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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



8001
Mishnah, Beitzah, 2.1-2.2


יוֹם טוֹב שֶׁחָל לִהְיוֹת עֶרֶב שַׁבָּת, לֹא יְבַשֵּׁל אָדָם בַּתְּחִלָּה מִיּוֹם טוֹב לַשַּׁבָּת, אֲבָל מְבַשֵּׁל הוּא לְיוֹם טוֹב, וְאִם הוֹתִיר, הוֹתִיר לַשַּׁבָּת, וְעוֹשֶׂה תַבְשִׁיל מֵעֶרֶב יוֹם טוֹב וְסוֹמֵךְ עָלָיו לַשַּׁבָּת. בֵּית שַׁמַּאי אוֹמְרִים, שְׁנֵי תַבְשִׁילִין. וּבֵית הִלֵּל אוֹמְרִים, תַּבְשִׁיל אֶחָד. וְשָׁוִין בְּדָג וּבֵיצָה שֶׁעָלָיו שֶׁהֵן שְׁנֵי תַבְשִׁילִין. אֲכָלוֹ אוֹ שֶׁאָבַד, לֹא יְבַשֵּׁל עָלָיו בַּתְּחִלָּה. וְאִם שִׁיֵּר מִמֶּנּוּ כָל שֶׁהוּא, סוֹמֵךְ עָלָיו לַשַּׁבָּת:Yom Tov which fell on the eve of Shabbat, one should not begin to cook on Yom Tov for Shabbat. But he may cook for Yom Tov, and if any is left over it is left over for Shabbat. And he may prepare a dish on the eve of Yom Tov and rely upon it [to prepare food] for Shabbat. Bet Shammai says: two dishes. But Bet Hillel says: one dish. Yet they [both] agree that a fish and an egg upon it are [considered as] two dishes. [If] he ate it or it was lost, he may not begin to cook [relying] on it. But if he left over any [small] portion of it, he may rely on it [to cook] for Shabbat.


עֲגָלָה שֶׁל קָטָן טְמֵאָה מִדְרָס וְנִטֶּלֶת בְּשַׁבָּת, וְאֵינָהּ נִגְרֶרֶת אֶלָּא עַל גַּבֵּי כֵלִים. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, כָּל הַכֵּלִים אֵין נִגְרָרִין חוּץ מִן הָעֲגָלָה, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהִיא כוֹבֶשֶׁת:Yom Tov which fell on the eve of Shabbat, one should not begin to cook on Yom Tov for Shabbat. But he may cook for Yom Tov, and if any is left over it is left over for Shabbat. And he may prepare a dish on the eve of Yom Tov and rely upon it [to prepare food] for Shabbat. Bet Shammai says: two dishes. But Bet Hillel says: one dish. Yet they [both] agree that a fish and an egg upon it are [considered as] two dishes. [If] he ate it or it was lost, he may not begin to cook [relying] on it. But if he left over any [small] portion of it, he may rely on it [to cook] for Shabbat.


חָל לִהְיוֹת אַחַר הַשַּׁבָּת, בֵּית שַׁמַּאי אוֹמְרִים, מַטְבִּילִין אֶת הַכֹּל מִלִּפְנֵי הַשַּׁבָּת, וּבֵית הִלֵּל אוֹמְרִים, כֵּלִים מִלִּפְנֵי הַשַּׁבָּת, וְאָדָם בַּשַּׁבָּת:If [Yom Tov] fell on the day after Shabbat:Bet Shammai says: one must immerse everything [unclean] before Shabbat. But Bet Hillel says: vessels [must be immersed] before Shabbat but people [may immerse] on Shabbat.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

13 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 12.23 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

12.23. רַק חֲזַק לְבִלְתִּי אֲכֹל הַדָּם כִּי הַדָּם הוּא הַנָּפֶשׁ וְלֹא־תֹאכַל הַנֶּפֶשׁ עִם־הַבָּשָׂר׃ 12.23. Only be stedfast in not eating the blood; for the blood is the life; and thou shalt not eat the life with the flesh."
2. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 1.4, 16.21 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.4. וְסָמַךְ יָדוֹ עַל רֹאשׁ הָעֹלָה וְנִרְצָה לוֹ לְכַפֵּר עָלָיו׃ 16.21. וְסָמַךְ אַהֲרֹן אֶת־שְׁתֵּי ידו [יָדָיו] עַל רֹאשׁ הַשָּׂעִיר הַחַי וְהִתְוַדָּה עָלָיו אֶת־כָּל־עֲוֺנֹת בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאֶת־כָּל־פִּשְׁעֵיהֶם לְכָל־חַטֹּאתָם וְנָתַן אֹתָם עַל־רֹאשׁ הַשָּׂעִיר וְשִׁלַּח בְּיַד־אִישׁ עִתִּי הַמִּדְבָּרָה׃ 1.4. And he shall lay his hand upon the head of the burnt-offering; and it shall be accepted for him to make atonement for him." 16.21. And Aaron shall lay both his hands upon the head of the live goat, and confess over him all the iniquities of the children of Israel, and all their transgressions, even all their sins; and he shall put them upon the head of the goat, and shall send him away by the hand of an appointed man into the wilderness."
3. Mishnah, Beitzah, 2.2-2.3 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

2.2. If [Yom Tov] fell on the day after Shabbat:Bet Shammai says: one must immerse everything [unclean] before Shabbat. But Bet Hillel says: vessels [must be immersed] before Shabbat but people [may immerse] on Shabbat." 2.3. They agree that one may effect surface contact for [unclean] water in a stone vessel in order to purify it, but one may not immerse [it]; And one may immerse [to change] from one intention to another or from one company to another."
4. Mishnah, Hagigah, 1.8 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

1.8. [The laws concerning] the dissolution of vows hover in the air and have nothing to rest on. The laws concerning Shabbat, hagigot, and trespassing are as mountains hanging by a hair, for they have scant scriptural basis but many halakhot. [The laws concerning] civil cases and [Temple] worship, purity and impurity, and the forbidden relations have what to rest on, and they that are the essentials of the Torah."
5. Mishnah, Hulin, 6.1-6.7, 8.6, 12.1 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

6.1. [The law of] “covering up the blood” applies both within the land of Israel and outside it, both during the existence of the Temple and after it, It applies to unconsecrated animal, but not consecrated animals. It applies [only] to wild animals and birds, whether they are at one's disposal or not. It applies also to a koy, for it is an animal about which there is a doubt. It may [therefore] not be slaughtered on a festival; and if it was slaughtered [on a festival] one may not cover up its blood." 6.2. If a person slaughtered [a wild animal or a bird] and it was found to be terefah, or if he slaughtered [it as an offering] to idols, or if he slaughtered that which was unconsecrated inside the sanctuary or that which was consecrated outside, or if he slaughtered a wild animal or a bird that was condemned to be stoned: Rabbi Meir makes him liable to cover up the blood; But the sages make him exempt. If he slaughtered [a wild animal or a bird] and it became nevelah under his hand, or if he stabbed it, or tore away [the organs of the throat], he is exempt from covering up [the blood]." 6.3. If a deaf-mute, an imbecile or a minor slaughtered while others watched them, one must cover up the blood; But if they were alone, they are exempt from covering it up. Similarly for the matter of “it and its young”: if they slaughtered while others watched them, it is forbidden to slaughter after them [the mother/young], But if they were alone: Rabbi Meir permits to slaughter after them [the mother/young]. But the rabbis forbid it. They agree, that if a person did slaughter [after them], he has not incurred forty lashes." 6.4. If a person slaughtered a hundred wild animals in one place, one covering suffices for all. If [he slaughtered] a hundred birds in one place, one covering suffices for all. If [he slaughtered] a wild animal and a bird in one place, one covering suffices for both. Rabbi Judah says: if he slaughtered a wild animal he should cover up its blood and then slaughter the bird [and cover it up also]. If a person slaughtered and did not cover up the blood and another person saw it, the other must cover it up. If he covered it up and it became uncovered, he need not cover it up again. If the wind covered it up, he must cover it up again." 6.5. If the blood became mixed with water and it still has the color of blood, it must be covered up. If it became mixed with wine, [the wine] is to be regarded as though it was water. If it became mixed with the blood of a beast or with the blood of a wild animal, it is to be regarded as though it was water. Rabbi Judah says: blood does not annul other blood." 6.6. The blood which spurted out and that which is upon the knife must also be covered up. Rabbi Judah says: when is this the case? When there is no other blood but that; but when there is other blood besides this, it need not be covered up." 6.7. With what may one cover up [the blood] and with what may one not cover it up?One may cover it up with fine dung, with fine sand, with lime, with white clay, or a brick or an earthenware stopper [of a cask] that have been ground into powder. But one may not cover it up with coarse dung or coarse sand, or with a brick or an earthenware stopper [of a cask] that have not been ground into powder. Nor may one cover it with a vessel. Rabban Shimon ben Gamaliel stated a general rule: one may cover it with anything in which plants would grow; but one may not cover it with anything in which plants would not grow." 8.6. In certain respects the prohibition of the fat is stricter than the prohibition of the blood, and in certain respects the prohibition of the blood is stricter than the prohibition of the fat. The prohibition of the fat is stricter, in that the fat is subject to the law of sacrilege, and one is obligated over it for piggul, notar, and uncleanness which is not the case with the blood. And the prohibition of the blood is stricter, for it applies to cattle, wild animals and fowl, whether clean or unclean; but the prohibition of the fat applies to clean cattle only." 12.1. The law of letting [the mother bird] go from the nest is in force both within the holy land and outside it, both during the existence of the Temple and after it, in respect of unconsecrated birds but not consecrated birds. The law of covering up the blood is of broader application than the law of letting [the mother bird] go; for the law of covering up the blood applies to wild animals as well as to birds, whether they are at one's disposal or not, whereas the law of letting [the mother bird] go from the nest applies only to birds and only to those which are not at one's disposal. Which are they that are not at one's disposal? Such as geese and fowls that made their nests in the open field. But if they made their nests within a house or in the case of Herodian doves, one is not bound to let [the mother bird] go."
6. Mishnah, Shabbat, 7.1 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

7.1. A great principle they stated in respect to Shabbat: anyone who forgets the fundamental law of Shabbat and performs many labors on many Shabbatot, is liable for only one sin-offering. One who knows the fundamental law of Shabbat and performs many labors on many Shabbatot is liable for a sin-offering for each and every Shabbat. One who knows that it is Shabbat and performs many labors on many Shabbatot, is liable for every primary labor. One who performs many labors belonging to the same category is obligated for only one sin-offering."
7. Mishnah, Yoma, 5.5-5.6 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

5.5. “And he shall go out to the altar that is before the Lord” (Leviticus 16:18): that is the golden altar. He then began to purify [the altar by sprinkling] in downward motion. From where does he begin? From the northeast horn [of the altar], then the northwest, then the southwest, then the southeast. From the place where he begins [sprinkling when offering] a sin-offering on the outer altar, there he completes [sprinkling] on the inner altar. Rabbi Eliezer says: he remained in his place and sprinkled. And on every horn he would sprinkle from below upwards, with the exception of the horn at which he was standing, which he would sprinkle from above downwards." 5.6. Then he sprinkled the top of the altar seven times. And he would pour out the remainder of the blood at the western base of the outer altar. And [the remainder of the blood sprinkled] on the outer altar he poured out at the southern base. Both mingled in the aqueduct and flowed into Nahal Kidron, and they were sold to gardeners as manure and by using them one transgresses the law of trespass (meilah)."
8. New Testament, John, 2.16 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.16. To those who sold the doves, he said, "Take these things out of here! Don't make my Father's house a marketplace!
9. New Testament, Luke, 11.40-11.48 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

11.40. You foolish ones, didn't he who made the outside make the inside also? 11.41. But give for gifts to the needy those things which are within, and behold, all things will be clean to you. 11.42. But woe to you Pharisees! For you tithe mint and rue and every herb, but you bypass justice and the love of God. You ought to have done these, and not to have left the other undone. 11.43. Woe to you Pharisees! For you love the best seats in the synagogues, and the greetings in the marketplaces. 11.44. Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! For you are like hidden graves, and the men who walk over them don't know it. 11.45. One of the lawyers answered him, "Teacher, in saying this you insult us also. 11.46. He said, "Woe to you lawyers also! For you load men with burdens that are difficult to carry, and you yourselves won't even lift one finger to help carry those burdens. 11.47. Woe to you! For you build the tombs of the prophets, and your fathers killed them. 11.48. So you testify and consent to the works of your fathers. For they killed them, and you build their tombs.
10. New Testament, Mark, 11.15 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

11.15. They came to Jerusalem, and Jesus entered into the temple, and began to throw out those who sold and those who bought in the temple, and overthrew the tables of the money-changers, and the seats of those who sold the doves.
11. New Testament, Matthew, 15.3-15.6, 21.12, 23.1-23.33 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

15.3. He answered them, "Why do you also disobey the commandment of God because of your tradition? 15.4. For God commanded, 'Honor your father and your mother,' and, 'He who speaks evil of father or mother, let him be put to death.' 15.5. But you say, 'Whoever may tell his father or his mother, "Whatever help you might otherwise have gotten from me is a gift devoted to God 15.6. he shall not honor his father or mother.' You have made the commandment of God void because of your tradition. 21.12. Jesus entered into the temple of God, and drove out all of those who sold and bought in the temple, and overthrew the money-changers' tables and the seats of those who sold the doves. 23.1. Then Jesus spoke to the multitudes and to his disciples 23.2. saying, "The scribes and the Pharisees sat on Moses' seat. 23.3. All things therefore whatever they tell you to observe, observe and do, but don't do their works; for they say, and don't do. 23.4. For they bind heavy burdens that are grievous to be borne, and lay them on men's shoulders; but they themselves will not lift a finger to help them. 23.5. But all their works they do to be seen by men. They make their phylacteries broad, enlarge the fringes of their garments 23.6. and love the place of honor at feasts, the best seats in the synagogues 23.7. the salutations in the marketplaces, and to be called 'Rabbi, Rabbi' by men. 23.8. But don't you be called 'Rabbi,' for one is your teacher, the Christ, and all of you are brothers. 23.9. Call no man on the earth your father, for one is your Father, he who is in heaven. 23.10. Neither be called masters, for one is your master, the Christ. 23.11. But he who is greatest among you will be your servant. 23.12. Whoever will exalt himself will be humbled, and whoever will humble himself will be exalted. 23.13. Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! For you devour widows' houses, and as a pretense you make long prayers. Therefore you will receive greater condemnation. 23.14. But woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! Because you shut up the Kingdom of Heaven against men; for you don't enter in yourselves, neither do you allow those who are entering in to enter. 23.15. Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! For you travel around by sea and land to make one proselyte; and when he becomes one, you make him twice as much of a son of Gehenna as yourselves. 23.16. Woe to you, you blind guides, who say, 'Whoever swears by the temple, it is nothing; but whoever swears by the gold of the temple, he is obligated.' 23.17. You blind fools! For which is greater, the gold, or the temple that sanctifies the gold? 23.18. 'Whoever swears by the altar, it is nothing; but whoever swears by the gift that is on it, he is a obligated.' 23.19. You blind fools! For which is greater, the gift, or the altar that sanctifies the gift? 23.20. He therefore who swears by the altar, swears by it, and by everything on it. 23.21. He who swears by the temple, swears by it, and by him who is living in it. 23.22. He who swears by heaven, swears by the throne of God, and by him who sits on it. 23.23. Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! For you tithe mint, dill, and cumin, and have left undone the weightier matters of the law: justice, mercy, and faith. But you ought to have done these, and not to have left the other undone. 23.24. You blind guides, who strain out a gnat, and swallow a camel! 23.25. Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! For you clean the outside of the cup and of the platter, but within they are full of extortion and unrighteousness. 23.26. You blind Pharisee, first clean the inside of the cup and of the platter, that the outside of it may become clean also. 23.27. Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! For you are like whitened tombs, which outwardly appear beautiful, but inwardly are full of dead men's bones, and of all uncleanness. 23.28. Even so you also outwardly appear righteous to men, but inwardly you are full of hypocrisy and iniquity. 23.29. Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! For you build the tombs of the prophets, and decorate the tombs of the righteous 23.30. and say, 'If we had lived in the days of our fathers, we wouldn't have been partakers with them in the blood of the prophets.' 23.31. Therefore you testify to yourselves that you are sons of those who killed the prophets. 23.32. Fill up, then, the measure of your fathers. 23.33. You serpents, you offspring of vipers, how will you escape the judgment of Gehenna?
12. Tosefta, Avodah Zarah, 8.6 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

13. Tosefta, Kippurim, 2.16 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
ancient halakha Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 517
ancient near east Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 235
animals Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 95
animals food Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 95
aramaic Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 517
blood Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 95; Rosenblum, The Jewish Dietary Laws in the Ancient World (2016) 98
byzantine period, emperor Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 517
children Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 95
chilton, bruce Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 235
dangerous gentile Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 95
day of atonement Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 95
dog-(food) Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 95
eleazar b. yosi Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 95
jesus, temple incident of Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 235
laying of hands Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 235
luke Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 517
moses Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 517
sacrifice, ownership of Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 235
slaughter, of animals' Rosenblum, The Jewish Dietary Laws in the Ancient World (2016) 98
synagogue Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 517
temple, as ritually inadequate, in new testament Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 235
temple, third/new temple, trade in Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 235
wright, david p. Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 235
yose, r. Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 517