Home About Network of subjects Linked subjects heatmap Book indices included Search by subject Search by reference Browse subjects Browse texts

Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



7997
Mishnah, Avot, 6.6


גְּדוֹלָה תוֹרָה יוֹתֵר מִן הַכְּהֻנָּה וּמִן הַמַּלְכוּת, שֶׁהַמַּלְכוּת נִקְנֵית בִּשְׁלֹשִׁים מַעֲלוֹת, וְהַכְּהֻנָּה בְּעֶשְׂרִים וְאַרְבַּע, וְהַתּוֹרָה נִקְנֵית בְּאַרְבָּעִים וּשְׁמֹנָה דְבָרִים. וְאֵלוּ הֵן, בְּתַלְמוּד, בִּשְׁמִיעַת הָאֹזֶן, בַּעֲרִיכַת שְׂפָתַיִם, בְּבִינַת הַלֵּב, בְּשִׂכְלוּת הַלֵּב, בְּאֵימָה, בְּיִרְאָה, בַּעֲנָוָה, בְּשִׂמְחָה, בְּטָהֳרָה, בְּשִׁמּוּשׁ חֲכָמִים, בְּדִקְדּוּק חֲבֵרִים, וּבְפִלְפּוּל הַתַּלְמִידִים, בְּיִשּׁוּב, בַּמִּקְרָא, בַּמִּשְׁנָה, בְּמִעוּט סְחוֹרָה, בְּמִעוּט דֶּרֶךְ אֶרֶץ, בְּמִעוּט תַּעֲנוּג, בְּמִעוּט שֵׁינָה, בְּמִעוּט שִׂיחָה, בְּמִעוּט שְׂחוֹק, בְּאֶרֶךְ אַפַּיִם, בְּלֵב טוֹב, בֶּאֱמוּנַת חֲכָמִים, וּבְקַבָּלַת הַיִּסּוּרִין, הַמַּכִּיר אֶת מְקוֹמוֹ, וְהַשָּׂמֵחַ בְּחֶלְקוֹ, וְהָעוֹשֶׂה סְיָג לִדְבָרָיו, וְאֵינוֹ מַחֲזִיק טוֹבָה לְעַצְמוֹ, אָהוּב, אוֹהֵב אֶת הַמָּקוֹם, אוֹהֵב אֶת הַבְּרִיּוֹת, אוֹהֵב אֶת הַצְּדָקוֹת, אוֹהֵב אֶת הַמֵּישָׁרִים, אוֹהֵב אֶת הַתּוֹכָחוֹת, מִתְרַחֵק מִן הַכָּבוֹד, וְלֹא מֵגִיס לִבּוֹ בְתַלְמוּדוֹ, וְאֵינוֹ שָׂמֵחַ בְּהוֹרָאָה, נוֹשֵׂא בְעֹל עִם חֲבֵרוֹ, מַכְרִיעוֹ לְכַף זְכוּת, מַעֲמִידוֹ עַל הָאֱמֶת, וּמַעֲמִידוֹ עַל הַשָּׁלוֹם, מִתְיַשֵּׁב לִבּוֹ בְתַלְמוּדוֹ, שׁוֹאֵל וּמֵשִׁיב, שׁוֹמֵעַ וּמוֹסִיף, הַלּוֹמֵד עַל מְנָת לְלַמֵּד וְהַלּוֹמֵד עַל מְנָת לַעֲשׂוֹת, הַמַּחְכִּים אֶת רַבּוֹ, וְהַמְכַוֵּן אֶת שְׁמוּעָתוֹ, וְהָאוֹמֵר דָּבָר בְּשֵׁם אוֹמְרוֹ, הָא לָמַדְתָּ שֶׁכָּל הָאוֹמֵר דָּבָר בְּשֵׁם אוֹמְרוֹ מֵבִיא גְאֻלָּה לָעוֹלָם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (אסתר ב) וַתֹּאמֶר אֶסְתֵּר לַמֶּלֶךְ בְּשֵׁם מָרְדֳּכָי:Greater is learning Torah than the priesthood and than royalty, for royalty is acquired by thirty stages, and the priesthood by twenty-four, but the Torah by forty-eight things. By study, Attentive listening, Proper speech, By an understanding heart, By an intelligent heart, By awe, By fear, By humility, By joy, By attending to the sages, By critical give and take with friends, By fine argumentation with disciples, By clear thinking, By study of Scripture, By study of mishnah, By a minimum of sleep, By a minimum of chatter, By a minimum of pleasure, By a minimum of frivolity, By a minimum of preoccupation with worldly matters, By long-suffering, By generosity, By faith in the sages, By acceptance of suffering. [Learning of Torah is also acquired by one] Who recognizes his place, Who rejoices in his portion, Who makes a fence about his words, Who takes no credit for himself, Who is loved, Who loves God, Who loves [his fellow] creatures, Who loves righteous ways, Who loves reproof, Who loves uprightness, Who keeps himself far from honors, Who does not let his heart become swelled on account of his learning, Who does not delight in giving legal decisions, Who shares in the bearing of a burden with his colleague, Who judges with the scales weighted in his favor, Who leads him on to truth, Who leads him on to peace, Who composes himself at his study, Who asks and answers, Who listens [to others], and [himself] adds [to his knowledge], Who learns in order to teach, Who learns in order to practice, Who makes his teacher wiser, Who is exact in what he has learned, And who says a thing in the name of him who said it. Thus you have learned: everyone who says a thing in the name of him who said it, brings deliverance into the world, as it is said: “And Esther told the king in Mordecai’s name” (Esther 2:22).


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

12 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Proverbs, 8.22, 10.19 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

8.22. יְהוָה קָנָנִי רֵאשִׁית דַּרְכּוֹ קֶדֶם מִפְעָלָיו מֵאָז׃ 10.19. בְּרֹב דְּבָרִים לֹא יֶחְדַּל־פָּשַׁע וְחֹשֵׂךְ שְׂפָתָיו מַשְׂכִּיל׃ 8.22. The LORD made me as the beginning of His way, The first of His works of old." 10.19. In the multitude of words there wanteth not transgression; But he that refraineth his lips is wise."
2. Philo of Alexandria, On Drunkenness, 31, 30 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

30. but of the father and mother the appellations are common, but their powers are different. At all events we shall speak with justice, if we say that the Creator of the universe is also the father of his creation; and that the mother was the knowledge of the Creator with whom God uniting, not as a man unites, became the father of creation. And this knowledge having received the seed of God, when the day of her travail arrived, brought forth her only and well-beloved son, perceptible by the external senses, namely this world.
3. Philo of Alexandria, On Curses, 165 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

165. But bulls, and rams, and goats, which Egypt holds in honour, and all other images of corruptible matter which, in report alone, are accounted God's, have no real existence, but are all fictitious and false; for those who look upon life as only a tragedy full of acts of arrogance and stories of love, impressing false ideas on the tender minds of young men, and using the ears as their ministers, into which they pour fabulous trifles, waste away and corrupt their minds, compelling them to look upon persons who were never even men in their minds, but always effeminate creatures as God's;
4. Philo of Alexandria, Allegorical Interpretation, 2.21-2.22 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

5. Mishnah, Avot, 1.17, 3.13 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

1.17. Shimon, his son, used to say: all my days I grew up among the sages, and I have found nothing better for a person than silence. Study is not the most important thing, but actions; whoever indulges in too many words brings about sin." 3.13. Rabbi Akiva said:Merriment and frivolity accustom one to sexual licentiousness; Tradition is a fence to the Torah; Tithes a fence to wealth, Vows a fence to abstinence; A fence to wisdom is silence."
6. Mishnah, Eduyot, 1.3 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

1.3. Hillel says: “A hin full of drawn water renders the mikweh unfit.” (However, man must speak in the language of his teacher.) And Shammai says: “Nine kavs.” But the Sages say: “Neither according to the opinion of this one nor according to the opinion of this one;” But when two weavers from the dung-gate which is in Jerusalem came and testified in the name of Shemaiah and Avtalion, “Three logs of drawn water render the mikweh unfit,” the Sages confirmed their statement."
7. New Testament, John, 4.13-4.14, 6.35 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4.13. Jesus answered her, "Everyone who drinks of this water will thirst again 4.14. but whoever drinks of the water that I will give him will never thirst again; but the water that I will give him will become in him a well of water springing up to eternal life. 6.35. Jesus said to them. "I am the bread of life. He who comes to me will not be hungry, and he who believes in me will never be thirsty.
8. Tosefta, Yevamot, 3.4 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

9. Babylonian Talmud, Berachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

3a. קשיא דרבי מאיר אדרבי מאיר תרי תנאי אליבא דרבי מאיר,קשיא דרבי אליעזר אדרבי אליעזר,תרי תנאי אליבא דרבי אליעזר ואיבעית אימא רישא לאו רבי אליעזר היא:,עד סוף האשמורה:,מאי קסבר רבי אליעזר אי קסבר שלש משמרות הוי הלילה לימא עד ארבע שעות ואי קסבר ארבע משמרות הוי הלילה לימא עד שלש שעות,לעולם קסבר שלש משמרות הוי הלילה והא קא משמע לן דאיכא משמרות ברקיע ואיכא משמרות בארעא דתניא רבי אליעזר אומר שלש משמרות הוי הלילה ועל כל משמר ומשמר יושב הקדוש ברוך הוא ושואג כארי שנאמר ה' ממרום ישאג וממעון קדשו יתן קולו שאוג ישאג על נוהו,וסימן לדבר משמרה ראשונה חמור נוער שניה כלבים צועקים שלישית תינוק יונק משדי אמו ואשה מספרת עם בעלה.,מאי קא חשיב רבי אליעזר אי תחלת משמרות קא חשיב תחלת משמרה ראשונה סימנא למה לי אורתא הוא אי סוף משמרות קא חשיב סוף משמרה אחרונה למה לי סימנא יממא הוא,אלא חשיב סוף משמרה ראשונה ותחלת משמרה אחרונה ואמצעית דאמצעיתא ואיבעית אימא כולהו סוף משמרות קא חשיב וכי תימא אחרונה לא צריך,למאי נפקא מינה למיקרי קריאת שמע למאן דגני בבית אפל ולא ידע זמן קריאת שמע אימת כיון דאשה מספרת עם בעלה ותינוק יונק משדי אמו ליקום וליקרי.,אמר רב יצחק בר שמואל משמיה דרב ג' משמרות הוי הלילה ועל כל משמר ומשמר יושב הקדוש ברוך הוא ושואג כארי ואומר אוי לבנים שבעונותיהם החרבתי את ביתי ושרפתי את היכלי והגליתים לבין אומות העולם:,תניא אמר רבי יוסי פעם אחת הייתי מהלך בדרך ונכנסתי לחורבה אחת מחורבות ירושלים להתפלל בא אליהו זכור לטוב ושמר לי על הפתח (והמתין לי) עד שסיימתי תפלתי לאחר שסיימתי תפלתי אמר לי שלום עליך רבי ואמרתי לו שלום עליך רבי ומורי ואמר לי בני מפני מה נכנסת לחורבה זו אמרתי לו להתפלל ואמר לי היה לך להתפלל בדרך ואמרתי לו מתיירא הייתי שמא יפסיקו בי עוברי דרכים ואמר לי היה לך להתפלל תפלה קצרה,באותה שעה למדתי ממנו שלשה דברים למדתי שאין נכנסין לחורבה ולמדתי שמתפללין בדרך ולמדתי שהמתפלל בדרך מתפלל תפלה קצרה,ואמר לי בני מה קול שמעת בחורבה זו ואמרתי לו שמעתי בת קול שמנהמת כיונה ואומרת אוי לבנים שבעונותיהם החרבתי את ביתי ושרפתי את היכלי והגליתים לבין האומות ואמר לי חייך וחיי ראשך לא שעה זו בלבד אומרת כך אלא בכל יום ויום שלש פעמים אומרת כך ולא זו בלבד אלא בשעה שישראל נכנסין לבתי כנסיות ולבתי מדרשות ועונין יהא שמיה הגדול מבורך הקדוש ברוך הוא מנענע ראשו ואומר אשרי המלך שמקלסין אותו בביתו כך מה לו לאב שהגלה את בניו ואוי להם לבנים שגלו מעל שולחן אביהם:,תנו רבנן מפני שלשה דברים אין נכנסין לחורבה מפני חשד מפני המפולת ומפני המזיקין. מפני חשד ותיפוק ליה משום מפולת 3a. The previous baraita cited Rabbi Meir’s opinion that the time for the recitation of iShemabegins when the priests immerse before partaking of their iteruma /i. In the iTosefta /i, it was taught that Rabbi Meir holds that one begins to recite iShemafrom when people enter to eat their meal on Shabbat eve. One opinion of bRabbi Meirseems to bcontradictanother opinion of bRabbi Meir /b. The Gemara responds: bTwo itanna’im /i,students of Rabbi Meir, expressed different opinions bin accordance with Rabbi Meir’sopinion.,So too, the opinion bof Rabbi Eliezercited in the mishna bcontradictsthe opinion bof Rabbi Eliezercited in the ibaraita /i. In the mishna, Rabbi Eliezer holds that the time for the recitation of iShemabegins with the emergence of the stars: From the time when the priests enter to partake of their iteruma /i, while in the ibaraita /i, he states that the time for the recitation of iShemabegins when the day becomes sanctified on the eve of Shabbat.,The Gemara responds: There are two possible resolutions to the apparent contradiction in Rabbi Eliezer’s opinion. Either btwo itanna’imexpressed different opinions bin accordance with Rabbi Eliezer’sopinion, bor if you wish, sayinstead that bthe first clauseof the mishna, according to which we begin to recite iShemawhen the priests enter to partake of their iteruma /i, bis notactually bRabbi Eliezer’sopinion. Only the second half of the statement: Until the end of the first watch, was stated by Rabbi Eliezer.,In the mishna, we learned that Rabbi Eliezer establishes that one may recite the evening iShema buntil the end of the first watch.These watches are mentioned in the Bible as segments of the night, but it must be established: Into precisely how many segments is the night divided, three or four? Moreover, why does Rabbi Eliezer employ such inexact parameters rather than a more precise definition of time ( iTosefot HaRosh /i)?, bWhat does Rabbi Eliezeractually bhold? If he holds that the night consists of three watches, let him sayexplicitly that one recites the evening iShema buntil the fourth hour. If he holds that the night consists of four watches, let him sayexplicitly buntil the third hour. /b,The Gemara responds: bActually,Rabbi Eliezer bholds that the night consists of three watches,and he employs this particular language of watches bin order to teach us: There are watches in heaven and there are watches on earth;just as our night is divided into watches, so too is the night in the upper worlds. bAs it was taughtin a ibaraita /i: bRabbi Eliezer says: The night consists of three watches, and over each and every watch, the Holy One, Blessed be He, sits and roars like a lionin pain over the destruction of the Temple. This imagery is derived from a reference in the Bible, bas it is stated: “The Lord roars [ iyishag /i] from on high, from His holy dwelling He makes His voice heard. He roars mightily[ishaog yishag/b] bover His dwelling place,He cries out like those who tread grapes, against all the inhabitants of the earth” (Jeremiah 25:30). The three instances of the root ishin-alef-gimmelin this verse correspond to the three watches of the night., bAnd signs ofthe transition between each of bthesewatches in the upper world can be sensed in this world: In bthe first watch, the donkey brays;in bthe second, dogs bark;and in bthe thirdpeople begin to rise, ba baby nurses from its mother’s breast and a wife converses with her husband. /b,With regard to these earthly manifestations of the three heavenly watches as established in the ibaraita /i, the Gemara asks: bWhat did Rabbi Eliezer enumerate? Ifhe benumerated the beginning of the watch, why do I need a sign for the beginning of the first watch? It iswhen beveningbegins; an additional sign is superfluous. bIf he enumerated the end of the watches, why do I need a sign for the end of the last watch? It iswhen bdaybegins; an additional sign is similarly superfluous.,The Gemara answers: bRather, he enumeratedthe signs for bthe end of the first watch and the beginning of the last watch,both of which require a sign, as well as bthe middle of the middlewatch. bAnd if you wish, sayinstead: bHe enumerated the ends of allof the watches. bAnd if you saythat a sign indicating the end of the bfinalwatch bis unnecessarybecause it is day, nevertheless, that sign is useful., bWhat is the practical ramificationof this sign? It is relevant bto one who recites iShema bwhile lying in a dark house,who cannot see the dawn and bwho does not know when the time for reciting iShema /iarrives. That person is provided with a sign that bwhen a woman speaks with her husband and a baby nurses from its mother’s breast,the final watch of the night has ended and bhe must rise and recite iShema /i., bRav Yitzḥak bar Shmuel said in the name of Rav: The night consists of three watches, and over each and every watch the Holy One, Blessed be He sits and roars like a lion,because the Temple service was connected to the changing of these watches ( iTosefot HaRosh /i), band says: “Woe to Me, that due to their sins I destroyed My house, burned My Temple and exiled them among the nations of the world.” /b,Incidental to the mention of the elevated significance of the night watches, the Gemara cites a related story: bIt was taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Yosei said: I was once walking along the road when I enteredthe bruinsof an old, abandoned building bamong the ruins of Jerusalemin order bto pray.I noticed that bElijah, of blessed memory, came and guarded the entrance for me and waited at the entrance until I finished my prayer. When I finished prayingand exited the ruin, Elijah bsaid to me,deferentially as one would address a Rabbi: bGreetings to you, my Rabbi. I answered him: Greetings to you, my Rabbi, my teacher. AndElijah bsaid to me: My son, why did you enter this ruin? I said to him:In order bto pray. AndElijah bsaid to me: You should have prayed on the road. And I said to him:I was unable to pray along the road, because bI was afraid that I might be interrupted by travelersand would be unable to focus. Elijah bsaid to me: You should have recited the abbreviated prayerinstituted for just such circumstances.,Rabbi Yosei concluded: bAt that time,from that brief exchange, bI learned from him, three things: I learned that one may not enter a ruin; and I learnedthat one need not enter a building to pray, but bhe may pray along the road; and I learned that one who prays along the road recites an abbreviated prayerso that he may maintain his focus., bAndafter this introduction, Elijah bsaid to me: What voice did you hear in that ruin? br bI responded: I heard a Heavenly voice,like an echo of that roar of the Holy One, Blessed be He (Maharsha), bcooing like a dove and saying: Woe to the children, due to whose sins I destroyed My house, burned My Temple, and exiled them among the nations.br bAndElijah bsaid to me:By byour life and by your head, not onlydid that voice bcry out in that moment, but it cries out three times each and every day. Moreover,any time that God’s greatness is evoked, such as bwhen Israel enters synagogues and study halls and answersin the ikaddishprayer, bMay His great name be blessed, the Holy One, Blessed be He, shakes His head and says: Happy is the king who is thus praised in his house.When the Temple stood, this praise was recited there, but now: bHowgreat is the pain of bthe father who exiled his children, and woe to the children who were exiled from their father’s table,as their pain only adds to that of their father (Rabbi Shem Tov ibn Shaprut)., bThe Sages taught, for three reasons one may not enter a ruin: Because of suspicionof prostitution, bbecausethe ruin is liable to bcollapse,and bbecause of demons.Three separate reasons seem extraneous, so the Gemara asks: Why was the reason bbecause of suspicionnecessary? bLet this ihalakha bbe derived because of collapse. /b
10. Babylonian Talmud, Sukkah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

28a. התם הוא דמבטל אבל הכא דלא מבטל לא,ת"ר מעשה ברבי אליעזר ששבת בגליל העליון ושאלוהו שלשים הלכות בהלכות סוכה שתים עשרה אמר להם שמעתי שמונה עשר אמר להם לא שמעתי ר' יוסי בר' יהודה אומר חילוף הדברים שמונה עשר אמר להם שמעתי שתים עשרה אמר להם לא שמעתי,אמרו לו כל דבריך אינן אלא מפי השמועה אמר להם הזקקתוני לומר דבר שלא שמעתי מפי רבותי מימי לא קדמני אדם בבית המדרש ולא ישנתי בבית המדרש לא שינת קבע ולא שינת עראי ולא הנחתי אדם בבית המדרש ויצאתי ולא שחתי שיחת חולין ולא אמרתי דבר שלא שמעתי מפי רבי מעולם,אמרו עליו על רבן יוחנן בן זכאי מימיו לא שח שיחת חולין ולא הלך ד' אמות בלא תורה ובלא תפילין ולא קדמו אדם בבית המדרש ולא ישן בבית המדרש לא שינת קבע ולא שינת עראי ולא הרהר במבואות המטונפות ולא הניח אדם בבית המדרש ויצא ולא מצאו אדם יושב ודומם אלא יושב ושונה ולא פתח אדם דלת לתלמידיו אלא הוא בעצמו ולא אמר דבר שלא שמע מפי רבו מעולם ולא אמר הגיע עת לעמוד מבית המדרש חוץ מערבי פסחים וערבי יום הכפורים וכן היה ר' אליעזר תלמידו נוהג אחריו,תנו רבנן שמונים תלמידים היו לו להלל הזקן שלשים מהן ראוים שתשרה עליהן שכינה כמשה רבינו ושלשים מהן ראוים שתעמוד להם חמה כיהושע בן נון עשרים בינונים גדול שבכולן יונתן בן עוזיאל קטן שבכולן רבן יוחנן בן זכאי,אמרו עליו על רבן יוחנן בן זכאי שלא הניח מקרא ומשנה גמרא הלכות ואגדות דקדוקי תורה ודקדוקי סופרים קלים וחמורים וגזרות שוות תקופות וגימטריאות שיחת מלאכי השרת ושיחת שדים ושיחת דקלים משלות כובסין משלות שועלים דבר גדול ודבר קטן,דבר גדול מעשה מרכבה דבר קטן הויות דאביי ורבא לקיים מה שנאמר (משלי ח, כא) להנחיל אוהבי יש ואוצרותיהם אמלא וכי מאחר שקטן שבכולן כך גדול שבכולן על אחת כמה וכמה אמרו עליו על יונתן בן עוזיאל בשעה שיושב ועוסק בתורה כל עוף שפורח עליו מיד נשרף:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big מי שהיה ראשו ורובו בסוכה ושולחנו בתוך הבית ב"ש פוסלין וב"ה מכשירין אמרו להם ב"ה לב"ש לא כך היה מעשה שהלכו זקני ב"ש וזקני ב"ה לבקר את רבי יוחנן בן החורנית ומצאוהו שהיה יושב ראשו ורובו בסוכה ושולחנו בתוך הבית ולא אמרו לו דבר אמרו להם ב"ש משם ראיה אף הם אמרו לו אם כן היית נוהג לא קיימת מצות סוכה מימיך,נשים ועבדים וקטנים פטורין מן הסוכה קטן שאינו צריך לאמו חייב בסוכה מעשה וילדה כלתו של שמאי הזקן ופיחת את המעזיבה וסיכך על גבי המטה בשביל קטן:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big מה"מ דת"ר אזרח זה אזרח (ויקרא כג, מב) האזרח להוציא את הנשים כל לרבות את הקטנים,אמר מר האזרח להוציא את הנשים למימרא דאזרח בין נשים בין גברי משמע והתניא האזרח לרבות את הנשים האזרחיות שחייבות בעינוי אלמא אזרח גברי משמע אמר רבה הלכתא נינהו ואסמכינהו רבנן אקראי,הי קרא והי הלכתא ותו קרא למה לי הלכתא למה לי הא סוכה מצות עשה שהזמן גרמא וכל מצות עשה שהזמן גרמא נשים פטורות,יום הכפורים מדרב יהודה אמר רב נפקא דאמר רב יהודה אמר רב וכן תנא דבי רבי ישמעאל אמר קרא (במדבר ה, ו) איש או אשה 28a. The Gemara answers: There is a difference between the case of the shutter and the case of the sheet. bThere,in the case of the shutter, bwhere he negatesit by shuttering the window, it is considered part of the building and it is therefore prohibited. bHowever, here,in the case of the sheet, bwhere he does not negateit, as he plans on removing it, bno,it is not necessarily prohibited.,The Gemara relates a similar incident. bThe Sages taught:There was ban incident involving Rabbi Eliezer, who stayed in the Upper Galilee, andthe people there basked him thirty ihalakhotin the ihalakhotof isukka /i.In response to btwelve, he said to them: I heardan answer from my teachers, and he related what he heard. In response to the other beighteen, he said to them: I did not hearan answer. bRabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Yehuda, says:It was bthe reverse of these matters.In response to beighteen he said to them: I heardan answer; in response to the other btwelve he said to them: I did not hearan answer., bThey said to him: Are all the mattersthat byouknow bonly from whatyou bheard?Don’t you say any matters on your own? bHe said to them:Now byou forced me to say a matter that I did not hear from my teachers,as I must describe my character traits and the manner in which I conduct myself. bInall bmy days, no person ever preceded me into the study hall,as I am always first to arrive; band I never slept in the study hall, neither substantial sleep nor a brief nap; and I never left anyone in the study hall and exited,as I was always last to leave; band I never engaged in idle conversation;rather, I discussed only necessary matters or matters of Torah; band I never said anything that I did not hear from my teacher.That is why he did not answer those questions that his teacher did not address.,Apropos the character traits of Rabbi Eliezer, the Gemara cites character traits of his teacher. The Sages bsaid about Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai,the teacher of Rabbi Eliezer: bInall bhis days he never engaged in idle conversation; and he never walked four cubits withoutengaging in bTorahstudy band withoutdonning bphylacteries; and no person ever preceded him into the study hall; and he never slept in the study hall, neither substantial sleep nor a brief nap; and he never contemplatedmatters of Torah bin alleyways filthywith human excrement, as doing so is a display of contempt for the Torah; band he never left anyone in the study hall and exited; and no person ever found him sitting and silent,i.e., inactive; brather, hewas always bsitting and studying; and only he opened the door for his students,disregarding his own eminent standing; band he never said anything that he did not hear from his teacher; and he never saidto his students that bthe time has arrived to ariseand leave bthe study hall except on Passover eves,when they were obligated to sacrifice the Paschal lamb, and bYom Kippur eves,when there is a mitzva to eat and drink abundantly. bAnd Rabbi Eliezer, his student, accustomedhimself to model his conduct bafter hisexample.,The Gemara continues to praise the Sages. bThe Sages taught: Hillel the Elder had eighty students. Thirty of themwere sufficiently bworthy that the Divine Presenceshould brest upon them asit did upon bMoses our teacher, and thirty of themwere sufficiently bworthy that the sunshould bstand still for them asit did for bJoshua bin Nun, and twentywere on an bintermediatelevel between the other two. bThe greatest of allthe students was bYonatan ben Uzziel, and the youngest of themwas bRabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai. /b,The Gemara relates: The Sages bsaid about Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkaithat bhe did not neglect Bible; Mishna; Gemara; ihalakhotand iaggadot /i; minutiae of the Torah and minutiae of the scribes;the hermeneutical principles of the Torah with regard to ia fortioriinferences and verbal analogies;the calculation of the calendrical bseasons;and bnumerology [ igimmatreyaot /i].In addition, he did not neglect esoteric matters, including bthe conversation of ministering angels; the conversation of demons, and the conversation of palm trees; parables of launderers,which are folk tales that can be used to explain the Torah; bparables of foxes;and more generally, ba great matter and a small matter. /b,The Gemara elaborates: bA great matteris referring to the secrets of the bDesign of theDivine bChariot,the conduct of the transcendent universe. bA small matteris, for example, ihalakhotthat were ultimately formulated in the framework of bthe disputes of Abaye and Rava.He did not neglect any of these disciplines so as bto fulfill that which is stated: “That I may cause those that love me to inherit substance and that I may fill their treasuries”(Proverbs 8:21), as Rabban Yoḥa was filled with the disciplines of Torah and wisdom. bAnd if the youngest of them was soprolific, bthe greatest of themwas ball the more soprolific. The Gemara relates that the Sages bsaid of Yonatan ben Uzziel,the greatest of Hillel’s students, bthat when he sat and was engaged in Torahstudy, the sanctity that he generated was so intense that bany bird that flew over him was immediately incinerated. /b, strongMISHNA: /strong In the case of bone whose head and most of hisbody bwere in the isukkaand his table was in the house, Beit Shammai deem it unfit, and Beit Hillel deem it fit. Beit Hillel said to Beit Shammai:And bwasn’t there an incident where the Elders of Beit Shammai and the Elders of Beit Hillel went to visit Rabbi Yoḥa ben HaḤoranit and they found himsuch bthat he was sitting with his head and most of hisbody bin the isukkaand his table in the house, and they said nothing to him?Even Beit Shammai did not object. bBeit Shammai said to them:Is there bproof from there?That is not what happened; rather, bthey said to him: If you were accustomedto act in bthismanner, byou have never fulfilled the mitzva of isukkain your life. /b,The mishna continues: bWomen, slaves, and minors are exempt from themitzva of isukka /i. A minor who does not need his motherany longer bis obligatedin the mitzva. There was ban incident where the daughter-in-law of Shammai the Elder gave birthjust before iSukkot /i, and Shammai bremoved thecoat of bplasterfrom the roof, leaving the beams, band roofedwith the beams bover the bed for thenewborn bminor. /b, strongGEMARA: /strong With regard to the ihalakhathat women, slaves, and minors are exempt from the mitzva of isukka /i, the Gemara asks: bFrom where are these mattersderived? The Gemara answers that it is bas the Sages taughtin a ibaraitathat it is stated: “All the homeborn in Israel shall reside in isukkot /i” (Leviticus 23:42). Had the verse stated only: bHomeborn,it would have been derived bthatany bhomebornmember of the Jewish people is obligated to observe this mitzva. However, the term with the addition of the definite article: b“The homeborn,”indicates that only certain homeborn members are obligated, i.e., men, bto the exclusion of the women.The word “all” in the phrase: b“Allthe homeborn,” comes bto include the minorscapable of performing this mitzva.,§ The Gemara analyzes the ibaraita /i. bThe Master said: “The homeborn”is bto the exclusion of women. Is that to say thatthe term bhomebornwithout the definite article bindicates both men and women? Isn’t it taughtin a ibaraitawith regard to Yom Kippur that it is stated: “And it shall be a statute forever unto you: In the seventh month, on the tenth day of the month, you shall afflict your souls and shall do no manner of work, the homeborn, or the stranger that sojourns among you” (Leviticus 16:29). And the term b“the homeborn”in that verse comes bto include homeborn women, who are obligated inthe mitzva of bafflictionon Yom Kippur. In that case, the definite article comes to include women. Therefore, bapparently,the term homeborn, without the definite article, bindicatesonly bmen. Rabba said: They areeach a ihalakha /itransmitted to Moses from Sinai, band the Sagesmerely bsupported them with versesas a mnemonic device. Therefore, it is not surprising that the derivations are contradictory.,The Gemara asks: bWhichof them bisderived from bthe verse and which is a ihalakha /itransmitted to Moses from Sinai and merely supported by a verse? bAnd furthermore, why do Ineed bthe verse and why do Ineed bthe ihalakha /i? Isn’t isukkaa positive, time-bound mitzva, andthe principle is that bwomen are exempt from all positive, time-bound mitzvot?There is no need for a special derivation to exempt women from the mitzva of isukka /i.,And there is no need for a derivation with regard to their obligation to fast on bYom Kippur,as that can be bderived fromthat bwhich Rav Yehudasaid that bRav said, as Rav Yehuda saidthat bRav said, and it was likewise taught in the school of Rabbi Yishmael: The verse says:“When ba man or womanshall commit any sin that a person commits, to commit a trespass against the Lord, and that soul be guilty” (Numbers 5:6).
11. Eusebius of Caesarea, Ecclesiastical History, 4.7.7 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

4.7.7. While exposing his mysteries he says that Basilides wrote twenty-four books upon the Gospel, and that he invented prophets for himself named Barcabbas and Barcoph, and others that had no existence, and that he gave them barbarous names in order to amaze those who marvel at such things; that he taught also that the eating of meat offered to idols and the unguarded renunciation of the faith in times of persecution were matters of indifference; and that he enjoined upon his followers, like Pythagoras, a silence of five years.
12. Nag Hammadi, The Sentences of Sextus, 155 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
akiba Pevarello, The Sentences of Sextus and the Origins of Christian Ascetiscism (2013) 160
alexandria, alexandrian Pevarello, The Sentences of Sextus and the Origins of Christian Ascetiscism (2013) 160
antigonus of socho Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 551
aristotle Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 551
austerity Pevarello, The Sentences of Sextus and the Origins of Christian Ascetiscism (2013) 160
authorship, rabbinic, versus transmission Fonrobert and Jaffee, The Cambridge Companion to the Talmud and Rabbinic Literature Cambridge Companions to Religion (2007) 22
authorship, rabbinic Fonrobert and Jaffee, The Cambridge Companion to the Talmud and Rabbinic Literature Cambridge Companions to Religion (2007) 22
basil of caesarea Pevarello, The Sentences of Sextus and the Origins of Christian Ascetiscism (2013) 160
basilides Pevarello, The Sentences of Sextus and the Origins of Christian Ascetiscism (2013) 160
ben sira, books of Veltri, Libraries, Translations, and 'Canonic' Texts: The Septuagint, Aquila and Ben Sira in the Jewish and Christian Traditions (2006) 194
brevity Pevarello, The Sentences of Sextus and the Origins of Christian Ascetiscism (2013) 160
canon Veltri, Libraries, Translations, and 'Canonic' Texts: The Septuagint, Aquila and Ben Sira in the Jewish and Christian Traditions (2006) 194
egypt Veltri, Libraries, Translations, and 'Canonic' Texts: The Septuagint, Aquila and Ben Sira in the Jewish and Christian Traditions (2006) 194
eliezer (ben hyrcanus), rabbi Fonrobert and Jaffee, The Cambridge Companion to the Talmud and Rabbinic Literature Cambridge Companions to Religion (2007) 22
essenes Pevarello, The Sentences of Sextus and the Origins of Christian Ascetiscism (2013) 160
eusebius Pevarello, The Sentences of Sextus and the Origins of Christian Ascetiscism (2013) 160
gamliel, rabban (also gamaliel) Fonrobert and Jaffee, The Cambridge Companion to the Talmud and Rabbinic Literature Cambridge Companions to Religion (2007) 22
gnosticism Pevarello, The Sentences of Sextus and the Origins of Christian Ascetiscism (2013) 160
greek logos, jewish wisdom and Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 194
greek logos Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 194
hermeneutic Veltri, Libraries, Translations, and 'Canonic' Texts: The Septuagint, Aquila and Ben Sira in the Jewish and Christian Traditions (2006) 194
high priest Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 194
identity Veltri, Libraries, Translations, and 'Canonic' Texts: The Septuagint, Aquila and Ben Sira in the Jewish and Christian Traditions (2006) 194
jewish wisdom, greek logos and Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 194
josephus Pevarello, The Sentences of Sextus and the Origins of Christian Ascetiscism (2013) 160
judaism Pevarello, The Sentences of Sextus and the Origins of Christian Ascetiscism (2013) 160
laughter Pevarello, The Sentences of Sextus and the Origins of Christian Ascetiscism (2013) 160
logos, theology of Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 146
manuscript corrections, interpolations and revisions Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 551
messiah, philos logos and Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 194
messiah, priest related to Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 194
messiah, son of god and Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 146
pharisees Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 551
philo Pevarello, The Sentences of Sextus and the Origins of Christian Ascetiscism (2013) 160
philosophy Veltri, Libraries, Translations, and 'Canonic' Texts: The Septuagint, Aquila and Ben Sira in the Jewish and Christian Traditions (2006) 194
prayer Fonrobert and Jaffee, The Cambridge Companion to the Talmud and Rabbinic Literature Cambridge Companions to Religion (2007) 22
priest, high Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 194
priest, messianic figures related to Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 194
pythagoreanism Pevarello, The Sentences of Sextus and the Origins of Christian Ascetiscism (2013) 160
pythagoreans Pevarello, The Sentences of Sextus and the Origins of Christian Ascetiscism (2013) 160
shechemites Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 551
silence, in the mishnah Pevarello, The Sentences of Sextus and the Origins of Christian Ascetiscism (2013) 160
silence Pevarello, The Sentences of Sextus and the Origins of Christian Ascetiscism (2013) 160
sin Pevarello, The Sentences of Sextus and the Origins of Christian Ascetiscism (2013) 160
slaves, maintenance of unprofitable' Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 551
sofos Veltri, Libraries, Translations, and 'Canonic' Texts: The Septuagint, Aquila and Ben Sira in the Jewish and Christian Traditions (2006) 194
son of god, messiah and Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 146
transmission Veltri, Libraries, Translations, and 'Canonic' Texts: The Septuagint, Aquila and Ben Sira in the Jewish and Christian Traditions (2006) 194
two powers in heaven Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 146
wisdom Veltri, Libraries, Translations, and 'Canonic' Texts: The Septuagint, Aquila and Ben Sira in the Jewish and Christian Traditions (2006) 194