכא למימר,אלא כיון דאמר רבה בר עולא כדי להזכיר מדת יום בלילה ומדת לילה ביום כי קאמר ברכה ומלכות מעיקרא אתרוייהו קאמר,ת"ש מסיפא כללו של דבר הכל הולך אחר החתום כללו של דבר לאתויי מאי לאו לאתויי הא דאמרן,לא לאתויי נהמא ותמרי ה"ד אילימא דאכל נהמא וקסבר דתמרי אכל ופתח אדעתא דתמרי וסיים בדנהמא היינו בעיין,לא צריכא כגון דאכל תמרי וקסבר נהמא אכל ופתח בדנהמא וסיים בדתמרי [יצא] דאפילו סיים בדנהמא נמי יצא,מאי טעמא דתמרי נמי מיזן זייני:,אמר רבה בר חיננא סבא משמיה דרב כל שלא אמר אמת ויציב שחרית ואמת ואמונה ערבית לא יצא ידי חובתו שנאמר (תהלים צב, ג) להגיד בבקר חסדך ואמונתך בלילות:,ואמר רבה בר חיננא [סבא] משמיה דרב המתפלל כשהוא כורע כורע בברוך וכשהוא זוקף זוקף בשם,אמר שמואל מאי טעמא דרב דכתיב (תהלים קמו, ח) ה' זוקף כפופים,מיתיבי (מלאכי ב, ה) מפני שמי נחת הוא,מי כתיב בשמי מפני שמי כתיב,אמר ליה שמואל לחייא בר רב בר אוריאן תא ואימא לך מלתא מעלייתא דאמר אבוך הכי אמר אבוך כשהוא כורע כורע בברוך כשהוא זוקף זוקף בשם. 12a. bHowever, if you say that theywould omit: Who creates light, and bwould recite: An abounding love,on bwhatbasis would you conclude that failure to recite one of the bblessingsrecited before iShema bdoes not preventone from reciting the bother?In that case, one could offer another reason why only a single blessing is recited. bPerhapsthe fact bthat they did not recite: Who creates light was because the time for the recitation of: Who creates light, had not yet arrived,as the sun had yet to rise. The blessings of the priestly watch are recited in the early morning hours, long before sunrise. bHowever,afterward, bwhen the timeto recite: bWho creates light arrived, they would recite it.From the conclusion drawn by Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish, that failure to recite one of the blessings recited before iShema /idoes not prevent one from reciting the other, it is clear that the blessing recited by the members of the priestly watch was: Who creates light.,As this deductive reasoning seems coherent and convincing, the Gemara asks: bAnd ifthis ihalakhais bbased on inference,and not on an explicit statement, bwhatof it? There seems to be no other way to interpret Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish’s statement.,The Gemara answers: bIfthis conclusion bwere based on an inference,one could say that bactually they recited: An abounding love, and when the timeto recite: bWho creates light arrived, they would recite it.In that case, bwhatis the meaning of: Failure to recite one of the bblessingsrecited before iShema bdoes not preventone from reciting the bother?Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish meant that failure to recite bthecorrect border of the blessingsdoes not prevent one from fulfilling his obligation. Even if one recites: An abounding love before: Who creates light, he fulfills his obligation. Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish did not refer to a case where only one of the blessings was recited. Consequently, one cannot infer from his statement his opinion regarding the identity of the single blessing.,The Gemara related above that the priests in the Temple bread the Ten Commandments,along with the sections of iShema /i, iVeHaya im Shamoa /i, iVaYomer /i, True and Firm, iAvoda,and the priestly benediction. /b, bRav Yehuda saidthat bShmuel said: Even in the outlying areas,outside the Temple, bthey sought to recitethe Ten Commandments bin this mannerevery day, as they are the basis of the Torah (Rambam), bbut they had already abolishedrecitation of the Ten Commandments bdue to the grievance of the heretics,who argued that the entire Torah, with the exception of the Ten Commandments, did not emanate from God (Jerusalem Talmud). If the Ten Commandments were recited daily, that would lend credence to their claim, so their recitation was expunged from the daily prayers., bThat was also taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Natan says: In the outlying areas, they sought to recitethe Ten Commandments bin this manner, but they had already abolishedtheir recitation bdue to the grievance of the heretics. /b,The Gemara relates that several Sages sought to reinstitute recitation of the Ten Commandments, as bRabba bar bar Ḥana thought to institute this inthe city of bSura,but bRav Ḥisda said to him: They already abolished them due to the grievance of the heretics. /b,So too, bAmeimar thought to institute this inthe city of bNeharde’a. Rav Ashi,the most prominent of the Sages in that generation, bsaid to him: They already abolished them due to the grievance of the heretics. /b,We learned in a mishna in tractate iTamidthat bon Shabbat a single blessing is added tobless bthe outgoing priestly watch.The Gemara asks: bWhat isthat bsingle blessing? Rabbi Ḥelbo said:As they finished their service, bthe outgoing priestly watch would say to the incoming priestly watch: May He who caused His Name to dwell in this house cause love and brotherhood, peace and camaraderie to dwell among you. /b,We learned in the mishna: bWherethe Sages bsaidto recite ba longblessing, one may not shorten it, and vice-versa. The Gemara proceeds to address a particular problem arising from conclusions drawn from this mishna. Before addressing the primary problem, however, a simpler, secondary issue is raised: bObviously, in a case where one took a cup of wine in his hand and thought it was beer, and began reciting the blessing thinking it was beer,i.e., he intended to recite the appropriate blessing on beer: By Whose word all things came to be, bandupon realizing that it was wine, bhe concludedthe blessing bwith thatwhich is recited over bwine:Who creates the fruit of the vine, bhe fulfilledhis obligation. In that case, beven had he recited: By Whose word all things came to be,as he originally intended, bhewould have bfulfilledhis obligation, bas we learnedin a mishna: bIf onerecited the general blessing: bBy Whose word all things came to be, over allfood items, bhe fulfilledhis obligation after the fact, even if iab initioanother blessing was instituted to recite before eating that food. Therefore, if he reconsidered and concluded the blessing with the ending of the blessing over wine, he fulfilled his obligation., bHowever in a case where one took a cup of beer in his hand and thought it was wine, and began reciting the blessing thinking it was wine,meaning he intended to recite: Who creates the fruit of the vine, bandupon realizing that it was beer bhe concludedthe blessing bwith thatwhich is recited over bbeer:By Whose word all things came to be, bwhatis the ihalakha /i?,Ostensibly, this blessing is comprised of two sections. The first section, during which he intended to recite: Who creates the fruit of the vine, cannot fulfill his obligation as it is an inappropriate blessing to recite over beer. However, in the second section he recited: By Whose word all things came to be, the appropriate blessing. The dilemma, then, is: bDo we follow the essenceof the blessing, the first section, bor do we follow the conclusionof the blessing?, bCome and heara proof from what was taught in a ibaraitawith regard to a similar case: If, in bthe morning prayer /b, one bbeganthe blessings prior to the recitation of iShemaappropriately bwith: Who creates light, and concluded withthe formula of the evening prayer: bWho brings on evenings, he did not fulfillhis obligation. However, if one did the opposite, and bcommenced with: Who brings on evenings, and concluded with: Who creates light, he fulfilledhis obligation.,Similarly, if, in bthe evening prayer /b, bone commencedthe recitation of iShema bwith: Who brings on evenings and concluded with: Who creates light, he did not fulfillhis obligation. If bone commenced with: Who creates light and concluded with: Who brings on evenings, he fulfilledhis obligation.,The ibaraitasummarizes that bthe general principle is: Everything follows the conclusionof the blessing. Based on this principle, the question with regard to a blessing recited over food and drink posed above can be resolved.,This proof is rejected: bThere,in the case of the blessing recited over the radiant lights, bit is different, as one recites: Blessed /b…Who bforms the radiant lights,and similarly, in the evening one recites: Blessed…Who brings on evenings. Since these are long blessings that conclude with a second blessing summarizing their content, one could assert that everything follows the conclusion. However, in the case of short blessings, such as: By Whose word all things came to be, or: Who creates the fruit of the vine, ostensibly, if there is a problem with the first part of the blessing, the entire blessing is nullified.,The distinction between the blessing recited over the radiant lights and the blessings recited over food and drink stems from the assumption that the conclusion: Blessed…Who fashions the radiant lights, is a complete, independent blessing. However, this is not necessarily so. bThis works out well according to Rav, who said: Any blessing that does not include mention of God’s name is notconsidered ba blessing,and since: Who creates light, includes God’s name, it constitutes a complete, independent blessing. bHowever, according to Rabbi Yoḥa, who said: Any blessing that does not include mention ofGod’s bsovereignty,i.e., our God, King of the universe, bis notconsidered ba blessing, what can be saidto distinguish between the conclusion of the blessings over food and drink and the blessing over the radiant lights? Since the conclusion: Who creates light, does not mention God’s sovereignty, it does not constitute a complete, independent blessing.,The Gemara responds: bRather,Rabbi Yoḥa also holds that the blessing over the radiant lights is a complete blessing. bSince Rabba bar Ulla said:Who creates darkness, is mentioned during the day and: Rolling away the light before the darkness, is mentioned at night bin order to mention the attribute of day at night and the attribute of night in the day,the beginning of the blessing in which God’s sovereignty is mentioned day and night is appropriate to both day and night, and bwhen one recites the blessingwith God’s name bandmentions God’s bsovereignty at the beginning of the blessing,it refers bto bothday and night. Therefore, no proof can be cited from the blessing over the radiant lights to the blessings recited over food and drink.,The Gemara attempts to cite an additional proof: bCome and hearanother solution based on what we learned bin the latter clauseof the ibaraitacited above: bThe general principle is: Everything follows the conclusionof the blessing. bWhat doesthe phrase: The general principle is, come bto includebeyond the detailed example cited in the ibaraita /i? bDoes it not come to includethe case bthat we stated,that both in the case of a long blessing and the case of a short blessing, the conclusion of the blessing is the determining factor?,The Gemara rejects this: bNo,the principle is cited bto includea case of bbread and dates.The Gemara clarifies: bWhat are the circumstancesof the dilemma with regard to the blessings on these food items? bIf you say thatit is a case bwhere one ate bread and thought that he ate dates, and commencedreciting the blessing bthinking it was dates;then, upon realizing that it was bread, bhe concludedthe blessing bwith thatwhich is recited bover bread, isn’t that our dilemma,as this case is identical to the one involving wine and beer?,The Gemara answers: bNo; thisgeneral principle bisonly bnecessaryto teach a special bcase /b, bwhere one ate dates and thought that he ate bread, and commencedreciting the blessing bthinking they were bread.Upon realizing that they were dates, bhe concludedthe blessing bwith thatwhich is recited bover dates.In that case bhe fulfilledhis obligation, as beven had he concludedthe blessing bwith thatwhich is recited bover bread, hewould have bfulfilled his obligation. /b, bWhat is the reasonthat had he concluded with the blessing recited over bread he would have fulfilled his obligation to recite a blessing over dates? This is bbecause dates also providea person bsustece.While iab initioone should not recite the blessing for bread over dates, after the fact, if one did so, he fulfilled his obligation. It is with regard to this particular situation that the ibaraitaestablished the principle: Everything follows the conclusion of the blessing. Ultimately, the dilemma regarding a blessing with an inappropriate opening and an appropriate conclusion remains unresolved. brThe Gemara proceeds to discuss the formula for the blessings recited along with iShema /i., bRabba bar Ḥina Sava said in the name of Rav: One who did not recite: True and Firm [ iemet veyatziv /i]at the beginning of the blessing of redemption that follows iShema bin the morning prayer, and: True and Trustworthy [ iemet ve’emuna /i] in the evening prayer, he did not fulfill his obligation.An allusion to the difference in formulation between morning and evening is, bas it is stated: “To declare Your kindness in the morning and Your faith in the nights”(Psalms 92:3). In the morning, one must mention God’s loving-kindness, while in the evening one is required to emphasize the aspect of faith., bAnd Rabba bar Ḥina Sava said in the name of Rav: One who is praying, when he bowsin the appropriate places, bhe bows whenhe says: bBlessed, and when hesubsequently bstands upright, he stands upright when he saysGod’s bname. /b, bShmuel,who was Rav’s colleague and significantly outlived him, bsaid: What is Rav’s reasonfor saying that one should stand upright at the mention of God’s name? bAs it is written: “The Lord, who raises the bowed”(Psalms 146:8); one stands upright at the mention of God’s name to recall that it is God who raises the bowed.,The Gemara braises an objectionbased on what we learned in praise of a priest: b“And he was afraid before My name”(Malachi 2:5), indicating that one must be humbled and not upright before God’s name.,The Gemara responds: bIs it written: At My name? Before My name, is written,meaning that one is humbled and bows prior to the mention of God’s name, when he says: Blessed.,The Gemara relates: bShmuel said to Ḥiyya bar Rav: Son of Torah, come and I will tell you a great saying that your father said. Your father said the following: When one bows, he bows whenhe says: bBlessed, and when he stands upright, he stands upright when he saysGod’s bname. /b
16. Anon., Letter of Aristeas, 159-160, 158

158. time and place that we may continually remember the God who rules and preserves (us). For in the matter of meats and drinks he bids us first of all offer part as a sacrifice and then forthwith enjoy our meal. Moreover, upon our garments he has given us a symbol of remembrance, and in like manner he has ordered us to put the divine oracles upon our gates and doors as a remembrance of


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abraham Jonquière, Prayer in Josephus Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2007) 47
aramaic, palestinian Nikolsky and Ilan, Rabbinic Traditions Between Palestine and Babylonia (2014) 315
daily prayer Jonquière, Prayer in Josephus Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2007) 47
daniel Jonquière, Prayer in Josephus Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2007) 47
double dreams and visions Moxon, Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective (2017) 37
dreams and visions, angelophany Moxon, Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective (2017) 37
hours of Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 181, 182
in the morning Alikin, The Earliest History of the Christian Gathering (2009) 84
isaac Jonquière, Prayer in Josephus Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2007) 47
jacob Jonquière, Prayer in Josephus Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2007) 47
law, roman Nikolsky and Ilan, Rabbinic Traditions Between Palestine and Babylonia (2014) 315
leiden manuscript Nikolsky and Ilan, Rabbinic Traditions Between Palestine and Babylonia (2014) 315
light Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 99
mann j. Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 182
martyrdom Nikolsky and Ilan, Rabbinic Traditions Between Palestine and Babylonia (2014) 315
peter and cornelius' visions, deixis" '761.0_182@elbogen i. Moxon, Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective (2017) 37
prayer times, ninth hour Jonquière, Prayer in Josephus Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2007) 47
prayer times Jonquière, Prayer in Josephus Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2007) 47
qumran Alikin, The Earliest History of the Christian Gathering (2009) 84
sacrifice Jonquière, Prayer in Josephus Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2007) 47
shema, prohibition to recite Nikolsky and Ilan, Rabbinic Traditions Between Palestine and Babylonia (2014) 315
shema Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 181, 182; Jonquière, Prayer in Josephus Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2007) 47; Nikolsky and Ilan, Rabbinic Traditions Between Palestine and Babylonia (2014) 315
shema prayer Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 99
singing' Alikin, The Earliest History of the Christian Gathering (2009) 84
tephillah Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 181, 182
thanksgiving Jonquière, Prayer in Josephus Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2007) 47
therapeutae Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 181
worship, daily and weekly Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 181, 182