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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



8001
Mishnah, Beitzah, 1.1


בֵּיצָה שֶׁנּוֹלְדָה בְיוֹם טוֹב, בֵּית שַׁמַּאי אוֹמְרִים, תֵּאָכֵל. וּבֵית הִלֵּל אוֹמְרִים, לֹא תֵאָכֵל. בֵּית שַׁמַּאי אוֹמְרִים, שְׂאֹר בְּכַזַּיִת וְחָמֵץ בְּכַכּוֹתֶבֶת. וּבֵית הִלֵּל אוֹמְרִים, זֶה וָזֶה בְּכַזָּיִת:An egg laid on Yom Tov: Bet Shammai say: it may be eaten [on the same day]; But Bet Hillel say: it may not be eaten [until the day is over]. Bet Shammai say: [the quantity of] leaven is of the size of an olive and leavened bread is of the size of a date; But Bet Hillel say: both are of the size of an olive.


מְשַׁלְּחִין כֵּלִים, בֵּין תְּפוּרִין בֵּין שֶׁאֵינָן תְּפוּרִין, וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁיֵּשׁ בָּהֶן כִּלְאַיִם, וְהֵן לְצֹרֶךְ הַמּוֹעֵד, אֲבָל לֹא סַנְדָּל הַמְסֻמָּר וְלֹא מִנְעָל שֶׁאֵינוֹ תָפוּר. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, אַף לֹא מִנְעָל לָבָן, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁצָּרִיךְ אֻמָּן. זֶה הַכְּלָל, כֹּל שֶׁנֵּאוֹתִין בּוֹ, בְּיוֹם טוֹב מְשַׁלְּחִין אוֹתוֹ:An egg laid on Yom Tov: Bet Shammai say: it may be eaten [on the same day]; But Bet Hillel say: it may not be eaten [until the day is over]. Bet Shammai say: [the quantity of] leaven is of the size of an olive and leavened bread is of the size of a date; But Bet Hillel say: both are of the size of an olive.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

4 results
1. Mishnah, Avot, 2.9 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

2.9. He [Rabban Yoha] said unto them: go forth and observe which is the right way to which a man should cleave? Rabbi Eliezer said, a good eye; Rabbi Joshua said, a good companion; Rabbi Yose said, a good neighbor; Rabbi Shimon said, foresight. Rabbi Elazar said, a good heart. He [Rabban Yoha] said to them: I prefer the words of Elazar ben Arach, for in his words your words are included. He [Rabban Yoha] said unto them: go forth and observe which is the evil way which a man should shun? Rabbi Eliezer said, an evil eye; Rabbi Joshua said, an evil companion; Rabbi Yose said, an evil neighbor; Rabbi Shimon said, one who borrows and does not repay for he that borrows from man is as one who borrows from God, blessed be He, as it is said, “the wicked borrow and do not repay, but the righteous deal graciously and give” (Psalms 37:21). Rabbi Elazar said, an evil heart. He [Rabban Yoha] said to them: I prefer the words of Elazar ben Arach, for in his words your words are included."
2. Mishnah, Nedarim, 9.1 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

9.1. Rabbi Eliezer says: They release a vow [by reference] to the honor of his father and mother but the Sages forbid. Rabbi Zadok said: Instead of releasing through the honor of his father and mother, they should release [by reference] to the honor of God. If so, there would be no vows! But the Sages admit to Rabbi Eliezer that in a matter concerning himself and his father and mother one may release a vow [by reference] to the honor of his father and mother."
3. Babylonian Talmud, Yevamot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

48b. ר' אליעזר אומר אביה אביה ממש אמה אמה ממש ר"ע אומר אביה ואמה זו עבודת כוכבים וכן הוא אומר (ירמיהו ב, כז) אומרים לעץ אבי אתה וגו',ירח ימים ירח שלשים יום ר"ש בן אלעזר אומר תשעים יום ירח שלשים ימים שלשים ואחר כן שלשים,מתקיף לה רבינא אימא ירח שלשים ימים שלשים ואחר כן כי הני קשיא,ת"ר מקיימין עבדים שאינם מלין דברי רבי ישמעאל רבי עקיבא אומר אין מקיימין אמר ליה ר' ישמעאל הרי הוא אומר (שמות כג, יב) וינפש בן אמתך א"ל בלוקח עבד בין השמשות ולא הספיק למולו הכתוב מדבר,דכ"ע מיהת וינפש בן אמתך בעבד ערל כתיב מאי משמע דתניא וינפש בן אמתך בעבד ערל הכתוב מדבר אתה אומר בעבד ערל או אינו אלא בעבד מהול כשהוא אומר (דברים ה, יג) למען ינוח עבדך ואמתך כמוך הרי עבד מהול אמור הא מה אני מקיים וינפש בן אמתך בעבד ערל,והגר זה גר תושב אתה אומר זה גר תושב או אינו אלא גר צדק כשהוא אומר וגרך אשר בשעריך הרי גר צדק אמור הא מה אני מקיים והגר זה גר תושב,אמר רבי יהושע בן לוי הלוקח עבד מן העובד כוכבים ולא רצה למול מגלגל עמו עד י"ב חדש לא מל חוזר ומוכרו לעובדי כוכבים,אמרוה רבנן קמיה דרב פפא כמאן דלא כר' עקיבא דאי ר"ע האמר אין מקיימין אמר להו רב פפא אפילו תימא ר' עקיבא הני מילי היכא דלא פסקא למילתיה אבל היכא דפסקא למילתיה פסקא,אמר רב כהנא אמריתא לשמעתא קמיה דרב זביד מנהרדעא אמר לי אי הכי כי אמר ליה ר"ע בלוקח עבד בין השמשות לישני ליה הא חדא מתרי טעמי קאמר,שלח רבין משמיה דרבי אילעאי וכל רבותי אמרו לי משמו איזהו עבד ערל שמותר לקיימו זה שלקחו רבו על מנת שלא למולו אמרוה רבנן קמיה דרב פפא כמאן דלא כרבי עקיבא דאי ר"ע האמר אין מקיימין אמר להו רב פפא אפילו תימא רבי עקיבא ה"מ היכא דלא אתני בהדיה אבל היכא דאתני אתני,אמר רב כהנא אמריתא לשמעתא קמיה דרב זביד מנהרדעא וא"ל אי הכי כי קאמר ליה רבי עקיבא בלוקח עבד בין השמשות ולא הספיק למולו לישני ליה הא,וליטעמיך לישני ליה הך אלא חד מתרי ותלת טעמי קאמר,יתיב רבי חנינא בר פפי ורבי אמי ור' יצחק נפחא אקילעא דרבי יצחק נפחא ויתבי וקאמרי עיר אחת היתה בארץ ישראל ולא רצו עבדיה למול וגלגלו עמהם עד שנים עשר חדש וחזרו ומכרום לעובדי כוכבים,כמאן כי האי תנא דתניא הלוקח עבד מן העובד כוכבים ולא רצה למול מגלגל עמו עד שנים עשר חדש לא מל חוזר ומוכרו לעובדי כוכבים ר' שמעון בן אלעזר אומר אין משהין אותו בארץ ישראל מפני הפסד טהרות ובעיר הסמוכה לספר אין משהין אותו כל עיקר שמא ישמע דבר וילך ויאמר לחברו עובד כוכבים,תניא רבי חנניא בנו של רבן גמליאל אומר מפני מה גרים בזמן הזה מעונין ויסורין באין עליהן מפני שלא קיימו שבע מצות בני נח רבי יוסי אומר גר שנתגייר כקטן שנולד דמי אלא מפני מה מעונין לפי שאין בקיאין בדקדוקי מצות כישראל אבא חנן אומר משום ר' אלעזר לפי שאין עושין מאהבה אלא מיראה,אחרים אומרים מפני ששהו עצמם להכנס תחת כנפי השכינה אמר ר' אבהו ואיתימא ר' חנינא מאי קראה (רות ב, יב) ישלם ה' פעלך ותהי משכורתך שלמה מעם ה' אלהי ישראל אשר באת לחסות וגומר: 48b. bRabbi Eliezer says: “Her father”means bher actual fatherand b“her mother”means bher actual mother. Rabbi Akiva says: Her father and her mother; thisis referring to the bidolatrous deitythat she had worshiped but will no longer be able to worship, band so it says: “They say to a tree: You are my father,and to a stone: You have given birth to us” (Jeremiah 2:27).,The verses states: b“A month of daysand after that you may come to her” (Deuteronomy 21:13). This means ba thirty-day month. Rabbi Shimon ben Elazar says:She must wait bninety days.This is derived as follows: The phrase b“a month”connotes bthirtydays; the word b“days”adds another bthirtydays; bandthe words b“after that”indicate another period equal to one previously mentioned, i.e., a further bthirtydays., bRavina strongly objects to this:If the words “after that” indicate another period equal to one previously mentioned, then one should bsay:The phrase b“a month”connotes bthirtydays; the word b“days”adds another bthirtydays; bandthen the words b“after that”add another period which is bequal tothe total sum of all bthosedays she has already waited, i.e., an additional sixty days. The Gemara concedes: Indeed, this is bdifficult. /b,§ bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: bOne may maintain slaves that are not circumcisedunder one’s control; this is bthe statement of Rabbi Yishmael. Rabbi Akiva says: One may not maintainsuch slaves, even for a moment. bRabbi Yishmael said to him: But it sayswith regard to Shabbat: b“And the son of your maidservant will be refreshed”(Exodus 23:12). The verse prohibits a Jewish master from allowing his slave to perform labor on Shabbat. The Gemara will explain that this is referring to an uncircumcised slave. It is therefore apparent that it is permitted to keep such a slave. Rabbi Akiva bsaid to him: The verse speaks of one who purchases a slave at twilighton the eve of Shabbat bandtherefore bdoes not have the opportunity to circumcise himbefore the onset of Shabbat.,The Gemara notes: bIn any event,in the opinion bof everyonethe verse: b“And the son of your maidservant will be refreshed,” is written with regard to an uncircumcised slave. From whereis this binferred? As it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: b“And the son of your maidservant will be refreshed”; the verse speaks of an uncircumcised slave.Do byou sayit speaks bof an uncircumcised slave, orperhaps bit isspeaking bonly of a circumcised slave? When it sayselsewhere: “And the seventh day is a Shabbat to the Lord your God, you shall not do any labor, you, and your son, and your daughter, and your slave, and your maidservant… bso that your slave and your maidservant may rest like you”(Deuteronomy 5:13), ba circumcised slave isalready bmentioned; how,then, bdo I upholdthe verse b“And the son of your maidservant will be refreshed”?It must refer bto an uncircumcised slave. /b,The verse continues: b“And the stranger [ iger /i]”(Exodus 23:12). bThisis referring to ba gentile who observes certain mitzvot [ iger toshav /i].Do byou saythat bthis is a iger toshav /i, orperhaps bit is only a righteous convert [ iger tzedek /i],who is a Jew in every sense? bWhen it sayselsewhere: b“And your stranger [ iger /i] that is within your gates”(Deuteronomy 5:13), ba righteous convert isalready bmentioned. How,then, bdo I upholdthe verse b“And the stranger [ iger /i]”?It must be that bthis is a iger toshav /i. /b, bRabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said:In the case of bone who purchases a slave from a gentile andthe slave bdoes not wish to be circumcised, he abides with him up to twelve months.If, after this period, bhe willstill bnot be circumcised, he then sells himon bto gentiles. /b, bThe Sages said this ihalakha bbefore Rav Pappaand asked: bIn accordance with whoseopinion is it? It seems bthat it is not in accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Akiva, as, ifit were in accordance with the opinion of bRabbi Akiva, didn’t he say: One may not maintainan uncircumcised slave even for a moment? Rav Pappa bsaid to them: Youcan beven saythat it is in accordance with the opinion of bRabbi Akiva,since perhaps bthat ihalakhaof Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi bappliesonly bwherethe slave bdid not make hisrefusal to be circumcised bexplicit; however, where he did make hisrefusal to be circumcised bexplicit,since bhe has made it explicit,it is prohibited to maintain him, as Rabbi Akiva rules., bRav Kahana said: I saidthis ihalakhabefore Rav Zevid from Neharde’a. He said to me: If so,that Rabbi Akiva agrees that one may temporarily maintain a slave who has not explicitly refused to be circumcised, then bwhen Rabbi Akiva said toRabbi Yishmael that the verse with regard to an uncircumcised slave bis referring to one who purchases a slave at twilighton the eve of Shabbat, blet himinstead banswer himthat the verse is referring to bthiscase of a slave who has not explicitly refused to be circumcised. The Gemara explains: Rabbi Akiva bsaidonly bone out of twopossible breasonswhy it would be permitted to be in possession of such a slave., bRavin senta message citing a ihalakha bin the name of Rabbi Ilai: And all of my teachers said to me in his name: What isthe case of ban uncircumcised slave whom it is permitted to maintain? This is one whose master purchased him on condition not to circumcise him. The Sages said this ihalakha bbefore Rav Pappaand asked: bIn accordance with whoseopinion is it? It seems bthat it is not in accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Akiva, as, ifit were in accordance with the opinion of bRabbi Akiva, didn’t he say: One may not maintainan uncircumcised slave even for a moment? Rav Pappa bsaid to them: Youcan beven sayit is in accordance with the opinion of bRabbi Akiva,since perhaps bthatruling of Rabbi Akiva bappliesonly bwherethe master bdid not make a condition with regard tothe slave that he would not be circumcised; bhowever, where he did makesuch ba condition,since bhe made a condition,even Rabbi Akiva would concede it is permitted to maintain him., bRav Kahana said: I saidthis ihalakhabefore Rav Zevid from Neharde’a and he said to me: If so,that Rabbi Akiva agrees that one may maintain a slave who was purchased on condition that he would not be circumcised, then bwhen Rabbi Akiva said toRabbi Yishmael that the verse with regard to an uncircumcised slave bis referring to one who purchases a slave at twilighton the eve of Shabbat bandtherefore bdoes not have the opportunity to circumcise himbefore the onset of Shabbat, blet himinstead banswer himthat the verse is referring to bthiscase of a slave who was purchased on condition that he would not be circumcised.,The Gemara responds: bButeven baccording to your reasoningthat Rabbi Akiva disagrees, since you do agree with Rav Pappa’s resolution of Rabbi Akiva’s opinion with the ihalakhaof Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi, bletRabbi Akiva banswer himthat the verse is referring to bthatcase of a slave who has not explicitly refused to be circumcised. The Gemara answers: Rabbi Akiva bsaidonly bone out of two or threepossible breasonsthat it would be permitted to be in possession of such a slave., bRabbi Ḥanina bar Pappi, and Rabbi Ami, and Rabbi Yitzḥak Nappaḥa were sitting in the courtyard of Rabbi Yitzḥak Nappaḥa. They were sitting and saying: There was one city in Eretz Yisrael whose slaves did not wish to be circumcised.Their masters babided with them until twelve monthshad passed band then sold them to gentiles. In accordance with whoseopinion did they act?, bIt is in accordance withthe opinion of bthis itanna /i, as it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: In the case of bone who purchases a slave from a gentile andthe slave bdoes not wish to be circumcised,the master babides with himfor bup to twelve months.If, after this period, the slave bwillstill bnot be circumcised,the master bthen sells him to gentiles. Rabbi Shimon ben Elazar says: One may not allow him to remain in Eretz Yisrael due to the loss of ritually pure itemshe could cause. As long as the slave remains uncircumcised, he is considered to be a gentile; therefore, by rabbinic decree, ritually pure items that he touches are considered to be impure. bAnd in a city that is near to the border he may not be allowed to remain at all, lest he hear somesecret bmatterconcerning security band go and sayit over bto his fellow gentilein an enemy country. However, once he has been circumcised and accepted the yoke of mitzvot, this concern no longer exists.,§ bIt is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bRabbi Ḥaya, son of Rabban Gamliel, says: For whatreason bare converts at the present time tormented and hardships come upon them?It is bbecausewhen they were gentiles bthey did not observe the seven Noahide mitzvot. Rabbi Yosei says:They would not be punished for their deeds prior to their conversion because ba convert whojust bconverted is like a childjust bbornin that he retains no connection to his past life. bRather, for whatreason bare they tormented?It is bbecause they are notas bwell-versed in the intricacies of the mitzvot asa born bJew,and consequently they often inadvertently transgress mitzvot. bAbba Ḥa says in the name of Rabbi Elazar:It is bbecause they observemitzvot bnot out of loveof God, bbut only out of fearof the punishments for failing to observe them., bOthers say:It is bbecause they waited before entering under the wings of the Divine Presence,i.e., they are punished for not converting sooner than they did. bRabbi Abbahu said, and some sayit was bRabbi Ḥaninawho said: bWhat is the versefrom which it is derived that one should convert at the earliest opportunity? Boaz said to Ruth: b“The Lord shall recompense your work, and your reward shall be complete from the Lord, the God of Israel,under whose wings byou have come to take refuge”(Ruth 2:12).
4. Anon., Gerim, 2.5



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
conversion Nikolsky and Ilan, Rabbinic Traditions Between Palestine and Babylonia (2014) 97
governing voice, bavli Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 199
harmonization, babylonian Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 199
imagery, newborn Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 199
impurity, leprosy and Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 199
kinship, converts legal status of Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 199
leprosy Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 199
metaphors, newborn Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 199
newborn, convert as Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 199
newborn, imagery Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 199
noahide laws Nikolsky and Ilan, Rabbinic Traditions Between Palestine and Babylonia (2014) 97
proselytes' Nikolsky and Ilan, Rabbinic Traditions Between Palestine and Babylonia (2014) 97
qumran Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 199
rabbi yohanan, severing of Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 199
resh laqish Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 199
second temple period Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 199
shekhinah Nikolsky and Ilan, Rabbinic Traditions Between Palestine and Babylonia (2014) 97
talmud yerushalmi Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 199