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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



7997
Mishnah, Avot, 3.2


רַבִּי חֲנִינָא סְגַן הַכֹּהֲנִים אוֹמֵר, הֱוֵי מִתְפַּלֵּל בִּשְׁלוֹמָהּ שֶׁל מַלְכוּת, שֶׁאִלְמָלֵא מוֹרָאָהּ, אִישׁ אֶת רֵעֵהוּ חַיִּים בְּלָעוֹ. רַבִּי חֲנִינָא בֶן תְּרַדְיוֹן אוֹמֵר, שְׁנַיִם שֶׁיּוֹשְׁבִין וְאֵין בֵּינֵיהֶן דִּבְרֵי תוֹרָה, הֲרֵי זֶה מוֹשַׁב לֵצִים, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים א) וּבְמוֹשַׁב לֵצִים לֹא יָשָׁב. אֲבָל שְׁנַיִם שֶׁיּוֹשְׁבִין וְיֵשׁ בֵּינֵיהֶם דִּבְרֵי תוֹרָה, שְׁכִינָה שְׁרוּיָה בֵינֵיהֶם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (מלאכי ג) אָז נִדְבְּרוּ יִרְאֵי יְיָ אִישׁ אֶל רֵעֵהוּ וַיַּקְשֵׁב יְיָ וַיִּשְׁמָע וַיִּכָּתֵב סֵפֶר זִכָּרוֹן לְפָנָיו לְיִרְאֵי יְיָ וּלְחֹשְׁבֵי שְׁמוֹ. אֵין לִי אֶלָּא שְׁנַיִם, מִנַּיִן שֶׁאֲפִלּוּ אֶחָד שֶׁיּוֹשֵׁב וְעוֹסֵק בַּתּוֹרָה, שֶׁהַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא קוֹבֵעַ לוֹ שָׂכָר, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (איכה ג) יֵשֵׁב בָּדָד וְיִדֹּם כִּי נָטַל עָלָיו:Rabbi Hanina, the vice-high priest said: pray for the welfare of the government, for were it not for the fear it inspires, every man would swallow his neighbor alive. R. Hananiah ben Teradion said: if two sit together and there are no words of Torah [spoken] between them, then this is a session of scorners, as it is said: “nor sat he in the seat of the scornful…[rather, the teaching of the Lord is his delight]” (Psalms 1:1); but if two sit together and there are words of Torah [spoken] between them, then the Shekhinah abides among them, as it is said: “then they that feared the Lord spoke one with another; and the Lord hearkened and heard, and a book of remembrance was written before Him, for them that feared the Lord and that thought upon His name” (Malachi 3:16). Now I have no [scriptural proof for the presence of the Shekhinah] except [among] two, how [do we know] that even one who sits and studies Torah the Holy One, blessed be He, fixes his reward? As it is said: “though he sit alone and [meditate] in stillness, yet he takes [a reward] unto himself” (Lamentations 3:28).


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

34 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Song of Songs, 1.6 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.6. אַל־תִּרְאוּנִי שֶׁאֲנִי שְׁחַרְחֹרֶת שֶׁשֱּׁזָפַתְנִי הַשָּׁמֶשׁ בְּנֵי אִמִּי נִחֲרוּ־בִי שָׂמֻנִי נֹטֵרָה אֶת־הַכְּרָמִים כַּרְמִי שֶׁלִּי לֹא נָטָרְתִּי׃ 1.6. Look not upon me, that I am swarthy, That the sun hath tanned me; My mother’s sons were incensed against me, They made me keeper of the vineyards; But mine own vineyard have I not kept.’
2. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 31.4-31.6 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

31.4. וְעָשָׂה יְהוָה לָהֶם כַּאֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה לְסִיחוֹן וּלְעוֹג מַלְכֵי הָאֱמֹרִי וּלְאַרְצָם אֲשֶׁר הִשְׁמִיד אֹתָם׃ 31.5. וּנְתָנָם יְהוָה לִפְנֵיכֶם וַעֲשִׂיתֶם לָהֶם כְּכָל־הַמִּצְוָה אֲשֶׁר צִוִּיתִי אֶתְכֶם׃ 31.6. חִזְקוּ וְאִמְצוּ אַל־תִּירְאוּ וְאַל־תַּעַרְצוּ מִפְּנֵיהֶם כִּי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ הוּא הַהֹלֵךְ עִמָּךְ לֹא יַרְפְּךָ וְלֹא יַעַזְבֶךָּ׃ 31.4. And the LORD will do unto them as He did to Sihon and to Og, the kings of the Amorites, and unto their land; whom He destroyed." 31.5. And the LORD will deliver them up before you, and ye shall do unto them according unto all the commandment which I have commanded you." 31.6. Be strong and of good courage, fear not, nor be affrighted at them; for the LORD thy God, He it is that doth go with thee; He will not fail thee, nor forsake thee.’"
3. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 3.2, 13.21-13.22, 24.16-24.18, 25.2, 25.8, 33.9, 33.18, 34.6, 40.34 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

3.2. וַיֵּרָא מַלְאַךְ יְהֹוָה אֵלָיו בְּלַבַּת־אֵשׁ מִתּוֹךְ הַסְּנֶה וַיַּרְא וְהִנֵּה הַסְּנֶה בֹּעֵר בָּאֵשׁ וְהַסְּנֶה אֵינֶנּוּ אֻכָּל׃ 3.2. וְשָׁלַחְתִּי אֶת־יָדִי וְהִכֵּיתִי אֶת־מִצְרַיִם בְּכֹל נִפְלְאֹתַי אֲשֶׁר אֶעֱשֶׂה בְּקִרְבּוֹ וְאַחֲרֵי־כֵן יְשַׁלַּח אֶתְכֶם׃ 13.21. וַיהוָה הֹלֵךְ לִפְנֵיהֶם יוֹמָם בְּעַמּוּד עָנָן לַנְחֹתָם הַדֶּרֶךְ וְלַיְלָה בְּעַמּוּד אֵשׁ לְהָאִיר לָהֶם לָלֶכֶת יוֹמָם וָלָיְלָה׃ 13.22. לֹא־יָמִישׁ עַמּוּד הֶעָנָן יוֹמָם וְעַמּוּד הָאֵשׁ לָיְלָה לִפְנֵי הָעָם׃ 24.16. וַיִּשְׁכֹּן כְּבוֹד־יְהוָה עַל־הַר סִינַי וַיְכַסֵּהוּ הֶעָנָן שֵׁשֶׁת יָמִים וַיִּקְרָא אֶל־מֹשֶׁה בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי מִתּוֹךְ הֶעָנָן׃ 24.17. וּמַרְאֵה כְּבוֹד יְהוָה כְּאֵשׁ אֹכֶלֶת בְּרֹאשׁ הָהָר לְעֵינֵי בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 24.18. וַיָּבֹא מֹשֶׁה בְּתוֹךְ הֶעָנָן וַיַּעַל אֶל־הָהָר וַיְהִי מֹשֶׁה בָּהָר אַרְבָּעִים יוֹם וְאַרְבָּעִים לָיְלָה׃ 25.2. וְהָיוּ הַכְּרֻבִים פֹּרְשֵׂי כְנָפַיִם לְמַעְלָה סֹכְכִים בְּכַנְפֵיהֶם עַל־הַכַּפֹּרֶת וּפְנֵיהֶם אִישׁ אֶל־אָחִיו אֶל־הַכַּפֹּרֶת יִהְיוּ פְּנֵי הַכְּרֻבִים׃ 25.2. דַּבֵּר אֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְיִקְחוּ־לִי תְּרוּמָה מֵאֵת כָּל־אִישׁ אֲשֶׁר יִדְּבֶנּוּ לִבּוֹ תִּקְחוּ אֶת־תְּרוּמָתִי׃ 25.8. וְעָשׂוּ לִי מִקְדָּשׁ וְשָׁכַנְתִּי בְּתוֹכָם׃ 33.9. וְהָיָה כְּבֹא מֹשֶׁה הָאֹהֱלָה יֵרֵד עַמּוּד הֶעָנָן וְעָמַד פֶּתַח הָאֹהֶל וְדִבֶּר עִם־מֹשֶׁה׃ 33.18. וַיֹּאמַר הַרְאֵנִי נָא אֶת־כְּבֹדֶךָ׃ 34.6. וַיַּעֲבֹר יְהוָה עַל־פָּנָיו וַיִּקְרָא יְהוָה יְהוָה אֵל רַחוּם וְחַנּוּן אֶרֶךְ אַפַּיִם וְרַב־חֶסֶד וֶאֱמֶת 40.34. וַיְכַס הֶעָנָן אֶת־אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד וּכְבוֹד יְהוָה מָלֵא אֶת־הַמִּשְׁכָּן׃ 3.2. And the angel of the LORD appeared unto him in a flame of fire out of the midst of a bush; and he looked, and, behold, the bush burned with fire, and the bush was not consumed." 13.21. And the LORD went before them by day in a pillar of cloud, to lead them the way; and by night in a pillar of fire, to give them light; that they might go by day and by night:" 13.22. the pillar of cloud by day, and the pillar of fire by night, departed not from before the people." 24.16. And the glory of the LORD abode upon mount Sinai, and the cloud covered it six days; and the seventh day He called unto Moses out of the midst of the cloud." 24.17. And the appearance of the glory of the LORD was like devouring fire on the top of the mount in the eyes of the children of Israel." 24.18. And Moses entered into the midst of the cloud, and went up into the mount; and Moses was in the mount forty days and forty nights." 25.2. ’Speak unto the children of Israel, that they take for Me an offering; of every man whose heart maketh him willing ye shall take My offering." 25.8. And let them make Me a sanctuary, that I may dwell among them." 33.9. And it came to pass, when Moses entered into the Tent, the pillar of cloud descended, and stood at the door of the Tent; and [the LORD] spoke with Moses." 33.18. And he said: ‘Show me, I pray Thee, Thy glory.’" 34.6. And the LORD passed by before him, and proclaimed: ‘The LORD, the LORD, God, merciful and gracious, long-suffering, and abundant in goodness and truth;" 40.34. Then the cloud covered the tent of meeting, and the glory of the LORD filled the tabernacle."
4. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 10.9 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

10.9. הוּא־הָיָה גִבֹּר־צַיִד לִפְנֵי יְהוָה עַל־כֵּן יֵאָמַר כְּנִמְרֹד גִּבּוֹר צַיִד לִפְנֵי יְהוָה׃ 10.9. He was a mighty hunter before the LORD; wherefore it is said: ‘Like Nimrod a mighty hunter before the LORD.’"
5. Hebrew Bible, Joel, 3.17 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

6. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 68.16-68.18 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

68.16. הַר־אֱלֹהִים הַר־בָּשָׁן הַר גַּבְנֻנִּים הַר־בָּשָׁן׃ 68.17. לָמָּה תְּרַצְּדוּן הָרִים גַּבְנֻנִּים הָהָר חָמַד אֱלֹהִים לְשִׁבְתּוֹ אַף־יְהוָה יִשְׁכֹּן לָנֶצַח׃ 68.18. רֶכֶב אֱלֹהִים רִבֹּתַיִם אַלְפֵי שִׁנְאָן אֲדֹנָי בָם סִינַי בַּקֹּדֶשׁ׃ 68.16. A mountain of God is the mountain of Bashan; A mountain of peaks is the mountain of Bashan." 68.17. Why look ye askance, ye mountains of peaks, At the mountain which God hath desired for His abode? Yea, the LORD will dwell therein for ever." 68.18. The chariots of God are myriads, even thousands upon thousands; The Lord is among them, as in Sinai, in holiness."
7. Hebrew Bible, Joshua, 4.22, 7.1-7.16 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

4.22. וְהוֹדַעְתֶּם אֶת־בְּנֵיכֶם לֵאמֹר בַּיַּבָּשָׁה עָבַר יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶת־הַיַּרְדֵּן הַזֶּה׃ 7.1. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־יְהוֹשֻׁעַ קֻם לָךְ לָמָּה זֶּה אַתָּה נֹפֵל עַל־פָּנֶיךָ׃ 7.1. וַיִּמְעֲלוּ בְנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל מַעַל בַּחֵרֶם וַיִּקַּח עָכָן בֶּן־כַּרְמִי בֶן־זַבְדִּי בֶן־זֶרַח לְמַטֵּה יְהוּדָה מִן־הַחֵרֶם וַיִּחַר־אַף יְהוָה בִּבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 7.2. וַיִּשְׁלַח יְהוֹשֻׁעַ אֲנָשִׁים מִירִיחוֹ הָעַי אֲשֶׁר עִם־בֵּית אָוֶן מִקֶּדֶם לְבֵית־אֵל וַיֹּאמֶר אֲלֵיהֶם לֵאמֹר עֲלוּ וְרַגְּלוּ אֶת־הָאָרֶץ וַיַּעֲלוּ הָאֲנָשִׁים וַיְרַגְּלוּ אֶת־הָעָי׃ 7.2. וַיַּעַן עָכָן אֶת־יְהוֹשֻׁעַ וַיֹּאמַר אָמְנָה אָנֹכִי חָטָאתִי לַיהוָה אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְכָזֹאת וְכָזֹאת עָשִׂיתִי׃ 7.3. וַיָּשֻׁבוּ אֶל־יְהוֹשֻׁעַ וַיֹּאמְרוּ אֵלָיו אַל־יַעַל כָּל־הָעָם כְּאַלְפַּיִם אִישׁ אוֹ כִּשְׁלֹשֶׁת אֲלָפִים אִישׁ יַעֲלוּ וְיַכּוּ אֶת־הָעָי אַל־תְּיַגַּע־שָׁמָּה אֶת־כָּל־הָעָם כִּי מְעַט הֵמָּה׃ 7.4. וַיַּעֲלוּ מִן־הָעָם שָׁמָּה כִּשְׁלֹשֶׁת אֲלָפִים אִישׁ וַיָּנֻסוּ לִפְנֵי אַנְשֵׁי הָעָי׃ 7.5. וַיַּכּוּ מֵהֶם אַנְשֵׁי הָעַי כִּשְׁלֹשִׁים וְשִׁשָּׁה אִישׁ וַיִּרְדְּפוּם לִפְנֵי הַשַּׁעַר עַד־הַשְּׁבָרִים וַיַּכּוּם בַּמּוֹרָד וַיִּמַּס לְבַב־הָעָם וַיְהִי לְמָיִם׃ 7.6. וַיִּקְרַע יְהוֹשֻׁעַ שִׂמְלֹתָיו וַיִּפֹּל עַל־פָּנָיו אַרְצָה לִפְנֵי אֲרוֹן יְהוָה עַד־הָעֶרֶב הוּא וְזִקְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיַּעֲלוּ עָפָר עַל־רֹאשָׁם׃ 7.7. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוֹשֻׁעַ אֲהָהּ אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה לָמָה הֵעֲבַרְתָּ הַעֲבִיר אֶת־הָעָם הַזֶּה אֶת־הַיַּרְדֵּן לָתֵת אֹתָנוּ בְּיַד הָאֱמֹרִי לְהַאֲבִידֵנוּ וְלוּ הוֹאַלְנוּ וַנֵּשֶׁב בְּעֵבֶר הַיַּרְדֵּן׃ 7.8. בִּי אֲדֹנָי מָה אֹמַר אַחֲרֵי אֲשֶׁר הָפַךְ יִשְׂרָאֵל עֹרֶף לִפְנֵי אֹיְבָיו׃ 7.9. וְיִשְׁמְעוּ הַכְּנַעֲנִי וְכֹל יֹשְׁבֵי הָאָרֶץ וְנָסַבּוּ עָלֵינוּ וְהִכְרִיתוּ אֶת־שְׁמֵנוּ מִן־הָאָרֶץ וּמַה־תַּעֲשֵׂה לְשִׁמְךָ הַגָּדוֹל׃ 7.11. חָטָא יִשְׂרָאֵל וְגַם עָבְרוּ אֶת־בְּרִיתִי אֲשֶׁר צִוִּיתִי אוֹתָם וְגַם לָקְחוּ מִן־הַחֵרֶם וְגַם גָּנְבוּ וְגַם כִּחֲשׁוּ וְגַם שָׂמוּ בִכְלֵיהֶם׃ 7.12. וְלֹא יֻכְלוּ בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל לָקוּם לִפְנֵי אֹיְבֵיהֶם עֹרֶף יִפְנוּ לִפְנֵי אֹיְבֵיהֶם כִּי הָיוּ לְחֵרֶם לֹא אוֹסִיף לִהְיוֹת עִמָּכֶם אִם־לֹא תַשְׁמִידוּ הַחֵרֶם מִקִּרְבְּכֶם׃ 7.13. קֻם קַדֵּשׁ אֶת־הָעָם וְאָמַרְתָּ הִתְקַדְּשׁוּ לְמָחָר כִּי כֹה אָמַר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל חֵרֶם בְּקִרְבְּךָ יִשְׂרָאֵל לֹא תוּכַל לָקוּם לִפְנֵי אֹיְבֶיךָ עַד־הֲסִירְכֶם הַחֵרֶם מִקִּרְבְּכֶם׃ 7.14. וְנִקְרַבְתֶּם בַּבֹּקֶר לְשִׁבְטֵיכֶם וְהָיָה הַשֵּׁבֶט אֲשֶׁר־יִלְכְּדֶנּוּ יְהוָה יִקְרַב לַמִּשְׁפָּחוֹת וְהַמִּשְׁפָּחָה אֲשֶׁר־יִלְכְּדֶנָּה יְהוָה תִּקְרַב לַבָּתִּים וְהַבַּיִת אֲשֶׁר יִלְכְּדֶנּוּ יְהוָה יִקְרַב לַגְּבָרִים׃ 7.15. וְהָיָה הַנִּלְכָּד בַּחֵרֶם יִשָּׂרֵף בָּאֵשׁ אֹתוֹ וְאֶת־כָּל־אֲשֶׁר־לוֹ כִּי עָבַר אֶת־בְּרִית יְהוָה וְכִי־עָשָׂה נְבָלָה בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 7.16. וַיַּשְׁכֵּם יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בַּבֹּקֶר וַיַּקְרֵב אֶת־יִשְׂרָאֵל לִשְׁבָטָיו וַיִּלָּכֵד שֵׁבֶט יְהוּדָה׃ 4.22. then ye shall let your children know, saying: Israel came over this Jordan on dry land." 7.1. But the children of Israel committed a trespass concerning the devoted thing; for Achan, the son of Carmi, the son of Zabdi, the son of Zerah, of the tribe of Judah, took of the devoted thing; and the anger of the LORD was kindled against the children of Israel." 7.2. And Joshua sent men from Jericho to Ai, which is beside Beth-aven, on the east side of Beth-el, and spoke unto them, saying: ‘Go up and spy out the land.’ And the men went up and spied out Ai." 7.3. And they returned to Joshua, and said unto him: ‘Let not all the people go up; but let about two or three thousand men go up and smite Ai; make not all the people to toil thither; for they are but few.’" 7.4. So there went up thither of the people about three thousand men; and they fled before the men of Ai." 7.5. And the men of Ai smote of them about thirty and six men; and they chased them from before the gate even unto Shebarim, and smote them at the descent; and the hearts of the people melted, and became as water." 7.6. And Joshua rent his clothes, and fell to the earth upon his face before the ark of the LORD until the evening, he and the elders of Israel; and they put dust upon their heads." 7.7. And Joshua said: ‘Alas, O Lord GOD, wherefore hast Thou at all brought this people over the Jordan, to deliver us into the hand of the Amorites, to cause us to perish? would that we had been content and dwelt beyond the Jordan!" 7.8. Oh, Lord, what shall I say, after that Israel hath turned their backs before their enemies!" 7.9. For when the Canaanites and all the inhabitants of the land hear of it, they will compass us round, and cut off our name from the earth; and what wilt Thou do for Thy great name?’" 7.10. And the LORD said unto Joshua: ‘Get thee up; wherefore, now, art thou fallen upon thy face?" 7.11. Israel hath sinned; yea, they have even transgressed My covet which I commanded them; yea, they have even taken of the devoted thing; and have also stolen, and dissembled also, and they have even put it among their own stuff." 7.12. Therefore the children of Israel cannot stand before their enemies, they turn their backs before their enemies, because they are become accursed; I will not be with you any more, except ye destroy the accursed from among you." 7.13. Up, sanctify the people, and say: Sanctify yourselves against tomorrow; for thus saith the LORD, the God of Israel: There is a curse in the midst of thee, O Israel; thou canst not stand before thine enemies, until ye take away the accursed thing from among you." 7.14. In the morning therefore ye shall draw near by your tribes; and it shall be, that the tribe which the LORD taketh shall come near by families; and the family which the LORD shall take shall come near by households; and the household which the LORD shall take shall come near man by man." 7.15. And it shall be that he that is taken with the devoted thing shall be burnt with fire, he and all that he hath; because he hath transgressed the covet of the LORD, and because he hath wrought a wanton deed in Israel.’" 7.16. So Joshua rose up early in the morning, and brought Israel near by their tribes; and the tribe of Judah was taken."
8. Hebrew Bible, Zechariah, 2.5 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

2.5. וָאֶשָּׂא עֵינַי וָאֵרֶא וְהִנֵּה־אִישׁ וּבְיָדוֹ חֶבֶל מִדָּה׃ 2.5. And I lifted up mine eyes, and saw, and behold a man with a measuring line in his hand."
9. Mishnah, Avodah Zarah, 2.3, 2.5 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

2.3. The following things belonging to non-Jews are forbidden [for Jews to use] and the prohibition extends to any benefit that may be derived from them: wine, or a non-Jew’s vinegar that was formerly wine, Hadrianic earthenware, skins pierced at the animal’s heart. Rabban Shimon Gamaliel says: when its tear is round, [the skin] is forbidden, but if oblong it is permitted. Meat which is being brought into a place of idol worship is permitted, but that which is brought out is forbidden, because it is like a sacrifice to the dead, this is the opinion of Rabbi Akiba. With non-Jews going on a pilgrimage [to worship idols] it is forbidden to have any business transactions, but with those returning it is permitted. 2.5. Rabbi Judah said: Rabbi Ishmael put this question to Rabbi Joshua as they were walking on the way, “Why have they forbidden the cheese of non-Jews?” He replied, because they curdle it with the rennet of a nevelah (an animal that was not properly slaughtered.” He (Rabbi Ishmael) said: “but is not the rennet of a burnt-offering more strictly forbidden than the rennet of a nevelah? [and yet] it was said that a priest who is not fastidious may suck it out raw.” (Though the Sages disagreed with this opinion, and they said that no benefit may be derived from it, although one who consumed it did not trespass [temple property). Rabbi Joshua responded: “The reason then is because they curdle it with the rennet from calves sacrificed to idols.” He (Rabbi Ishmael) said to him: “if that be so, why do they not extend the prohibition to any benefit derived from it?” He (Rabbi Joshua) diverted him to another matter, saying: “Ishmael, how do you read for your [masc.] love is more delightful than wine” or “your [fem.] love etc. (Song of Songs 1:2” He replied: “your [fem.] love is better …” He said to him: this is not so, as it is proved by its fellow [-verse]: your ointments [masc.] have a goodly fragrance … [therefore do the maidens love you] (Song of Songs 1:3).”"
10. Mishnah, Avot, 1.1, 2.10, 3.3-3.8 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

1.1. Moses received the torah at Sinai and transmitted it to Joshua, Joshua to the elders, and the elders to the prophets, and the prophets to the Men of the Great Assembly. They said three things: Be patient in [the administration of] justice, raise many disciples and make a fence round the Torah." 2.10. They [each] said three things:Rabbi Eliezer said: Let the honor of your friend be as dear to you as your own; And be not easily provoked to anger; And repent one day before your death. And [he also said:] warm yourself before the fire of the wise, but beware of being singed by their glowing coals, for their bite is the bite of a fox, and their sting is the sting of a scorpion, and their hiss is the hiss of a serpent, and all their words are like coals of fire." 3.3. Rabbi Shimon said: if three have eaten at one table and have not spoken there words of Torah, [it is] as if they had eaten sacrifices [offered] to the dead, as it is said, “for all tables are full of filthy vomit, when the All-Present is absent” (Isaiah 28:8). But, if three have eaten at one table, and have spoken there words of Torah, [it is] as if they had eaten at the table of the All-Present, blessed be He, as it is said, “And He said unto me, ‘this is the table before the Lord’” (Ezekiel 41:2." 3.4. Rabbi Haiah ben Hakinai said: one who wakes up at night, or walks on the way alone and turns his heart to idle matters, behold, this man is mortally guilty." 3.5. Rabbi Nehunia ben Hakkanah said: whoever takes upon himself the yoke of the Torah, they remove from him the yoke of government and the yoke of worldly concerns, and whoever breaks off from himself the yoke of the Torah, they place upon him the yoke of government and the yoke of worldly concerns." 3.6. Rabbi Halafta of Kefar Haia said: when ten sit together and occupy themselves with Torah, the Shechinah abides among them, as it is said: “God stands in the congregation of God” (Psalm 82:. How do we know that the same is true even of five? As it is said: “This band of His He has established on earth” (Amos 9:6). How do we know that the same is true even of three? As it is said: “In the midst of the judges He judges” (Psalm 82:1) How do we know that the same is true even of two? As it is said: “Then they that fear the Lord spoke one with another, and the Lord hearkened, and heard” (Malachi 3:16). How do we know that the same is true even of one? As it is said: “In every place where I cause my name to be mentioned I will come unto you and bless you” (Exodus 20:21)." 3.7. Rabbi Elazar of Bartotha said: give to Him of that which is His, for you and that which is yours is His; and thus it says with regards to David: “for everything comes from You, and from Your own hand have we given you” (I Chronicles 29:14). Rabbi Jacob said: if one is studying while walking on the road and interrupts his study and says, “how fine is this tree!” [or] “how fine is this newly ploughed field!” scripture accounts it to him as if he was mortally guilty." 3.8. Rabbi Dostai ben Rabbi Yannai said in the name of Rabbi Meir: whoever forgets one word of his study, scripture accounts it to him as if he were mortally guilty, as it is said, “But take utmost care and watch yourselves scrupulously, so that you do not forget the things that you saw with your own eyes” (Deuteronomy 4:9). One could [have inferred that this is the case] even when his study proved [too] hard for him, therefore scripture says, “that they do not fade from your mind as long as you live” (ibid.). Thus, he is not mortally guilty unless he deliberately removes them from his heart."
11. Mishnah, Hulin, 2.7 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

2.7. If one slaughtered for a non-Jew, the slaughtering is valid. Rabbi Eliezer declares it invalid. Rabbi Eliezer said: even if one slaughtered a beast with the intention that a non-Jew should eat [only] its liver, the slaughtering is invalid, for the thoughts of a non-Jew are usually directed towards idolatry. Rabbi Yose said: is there not a kal vehomer argument? For if in the case of consecrated animals, where a wrongful intention can render invalid, it is established that everything depends solely upon the intention of him who performs the service, how much more in the case of unconsecrated animals, where a wrongful intention cannot render invalid, is it not logical that everything should depend solely upon the intention of him who slaughters!"
12. Mishnah, Ketuvot, 2.9 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

2.9. A woman was imprisoned by non-Jews: if for the sake of money, she is permitted to her husband, and if in order to take her life, she is forbidden to her husband.Rabbi Zechariah ben Ha-katzav said: “By this temple! Her hand did not move out of my hand from the time that the non-Jews entered Jerusalem until they departed.” A town that has been conquered by siege-troops: all the priests’ wives who are in it are prohibited [from their husbands]. If they have witnesses, even a slave, even a female slave, they are believed. However, no one is believed as to himself.They said to him: “No one may testify concerning himself.”"
13. Mishnah, Niddah, 4.3 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

4.3. The blood of a Gentile and the clean blood of a metzoraat (a woman with scale disease): Bet Shammai declares clean. And Bet Hillel holds that it is like her spittle or her urine. The blood of a woman after childbirth who did not immerse [in a mikveh]: Bet Shammai says it is like her spittle or her urine, But Bet Hillel says: it conveys uncleanness both when wet and when dry. They agree that if she gave birth while in zivah, it conveys uncleanness both when wet and when dry."
14. Mishnah, Parah, 3.7 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

3.7. If the cow refused to go out, they may not take out with it a black one lest people say, \"They slaughtered a black cow\" nor another red [cow] lest people say, \"They slaughtered two.\" Rabbi Yose says: it was not for this reason but because it is said \"And he shall bring her out\" by herself. The elders of Israel used to go first by foot to the Mount of Olives, where there was a place of immersion. The priest that was to burn the cow was (deliberately) made unclean on account of the Sadducees so that they should not be able to say, \"It can be done only by those on whom the sun has set.\""
15. Mishnah, Sanhedrin, 6.5 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

6.5. R. Meir said: “When man suffers, what expression does the shechinah (God’s presence) use? “My head is too light (a euphemism for heavy) for me, my arm is too light (a euphemism for heavy) for me.” If god is so grieved over the blood of the wicked that is shed, how much more so over the blood of the righteous! And not only of this one [a criminal did the sages not to leave him overnight] but whosoever lets his dead lie over night transgresses a negative commandment. If he kept him over night for the sake of his honor, to procure for him a coffin or a shroud, he does not transgress. And they did not bury him [the executed person] in his ancestral tomb, but two burial places were prepared by the court, one for those who were decapitated or strangled, and the other for those who were stoned or burned."
16. Mishnah, Yevamot, 16.5 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

16.5. Even if he only heard from women saying, “so-and-so is dead”, this is enough. Rabbi Judah says: even if he only heard children saying, “behold we are going to mourn for a man named so-and-so and to bury him” [it is enough]. Whether [such statement was made] with the intention [of providing evidence] or was made with no such intention [it is valid]. Rabbi Judah ben Bava says: with an Israelite [the evidence is valid] only if the man had the intention [of acting as witness]. In the case of a non-Jew the evidence is invalid if his intention was [to act as witness]."
17. Mishnah, Terumot, 8.11 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

8.11. Concerning both cases Rabbi Joshua said: This is not the kind of terumah over which I am cautioned lest I defile it, but rather to eat of it and not to defile it. If one was passing from place to place with loaves of terumah in his hand and a Gentile said to him: “Give me one of these and I will make it unclean; for if not, I will defile them all,” let him defile them all, and not give him deliberately one to defile, the words of Rabbi Eliezer. But Rabbi Joshua says: he should place one of them on a rock."
18. Mishnah, Yadayim, 4.6 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

4.6. The Sadducees say: we complain against you, Pharisees, because you say that the Holy Scriptures defile the hands, but the books of Homer do not defile the hands. Rabban Yoha ben Zakkai said: Have we nothing against the Pharisees but this? Behold they say that the bones of a donkey are clean, yet the bones of Yoha the high priest are unclean. They said to him: according to the affection for them, so is their impurity, so that nobody should make spoons out of the bones of his father or mother. He said to them: so also are the Holy Scriptures according to the affection for them, so is their uncleanness. The books of Homer which are not precious do not defile the hands."
19. Tosefta, Parah, 3.8 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

20. Tosefta, Yadayim, 2.9 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

21. Anon., Sifre Deuteronomy, 352 (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

22. Babylonian Talmud, Bava Batra, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

115b. הא כיצד נחלה ממשמשת והולכת עד ראובן ולימא עד יעקב אמר אביי גמירי דלא כלה שבטא,אמר רב הונא אמר רב כל האומר תירש בת עם בת הבן אפילו נשיא שבישראל אין שומעין לו שאינן אלא מעשה צדוקין דתניא בארבעה ועשרים בטבת תבנא לדיננא שהיו צדוקין אומרין תירש הבת עם בת הבן,נטפל להן רבן יוחנן בן זכאי אמר להם שוטים מנין זה לכם ולא היה אדם שהחזירו דבר חוץ מזקן אחד שהיה מפטפט כנגדו ואומר ומה בת בנו הבאה מכח בנו תירשנו בתו הבאה מכחו לא כל שכן,קרא עליו את המקרא הזה (בראשית לו, כ) אלה בני שעיר החורי יושבי הארץ לוטן ושובל וצבעון וענה וכתיב (בראשית לו, כד) אלה בני צבעון ואיה וענה אלא מלמד שבא צבעון על אמו והוליד ענה,ודלמא תרי ענה הוו אמר רבה אמינא מלתא דלא אמרה שבור מלכא ומנו שמואל איכא דאמרי אמר רב פפא אמינא מלתא דלא אמרה שבור מלכא ומנו רבה אמר קרא (בראשית לו, כד) הוא ענה הוא ענה דמעיקרא,אמר ליה רבי בכך אתה פוטרני אמר לו שוטה 115b. The Gemara asks: bHow so,i.e., how is the investigation performed when he has no offspring at all? The Gemara answers: The family lineage that determines the binheritance is successively examined up to Reuben,son of Jacob, i.e., the heirs are determined by investigating the family genealogy, and that investigation can extend all the way to Reuben, son of our forefather Jacob. The Gemara asks: bAnd letit bsay: Until Jacobhimself, rather than until Reuben, since if none of Reuven’s descendants survive, one would have to examine Jacob’s descendants. bAbaye saidin reply: It bis learnedas a tradition bthat a tribe will not be eliminatedentirely, and some descendants will always remain.,§ bRav Huna saysthat bRav says:With regard to banyone who saysthat ba daughterof the deceased bshould inheritthe estate of her father along bwith the daughter of the sonof the deceased, bevenif he is ba prince of the Jewish people,one bshould not listen to him, as this is nothing other than an act of the Sadducees,and runs counter to the ruling of the mishna that the descendants of a son inherit before a daughter. bAs it is taughtin a ibaraitain iMegillat Ta’anit /i, which describes various minor holidays on which it is forbidden to fast or eulogize: bOn the twenty-fourth of Tevet, we returned to our law,i.e., the ihalakhawas reestablished in accordance with the opinion of the Sages after having been dictated by the Sadducees. bAs the Sadducees would say: A daughter should inheritthe estate of her father along bwith the daughter of the sonof the deceased.,The ibaraitacontinues: bRabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai joined themto discuss their ruling, and bsaid to them: Imbeciles, from wheredo byouderive bthisruling? bAnd there was no person that answered him anything, except for one oldman bwho was chattering at him and sayingthat it is an ia fortioriinference: bAnd just as a daughter ofthe deceased’s bson, who comesto claim her inheritance from her grandfather bby virtue of his son, inheritsher grandfather’s property, so too, with regard to the deceased’s own bdaughter, who comesto inherit bby virtue ofthe deceased, ball the more sois it bnotclear that she should inherit his property?,Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai brecited this verse about him: “These are the sons of Seir the Horite, the inhabitants of the land: Lotan and Shobal and Zibeon and Anah”(Genesis 36:20), band it is written: “And these are the children of Zibeon: Aiah and Anah”(Genesis 36:24). The first verse portrays Zibeon and Anah as brothers, while the second states that they are father and son. bRather,this bteaches that Zibeon engaged in sexual intercourse with his mother and begot Anah,so that he was both Anah’s father and his brother. From the fact that the first verse equates Zibeon and Anah by referring to both of them as Seir’s sons despite Anah being a grandson of Seir, it is clear that grandchildren are equal to children, contrary to the Sadducees’ assertion.,The Gemara interrupts the recounting of the ibaraitaand questions Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai’s inference: bBut perhaps there were twopeople named bAnah,so that one Anah was Zibeon’s son, and the other his brother? bRabba said: I will state a matterthat even bKing Shapur did not state. And who isthis King Shapur? This cannot be a reference to Shapur, king of Persia; rather, it must be a moniker for someone else. He is bShmuel,whose legal rulings were accepted by the public like the edicts of a king by his subjects. bSome statea different version, that it was bRav Pappawho bsaid: I will state a matterthat even bKing Shapur did not state. And who isthis King Shapur? He is bRabba. The versegoes on to bstate: “This is Anah”(Genesis 36:24), indicating that bhe isthe same bAnahmentioned binitially,earlier in the verse. Accordingly, there was only one Anah, who was both Zibeon’s brother and Zibeon’s son.,The ibaraitacontinues: The Sadducee bsaid toRabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai: bMy teacher, you dismiss me with thisretort? I agree that the son of a son precedes a daughter, as the verse you quoted suggests; I am asserting that a daughter inherits together with the daughter of a son, and the verse you quoted has no bearing on that claim. Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai bsaid to him: Imbecile, /b
23. Babylonian Talmud, Berachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

64a. שנאמר (דברי הימים א כו, ה) פעלתי השמיני וכתיב (דברי הימים א כו, ה) כי ברכו אלהים (דברי הימים א כו, ח) כל אלה [מבני] (ל) עובד אדום המה ובניהם ואחיהם (אנשי) [איש] חיל בכח לעבודה ששים ושנים לעובד אדום,אמר ר' אבין הלוי כל הדוחק את השעה שעה דוחקתו וכל הנדחה מפני השעה שעה נדחת מפניו,מדרבה ורב יוסף דרב יוסף סיני ורבה עוקר הרים אצטריכא להו שעתא שלחו להתם סיני ועוקר הרים איזה מהם קודם שלחו להו סיני קודם שהכל צריכין למרי חטיא אף על פי כן לא קבל עליו ר' יוסף דאמרי ליה כלדאי מלכת תרתין שנין,מלך רבה עשרין ותרתין שנין מלך רב יוסף תרתין שנין ופלגא,כל הנך שני דמלך רבה אפילו אומנא לביתיה לא קרא:,ואמר רבי אבין הלוי מאי דכתיב (תהלים כ, ב) יענך ה' ביום צרה ישגבך שם אלהי יעקב אלהי יעקב ולא אלהי אברהם ויצחק מכאן לבעל הקורה שיכנס בעביה של קורה:,ואמר רבי אבין הלוי כל הנהנה מסעודה שתלמיד חכם שרוי בתוכה כאילו נהנה מזיו שכינה שנאמר (שמות יח, יב) ויבא אהרן וכל זקני ישראל לאכל לחם עם חותן משה לפני האלהים וכי לפני אלהים אכלו והלא לפני משה אכלו,אלא לומר לך כל הנהנה מסעודה שתלמיד חכם שרוי בתוכה כאילו נהנה מזיו שכינה:,ואמר רבי אבין הלוי הנפטר מחברו אל יאמר לו לך בשלום אלא לך לשלום שהרי יתרו שאמר לו למשה (שמות ד, יח) לך לשלום עלה והצליח דוד שאמר לו לאבשלום (שמואל ב טו, ט) לך בשלום הלך ונתלה:,ואמר רבי אבין הלוי הנפטר מן המת אל יאמר לו לך לשלום אלא לך בשלום שנאמר (בראשית טו, טו) ואתה תבא אל אבותיך בשלום:,אמר רבי לוי בר חייא היוצא מבית הכנסת ונכנס לבית המדרש ועוסק בתורה זוכה ומקבל פני שכינה שנאמר (תהלים פד, ח) ילכו מחיל אל חיל יראה אל אלהים בציון.,אמר רבי חייא בר אשי אמר רב תלמידי חכמים אין להם מנוחה לא בעולם הזה ולא בעולם הבא שנאמר ילכו מחיל אל חיל יראה אל אלהים בציון:,אמר רבי אלעזר אמר רבי חנינא תלמידי חכמים מרבים שלום בעולם שנאמר (ישעיהו נד, יג) וכל בניך למודי ה' ורב שלום בניך,אל תקרי בניך אלא בוניך (תהלים קיט, קסה) שלום רב לאוהבי תורתך ואין למו מכשול (תהלים קכב, ז) יהי שלום בחילך שלוה בארמנותיך (תהלים קכב, ח) למען אחי ורעי אדברה נא שלום בך (תהלים קכב, ט) למען בית ה' אלהינו אבקשה טוב לך (תהלים כט, יא) ה' עוז לעמו יתן ה' יברך את עמו בשלום:, br br big strongהדרן עלך הרואה וסליקא לה מסכת ברכות /strong /big br br
24. Babylonian Talmud, Gittin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

56b. איברא מלכא את דאי לאו מלכא את לא מימסרא ירושלים בידך דכתיב (ישעיהו י, לד) והלבנון באדיר יפול ואין אדיר אלא מלך דכתיב (ירמיהו ל, כא) והיה אדירו ממנו וגו' ואין לבנון אלא ביהמ"ק שנאמר (דברים ג, כה) ההר הטוב הזה והלבנון ודקאמרת אי מלכא אנא אמאי לא קאתית לגבאי עד האידנא בריוני דאית בן לא שבקינן,אמר ליה אילו חבית של דבש ודרקון כרוך עליה לא היו שוברין את החבית בשביל דרקון אישתיק קרי עליה רב יוסף ואיתימא רבי עקיבא (ישעיהו מד, כה) משיב חכמים אחור ודעתם יסכל איבעי ליה למימר ליה שקלינן צבתא ושקלינן ליה לדרקון וקטלינן ליה וחביתא שבקינן לה,אדהכי אתי פריסתקא עליה מרומי אמר ליה קום דמית ליה קיסר ואמרי הנהו חשיבי דרומי לאותיבך ברישא הוה סיים חד מסאני בעא למסיימא לאחרינא לא עייל בעא למשלפא לאידך לא נפק אמר מאי האי,אמר ליה לא תצטער שמועה טובה אתיא לך דכתיב (משלי טו, ל) שמועה טובה תדשן עצם אלא מאי תקנתיה ליתי איניש דלא מיתבא דעתך מיניה ולחליף קמך דכתיב (משלי יז, כב) ורוח נכאה תיבש גרם עבד הכי עייל אמר ליה ומאחר דחכמיתו כולי האי עד האידנא אמאי לא אתיתו לגבאי אמר ליה ולא אמרי לך אמר ליה אנא נמי אמרי לך,אמר ליה מיזל אזילנא ואינש אחרינא משדרנא אלא בעי מינאי מידי דאתן לך אמר ליה תן לי יבנה וחכמיה ושושילתא דרבן גמליאל ואסוותא דמסיין ליה לרבי צדוק קרי עליה רב יוסף ואיתימא רבי עקיבא (ישעיהו מד, כה) משיב חכמים אחור ודעתם יסכל איבעי למימר ליה לשבקינהו הדא זימנא,והוא סבר דלמא כולי האי לא עביד והצלה פורתא נמי לא הוי,אסוותא דמסיין ליה לרבי צדוק מאי היא יומא קמא אשקיוה מיא דפארי למחר מיא דסיפוקא למחר מיא דקימחא עד דרווח מיעיה פורתא פורתא,אזל שדריה לטיטוס ואמר (דברים לב, לז) אי אלהימו צור חסיו בו זה טיטוס הרשע שחירף וגידף כלפי מעלה,מה עשה תפש זונה בידו ונכנס לבית קדשי הקדשים והציע ספר תורה ועבר עליה עבירה ונטל סייף וגידר את הפרוכת ונעשה נס והיה דם מבצבץ ויוצא וכסבור הרג את עצמו שנאמר (תהלים עד, ד) שאגו צורריך בקרב מועדיך שמו אותותם אותות,אבא חנן אומר (תהלים פט, ט) מי כמוך חסין יה מי כמוך חסין וקשה שאתה שומע ניאוצו וגידופו של אותו רשע ושותק דבי רבי ישמעאל תנא (שמות טו, יא) מי כמוכה באלים ה' מי כמוכה באלמים,מה עשה נטל את הפרוכת ועשאו כמין גרגותני והביא כל כלים שבמקדש והניחן בהן והושיבן בספינה לילך להשתבח בעירו שנאמר (קהלת ח, י) ובכן ראיתי רשעים קבורים ובאו וממקום קדוש יהלכו וישתכחו בעיר אשר כן עשו אל תיקרי קבורים אלא קבוצים אל תיקרי וישתכחו אלא וישתבחו,איכא דאמרי קבורים ממש דאפילו מילי דמטמרן איגלייא להון,עמד עליו נחשול שבים לטובעו אמר כמדומה אני שאלהיהם של אלו אין גבורתו אלא במים בא פרעה טבעו במים בא סיסרא טבעו במים אף הוא עומד עלי לטובעני במים אם גבור הוא יעלה ליבשה ויעשה עמי מלחמה יצתה בת קול ואמרה לו רשע בן רשע בן בנו של עשו הרשע בריה קלה יש לי בעולמי ויתוש שמה,אמאי קרי לה בריה קלה דמעלנא אית לה ומפקנא לית לה,עלה ליבשה ותעשה עמה מלחמה עלה ליבשה בא יתוש ונכנס בחוטמו ונקר במוחו שבע שנים יומא חד הוה קא חליף אבבא דבי נפחא שמע קל ארזפתא אישתיק אמר איכא תקנתא כל יומא מייתו נפחא ומחו קמיה לנכרי יהיב ליה ארבע זוזי לישראל אמר ליה מיסתייך דקא חזית בסנאך עד תלתין יומין עבד הכי מכאן ואילך כיון דדש דש,תניא אמר רבי פנחס בן ערובא אני הייתי בין גדולי רומי וכשמת פצעו את מוחו ומצאו בו כצפור דרור משקל שני סלעים במתניתא תנא כגוזל בן שנה משקל שני ליטרין,אמר אביי נקטינן פיו של נחושת וצפורניו של ברזל כי הוה קא מיית אמר להו ליקליוה לההוא גברא ולבדרי לקיטמיה אשב ימי דלא לשכחיה אלהא דיהודאי ולוקמיה בדינא,אונקלוס בר קלוניקוס בר אחתיה דטיטוס הוה בעי לאיגיורי אזל אסקיה לטיטוס בנגידא אמר ליה מאן חשיב בההוא עלמא אמר ליה ישראל מהו לאידבוקי בהו אמר ליה מילייהו נפישין ולא מצית לקיומינהו זיל איגרי בהו בההוא עלמא והוית רישא דכתיב (איכה א, ה) היו צריה לראש וגו' כל המיצר לישראל נעשה ראש אמר ליה דיניה דההוא גברא במאי א"ל 56b. bin truth, you are a king,if not now, then in the future. bAs if you are not a king, Jerusalem will not be handed over into your hand, as it is written: “And the Lebanon shall fall by a mighty one”(Isaiah 10:34). bAnd “mighty one”means bonly a king, as it is written: “And their mighty one shall be of themselves,and their ruler shall proceed from the midst of them” (Jeremiah 30:21), indicating that “mighty one” parallels “ruler.” bAnd “Lebanon”means bonly the Temple, as it is stated: “That good mountain and the Lebanon”(Deuteronomy 3:25). bAndas for bwhat you saidwith your second comment: bIf I am a king why didn’t you come to me until now, there are zealots among uswho bdid not allow usto do this.,Understanding that Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai was prepared to ask him not to destroy the Temple, Vespasian bsaid to him: Ifthere is ba barrel of honey and a snake [ iderakon /i] is wrapped around it, wouldn’t they break the barrel in order tokill bthe snake?In similar fashion, I am forced to destroy the city of Jerusalem in order to kill the zealots barricaded within it. Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai bwas silentand did not answer. In light of this, bRav Yoseflater breadthe following verse babout him, and some saythat it was bRabbi Akivawho applied the verse to Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai: “I am the Lord… bWho turns wise men backward and makes their knowledge foolish”(Isaiah 44:25). As Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai bshould have saidthe following btoVespasian in response: In such a case, bwe take tongs, remove the snake, and kill it, andin this way bwe leave the barrelintact. So too, you should kill the rebels and leave the city as it is., bIn the meantime,as they were talking, ba messenger [ iferistaka /i] arrived from Rome,and bsaid to him: Rise, for the emperor has died, and the noblemen of Rome plan to appoint you astheir bleaderand make you the next emperor. At that time Vespasian bwas wearingonly bone shoe,and when bhe tried to put on the other one, it would not go onhis foot. bHethen btried to remove the othershoe that he was already wearing, but bit would not come off. He said: What is this? /b,Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai bsaid to him: Be not distressedor troubled, for bgood tidings have reached you, as it is written: “Good tidings make the bone fat”(Proverbs 15:30), and your feet have grown fatter out of joy and satisfaction. Vespasian said to him: bBut what is the remedy?What must I do in order to put on my shoe? Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai bsaid to him: Have someone with whom you are displeased come and pass before you, as it is written: “A broken spirit dries the bones”(Proverbs 17:22). bHe did this, andhis shoe bwent onhis foot. Vespasian bsaid to him: Since you are so wise, why didn’t you come tosee bme until now?Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai bsaid to him: But didn’t Ialready btell you?Vespasian bsaid to him: I also told youwhat I had to say.,Vespasian then bsaid toRabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai: bI will be goingto Rome to accept my new position, band I will send someone elsein my place to continue besieging the city and waging war against it. bButbefore I leave, bask something of me that Ican bgive you.Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai bsaid to him: Give me Yavne and its Sagesand do not destroy it, bandspare bthe dynasty of Rabban Gamlieland do not kill them as if they were rebels, bandlastly give me bdoctors to heal Rabbi Tzadok. Rav Yosef readthe following verse babout him, and some saythat it was bRabbi Akivawho applied the verse to Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai: “I am the Lord… bWho turns wise men backward and makes their knowledge foolish”(Isaiah 44:25), as bhe should have said to him to leavethe Jews alone bthis time. /b, bAndwhy didn’t Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai make this request? bHe maintainedthat Vespasian bmight not do that muchfor him, band there would not be even a smallamount of bsalvation.Therefore, he made only a modest request, in the hope that he would receive at least that much.,The Gemara asks: bWhatwas he requesting when he asked for bdoctors to heal Rabbi Tzadok?How did they heal him? bThe first day they gave him water to drinkthat contained bbran [ iparei /i]. The nextday they gave him bwatercontaining bflour mixed with bran [ isipuka /i]. The following daythey gave him bwatercontaining bflour.In this way they slowly restored his ability to eat, allowing bhis stomach to broaden little by little. /b,§ Vespasian bwentback to Rome and bsent Titusin his place. The Gemara cites a verse that was expounded as referring to Titus: b“And he shall say: Where is their God, their rock in whom they trusted?”(Deuteronomy 32:37). bThis is the wicked Titus, who insulted and blasphemed God on High. /b, bWhat didTitus bdowhen he conquered the Temple? bHe took a prostitute with his hand, and entered the Holy of Holieswith her. bHethen bspread out a Torah scrollunderneath him band committed a sin,i.e., engaged in sexual intercourse, bon it.Afterward bhe took a sword and cut into the curtainseparating between the Sanctuary and the Holy of Holies. bAnd a miracle was performed and blood spurted forth.Seeing the blood, bhemistakenly bthoughtthat bhe had killed himself.Here, the term himself is a euphemism for God. Titus saw blood issuing forth from the curtain in God’s meeting place, the Temple, and he took it as a sign that he had succeeded in killing God Himself. bAs it is stated: “Your enemies roar in the midst of Your meeting place; they have set up their own signs for signs”(Psalms 74:4)., bAbba Ḥa says:The verse states: b“Who is strong like You, O Lord?”(Psalms 89:9). bWho is strong and indurate like You, as You hear the abuse and the blasphemy of that wicked man and remain silent.Similarly, bthe school of Rabbi Yishmael taughtthat the verse: b“Who is like You, O Lord, among the gods [ ielim /i]”(Exodus 15:11), should be read as: bWho is like You among the mute [ iilmim /i],for You conduct Yourself like a mute and remain silent in the face of Your blasphemers., bWhatelse did Titus bdo? He took the curtain and formed it like a large basket, and brought all of thesacred bvessels of the Temple and placed them in it. And he put them on a ship to go and be praised in his citythat he had conquered Jerusalem, bas it is stated: “And so I saw the wicked buried, and come to their rest; but those that had done right were gone from the holy place, and were forgotten in the city; this also is vanity”(Ecclesiastes 8:10). bDo not readthe word bas “buried [ ikevurim /i].” Rather,read it as bcollected [ ikevutzim /i].And bdo not readthe word bas “and were forgotten [ iveyishtakeḥu /i].” Rather,read it as: bAnd they were praised [ iveyishtabeḥu /i].According to this interpretation, the verse speaks of those who will gather and collect items “from the holy place,” the Temple, and be praised in their city about what they had done., bThere arethose bwho saythat the verse is to be read as written, as it is referring to items that were bactually buried.This is because beven items that had been buried were revealed to them,i.e., Titus and his soldiers, as they found all of the sacred vessels.,It is further related about Titus that he was once traveling bat seaand ba wave rose up against himand threatened bto drown him.Titus bsaid: It seems to me that their God,the God of Israel, bhas power only in water. Pharaoh roseagainst them and bHe drowned him in water. Sisera roseagainst them and bHe drowned him in water.Here btoo, He has risen up against me to drown me in water. If He isreally bmighty, let Him go up on dry land andthere bwage war against me. A Divine Voice issued forth and said to him: Wicked one, son of a wicked one, grandson of Esau the wicked,for you are among his descendants and act just like him, bI have a lowly creature in My world and it is called a gnat. /b,The Gemara interjects: bWhy is it called a lowly creature?It is called this bbecause it has an entrancefor taking in food, bbut it does not have an exitfor excretion.,The Gemara resumes its story about Titus. The Divine Voice continued: bGo up on dry land and make war with it. He went up on dry land,and ba gnat came, entered his nostril, and picked at his brain for seven years.Titus suffered greatly from this until bone day he passed by the gate of a blacksmith’s shop.The gnat bheard the sound of a hammerand bwas silentand still. Titus bsaid:I see that bthere is a remedyfor my pain. bEvery day they would bring a blacksmith who hammered before him. He would give four dinarsas payment bto a gentileblacksmith, and bto a Jew he wouldsimply bsay: It is enough for you that you see your enemyin so much pain. bHe did this for thirty daysand it was effective until then. bFrom thatpoint bforward, sincethe gnat bbecame accustomedto the hammering, bit became accustomedto it, and once again it began to pick away at Titus’s brain., bIt is taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Pineḥas ben Arova said: I wasat that time bamong the noblemen of Rome, and whenTitus bdied they split open his head and foundthat the gnat had grown to bthe size of a sparrow weighing two isela /i. It was taught inanother ibaraita /i:It was blikea one- byear-old pigeon weighing two ilitra /i. /b, bAbaye said: We have a traditionthat bits mouthwas made bof copper and its claws werefashioned of biron. WhenTitus bwas dying, he said tohis attendants: bBurn that man,i.e., me, band scatter his ashes across the seven seas, so that the God of the Jews should not find me and stand me for judgment. /b,§ The Gemara relates: bOnkelos bar Kalonikos, the son of Titus’s sister, wanted to convertto Judaism. bHe wentand braised Titusfrom the grave bthrough necromancy,and bsaid to him: Who ismost bimportant in that worldwhere you are now? Titus bsaid to him: The Jewish people.Onkelos asked him: bShould Ithen battachmyself bto themhere in this world? Titus bsaid to him: Their commandments are numerous, and you will not be able to fulfill them.It is best that you do as follows: bGoout and bbattle against them in that world, and you will become the chief, as it is written: “Her adversaries [ itzareha /i] have become the chief”(Lamentations 1:5), which means: bAnyone who distresses [ imeitzer /i] Israel will become the chief.Onkelos bsaid to him: What is the punishment of that man,a euphemism for Titus himself, in the next world? Titus bsaid to him: /b
25. Babylonian Talmud, Hagigah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

14b. הא בדברי תורה הא במשא ומתן בדברי תורה הוו במשא ומתן לא הוו.,ת"ר מעשה ברבן יוחנן בן זכאי שהיה רוכב על החמור והיה מהלך בדרך ור' אלעזר בן ערך מחמר אחריו אמר לו רבי שנה לי פרק אחד במעשה מרכבה אמר לו לא כך שניתי לכם ולא במרכבה ביחיד אלא א"כ היה חכם מבין מדעתו אמר לו רבי תרשיני לומר לפניך דבר אחד שלמדתני אמר לו אמור,מיד ירד רבן יוחנן בן זכאי מעל החמור ונתעטף וישב על האבן תחת הזית אמר לו רבי מפני מה ירדת מעל החמור אמר אפשר אתה דורש במעשה מרכבה ושכינה עמנו ומלאכי השרת מלוין אותנו ואני ארכב על החמור מיד פתח ר"א בן ערך במעשה המרכבה ודרש וירדה אש מן השמים וסיבבה כל האילנות שבשדה פתחו כולן ואמרו שירה,מה שירה אמרו (תהלים קמח, ז) הללו את ה' מן הארץ תנינים וכל תהומות עץ פרי וכל ארזים הללויה נענה מלאך מן האש ואמר הן הן מעשה המרכבה עמד רבן יוחנן ב"ז ונשקו על ראשו ואמר ברוך ה' אלהי ישראל שנתן בן לאברהם אבינו שיודע להבין ולחקור ולדרוש במעשה מרכבה יש נאה דורש ואין נאה מקיים נאה מקיים ואין נאה דורש אתה נאה דורש ונאה מקיים אשריך אברהם אבינו שאלעזר בן ערך יצא מחלציך,וכשנאמרו הדברים לפני ר' יהושע היה הוא ורבי יוסי הכהן מהלכים בדרך אמרו אף אנו נדרוש במעשה מרכבה פתח רבי יהושע ודרש ואותו היום תקופת תמוז היה נתקשרו שמים בעבים ונראה כמין קשת בענן והיו מלאכי השרת מתקבצין ובאין לשמוע כבני אדם שמתקבצין ובאין לראות במזמוטי חתן וכלה,הלך רבי יוסי הכהן וסיפר דברים לפני רבן יוחנן בן זכאי ואמר אשריכם ואשרי יולדתכם אשרי עיני שכך ראו ואף אני ואתם בחלומי מסובין היינו על הר סיני ונתנה עלינו בת קול מן השמים עלו לכאן עלו לכאן טרקלין גדולים ומצעות נאות מוצעות לכם אתם ותלמידיכם ותלמידי תלמידיכם מזומנין לכת שלישית,איני והתניא ר' יוסי בר' יהודה אומר שלשה הרצאות הן ר' יהושע הרצה דברים לפני רבן יוחנן בן זכאי ר"ע הרצה לפני ר' יהושע חנניא בן חכינאי הרצה לפני ר"ע ואילו ר"א בן ערך לא קא חשיב דארצי וארצו קמיה קחשיב דארצי ולא ארצו קמיה לא קא חשיב והא חנניא בן חכינאי דלא ארצו קמיה וקא חשיב דארצי מיהא קמיה מאן דארצי.,ת"ר ארבעה נכנסו בפרדס ואלו הן בן עזאי ובן זומא אחר ורבי עקיבא אמר להם ר"ע כשאתם מגיעין אצל אבני שיש טהור אל תאמרו מים מים משום שנאמר (תהלים קא, ז) דובר שקרים לא יכון לנגד עיני,בן עזאי הציץ ומת עליו הכתוב אומר (תהלים קטז, טו) יקר בעיני ה' המותה לחסידיו בן זומא הציץ ונפגע ועליו הכתוב אומר (משלי כה, טז) דבש מצאת אכול דייך פן תשבענו והקאתו אחר קיצץ בנטיעות רבי עקיבא יצא בשלום,שאלו את בן זומא מהו לסרוסי כלבא אמר להם (ויקרא כב, כד) ובארצכם לא תעשו כל שבארצכם לא תעשו שאלו את בן זומא בתולה שעיברה מהו לכ"ג מי חיישינן לדשמואל דאמר שמואל 14b. bThiscase is referring bto words of Torah,while bthatcase is referring bto commerce. With regard to words of Torah, they weretrustworthy; bwith regard to commerce, they were not. /b,§ The Gemara returns to the topic of the Design of the Divine Chariot. bThe Sages taught: An incidentoccurred binvolving Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai, who was riding on a donkey and was traveling along the way, andhis student, bRabbi Elazar ben Arakh, was riding a donkey behind him.Rabbi Elazar bsaid to him: My teacher, teach me one chapter in the Design of theDivine bChariot. He said to him:Have bI not taught you: And one may notexpound the Design of the Divine Chariot bto an individual, unless he is a Sage who understands on his own accord?Rabbi Elazar bsaid to him: My teacher, allow me to say before you one thing that you taught me.In other words, he humbly requested to recite before him his own understanding of this issue. bHe said to him: Speak. /b, bImmediately, Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai alighted from the donkey, and wrappedhis head in his cloak in a manner of reverence, band sat on a stone under an olive tree.Rabbi Elazar bsaid to him: My teacher, for what reason did you alight from the donkey? He said:Is it bpossible thatwhile byou are expounding the Design of theDivine bChariot, and the Divine Presence is with us, and the ministering angels are accompanying us, that I should ride on a donkey? Immediately, Rabbi Elazar ben Arakh beganto discuss bthe Design of theDivine bChariot and expounded, and fire descended from heaven and encircled all the trees in the field, and allthe trees bbegan reciting song. /b, bWhat song did they recite? “Praise the Lord from the earth, sea monsters and all depths…fruit trees and all cedars…praise the Lord”(Psalms 148:7–14). bAn angel responded from the fire, saying: This is the very Design of theDivine bChariot,just as you expounded. bRabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai stood and kissedRabbi Elazar ben Arakh bon his head, and said: Blessed be God, Lord of Israel, who gave our father Abraham a sonlike you, bwho knowshow bto understand, investigate, and expound the Design of theDivine bChariot. There are some who expoundthe Torah’s verses bwell but do not fulfillits imperatives bwell,and there are some bwho fulfillits imperatives bwell but do not expoundits verses bwell,whereas byou expoundits verses bwell and fulfillits imperatives bwell. Happy are you, our father Abraham, that Elazar ben Arakh came from your loins. /b,The Gemara relates: bAnd whenthese bmatters,this story involving his colleague Rabbi Elazar ben Arakh, bwere recounted before Rabbi Yehoshua, he was walking along the way with Rabbi Yosei the Priest. They said: We too shall expound the Design of theDivine bChariot. Rabbi Yehoshua began expounding. And that was the day of the summer solstice,when there are no clouds in the sky. Yet the bheavens became filled with clouds, and there was the appearance of a kind of rainbow in a cloud. And ministering angels gathered and came to listen, like people gathering and coming to see the rejoicing of a bridegroom and bride. /b, bRabbi Yosei the Priest went and recitedthese bmatters before Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai,who bsaidto him: bHappy areall of byou, and happy arethe mothers bwho gave birth to you; happy are my eyes that saw this,students such as these. bAs for you and I,I saw bin my dreamthat bwe were seated at Mount Sinai, and a Divine Voice came to us from heaven: Ascend here, ascend here,for blarge halls[iteraklin/b] band pleasant couches are made up for you. You, your students, and the students of your students are invited tothe bthird group,those who will merit to welcome the Divine Presence.,The Gemara poses a question: bIs that so? But isn’t it taughtin a ibaraita /i: bRabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Yehuda, says: There are three lectures.In other words, there are three Sages with regard to whom it states that they delivered lectures on the mystical tradition: bRabbi Yehoshua lecturedon these bmatters before Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai; Rabbi Akiva lectured before Rabbi Yehoshua;and bḤaya ben Ḥakhinai lectured before Rabbi Akiva. However, Rabbi Elazar ben Arakh was not includedin the list, despite the testimony that he lectured before Rabban Yoḥa. The Gemara explains: Those bwho lectured and werealso blectured to were included;but those bwho lectured and were not lectured to were not included.The Gemara asks: bBut wasn’tthere bḤaya ben Ḥakhinai, who was not lectured to, andyet bhe is included?The Gemara answers: Ḥaya ben Ḥakhinai bactually lectured before one who lecturedin front of his own rabbi, so he was also included in this list.,§ bThe Sages taught: Four entered the orchard [ ipardes /i],i.e., dealt with the loftiest secrets of Torah, band they are as follows: Ben Azzai; and ben Zoma; iAḥer /i,the other, a name for Elisha ben Avuya; band Rabbi Akiva. Rabbi Akiva,the senior among them, bsaid to them: When,upon your arrival in the upper worlds, byou reach pure marble stones, do not say: Water, water,although they appear to be water, bbecause it is stated: “He who speaks falsehood shall not be established before My eyes”(Psalms 101:7).,The Gemara proceeds to relate what happened to each of them: bBen Azzai glimpsedat the Divine Presence band died. And with regard to him the verse states: “Precious in the eyes of the Lord is the death of His pious ones”(Psalms 116:15). bBen Zoma glimpsedat the Divine Presence band was harmed,i.e., he lost his mind. bAnd with regard to him the verse states: “Have you found honey? Eat as much as is sufficient for you, lest you become full from it and vomit it”(Proverbs 25:16). iAḥerchopped down the shootsof saplings. In other words, he became a heretic. bRabbi Akiva came out safely. /b,The Gemara recounts the greatness of ben Zoma, who was an expert interpreter of the Torah and could find obscure proofs: bThey asked ben Zoma: What isthe ihalakhawith regard to bcastrating a dog?The prohibition against castration appears alongside the sacrificial blemishes, which may imply that it is permitted to castrate an animal that cannot be sacrificed as an offering. bHe said to them:The verse states “That which has its testicles bruised, or crushed, or torn, or cut, you shall not offer to God, nor bshall you do so in your land”(Leviticus 22:24), from which we learn: With regard to banyanimal bthat is in your land, you shall not dosuch a thing. bTheyalso basked ben Zoma:A woman considered bto be a virgin who became pregt, what isthe ihalakha /i? bA High Priestmay marry only a virgin; is he permitted to marry her? The answer depends on the following: bAre we concerned forthe opinion of bShmuel? Shmuel says: /b
26. Babylonian Talmud, Ketuvot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

111b. שאין בה סמיכה עמידה שיש בה סמיכה נוחה הימנה,וכן אמרו יצחק ושמעון ואושעיא אמרו דבר אחד הלכה כר' יהודה בפרדות דתניא רבי יהודה אומר פרדה שתבעה אין מרביעין עליה לא סוס ולא חמור אלא מינה,אמר רב נחמן בר יצחק יצחק זה רבי יצחק נפחא שמעון זה ר"ש בן פזי ואמרי לה ר"ל אושעיא זה רבי אושעיא ברבי,אמר ר' אלעזר עמי הארצות אינן חיים שנאמר (ישעיהו כו, יד) מתים בל יחיו וגו' תניא נמי הכי מתים בל יחיו יכול לכל ת"ל רפאים בל יקומו במרפה עצמו מדברי תורה הכתוב מדבר,א"ל ר' יוחנן לא ניחא למרייהו דאמרת להו הכי ההוא במרפה עצמו לעבודת כוכבים הוא דכתיב א"ל מקרא אחר אני דורש דכתיב (ישעיהו כו, יט) כי טל אורות טליך וארץ רפאים תפיל כל המשתמש באור תורה אור תורה מחייהו וכל שאין משתמש באור תורה אין אור תורה מחייהו,כיון דחזייה דקמצטער א"ל רבי מצאתי להן תקנה מן התורה (דברים ד, ד) ואתם הדבקים בה' אלהיכם חיים כולכם היום וכי אפשר לדבוקי בשכינה והכתיב (דברים ד, כד) כי ה' אלהיך אש אוכלה,אלא כל המשיא בתו לתלמיד חכם והעושה פרקמטיא לתלמידי חכמים והמהנה תלמידי חכמים מנכסיו מעלה עליו הכתוב כאילו מדבק בשכינה,כיוצא בדבר אתה אומר (דברים ל, כ) לאהבה את ה' אלהיך ולדבקה בו וכי אפשר לאדם לידבק בשכינה אלא כל המשיא בתו לתלמיד חכם והעושה פרקמטיא לתלמידי חכמים והמהנה תלמידי חכמים מנכסיו מעלה עליו הכתוב כאילו מדבק בשכינה,א"ר חייא בר יוסף עתידין צדיקים שמבצבצין ועולין בירושלים שנאמר (תהלים עב, טז) ויציצו מעיר כעשב הארץ ואין עיר אלא ירושלים שנאמר (מלכים ב יט, לד) וגנותי אל העיר הזאת,וא"ר חייא בר יוסף עתידים צדיקים שיעמדו במלבושיהן ק"ו מחטה מה חטה שנקברה ערומה יוצאה בכמה לבושין צדיקים שנקברו בלבושיהן על אחת כמה וכמה,וא"ר חייא בר יוסף עתידה א"י שתוציא גלוסקאות וכלי מילת שנאמר (תהלים עב, טז) יהי פסת בר בארץ,ת"ר יהי פסת בר בארץ בראש הרים אמרו עתידה חטה שתתמר כדקל ועולה בראש הרים ושמא תאמר יש צער לקוצרה תלמוד לומר (תהלים עב, טז) ירעש כלבנון פריו הקב"ה מביא רוח מבית גנזיו ומנשבה עליה ומשרה את סלתה ואדם יוצא לשדה ומביא מלא פיסת ידו וממנה פרנסתו ופרנסת אנשי ביתו,(דברים לב, יד) עם חלב כליות חטה אמרו עתידה חטה שתהא כשתי כליות של שור הגדול ואל תתמה שהרי שועל קינן בלפת ושקלוהו ומצאו בו ששים ליטרין בליטרא של צפורי,תניא אמר רב יוסף מעשה בשיחין באחד שהניח לו אביו שלשה בדי חרדל ונפשח אחד מהן ונמצאו בו תשעה קבין חרדל ועציו סיככו בו סוכת יוצרין: אמר ר"ש בן תחליפא קלח של כרוב הניח לנו אבא והיינו עולים ויורדים בו בסולם,(דברים לב, יד) ודם ענב תשתה חמר אמרו לא כעולם הזה העולם הבא העולם הזה יש בו צער לבצור ולדרוך העולם הבא מביא ענוה אחת בקרון או בספינה ומניחה בזוית ביתו ומספק הימנה כפטוס גדול ועציו מסיקין תחת התבשיל ואין לך כל ענבה וענבה שאין בה שלשים גרבי יין שנא' (דברים לב, יד) ודם ענב תשתה חמר אל תקרי חמר אלא חומר,כי אתא רב דימי אמר מאי דכתיב (בראשית מט, יא) אוסרי לגפן עירה אין לך כל גפן וגפן שבא"י שאין צריך עיר אחת לבצור (בראשית מט, יא) ולשורקה בני אתונו אין לך כל אילן סרק שבא"י שאינו מוציא משוי שתי אתונות ושמא תאמר אין בו יין ת"ל (בראשית מט, יא) כבס ביין לבושו ושמא תאמר אינו אדום ת"ל ודם ענב תשתה חמר,ושמא תאמר אינו מרוה ת"ל סותה ושמא תאמר אין בו טעם ת"ל חכלילי עינים מיין כל חיך שטועמו אומר לי לי ושמא תאמר לנערים יפה ולזקנים אינו יפה ת"ל ולבן שנים מחלב אל תיקרי לבן שינים אלא לבן שנים,פשטיה דקרא במאי כתיב כי אתא רב דימי אמר אמרה כנסת ישראל לפני הקב"ה רבונו של עולם רמוז בעיניך דבסים מחמרא ואחוי לי שיניך דבסים מחלבא,מסייע ליה לר' יוחנן דאמר ר' יוחנן טוב המלבין שינים לחבירו יותר ממשקהו חלב שנאמר ולבן שנים מחלב אל תקרי לבן שינים אלא לבון שינים,רב חייא בר אדא מקרי דרדקי דר"ל הוה איפגר תלתא יומי ולא אתא כי אתא א"ל אמאי איפגרת,א"ל דלית אחת הניח לי אבא ובצרתי ממנה יום ראשון ג' מאות אשכולות אשכול לגרב יום שני בצרתי ג' מאות אשכולות שתי אשכולות לגרב יום שלישי בצרתי ממנה ג' מאות אשכולות שלש אשכולות לגרב והפקרתי יותר מחציה א"ל אי לאו דאיפגרת הוה עבדא טפי,רמי בר יחזקאל איקלע לבני ברק חזנהו להנהו עיזי דקאכלן תותי תאיני וקנטיף דובשא מתאיני וחלבא טייף מנייהו ומיערב בהדי הדדי אמר היינו זבת חלב ודבש,א"ר יעקב בן דוסתאי מלוד לאונו שלשה מילין פעם אחת קדמתי בנשף והלכתי עד קרסולי בדבש של תאינים אמר ר"ל לדידי חזי לי זבת חלב ודבש של צפורי והוי שיתסר מילין אשיתסר מילין אמר רבה בר בר חנה לדידי חזי לי זבת חלב ודבש של כל ארץ ישראל 111b. bwithout support, standing with a support,i.e. an object against which one can lean, bis better than it. /b, bAnd so too,the brothers bsaidto Rabba: bYitzḥak, Shimon, and Oshayaall bsaid the same statement:The ihalakhais in accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Yehuda with regard to female mules. As it is taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Yehuda says:With regard to ba female mule in heat, onemay bnot mate a horse or a donkey with her,due to the prohibition against crossbreeding of livestock. bRather,one mates her with bone of her kind,another mule., bRav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said,in explanation of this last statement of Rabba’s brothers: bYitzḥak isto be identified with bRabbi Yitzḥak Nappaḥa; Shimon is Rabbi Shimon ben Pazi. And some saythat he is bReish Lakish,i.e., Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish. bOshaya is Rabbi Oshaya the Distinguished /b.,§ bRabbi Elazar said: The common, uneducated peoplewill bnotcome balivein the future, bas it is stated: “The dead live not”(Isaiah 26:14). In other words, those who were already considered dead in their lifetimes will not come back to life afterward either. bThisidea bis also taughtin a ibaraita /i: b“The dead live not”;one bmighthave thought that this is referring bto everyone,i.e., none of the dead will live again. Therefore, bthe verse states: “The shades [ irefa’im /i] rise not”(Isaiah 26:14). This teaches that bthe verse is speaking of one who weakens [ imerapeh /i] himself from matters of Torah. /b, bRabbi Yoḥa said toRabbi Elazar: bTheir master,i.e. God, bis not pleased that you say this ofordinary Jews. Rather, bthatverse bis written about one who weakens himselfand succumbs bto idol worship.Those who commit this great sin do not merit to be resurrected in the future. Rabbi Elazar bsaid to him: I teachit from ba different verse, as it is written: “For Your dew is as the dew of light, and the earth shall bring to life the shades”(Isaiah 26:19). Rabbi Elazar explains: bAnyone who uses the light of Torah,which is called the dew of light, bthe light of Torahwill brevive him; and anyone who does not use the light of Torah, the light of Torahwill bnot revive him. /b, bSinceRabbi Elazar bsaw thatRabbi Yoḥa bwas grievedover the distress of common, uneducated people, bhe said to him: My teacher, I have found for them a remedy from the Torahso that they will merit life in the World-to-Come, as it states: b“But You who cleave to the Lord your God, are alive every one of you this day”(Deuteronomy 4:4). bBut is it possible to cleave to the Divine Presence? Isn’t it written: For the Lord your God is a devouring fire”(Deuteronomy 4:24)?, bRather,this verse teaches that banyone who marries his daughter to a Torah scholar, and one who conducts business [ iperakmatya /i] on behalf of Torah scholars,by investing their money, band one whoutilizes his wealth bto benefit Torah scholars with his propertyin some other way, bthe verse ascribes himcredit bas though he is cleaving to the Divine Presence. /b, bOn a similar note, you say:The verse states: b“To love the Lord your God,to hearken to His voice, band to cleave to Him”(Deuteronomy 30:20). bBut is it possible for a person to cleave to the Divine Presence? Rather, anyone who marries his daughter to a Torah scholar, and one who conducts business on behalf of Torah scholars, and one whoutilizes his wealth bto benefit Torah scholars with his property, the verse ascribes himcredit bas though he is cleaving to the Divine Presence. /b,§ bRabbi Ḥiyya bar Yosef said: In the future,at the time of the resurrection of the dead, bthe righteous will burst forth and arise in Jerusalem, as it is stated: “And may they blossom out of the city like the grass of the earth”(Psalms 72:16), bandthe term b“city”means bnothing otherthan bJerusalem, as it is stated: “For I will defend this city”(II Kings 19:34)., bAnd Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Yosef said: In the future the righteous will standup from their graves bin their clothes.This is derived by an ia fortiori /iinference bfromthe example of bwheat: Just as wheat, which is buried naked,i.e., the seed alone is planted, and yet it bemergesfrom the ground bwith several layers of garb,including straw and chaff, in the case of bthe righteous, who are buriedfully bclothed, all the more sodo they come out of the ground properly dressed., bAnd Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Yoseffurther bsaid: In the future Eretz Yisrael will produce cakes [ igeluskaot /i] andfine bwool clothing [ imeilat /i]that will grow from the ground, bas it is stated: “Let abundant [ ipissat /i] grain [ ibar /i] be in the land”(Psalms 72:16). The term ipissatis interpreted in a similar manner to iketonet passim /i, Joseph’s valuable clothing of many colors, while ibarcan mean bread.,§ bThe Sages taughtthe following with regard to the verse b“Let abundant [ ipissat /i] grain be in the land upon the top of the mountains”(Psalms 72:16). bThey said: In the future, wheat will rise up, and growtall blike a palm tree, and ascend to the top of the mountains. And lest you saythat if wheat will grow this tall bits reaperwill suffer bdiscomfort, thesame bverse states: “May his fruit rustle like Lebanon.” The Holy One, Blessed be He,will bbring a wind from His treasury and blow across, andthis will thereby binduce the flourto fall from the stalks of wheat, band a person will go out to the field and bring back a palmful [ ipissat /i]of flour, bfrom which he willprovide bhis livelihood and the livelihood of the members of his household. /b,It is stated: b“With the kidney-fat of wheat”(Deuteronomy 32:14). The Sages bsaid: In the future,each and every kernel of bwheat will be asbig as bthe two kidneys of the large ox. And do not be surprisedthat this is possible, bas there wasan incident involving ba fox that nested inside a turnip, and they weighedthis turnip, band they discoveredthat even discounting the space dug out by the fox, bitstill weighed bsixty ilitra /i,as measured bby the ilitraof Tzippori. /b,Similarly, bit is taughtin a ibaraitathat bRav Yosef said:There was ban incidentwhich occurred binthe village of bShiḥin,in Eretz Yisrael, binvolving one whose father had left him three branches of mustard, one of which broke. And they discovered onthis one branch alone bnine ikavof mustard. Andwith the bwood of itslarge branches bthey roofed a booth for artisans.Similarly, bRabbi Shimon ben Taḥlifa said: Father left us a cabbage stalk and we would go up and down on it with a ladder,due to its great height.,§ It is stated: b“And from the blood of the grape you drank foaming wine”(Deuteronomy 32:14). The Sages bsaid: The World-to-Come is not like this world.In bthis world there is sufferinginvolved bin pickinggrapes bandin bpressingthem. By contrast, in the bWorld-to-Comeone will bbring one grape in a wagon or on a boat and set it down in a corner of his house and supply from it enoughto fill baboutthe amount of ba large jug [ ipitus /i], and with its wood one will kindlea fire bunder a cooked dish. And every grape you have will produce no lessthan bthirty full jugs of wine,each with the capacity of a ise’a /i. bAs it is stated: “And from the blood of the grape you drank foaming wine [ iḥamer /i].” Do not readthis term as iḥamer /i; rather,read it as iḥomer /i,which is a measure equaling thirty ise’a /i.,§ bWhen Rav Dimi camefrom Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia, bhe said: What isthe meaning of that bwhich is written: “Binding his foal to the vine”(Genesis 49:11), which is interpreted as a prophecy for the future? It means that bevery grapevine you have in Eretz Yisrael requires a foal tocarry the load of its bharvest.The verse continues: b“And his donkey’s colt to the choice vine [ isoreka /i].”The Gemara explains: bEvery barren [ iserak /i] tree you have in Eretz Yisrael will producesufficient fruit in the future bto loadupon btwo donkeys. And lest you saythat these trees bdo not contain wine, thesame bverse states: “He washes his garments in wine.” And lest you saythat the wine bis not red, the verse states: “And from the blood of the grape you drank foaming wine”(Deuteronomy 32:14)., bAnd lest you saythat this wine bdoes not inebriatethose who drink it, bthe verse states: “And his vesture [ isuto /i]in the blood of grapes” (Genesis 49:11). This verse indicates that these wines will induce [ imesit /i] a state of drunkenness. bAnd lest you saythat this wine bhas no flavor, the verse states: “His eyes shall be red [ iḥakhlili /i] with wine”(Genesis 49:12). This unusual term is read homiletically as follows: bEach palate [ iḥeikh /i] that tastes it says:This is bfor me, for me [ ili li /i]. And lest you saythat the wine bis good for the young but it is not good for the old, the verse states: “And his teeth white [ ileven shinayim /i] with milk”(Genesis 49:12). bDo not readthis expression as ileven shinayim /i; rather,read it as ileven shanim /i,one of years, i.e., an elderly person.,The Gemara asks: bTo what does the plain meaning ofthe aforementioned bverse refer? When Rav Dimi camefrom Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia, bhe said: The congregation of Israel said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe: Hint with Your eyesa love bthat is sweeter than wine, and show me Your teeththrough a smile bthat is sweeter than milk. /b,The Gemara comments: This interpretation bsupportsthe opinion bof Rabbi Yoḥa. As Rabbi Yoḥa said: One who whitens his teeth to his friendby smiling at him bis better than one who gives him milk to drink, as it is stated: “And his teeth white [ ileven shinayim /i] with milk”(Genesis 49:12). bDo not readthis expression as ileven shinayim /i; rather,read it as ilibbun shinayim /i,the whitening of teeth. Likewise, the phrase: With milk, can be read as: Than milk.,§ The Gemara relates further stories concerning the great bounty of Eretz Yisrael. bRav Ḥiyya bar Adda was a school teacher of Reish Lakish.On one occasion, Rav Ḥiyya bar Adda bwas delayed for three days and did not cometo teach the children. bWhen hefinally bcame,Reish Lakish bsaid to him: Why were you delayed? /b,Rav Ḥiyya bar Adda bsaid to him: Father left me one branchof a grape vine, band I harvested from iton the bfirst day three hundred grape clusters,and each bclusteryielded a quantity of wine enough btofill ba jug.On the bsecond day I harvestedanother bthree hundred grape clusters,and every btwo clustersyielded enough wine btofill ba jug.On bthe third day Ionce again bharvested three hundred grape clusters,and every bthree clustersyielded enough btofill ba jug, and I declared ownerless more than half of it.Reish Lakish bsaid to him: Had you not delayedand thereby disrupted the Torah study of children, each grape cluster bwould have produced morewine. Due to your cancellation of Torah study, each cluster yielded progressively less.,§ bRami bar Yeḥezkel happenedto come bto Benei Berak.He bsaw those goats that were grazing beneath a figtree, band there was honey oozing from the figs and milk dripping fromthe goats, bandthe two liquids bwere mixing together. He said: This isthe meaning of the verse “A land bflowing with milk and honey”(Exodus 3:8)., bRabbi Ya’akov ben Dostai said: There are three imilfrom Lud to Ono. Once I rose early in the morning and I walked in ankle-deep honeyoozing bfrom fig trees. Reish Lakish said: I myself sawa region called: The place bflowing with milk and honey by Tzippori, and it wasan area that covered bsixteen by sixteen imil /i,256 square imil /i. bRabba bar bar Ḥana said: I myself sawthe region bflowing with milk and honey of all Eretz Yisrael, /b
27. Babylonian Talmud, Kiddushin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

39b. and he was careful to plant bfourdifferent species balong the four sides of the garden bed and one in the middle,so that there would be space between them, it works out bwell.This would show that Rav was cautious not to plant diverse kinds together. bBut here,where Rav actually planted each species in its own bed, he did so bdue to beautification,i.e., to improve the appearance of the garden in front of the study hall. bAlternatively,the reason Rav planted this way bis due to the troublethat would be caused to bthe attendant.When his attendant would be sent to fetch a certain type of vegetable from the garden he would not need to search for it, but would know where the different vegetables were planted. Therefore, this does not prove that Rav was concerned about diverse kinds outside of Eretz Yisrael., strongMISHNA: /strong bAnyone who performs one mitzva has goodness bestowed upon him, his life is lengthened, and he inherits the land,i.e., life in the World-to-Come. bAnd anyone who does not perform one mitzva does not have goodness bestowed upon him, his life is not lengthened, and he does not inherit the landof the World-to-Come., strongGEMARA: /strong bAndthe Gemara braises a contradictionfrom a mishna ( iPe’a1:1): bTheseare the bmatters that a personengages in and benjoys their profits in this world, and the principalreward bremains for him for the World-to-Come,and bthey are: Honoring one’s father and mother, acts of loving kindness, hospitalitytoward bguests, and bringing peace between one person and another; and Torah study is equal to all of them.This indicates that one is rewarded in this world only for fulfilling these mitzvot, but not for fulfilling all mitzvot., bRav Yehuda saidthat bthis is whatthe mishna bis saying: Anyone who performs one mitzva in addition to hisother bmerits,and thereby tips the scale of all his deeds to the side of righteousness, bhas goodness bestowed upon him and is compared to one who fulfills the entire Torah.The Gemara asks: One can learn bby inferencefrom here bthatwith regard to bthosemitzvot listed in the mishna in iPe’aone is rewarded beven for oneof them, notwithstanding the fact that overall his sins are more numerous. bRav Shemaya said:The other mishna serves bto say that ifone’s sins and merits bwereof bequalbalance, i.e., he has accrued an equal amount of merit and sin, one of these mitzvot btiltsthe scale in his favor.,The Gemara further asks: bAnddoes banyone who performs one mitzva in addition to hisother bmerits have goodness bestowed upon himin this world? The Gemara braises a contradictionfrom a ibaraita /i: bAnyone whose merits are greater than his sins is punished with sufferingin order to cleanse his sins in this world and enable him to merit full reward for his mitzvot in the World-to-Come. bAnddue to this punishment bhe appearsto observers blike one who burned the entire Torah without leaving even one letter remaining of it.Conversely, banyone whose sins are greater than his merits has goodness bestowed upon himin this world, band he appears like one who has fulfilled the entire Torah without lackingthe fulfillment of beven one letter of it. /b, bAbaye said:When bthe mishnasaid that he is rewarded, it means bthat he has one good day and one bad day.He is rewarded for the mitzvot he performs; nevertheless, occasionally he also has bad days which cleanse him of his sins, and the ibaraitais referring to those days. bRava saidthat the mishna and this ibaraitarepresent two different opinions. In accordance with bwhoseopinion bis this ibaraita /i? bIt isin accordance with the opinion of bRabbi Ya’akov, who says: There is no rewardfor performance of ba mitzva in this world,as one is rewarded for mitzvot only World-to-Come., bAs it is taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Ya’akov says: There is not a single mitzva written in the Torah whose rewardis stated balongside it, which is not dependent on the resurrection of the dead,i.e., the reward is actually bestowed in the World-to-Come, after the resurrection of the dead. How so? bWith regard to honoring one’s father and mother it is written: “That your days may be long, and that it may go well with you”(Deuteronomy 5:16). bWith regard tothe bdispatchof the mother bird from bthe nest it is written: “That it may be well with you, and that you may prolong your days”(Deuteronomy 22:7).,Despite this, it occurred that bthere wasone bwhose father said to him: Climb tothe top of bthe building and fetch me chicks. And he climbed tothe top of bthe building and dispatched the motherbird band took the young,thereby simultaneously fulfilling the mitzva to dispatch the mother bird from the nest and the mitzva to honor one’s parents, bbut upon his return he fell and died. Where is the goodness of the days of this one, and where is the length of days of this one? Rather,the verse b“that it may be well with you”means bin the world where all is well, and “that your days may be long”is referring bto the world that is entirely long. /b,The Gemara asks: bBut perhaps thisincident bnever occurred?It is possible that everyone who performs these mitzvot is rewarded in this world, and the situation described by Rabbi Ya’akov never happened. The Gemara answers: bRabbi Ya’akovhimself bsaw an incidentof this kind. The Gemara asks: bBut perhapsthat man bwas contemplating sinat the time, and he was punished for his thoughts? The Gemara answers that there is a principle that bthe Holy One, Blessed be He, does not link a bad thought to an action,i.e., one is not punished for thoughts alone.,The Gemara asks: bBut perhaps he was contemplating idol worshipat the time, band it is writtenwith regard to idol worship: b“So I may take the house of Israel in their own heart”(Ezekiel 14:5), which indicates that one is punished for idolatrous thoughts. The Gemara answers: Rabbi Ya’akov bwas saying this as well: If it enters your mindthat there is breward forperforming ba mitzva in this world, why didn’tthese bmitzvot protect him so that he should not come to contemplateidol worship? Since that man was not protected from thoughts of idol worship at the time, this indicates that the performance of mitzvot does not entitle one to merit reward in this world.,The Gemara asks: bBut didn’t Rabbi Elazar saythat bthose on the path to perform a mitzva are notsusceptible to bharm?How is it possible that this individual, who was sent by his father to perform a mitzva, could have died? The Gemara answers: bThere,Rabbi Elazar is referring those bon their wayto perform a mitzva, which bis different,as one is not susceptible to harm when he is on his way to fulfill a mitzva. In this case the individual was harmed on his return, and one is not afforded protection after having performed a mitzva.,The Gemara asks: bBut didn’t Rabbi Elazar saythat bthose on the path to perform a mitzva are notsusceptible to bharm, neitherwhen they are bon their wayto perform the mitzva bnor when they are returningfrom performing the mitzva? The Gemara answers: In that case it bwas a rickety ladder,and therefore bthe danger was established; and anywhere that the danger is established one may not rely on a miracle, as it is writtenwith regard to God’s command to Samuel to anoint David as king in place of Saul: b“And Samuel said: How will I go, and Saul will hear and kill me;and God said: Take in your hand a calf and say: I have come to sacrifice an offering to God” (I Samuel 16:2). Although God Himself issued the command, there was concern with regard to the established dangers., bRav Yosef said: Had Aḥer,literally Other, the appellation of the former Sage Elisha ben Avuya, binterpreted thisaforementioned bverse:“That it may go well with you” (Deuteronomy 5:16), bhomiletically,as referring to the World-to-Come, basdid bRabbi Ya’akov, son of his daughter,he would bnot have sinned.The Gemara asks: bAnd whatcaused bAḥerto sin? bThere arethose bwho say he saw a case like this,where a son went up to the roof on his father’s command, dispatched the mother bird, and then died. It was witnessing this episode that led Elisha ben Avuya astray., bAnd there arethose bwho saythat bhe saw the tongue of Ḥutzpit the disseminatorafter the latter was executed by the government, thrown in the street, and bdraggedalong bby something else,a euphemism for a pig. bHe said: Shall a mouth that produced pearls lapup bdirt?For this reason bhe went outand bsinned. /b,§ bRav Tuvi bar Rav Kisna raises a contradiction to Ravaand asked: bWe learnedin the mishna that banyone who performs one mitzva has goodness bestowed upon him.This indicates that if one actually bperformedthe bmitzva, yes,he is rewarded, but if he bdid not performthe mitzva, bno,he does not receive a reward. He braises a contradictionbased on the following statement: If bone sits and does not transgress, he receives a reward as one who performs a mitzva,despite the fact that he does not actually perform a mitzva. Rava bsaid to him: There,when it is referring to one who sits and does not transgress, it does not mean that he was merely sitting; rather, it is speaking of a case bwherean opportunity to commit ba sinful act presents itselfto him band he is saved from it. /b,This is blikean incident involving bRabbi Ḥanina bar Pappi, who was enticed by a certain noblewoman [ imatronita /i]to engage in sexual intercourse with her. bHe said a formulaof an incantation band was covered with boils and scabsso as to render himself unattractive to her. bShe performed an actof magic band he was healed. He fled and hid in a bathhousethat was so dangerous, due to the demons that frequented the place, bthat when two people enteredtogether beven during the day they would be harmed. The next day the Sages said to him: Who protected youin that dangerous place? Rabbi Ḥanina bar Pappi bsaid to them:There were angels who appeared like btwo /b
28. Babylonian Talmud, Megillah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

29a. מבטלין ת"ת להוצאת המת ולהכנסת הכלה אמרו עליו על ר' יהודה בר' אילעאי שהיה מבטל ת"ת להוצאת המת ולהכנסת הכלה בד"א בשאין שם כל צורכו אבל יש שם כל צורכו אין מבטלין,וכמה כל צורכו אמר רב שמואל בר איניא משמיה דרב תריסר אלפי גברי ושיתא אלפי שיפורי ואמרי לה תריסר אלפי גברי ומינייהו שיתא אלפי שיפורי עולא אמר כגון דחייצי גברי מאבולא עד סיכרא,רב ששת אמר כנתינתה כך נטילתה מה נתינתה בששים ריבוא אף נטילתה בס' ריבוא ה"מ למאן דקרי ותני אבל למאן דמתני לית ליה שיעורא,תניא ר"ש בן יוחי אומר בוא וראה כמה חביבין ישראל לפני הקב"ה שבכל מקום שגלו שכינה עמהן גלו למצרים שכינה עמהן שנאמר (שמואל א ב, כז) הנגלה נגליתי לבית אביך בהיותם במצרים וגו' גלו לבבל שכינה עמהן שנאמר (ישעיהו מג, יד) למענכם שלחתי בבלה ואף כשהן עתידין ליגאל שכינה עמהן שנאמר (דברים ל, ג) ושב ה' אלהיך את שבותך והשיב לא נאמר אלא ושב מלמד שהקב"ה שב עמהן מבין הגליות,בבבל היכא אמר אביי בבי כנישתא דהוצל ובבי כנישתא דשף ויתיב בנהרדעא ולא תימא הכא והכא אלא זמנין הכא וזמנין הכא אמר אביי תיתי לי דכי מרחיקנא פרסה עיילנא ומצלינא התם אבוה דשמואל [ולוי] הוו יתבי בכנישתא דשף ויתיב בנהרדעא אתיא שכינה שמעו קול ריגשא [קמו ונפקו,רב ששת הוה יתיב בבי כנישתא דשף ויתיב בנהרדעא אתיא שכינה] ולא נפק אתו מלאכי השרת וקא מבעתו ליה אמר לפניו רבש"ע עלוב ושאינו עלוב מי נדחה מפני מי אמר להו שבקוהו,(יחזקאל יא, טז) ואהי להם למקדש מעט אמר רבי יצחק אלו בתי כנסיות ובתי מדרשות שבבבל ור"א אמר זה בית רבינו שבבבל,דרש רבא מאי דכתיב (תהלים צ, א) ה' מעון אתה היית לנו אלו בתי כנסיות ובתי מדרשות אמר אביי מריש הואי גריסנא בביתא ומצלינא בבי כנשתא כיון דשמעית להא דקאמר דוד (תהלים כו, ח) ה' אהבתי מעון ביתך הואי גריסנא בבי כנישתא,תניא ר"א הקפר אומר עתידין בתי כנסיות ובתי מדרשות שבבבל שיקבעו בא"י שנאמר (ירמיהו מו, יח) כי כתבור בהרים וככרמל בים יבא והלא דברים ק"ו ומה תבור וכרמל שלא באו אלא לפי שעה ללמוד תורה נקבעים בארץ ישראל בתי כנסיות ובתי מדרשות שקורין ומרביצין בהן תורה עאכ"ו,דרש בר קפרא מאי דכתיב (תהלים סח, יז) למה תרצדון הרים גבנונים יצתה בת קול ואמרה להם למה תרצו דין עם סיני כולכם בעלי מומים אתם אצל סיני כתיב הכא גבנונים וכתיב התם (ויקרא כא, כ) או גבן או דק אמר רב אשי ש"מ האי מאן דיהיר בעל מום הוא:,אין עושין אותו קפנדריא: מאי קפנדריא אמר רבא קפנדריא כשמה מאי כשמה כמאן דאמר אדמקיפנא אדרי איעול בהא,א"ר אבהו אם היה שביל מעיקרא מותר,אר"נ בר יצחק הנכנס ע"מ שלא לעשות קפנדריא מותר לעשותו קפנדריא וא"ר חלבו אמר ר"ה הנכנס לבהכ"נ להתפלל מותר לעשותו קפנדריא שנא' (יחזקאל מו, ט) ובבא עם הארץ לפני ה' במועדים הבא דרך שער צפון להשתחוות יצא דרך שער נגב:,עלו בו עשבים לא יתלוש מפני עגמת נפש: והתניא אינו תולש ומאכיל אבל תולש ומניח כי תנן נמי מתני' תולש ומאכיל תנן,ת"ר בית הקברות אין נוהגין בהן קלות ראש אין מרעין בהן בהמה ואין מוליכין בהן אמת המים ואין מלקטין בהן עשבים ואם ליקט שורפן במקומן מפני כבוד מתים,אהייא אילימא אסיפא כיון ששורפן במקומן מאי כבוד מתים איכא אלא ארישא:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big ר"ח אדר שחל להיות בשבת קורין בפרשת שקלים חל להיות בתוך השבת מקדימין לשעבר ומפסיקין לשבת אחרת,בשניה זכור בשלישית פרה אדומה ברביעית החודש הזה לכם בחמישית חוזרין לכסדרן,לכל מפסיקין בראשי חדשים בחנוכה ובפורים בתעניות ובמעמדות וביוה"כ:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big תנן התם באחד באדר משמיעין על השקלים 29a. bOne interruptshis bTorah study to carry out the deadfor burial band to escort a brideto her wedding. bThey said about Rabbi Yehuda, son of Rabbi Elai, that he would interrupthis bTorah study to carry out the deadfor burial band to escort a brideto her wedding. The Gemara qualifies this ruling: bIn whatcase bis this statement said?Only bwhere there are not sufficientnumbers of other people available to perform these mitzvot and honor the deceased or the bride appropriately. bHowever,when bthere are sufficientnumbers, additional people bshould not interrupttheir Torah study to participate.,The Gemara asks: bAnd how manypeople bareconsidered bsufficient? Rav Shmuel bar Inya said in the name of Rav: Twelve thousand men andanother bsix thousandmen to blow bhornsas a sign of mourning. bAnd some saya different version: bTwelve thousand men, among whom are six thousandmen with bhorns. Ulla said: For example,enough bto make a procession of peopleall the way bfrom thetown bgate [ iabbula /i] to the place of burial. /b, bRav Sheshet said: Asthe Torah bwas given, so itshould be btaken away,i.e., the same honor that was provided when the Torah was given at Mount Sinai should be provided when the Torah is taken through the passing away of a Torah scholar. bJust asthe Torah bwas given in the presence of six hundred thousandmen, bso too its takingshould be done bin the presence of six hundred thousandmen. The Gemara comments: bThis applies to someone who readthe Bible band studied ihalakhotfor himself. bBut for someone who taughtothers, bthere is no limitto the honor that should be shown to him.,§ bIt is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bRabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai says: Come and see how beloved the Jewish people are before the Holy One, Blessed be He. As every place they were exiled, the Divine Presencewent bwith them. They were exiled to Egypt,and bthe Divine Presencewent bwith them, as it is stated: “Did I reveal myself to the house of your father when they were in Egypt?”(I Samuel 2:27). bThey were exiled to Babylonia,and bthe Divine Presencewent bwith them, as it is stated: “For your sake I have sent to Babylonia”(Isaiah 43:14). bSo too, when, in the future, they will be redeemed, the Divine Presence will be with them, as it is stated: “Then the Lord your God will return with your captivity”(Deuteronomy 30:3). bIt does not state: He will bring back,i.e., He will cause the Jewish people to return, bbut ratherit says: b“He will return,”which bteaches that the Holy One, Blessed be He, will returntogether bwith them from among thevarious bexiles. /b,The Gemara asks: bWhere in Babyloniadoes the Divine Presence reside? bAbaye said: In theancient bsynagogue of Huzal and in the synagogue that was destroyed and rebuilt in Neharde’a. And do not saythat the Divine Presence resided bhere and there,i.e., in both places simultaneously. bRather, at timesit resided bherein Huzal band at times therein Neharde’a. bAbaye said: I havea blessing bcoming to me, for whenever I amwithin ba distance of a parasangfrom one of those synagogues, bI go in and pray there,due to the special honor and sanctity attached to them. It was related that bthe father of Shmuel and Levi wereonce bsitting in the synagogue that was destroyed and rebuilt in Neharde’a. The Divine Presence cameand bthey heard a loud sound,so bthey arose and left. /b,It was further related that bRav Sheshet wasonce bsitting in the synagogue that was destroyed and rebuilt in Neharde’a,and bthe Divine Presence came but he did not go out. The ministering angels came and were frightening himin order to force him to leave. Rav Sheshet turned to God and bsaid before Him: Master of the Universe,if one is bwretched andthe other is bnot wretched, who should defer to whom?Shouldn’t the one who is not wretched give way to the one who is? Now I am blind and wretched; why then do you expect me to defer to the angels? God then turned to the angels and bsaid to them: Leave him. /b,The verse states: b“Yet I have been to them as a little sanctuaryin the countries where they have come” (Ezekiel 11:16). bRabbi Yitzḥak said: Thisis referring to bthe synagogues and study halls in Babylonia. And Rabbi Elazar said: Thisis referring to bthe house of our master,i.e., Rav, bin Babylonia,from which Torah issues forth to the entire world., bRava interpreteda verse bhomiletically: What isthe meaning of that bwhich is written: “Lord, You have been our dwelling placein all generations” (Psalms 90:1)? bThisis referring to bthe synagogues and study halls. Abaye said: Initially, I used to studyTorah binmy bhome and pray in the synagogue. Once I heardand understood bthat whichKing bDavid says: “Lord, I love the habitation of Your house”(Psalms 26:8), bI wouldalways bstudyTorah bin the synagogue,to express my love for the place in which the Divine Presence resides., bIt is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bRabbi Elazar HaKappar says: In the future, the synagogues and the study halls in Babylonia will betransported and breestablished in Eretz Yisrael, as it is stated: “Surely, like Tabor among the mountains, and like Carmel by the sea, so shall he come”(Jeremiah 46:18). There is a tradition that these mountains came to Sinai at the giving of the Torah and demanded that the Torah should be given upon them. bAnd arethese bmatters notinferred through an ia fortiori /iargument: bJust as Tabor and Carmel, which came only momentarily to study Torah, wererelocated and bestablished in Eretz Yisraelin reward for their actions, ball the more soshould bthe synagogues and study hallsin Babylonia, bin which the Torah is read and disseminated,be relocated to Eretz Yisrael., bBar Kappara interpreteda verse bhomiletically: What isthe meaning of that bwhich is written: “Why do you look askance [ iteratzdun /i], O high-peaked mountains,at the mountain that God has desired for His abode” (Psalms 68:17)? bA Divine Voice issued forth and said toall the mountains that came and demanded that the Torah be given upon them: bWhy do you seek [ itirtzu /i]to enter into ba legal dispute [ idin /i] withMount bSinai? You are all blemished in comparison toMount bSinai,as bit is written here: “High-peaked [ igavnunnim /i]” and it is written there,with regard to the blemishes that disqualify a priest: b“Or crookbacked [ igibben /i] or a dwarf”(Leviticus 21:20). bRav Ashi said: Learn fromthis that bone who is arrogant isconsidered bblemished.The other mountains arrogantly insisted that the Torah should be given upon them, and they were therefore described as blemished.,§ The mishna teaches that even if a synagogue fell into ruin, bit may not be madeinto ba ikappendarya /i.The Gemara asks: bWhat ismeant by ikappendarya /i? Rava said: A shortcut, asimplied by bits name.The Gemara clarifies: bWhatdo you mean by adding: bAsimplied by bits name?It is blike one who said: Instead of going around theentire row of bhouses [ imakkifna addari /i]to get to the other side, thereby lengthening my journey, bI will enter thishouse and walk through it to the other side. The word ikappendaryasounds like a contraction of imakkifna addari /i. This is what Rava meant by saying: As implied by its name., bRabbi Abbahu said: Ifa public bpath had initiallypassed through that location, before the synagogue was built, bit is permittedto continue to use it as a shortcut, for the honor due to a synagogue cannot annul the public’s right of access to the path., bRav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said:With regard to bone who entersa synagogue bwithout intending to make itinto ba shortcut,when he leaves bhe is permitted to make itinto ba shortcutfor himself, by leaving through the exit on the other side of the building. bAnd Rabbi Ḥelbo saidthat bRav Huna said:With regard to bone who enters a synagogue to pray, he is permitted to make itinto ba shortcutfor himself by leaving through a different exit, and it is fitting to do so, bas it is stated: “And when the people of the land shall come before the Lord in the appointed seasons, he that enters by way of the north gate to bow down shall go forth by the way of the south gate”(Ezekiel 46:9). This indicates that it is a show of respect not to leave through the same entrance through which one came in; it is better to leave through the other side.,§ The mishna teaches: If bgrass sprang up ina ruined synagogue, although it is not befitting its sanctity, bone should not pickit, bdue tothe banguishthat it will cause to those who see it. It will remind them of the disrepair of the synagogue and the need to rebuild it. The Gemara asks: bBut isn’t it taughtin a ibaraita /i: bOne may not pickthe grass band feedit to one’s animals, bbut he may pickit band leaveit there? The Gemara answers: bWhen we learnedthe prohibition against picking the grass in bthe mishna as well, we learnedonly that it is prohibited to bpickit and bfeedit to one’s animals, but it is permitted to leave it there., bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: In ba cemetery, one may not act with frivolity; one may not graze an animalon the grass growing binside it; and one may not direct a water channelto pass bthrough it; and one may not gather grass inside itto use the grass as feed for one’s animals; band if one gatheredgrass for that purpose, bit should be burnt on the spot, out of respect for the dead. /b,The Gemara clarifies: With regard to the phrase: Out of respect for the dead, bto whichclause of the ibaraitadoes it refer? bIf we sayit is referring bto the last clause,that if one gathered grass that it should be burnt out of respect for the dead, then one could ask: bSincethe grass bis burnt on the spot,and not publicly, bwhat respect for the dead is therein this act? bRather,the phrase must be referring bto the first clauseof the ibaraita /i, and it explains why it is prohibited to act with frivolity., strongMISHNA: /strong On four iShabbatotduring and surrounding the month of Adar, a Torah portion of seasonal significance is read. When bthe New Moon of Adar occurs on Shabbat,the congregation breads the portion of iShekalim /ion that Shabbat. If the New Moon boccurs duringthe middle of bthe week, they advancethe reading of that portion bto the previousShabbat, band,in such a case, bthey interruptthe reading of the four portions bon the following Shabbat,which would be the first Shabbat of the month of Adar, and no additional portion is read on it., bOn the secondShabbat, the Shabbat prior to Purim, they read the portion: b“Rememberwhat Amalek did” (Deuteronomy 25:17–19), which details the mitzva to remember and destroy the nation of Amalek. bOn the thirdShabbat, they read the portion of bthe Red Heifer [ iPara /i](Numbers 19:1–22), which details the purification process for one who became ritually impure through contact with a corpse. bOn the fourthShabbat, they read the portion: b“This month [ ihaḥodesh /i] shall be for you”(Exodus 12:1–20), which describes the offering of the Paschal lamb. bOn the fifthShabbat, bthey resume theregular weekly borderof readings and no special portion is read., bFor allspecial days, the congregation binterruptsthe regular weekly order of readings, and a special portion relating to the character of the day is read. This applies bon the New Moons, on Hanukkah, and on Purim, on fast days, and on thenon-priestly bwatches, and on Yom Kippur. /b, strongGEMARA: /strong bWe learnedin a mishna bthere( iShekalim1:1): bOn the first of Adar they makea public bannouncement concerningthe forthcoming collection of half- bshekels.The money is used for the communal offerings in the Temple in the coming year.
29. Babylonian Talmud, Menachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

43b. bwhat do they do with,i.e., how do they interpret, bthisverse: b“With which you cover yourself”(Deuteronomy 22:12)? The Gemara answers that the Rabbis brequireit bfor that which is taughtin a ibaraita /i: The phrase b“on the four corners of your garment”(Deuteronomy 22:12) indicates that one is required to attach ritual fringes to a garment that has bfourcorners, bbut notto one that has bthreecorners.,The ibaraitacontinues: bDo you saythat a garment with bfourcorners is obligated bbut nota garment with bthreecorners? bOr is itteaching bonlythat a garment with bfourcorners is obligated bbut nota garment that has bfivecorners? bWhenthe verse bstates: “With which you cover yourself,”a garment bwith fivecorners bis thereby mentionedin the verse as being obligated. Then bhow do I realizethe meaning of: b“On the fourcorners of your garment”? It teaches that this obligation is limited to a garment that has bfourcorners, bbut notto one that has bthreecorners.,The Gemara asks: bBut what did you seethat led you bto includea garment bwith fivecorners band to excludea garment bwith threecorners, rather than including a garment with three corners and excluding a garment with five corners? The Gemara answers: bI includea garment bwith fivecorners, bas five includes four, and I excludea garment bwith threecorners, bas three does not include four. /b,The Gemara asks: bAndhow does bRabbi Shimonderive the ihalakhathat a five-cornered garment is required to have ritual fringes? The Gemara answers: He bderivesit bfromthe seemingly extraneous word: “With bwhich [ iasher /i]you cover yourself” (Deuteronomy 22:12). The Gemara asks: bAndwhat do bthe Rabbisderive from this word? The Gemara answers: bThey do not learnany new ihalakhotfrom the word b“which [ iasher /i].” /b,The Gemara asks: bAndas for bthe Rabbis, what do they do with thisphrase: b“That you may look upon it”(Numbers 15:39), from which Rabbi Shimon derives that a nighttime garment is exempt? The Gemara answers: bThey require it for that which is taughtin a ibaraita /i: The verse: b“That you may look upon it and remember”(Numbers 15:39), teaches that one should bsee this mitzvaof ritual fringes band remember another mitzva that is contingent on it. And whichmitzva bis that? It isthe mitzva of bthe recitation of iShema /i. As we learnedin a mishna (Berakhot 9b): bFrom when may one recite iShemain the morning? From whenone can bdistinguish betweenthe bsky-bluestrings bandthe bwhitestrings of his ritual fringes., bAndit bis taughtin banother ibaraita /i: The phrase b“that you may look upon it and remember”teaches that one should bsee this mitzvaof ritual fringes band remember another mitzva that is adjacent to itin the Torah. bAnd whichmitzva bis that? It is the mitzva of diverse kindsof wool and linen, bas it is written: “You shall not wear diverse kinds, wool and linen together. You shall prepare yourself twisted cords”(Deuteronomy 22:11–12).,It bis taughtin banother ibaraita /i: The verse states: b“That you may look upon it and remember all the commandments of the Lord”(Numbers 15:39). This indicates that bonce a person is obligated in this mitzvaof ritual fringes, bhe is obligated in all of the mitzvot.The Gemara comments: bAnd this isin accordance with the opinion of bRabbi Shimon, who saysthat ritual fringes are ba positive, time-bound mitzva,and women are exempt from it. Only men are obligated in all mitzvot, including positive, time-bound mitzvot, just as they are obligated in the mitzva of ritual fringes.,It bis taughtin banother ibaraita /i: The verse states: b“That you may look upon it and remember all the commandments of the Lord”;this teaches that bthis mitzvaof ritual fringes bis equivalent to all the mitzvotof the Torah., bAndit bis taughtin banother ibaraita /i: The verse states: b“That you may look upon it and rememberall the commandments of the Lord band dothem.” This teaches that blookingat the ritual fringes bleads to rememberingthe mitzvot, and brememberingthem bleads to doingthem. bAnd Rabbi Shimon bar Yoḥai says: Anyone who is diligent in this mitzvaof ritual fringes bmerits receiving the Divine Presence.It is bwritten here: “That you may look upon it [ ioto /i]”(Numbers 15:39), band it is written there: “You shall fear the Lord your God; and Him [ ioto /i] shall you serve”(Deuteronomy 6:13). Just as iotoin that verse is referring to the Divine Presence, so too in this verse it is referring to the Divine Presence., bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: bThe Jewish people are beloved, as the Holy One, Blessed be He, surrounded them with mitzvot:They have bphylacteries on their heads, and phylacteries on their arms, and ritual fringes on their garments, and a imezuzafor their doorways. Concerning them David said: “Seven times a day I praise You, because of Your righteous ordices”(Psalms 119:164). This alludes to the two phylacteries, the four ritual fringes, and the imezuza /i, which total seven., bAnd when David entered the bathhouse and saw himself standing naked, he said: Woe to me that that I stand naked withoutany bmitzva. But once he remembered themitzva of bcircumcision that was in his flesh his mind was put at ease,as he realized he was still accompanied by this mitzva. bAfter he leftthe bathhouse, bhe recited a song aboutthe mitzva of circumcision, bas it is statedin the verse: b“For the leader, on the iSheminith /i: A Psalm of David”(Psalms 12:1). This is interpreted as a psalm babout circumcision, which was givento be performed bon the eighth [ ibashemini /i]day of the baby’s life., bRabbi Eliezer ben Ya’akov says: Anyone who has phylacteries on his head, phylacteries on his arm, ritual fringes on his garment, and a imezuzaon his doorway is strengthenedfrom ballsides bso that he will not sin, as it is statedin the verse: b“And a threefold cord is not quickly broken”(Ecclesiastes 4:12). This is interpreted as an allusion to the three mitzvot of phylacteries, ritual fringes, and imezuza /i. bAndthe verse bstates: “The angel of the Lord encamps round about them that fear Him, and delivers them”(Psalms 34:8). This is interpreted to mean that the angel of the Lord surrounds those who fulfill the mitzvot and saves them from sin., bIt is taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Meir would say: What is different about itekheletfrom allother btypes of colorssuch that it was chosen for the mitzva of ritual fringes? It is bbecause itekheletis similarin its color btothe bsea, andthe bsea is similar tothe bsky, andthe bsky is similar to the Throne of Glory, as it is stated:“And they saw the God of Israel; band there was under His feet the like of a paved work of sapphire stone, and the like of the very heaven for clearness”(Exodus 24:10), indicating that the sky is like a sapphire brickwork. bAnd it is written: “The likeness of a throne, as the appearance of a sapphire stone”(Ezekiel 1:26)., bIt is taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Meir would say:The bpunishment fornot attaching bwhitestrings is bgreater than the punishment fornot attaching bsky-bluestrings, despite the fact that the sky-blue strings are more important. Rabbi Meir illustrates this with ba parable: To what is this matter comparable?It is comparable bto a king of flesh and blood who said to his two subjectsthat they must bring him a seal. The king bsaid to oneof them: bBring me a seal of clay, and he said tothe other bone: Bring me a seal of gold. And both of them were negligent and did not bringthe seals. bWhich of themwill have ba greater punishment? You must saythat it is bthisone bto whom he said: Bring me a seal of clay, anddespite its availability and low cost, he bdid not bringit., bIt is taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Meir would say: A person is obligated to recite one hundred blessings every day, as it is statedin the verse: b“And now, Israel, what [ ima /i] does the Lord your God require of you”(Deuteronomy 10:12). Rabbi Meir interprets the verse as though it said one hundred [ ime’a /i], rather than ima /i.,The Gemara relates that bon Shabbat and Festivals,when the prayers contain fewer blessings, bRav Ḥiyya, son of Rav Avya, made an effort to fillthis quota of blessings bwithblessings on bspices [ ibe’isparmakei /i] and sweet fruit,of which he would partake in order to recite extra blessings., bIt is taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Meir would say: A man is obligated to recite three blessings every daypraising God for His kindnesses, and btheseblessings bare: Who did not make me a gentile; Who did not make me a woman;and bWho did not make me an ignoramus. /b, bRav Aḥa bar Ya’akov heard his son reciting the blessing: Who did not make me an ignoramus.Rav Aḥa bar Ya’akov bsaid to him:Is it bin factproper to go bthis farin reciting blessings? Rav Aḥa bar Ya’akov’s son bsaid to him: Rather, what blessingshould one brecite?If you will say that one should recite: bWho did not make me a slave, that isthe same as ba woman;why should one recite two blessings about the same matter? Rav Aḥa bar Ya’akov answered: Nevertheless, ba slave /b
30. Babylonian Talmud, Qiddushin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

39b. ארבע על ארבע רוחות הערוגה ואחת באמצע שפיר אלא הכא משום נוי ואי נמי משום טרחא דשמעא היא:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big כל העושה מצוה אחת מטיבין לו ומאריכין לו ימיו ונוחל את הארץ וכל שאינו עושה מצוה אחת אין מטיבין לו ואין מאריכין לו ימיו ואינו נוחל את הארץ:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big ורמינהי אלו דברים שאדם אוכל פירותיהן בעולם הזה והקרן קיימת לו לעולם הבא אלו הן כבוד אב ואם וגמילות חסדים והכנסת אורחים והבאת שלום בין אדם לחבירו ותלמוד תורה כנגד כולם,אמר רב יהודה הכי קאמר כל העושה מצוה אחת יתירה על זכיותיו מטיבים לו ודומה כמי שמקיים כל התורה כולה מכלל דהנך אפילו בחדא נמי אמר רב שמעיה לומר שאם היתה שקולה מכרעת,וכל העושה מצוה אחת יתירה על זכיותיו מטיבין לו ורמינהו כל שזכיותיו מרובין מעונותיו מריעין לו ודומה כמי ששרף כל התורה כולה ולא שייר ממנה אפילו אות אחת וכל שעונותיו מרובין מזכיותיו מטיבין לו ודומה כמי שקיים כל התורה כולה ולא חיסר אות אחת ממנה,אמר אביי מתניתין דעבדין ליה יום טב ויום ביש רבא אמר הא מני רבי יעקב היא דאמר שכר מצוה בהאי עלמא ליכא,דתניא רבי יעקב אומר אין לך כל מצוה ומצוה שכתובה בתורה שמתן שכרה בצדה שאין תחיית המתים תלויה בה בכיבוד אב ואם כתיב (דברים ה, טו) למען יאריכון ימיך ולמען ייטב לך בשילוח הקן כתיב (דברים כב, ז) למען ייטב לך והארכת ימים,הרי שאמר לו אביו עלה לבירה והבא לי גוזלות ועלה לבירה ושלח את האם ונטל את הבנים ובחזירתו נפל ומת היכן טובת ימיו של זה והיכן אריכות ימיו של זה אלא למען ייטב לך לעולם שכולו טוב ולמען יאריכון ימיך לעולם שכולו ארוך,ודלמא לאו הכי הוה ר' יעקב מעשה חזא ודלמא מהרהר בעבירה הוה מחשבה רעה אין הקב"ה מצרפה למעשה,ודלמא מהרהר בעבודת כוכבים הוה וכתיב (יחזקאל יד, ה) למען תפוש את בית ישראל בלבם איהו נמי הכי קאמר אי סלקא דעתך שכר מצוה בהאי עלמא אמאי לא אגין מצות עליה כי היכי דלא ליתי לידי הרהור,והא א"ר אלעזר שלוחי מצוה אין נזוקין התם בהליכתן שאני,והא אמר רבי אלעזר שלוחי מצוה אינן נזוקין לא בהליכתן ולא בחזירתן סולם רעוע הוה דקביע היזיקא וכל היכא דקביע היזיקא לא סמכינן אניסא דכתיב (שמואל א טז, ב) ויאמר שמואל איך אלך ושמע שאול והרגני,אמר רב יוסף אילמלי דרשיה אחר להאי קרא כרבי יעקב בר ברתיה לא חטא ואחר מאי הוא איכא דאמרי כי האי גוונא חזא,ואיכא דאמרי לישנא דחוצפית המתורגמן חזא דהוה גריר ליה דבר אחר אמר פה שהפיק מרגליות ילחך עפר נפק חטא,רמי רב טובי בר רב קיסנא לרבא תנן כל העושה מצוה אחת מטיבין לו עשה אין לא עשה לא ורמינהי ישב ולא עבר עבירה נותנים לו שכר כעושה מצוה אמר ליה התם כגון שבא דבר עבירה לידו וניצול הימנה,כי הא דרבי חנינא בר פפי תבעתיה ההיא מטרוניתא אמר מלתא ומלי נפשיה שיחנא וכיבא עבדה היא מילתא ואיתסי ערק טשא בההוא בי בני דכי הוו עיילין בתרין אפילו ביממא הוו מיתזקי למחר אמרו ליה רבנן מאן נטרך אמר להו שני 39b. and he was careful to plant bfourdifferent species balong the four sides of the garden bed and one in the middle,so that there would be space between them, it works out bwell.This would show that Rav was cautious not to plant diverse kinds together. bBut here,where Rav actually planted each species in its own bed, he did so bdue to beautification,i.e., to improve the appearance of the garden in front of the study hall. bAlternatively,the reason Rav planted this way bis due to the troublethat would be caused to bthe attendant.When his attendant would be sent to fetch a certain type of vegetable from the garden he would not need to search for it, but would know where the different vegetables were planted. Therefore, this does not prove that Rav was concerned about diverse kinds outside of Eretz Yisrael., strongMISHNA: /strong bAnyone who performs one mitzva has goodness bestowed upon him, his life is lengthened, and he inherits the land,i.e., life in the World-to-Come. bAnd anyone who does not perform one mitzva does not have goodness bestowed upon him, his life is not lengthened, and he does not inherit the landof the World-to-Come., strongGEMARA: /strong bAndthe Gemara braises a contradictionfrom a mishna ( iPe’a1:1): bTheseare the bmatters that a personengages in and benjoys their profits in this world, and the principalreward bremains for him for the World-to-Come,and bthey are: Honoring one’s father and mother, acts of loving kindness, hospitalitytoward bguests, and bringing peace between one person and another; and Torah study is equal to all of them.This indicates that one is rewarded in this world only for fulfilling these mitzvot, but not for fulfilling all mitzvot., bRav Yehuda saidthat bthis is whatthe mishna bis saying: Anyone who performs one mitzva in addition to hisother bmerits,and thereby tips the scale of all his deeds to the side of righteousness, bhas goodness bestowed upon him and is compared to one who fulfills the entire Torah.The Gemara asks: One can learn bby inferencefrom here bthatwith regard to bthosemitzvot listed in the mishna in iPe’aone is rewarded beven for oneof them, notwithstanding the fact that overall his sins are more numerous. bRav Shemaya said:The other mishna serves bto say that ifone’s sins and merits bwereof bequalbalance, i.e., he has accrued an equal amount of merit and sin, one of these mitzvot btiltsthe scale in his favor.,The Gemara further asks: bAnddoes banyone who performs one mitzva in addition to hisother bmerits have goodness bestowed upon himin this world? The Gemara braises a contradictionfrom a ibaraita /i: bAnyone whose merits are greater than his sins is punished with sufferingin order to cleanse his sins in this world and enable him to merit full reward for his mitzvot in the World-to-Come. bAnddue to this punishment bhe appearsto observers blike one who burned the entire Torah without leaving even one letter remaining of it.Conversely, banyone whose sins are greater than his merits has goodness bestowed upon himin this world, band he appears like one who has fulfilled the entire Torah without lackingthe fulfillment of beven one letter of it. /b, bAbaye said:When bthe mishnasaid that he is rewarded, it means bthat he has one good day and one bad day.He is rewarded for the mitzvot he performs; nevertheless, occasionally he also has bad days which cleanse him of his sins, and the ibaraitais referring to those days. bRava saidthat the mishna and this ibaraitarepresent two different opinions. In accordance with bwhoseopinion bis this ibaraita /i? bIt isin accordance with the opinion of bRabbi Ya’akov, who says: There is no rewardfor performance of ba mitzva in this world,as one is rewarded for mitzvot only World-to-Come., bAs it is taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Ya’akov says: There is not a single mitzva written in the Torah whose rewardis stated balongside it, which is not dependent on the resurrection of the dead,i.e., the reward is actually bestowed in the World-to-Come, after the resurrection of the dead. How so? bWith regard to honoring one’s father and mother it is written: “That your days may be long, and that it may go well with you”(Deuteronomy 5:16). bWith regard tothe bdispatchof the mother bird from bthe nest it is written: “That it may be well with you, and that you may prolong your days”(Deuteronomy 22:7).,Despite this, it occurred that bthere wasone bwhose father said to him: Climb tothe top of bthe building and fetch me chicks. And he climbed tothe top of bthe building and dispatched the motherbird band took the young,thereby simultaneously fulfilling the mitzva to dispatch the mother bird from the nest and the mitzva to honor one’s parents, bbut upon his return he fell and died. Where is the goodness of the days of this one, and where is the length of days of this one? Rather,the verse b“that it may be well with you”means bin the world where all is well, and “that your days may be long”is referring bto the world that is entirely long. /b,The Gemara asks: bBut perhaps thisincident bnever occurred?It is possible that everyone who performs these mitzvot is rewarded in this world, and the situation described by Rabbi Ya’akov never happened. The Gemara answers: bRabbi Ya’akovhimself bsaw an incidentof this kind. The Gemara asks: bBut perhapsthat man bwas contemplating sinat the time, and he was punished for his thoughts? The Gemara answers that there is a principle that bthe Holy One, Blessed be He, does not link a bad thought to an action,i.e., one is not punished for thoughts alone.,The Gemara asks: bBut perhaps he was contemplating idol worshipat the time, band it is writtenwith regard to idol worship: b“So I may take the house of Israel in their own heart”(Ezekiel 14:5), which indicates that one is punished for idolatrous thoughts. The Gemara answers: Rabbi Ya’akov bwas saying this as well: If it enters your mindthat there is breward forperforming ba mitzva in this world, why didn’tthese bmitzvot protect him so that he should not come to contemplateidol worship? Since that man was not protected from thoughts of idol worship at the time, this indicates that the performance of mitzvot does not entitle one to merit reward in this world.,The Gemara asks: bBut didn’t Rabbi Elazar saythat bthose on the path to perform a mitzva are notsusceptible to bharm?How is it possible that this individual, who was sent by his father to perform a mitzva, could have died? The Gemara answers: bThere,Rabbi Elazar is referring those bon their wayto perform a mitzva, which bis different,as one is not susceptible to harm when he is on his way to fulfill a mitzva. In this case the individual was harmed on his return, and one is not afforded protection after having performed a mitzva.,The Gemara asks: bBut didn’t Rabbi Elazar saythat bthose on the path to perform a mitzva are notsusceptible to bharm, neitherwhen they are bon their wayto perform the mitzva bnor when they are returningfrom performing the mitzva? The Gemara answers: In that case it bwas a rickety ladder,and therefore bthe danger was established; and anywhere that the danger is established one may not rely on a miracle, as it is writtenwith regard to God’s command to Samuel to anoint David as king in place of Saul: b“And Samuel said: How will I go, and Saul will hear and kill me;and God said: Take in your hand a calf and say: I have come to sacrifice an offering to God” (I Samuel 16:2). Although God Himself issued the command, there was concern with regard to the established dangers., bRav Yosef said: Had Aḥer,literally Other, the appellation of the former Sage Elisha ben Avuya, binterpreted thisaforementioned bverse:“That it may go well with you” (Deuteronomy 5:16), bhomiletically,as referring to the World-to-Come, basdid bRabbi Ya’akov, son of his daughter,he would bnot have sinned.The Gemara asks: bAnd whatcaused bAḥerto sin? bThere arethose bwho say he saw a case like this,where a son went up to the roof on his father’s command, dispatched the mother bird, and then died. It was witnessing this episode that led Elisha ben Avuya astray., bAnd there arethose bwho saythat bhe saw the tongue of Ḥutzpit the disseminatorafter the latter was executed by the government, thrown in the street, and bdraggedalong bby something else,a euphemism for a pig. bHe said: Shall a mouth that produced pearls lapup bdirt?For this reason bhe went outand bsinned. /b,§ bRav Tuvi bar Rav Kisna raises a contradiction to Ravaand asked: bWe learnedin the mishna that banyone who performs one mitzva has goodness bestowed upon him.This indicates that if one actually bperformedthe bmitzva, yes,he is rewarded, but if he bdid not performthe mitzva, bno,he does not receive a reward. He braises a contradictionbased on the following statement: If bone sits and does not transgress, he receives a reward as one who performs a mitzva,despite the fact that he does not actually perform a mitzva. Rava bsaid to him: There,when it is referring to one who sits and does not transgress, it does not mean that he was merely sitting; rather, it is speaking of a case bwherean opportunity to commit ba sinful act presents itselfto him band he is saved from it. /b,This is blikean incident involving bRabbi Ḥanina bar Pappi, who was enticed by a certain noblewoman [ imatronita /i]to engage in sexual intercourse with her. bHe said a formulaof an incantation band was covered with boils and scabsso as to render himself unattractive to her. bShe performed an actof magic band he was healed. He fled and hid in a bathhousethat was so dangerous, due to the demons that frequented the place, bthat when two people enteredtogether beven during the day they would be harmed. The next day the Sages said to him: Who protected youin that dangerous place? Rabbi Ḥanina bar Pappi bsaid to them:There were angels who appeared like btwo /b
31. Babylonian Talmud, Shabbat, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

147b. דלהשתטף כל גופו אפי' לכתחילה שפיר דמי מני ר"ש היא דתניא לא ישתטף אדם בין בחמין בין בצונן דברי ר"מ ר"ש מתיר ר' יהודה אומר בחמין אסור בצונן מותר:,ונסתפג אפילו בעשר אלונטיות: רישא רבותא קמ"ל וסיפא רבותא קמ"ל רישא רבותא קמ"ל דאפילו הני דלא נפישי בהו מיא כיון דחד הוא אתי לידי סחיטה וסיפא רבותא קמ"ל אפילו הני דנפישי בהו מיא כיון דרבים נינהו מדכרי אהדדי:,תנו רבנן מסתפג אדם באלונטית ומניחה בחלון ולא ימסרנה לאוליירין מפני שחשודים על אותו דבר רבי שמעון אומר מסתפג באלונטית אחת ומביאה בידו לתוך ביתו,אמר ליה אביי לרב יוסף הלכתא מאי אמר ליה הא ר' שמעון הא רבי הא שמואל הא ר' יוחנן,ר' שמעון הא דאמרן רבי דתניא אמר רבי כשהיינו למדין תורה אצל ר' שמעון בתקוע היינו מעלין שמן ואלונטית מחצר לגג ומגג לקרפף עד שהיינו מגיעין אצל מעין שהיינו רוחצין בו שמואל דאמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל מסתפג אדם באלונטית ומביאה בידו לתוך ביתו ר' יוחנן דאמר ר' חייא בר אבא א"ר יוחנן הלכה מסתפג אדם באלונטית ומביאה בידו לתוך ביתו,ומי א"ר יוחנן הכי והא"ר יוחנן הלכה כסתם משנה ותנן ונסתפג אפילו בעשר אלונטיות לא יביאם בידו ההוא כבן חכינאי מתני לה,א"ר חייא בר אבא אר"י האוליירין מביאין בלרי נשים לבי בני ובלבד שיתכסה בהן ראשן ורובן סכניתא צריך לקשר ב' ראשיה למטה א"ר חייא בר אבא א"ר יוחנן למטה מכתפיים אמר להו רבא לבני מחוזא כי מעבריתו מאני לבני חילא שרביבו בהו למטה מכתפיים:,סכין וממשמשין: ת"ר סכין וממשמשין בבני מעיים בשבת ובלבד שלא יעשה כדרך שהוא עושה בחול היכי עביד ר' חמא בר חנינא אמר סך ואח"כ ממשמש ר' יוחנן אמר סך וממשמש בבת אחת:,אבל לא מתעמלין: א"ר חייא בר אבא א"ר יוחנן אסור לעמוד בקרקעיתה של דיומסת מפני שמעמלת ומרפא אמר ר' יהודה אמר רב כל ימיה של דיומסת עשרים ואחד יום ועצרת מן המנין איבעיא להו עצרת (בתחלה) להאי גיסא או להאי גיסא ת"ש דאמר שמואל כולהו שקייני מדיבחא ועד עצרתא מעלו דילמא התם הוא דכמה דקריר עלמא מעלי אבל הכא משום הבלא הוא כיון דחמים עלמא טפי מעלי,אמר רבי חלבו חמרא דפרוגייתא ומיא דדיומסת קיפחו עשרת השבטים מישראל,רבי אלעזר בן ערך איקלע להתם אימשיך בתרייהו איעקר תלמודיה כי הדר אתא קם למיקרי בספרא בעא למיקרא (שמות יב, ב) החדש הזה לכם אמר החרש היה לבם בעו רבנן רחמי עליה והדר תלמודיה,והיינו דתנן ר' נהוראי אומר הוי גולה למקום תורה ואל תאמר שהיא תבא אחריך שחבריך יקיימוה בידך ואל בינתך אל תשען תנא לא ר' נהוראי שמו אלא ר' נחמיה שמו ואמרי לה ר' אלעזר בן ערך שמו ולמה נקרא שמו ר' נהוראי שמנהיר עיני חכמים בהלכה:,אבל לא מתגררין: ת"ר אין גוררין במגררת בשבת רשב"ג אומר אם היו רגליו מלוכלכות בטיט ובצואה גורר כדרכו ואינו חושש רב שמואל בר יהודה עבדא ליה אימיה מגררתא דכספא:,אין יורדין לקורדימא וכו': מאי טעמא משום פיקא:,ואין עושין אפיקטויזין בשבת: אמר רבה בר בר חנה אמר רבי יוחנן לא שנו אלא בסם אבל ביד מותר תניא רבי נחמיה אומר אף בחול אסור מפני הפסד אוכלין:,ואין מעצבין את הקטן: אמר רבה בר בר חנה אמר ר' יוחנן לפופי ינוקא בשבת שפיר דמי והאנן תנן אין מעצבין התם בחומרי שדרה דמיחזי כבונה:,ואין מחזירין את השבר: אמר רבי חנא בגדתאה אמר שמואל 147b. that brinsing one’s entire bodyby pouring water on it rather than bathing in the standard fashion may bwellbe done beven iab initio/b. The Gemara asks: According to bwhoseopinion is our mishna? The Gemara answers: bIt isin accordance with the opinion of bRabbi Shimon, as it was taughtin a ibaraita /i: bOne may not rinse himselfon Shabbat, bneither with hotwater bnor with coldwater; this is bthe statement of Rabbi Meir. Rabbi Shimon permitsrinsing one’s body even with hot water. bRabbi Yehuda saysthat there is a distinction: bWith hotwater bit is prohibitedand bwith coldwater bit is permitted. /b,The mishna addressed the permissibility of drying oneself with a towel after bathing on Shabbat, and added the phrase: bAnd dried himself off even with ten towels.The Gemara comments on the formulation of the mishna: bThe first clause teaches us a novelconcept, band the latter clause teaches us a novelconcept. The Gemara explains: bThe first clause:One who…dried himself even with ten towels may not carry them, bteaches us a novelconcept, bthatthe prohibition applies bevento bthesetowels, bwhich do not have much waterabsorbed bin them.The reason for this is that bsince he is oneperson, bhemay bcome to squeezethem. bAnd the latter clause teaches us a novelconcept, that beven theseten people may carry the towel that they have all used, despite the fact bthat they haveabsorbed bmuch waterand the towel is very wet. The reason for this is that bsince they are manypeople, bthey remind each othernot to wring the towel., bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: bOne may dry himself with a towelon Shabbat band leave it in the windowof the bathhouse; band one may not give it to the bath attendants, because they are suspect in this matterof wringing out towels. bRabbi Shimon says: One may dry himself with a single towel and carry it in his hand into his home,and there is no concern lest he wring out the water., bAbaye said to Rav Yosef: What is the ihalakha /iwith regard to carrying a towel home after using it to dry himself? Rav Yosef bsaid to him: There is Rabbi Shimon, there is RabbiYehuda HaNasi, bthere is Shmuel,and bthere is Rabbi Yoḥa,all of whom permit it.,The Gemara elaborates: bRabbi Shimonrules leniently, bas we havealready bstatedthat he permits bathing and drying oneself with a towel and then bringing it home. bRabbiYehuda HaNasi agrees, bas it was taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbiYehuda HaNasi bsaid: When we would study Torah with Rabbi Shimon in Tekoa, we would carry oil and towels from the courtyard to the roof and from the roof into an enclosuresimilar to a courtyard buntil we reached the spring in which we would bathe,without passing through a public domain. In Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi’s opinion, it is permitted to carry a towel both before and after using it to dry oneself. bShmuelis also lenient, as bRav Yehuda saidthat bShmuel saidexplicitly: bOne may dry himself with a towel and carry it in his hand into his home. Rabbi Yoḥais also lenient, as bRabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba saidthat bRabbi Yoḥa said:The ihalakha /iis that bone may dry himself with a towel and carry it in his hand into his house. /b,The Gemara challenges this last point: bAnd did Rabbi Yoḥareally bsay that? Didn’t Rabbi Yoḥa statea principle that bthe ihalakhais in accordance with an unattributed mishna,in which the name of the itannawho issued the rulings does not appear? bAnd we learnedexplicitly in our mishna, which is unattributed, that if one bathed band dried himself even with ten towels, he may not carry them in his hand.The Gemara answers: Rabbi Yoḥa’s version of the mishna does not teach this ihalakhaunattributed; rather, it bteaches it in accordance withthe opinion of bben Ḥakhinai,which is the opinion of an individual Sage that is not the accepted ihalakha /i., bRabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba saidthat bRabbi Yoḥa said: Bath attendants may bring women’s bathing garments [ ibalarei /i] to the bathhouseon Shabbat bas long as they cover their heads and the majority of their bodies with them,so that they are being worn rather than carried. With regard to the blarge scarfthat is worn draped over one’s shoulders, bone must tie its two endstogether bbelowso that it will not fall. bRabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba saidthat bRabbi Yoḥa said:This means that one must tie it bbelow the shoulders.In a similar vein, bRava said to the inhabitants ofhis city, bMeḥoza: When you transport clothing for the soldierswho are staying in the city, bextend them beneath your shouldersso that you will wear them like a garment and not simply carry them.,We learned in the mishna: bOne may smear oil and ruba person’s body by hand on Shabbat. bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: bOne may smear oilon band rubhis bintestinalarea bon Shabbat,and it is not a prohibited form of healing, bprovided he does not do so in the manner in which he does during the week.The Gemara asks: bHowthen bdoes one dothis on Shabbat? bRabbi Ḥama bar Ḥanina said: Onefirst bsmears oil and afterward rubsthe body. And bRabbi Yoḥa said: One smears oil and rubs simultaneously. /b,The mishna taught: bHowever, one may not exert himselfon Shabbat. bRabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba saidthat bRabbi Yoḥa said: It is prohibited to stand on the floor ofthe therapeutic bathhouse of bDeyomseton Shabbat, bbecause it warms and healseven if one is not bathing or exerting himself. bRav Yehuda saidthat bRav said: The entire periodthat bathing in bDeyomsetis therapeutic bis twenty-one days; and iShavuotis included.The Gemara braises a dilemma: Is iShavuoton this side,at the beginning, of the twenty-one-day period, bor on this side,at the end, of the twenty-one days? bComeand bheara resolution to this dilemma from that which bShmuel said: Allmedicinal bdrinks are effective from Passover to iShavuot /i;apparently, the waters of the Deyomset are therapeutic in the time period leading up to iShavuot /i. The Gemara rejects this proof: bPerhaps there,with regard to medicinal drinks, bit isso, because bthe cooler the world, the betterthese drinks heal; bhowever, here,with regard to bathing, the therapeutic effect is bdue to the heat,and therefore bthe warmer the world, the better.The time period during which bathing is effective would only begin with iShavuot /i.,Apropos Deyomset, the Gemara cites that bRabbi Ḥelbo said: The wine of Phrygia [ iPerugaita /i] and the waterof bthe Deyomset deprived Israelof the btenlost btribes.Because the members of these tribes were attracted to the pleasures of wine and bathing and did not occupy themselves with Torah, they were lost to the Jewish people.,The Gemara relates that once bRabbi Elazar ben Arakh happenedto come bthere,to Phrygia and Deyomset, and bhe was drawn after them,and bhisTorah blearning was forgotten. When he returned, he stood to read from aTorah bscrolland bwas supposed to readthe verse: b“This month shall be for you [ ihaḥodesh hazeh lakhem /i]”(Exodus 12:2), but he had forgotten so much that he could barely remember how to read the Hebrew letters, and instead he read: bHave their hearts become deaf[ihaḥeresh haya libbam /i],interchanging the similar letters ireishfor idalet /i, iyodfor izayin /i, and ibeitfor ikhaf /i. bThe Sagesprayed and basked forGod to have bmercy on him, and his learning was restored. /b, bAnd that iswhat bwe learnedin a mishna that bRabbi Nehorai says: Exile yourself to a place of Torah and do not say that it will follow you, asif you are in a place of Torah, byour colleagues will establish it in your hands, and do not rely on your understandingalone. bIt was taught: Rabbi Nehorai was not his name, but rather Rabbi Neḥemya was his name; and some saythat bRabbi Elazar ben Arakh was his nameand his statement was based on the personal experience of forgetting his Torah due to his failure to exile himself to a place of Torah. bAnd why was he called Rabbi Nehorai?It was bbecause he would illuminate [ imanhir /i] the eyes of the Sages in ihalakha /i. /b,The mishna taught: bHowever, one may not scrapeoff the oil on Shabbat. bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: bOne may not scrapehis body bwith a scraper on Shabbat. Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: If one’s feet were dirty with mortar and excrement he may scrapethem bin the usual mannerwith a scraper band need not be concernedabout violating a prohibition. bRav Shmuel bar Yehuda’s mother made him a silver scraperto use on Shabbat to distinguish it from a weekday.,The mishna also taught that bone may not enter a swampy riverfull of mud on Shabbat. The Gemara explains: bWhat is the reasonfor this? bDue to the mud,as it is likely that one will slip and fall and come to violate the prohibitions of bathing and wringing out his clothes.,We also learned in the mishna that bone may not make a drug to induce vomitingon Shabbat. bRabba bar bar Ḥana saidthat bRabbi Yoḥa said: They only taughtthat this is prohibited bwith a drug,which is considered a medicine; bhowever,inducing vomiting bby hand is permitted. It was taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Neḥemya says: Even during the week,if one need not vomit for medical reasons, bit is prohibitedto induce vomiting bbecauseit causes bloss of food. /b, bAndwe learned in the mishna that bone may not align a younginfant’s bones in order to straighten them on Shabbat. bRabba bar bar Ḥana saidthat bRabbi Yoḥa said:With regard to bswaddling an infanton Shabbat, one may bwelldo so. The Gemara challenges this statement: bDidn’t we learnin the mishna that bone may not alignan infant’s bones? The Gemara answers: bThere,the mishna is referring to bthe bones,vertebrae, bof the spine, becausestraightening them bappears likethe prohibited labor of bbuilding. /b,We also learned in the mishna that bone may not reset a breakin a bone on Shabbat. bRav Ḥana of Baghdad saidthat bShmuel said: /b
32. Babylonian Talmud, Sotah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

4b. בדחטי או בדשערי ברכיכא או באקושא תיקו,א"ר יצחק בר (רב) יוסף א"ר יוחנן כל אחד ואחד בעצמו שיער והאיכא בן עזאי דלא נסיב,איבעית אימא נסיב ופירש הוה ואיבעית אימא מרביה שמיע ליה ואיבעית אימא (תהלים כה, יד) סוד ה' ליראיו,דרש רב עוירא זמנין אמר לה משמיה דרבי אמי וזמנין אמר לה משמיה דרבי אסי כל האוכל לחם בלא נטילת ידים כאילו בא על אשה זונה שנאמר (משלי ו, כו) כי בעד אשה זונה עד ככר לחם,אמר רבא האי בעד אשה זונה עד ככר לחם בעד ככר לחם עד אשה זונה מיבעי ליה אלא אמר רבא כל הבא על אשה זונה לסוף מבקש ככר לחם,א"ר זריקא אמר ר"א כל המזלזל בנטילת ידים נעקר מן העולם אמר רב חייא בר אשי אמר רב מים ראשונים צריך שיגביה ידיו למעלה מים אחרונים צריך שישפיל ידיו למטה תניא נמי הכי הנוטל ידיו צריך שיגביה ידיו למעלה שמא יצאו המים חוץ לפרק ויחזרו ויטמאו את הידים,אמר רבי אבהו כל האוכל פת בלא ניגוב ידים כאילו אוכל לחם טמא שנאמר (יחזקאל ד, יג) ויאמר ה' ככה יאכלו בני ישראל את לחמם טמא וגו',ומאי (משלי ו, כו) ואשת איש נפש יקרה תצוד אמר רבי חייא בר אבא א"ר יוחנן כל אדם שיש בו גסות הרוח לבסוף נכשל באשת איש שנא' ואשת איש נפש יקרה תצוד,אמר רבא האי נפש יקרה נפש גבוהה מיבעי ליה ועוד היא תצוד מיבעי ליה אלא אמר רבא כל הבא על אשת איש אפילו למד תורה דכתיב בה (משלי ג, טו) יקרה היא מפנינים מכהן גדול שנכנס לפני ולפנים היא תצודנו לדינה של גיהנם,א"ר יוחנן משום ר"ש בן יוחי כל אדם שיש בו גסות הרוח כאילו עובד עבודת כוכבים כתי' הכא (משלי טז, ה) תועבת ה' כל גבה לב וכתיב התם (דברים ז, כו) ולא תביא תועבה אל ביתך,ורבי יוחנן דידיה אמר כאילו כפר בעיקר שנאמר (דברים ח, יד) ורם לבבך ושכחת את ה' אלהיך וגו',ר' חמא בר חנינא אמר כאילו בא על כל העריות כתי' הכא תועבת ה' כל גבה לב וכתי' התם (ויקרא יח, כז) כי את כל התועבות האל וגו',עולא אמר כאילו בנה במה שנאמר (ישעיהו ב, כב) חדלו לכם מן האדם אשר נשמה באפו כי במה נחשב הוא אל תיקרי במה אלא במה,מאי יד ליד לא ינקה אמר רב כל הבא על אשת איש אפי' הקנהו להקב"ה שמים וארץ כאברהם אבינו דכתיב ביה (בראשית יד, כב) הרימותי ידי אל ה' אל עליון קונה שמים וארץ לא ינקה מדינה של גיהנם,קשיא להו לדבי רבי שילא האי יד ליד לא ינקה ידי מיבעי ליה,אלא אמרי דבי רבי שילא אפילו קיבל תורה כמשה רבינו דכתיב ביה (דברים לג, ב) מימינו אש דת למו לא ינקה מדינה של גיהנם,קשיא ליה לר' יוחנן האי יד ליד יד מיד מיבעיא ליה,אלא א"ר יוחנן 4b. Is this speaking of a case bwherethe loaf is made bof wheat,which is slippery and takes longer to remove, boris this speaking of a case bwherethe loaf is made bof barley,which is easily removed? Is this speaking of a case bwherethe loaf is bsoft,so that it may catch upon the side of the basket, bora case bwherethe loaf is bhard,where this is not a concern? The Gemara states: These questions bshall standunresolved.,The Gemara notes: bRav Yitzḥak bar Rav Yosef saysthat bRabbi Yoḥa says: Each and every oneof these Sages who presented an opinion with regard to the time needed for the initial stage of intercourse bestimated based on himself,i.e., based on his own experience. The Gemara asks: bBut there is ben Azzai, who did not marry,so how could he estimate based on his own experience?,The Gemara answers: bIf you wish, saythat bhe was married and separatedfrom his wife. bAnd if you wish, saythat bhe heard from his teacher. And if you wish, sayhis knowledge can be understood based on the verse: b“The counsel of the Lord is with them that fear Him”(Psalms 25:14), teaching that those who fear God are privy to knowledge beyond their personal experience.,§ Having quoted an allusion from the verse: “For on account of a harlot a man is brought to a loaf of bread” (Proverbs 6:26), the Gemara offers another interpretation of that verse. bRav Avira interpreteda verse bhomiletically;there were btimes he saidthis interpretation bin the name of Rabbi Ami andthere were btimes he said it in the name of Rabbi Asi:Concerning banyone who eats bread without washinghis bhands,it is bas ifhe bengaged in sexual intercourse with a prostitute, as it is stated: “For on account of a harlot a man is brought to a loaf of bread.” /b, bRava said: Thisphrase: b“For on account of a harlot a man is brought to a loaf of bread,”is not how the verse would present this idea. bIt should havestated: b“On account of a loaf a man is brought to a harlot.” Rather, Rava saysthe verse should be interpreted as follows: bAnyone who engages in sexual intercourse with a harlotwill beventuallybe reduced to poverty and bbegpeople for ba loaf of bread. /b,The Gemara continues its discussion of washing hands. bRabbi Zerika saysthat bRabbi Elazar says: Anyone who treatsthe ritual of bwashing hands with contempt is uprooted from the world. Rav Ḥiyya bar Ashi saysthat bRav says:With regard to the bfirst water,i.e., the water used when washing one’s hands before a meal, one bmust raise his hands upwardafter washing. With regard to the blast water,i.e., the water used when washing one’s hands at the conclusion of the meal before reciting Grace after Meals, one bmust lower his hands downward. Thisdistinction bis also taughtin a ibaraita( iTosefta /i, iYadayim2:2): bOne who washes his handsbefore a meal bmust raise his hands upwardafter washing, blest the water advance past the jointonto the part of the hands that he was not required to wash, becoming impure, bandthen breturnto the area he had washed, brenderinghis bhands ritually impure. /b, bRabbi Abbahu says: Anyone who eats bread without wipinghis bhandsdry after washing them causes the bread to become repulsive and is considered bas if he were eating impure bread,since the verse refers to repulsive bread as impure bread, bas it is stated: “And the Lord said: Even thus shall the children of Israel eat their bread uncleanamong the nations where I will drive them” (Ezekiel 4:13). Eating bread with wet hands causes the bread to become repulsive. The verse deems eating in an uncouth manner, as did the gentiles among whom the Jewish people were exiled, as akin to eating ritually impure bread.,§ The Gemara now continues the interpretation of the above quoted verse: “For on account of a harlot a man is brought to a loaf of bread” (Proverbs 6:26). The Gemara asks: bAnd whatis the meaning of the continuation of the verse: b“But the adulteress hunts for the precious life”? Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba saysthat bRabbi Yoḥa says: Any person who has arrogance within him will eventually stumbleby sinning bwith an adulteress, as it is stated: “But the adulteress hunts for the precious life,”i.e., she sins with one who considers himself precious., bRava said: Thisphrase: b“The precious life,”is not how the verse would present this idea. bIt should havestated: bAn arrogant life. And further, it should havestated: A precious life, bshe huntsfor the adulteress, indicating that the precious soul will entrap the adulteress, and not vice versa, as the verse indicates as written. bRather, Rava saysthat the verse should be interpreted as follows: bAnyone who engages in sexual intercourse with an adulteress, evenif that man bstudied Torah, about which it is written: “She is more precious than rubies [ ipeninim /i]”(Proverbs 3:15), which, based on its etymological connection with the Hebrew term for the Holy of Holies, ilifnai velifnim /i, is interpreted by the Sages to mean that one who studies Torah is more precious bthan a High Priest, who enters the innermost sanctum,still, bthistransgression of adultery bwill entrap him into the judgment of Gehenna,and the Torah he studied will not be able to save him., bRabbi Yoḥa says in the name of Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai: Any person who has arrogance within himis considered bas if he were an idol worshipper,as bit is written here: “Everyone that is proud in heart is an abomination to the Lord”(Proverbs 16:5), band it is written thereconcerning the destruction of idols: b“And you shall not bring an abomination into your house”(Deuteronomy 7:26)., bAnd Rabbi Yoḥa said his ownstatement: Any person who has arrogance within him is considered bas if he has denied the corebelief in God’s existence, bas it is stated: “Then your heart be lifted up, and you forget the Lord your God”(Deuteronomy 8:14)., bRabbi Ḥama bar Ḥanina says:Any person who has arrogance within him is considered bas if he engaged in sexual intercourse with allof bthose with whom relations are forbidden,as bit is written here: “Everyone who is proud in heart is an abomination to the Lord”(Proverbs 16:5), band it is written there,at the end of the passage concerning forbidden sexual relationships: b“For all these abominationshave the men of the land done” (Leviticus 18:27)., bUlla says:Any person who has arrogance within him is considered bas if he builta personal baltarfor idol worship, bas it is stated: “Cease you from man, in whose nostrils there is breath, for how little [ ibammeh /i] is he to be accounted”(Isaiah 2:22), referring to an arrogant person. bDo not readthe verse basit is written, ibammeh /i,how little. bRather,read it as ibama /i,altar.,Having interpreted the phrase: “Everyone who is proud in heart is an abomination to the Lord” (Proverbs 16:5), the Gemara interprets the continuation of the verse. bWhatis the meaning of: b“Hand to hand, he shall not be unpunished”(Proverbs 16:5)? bRav says: Anyone who engages in sexual intercourse with an adulteress, evenif bhewere to have battributed possession of heaven and earth to the Holy One, Blessed be He, just as Abraham our forefatherdid, bthat it is written with regard to him: “I have lifted up my hand to the Lord, God Most High, Maker of heaven and earth”(Genesis 14:22), bhe will not be unpunished from the judgment of Gehenna.Abraham is described as one whose hands were lifted to declare the glory of God, yet this verse declares that even if one who engaged in forbidden sexual intercourse were to use his hands in the same way, still, due to his sin, the verse says: “He shall not be unpunished.”,This interpretation bposes a difficulty tothe Sages of bthe school of Rabbi Sheila: Thisphrase: b“Hand to hand, he shall not be unpunished,”is not how the verse would present this idea. bIt should havestated: bMy hand,as that is the term employed in the verse with regard to Abraham., bRather,the Sages bof the school of Rabbi Sheila say:This teaches that bevenif one who engages in sexual intercourse with an adulteress had breceived the Torahfrom the hand of God blike Moses our teacherdid, bthat it is written with regard to him: “At His right hand was a fiery law unto them”(Deuteronomy 33:2), i.e., God gave the Torah from His right hand into the hand of Moses in order to give to the Jewish people, the sinner bwill not be unpunished from the judgment of Gehenna. /b, bThisinterpretation also bposes a difficulty to Rabbi Yoḥa: Thisphrase “ bhand to hand”is not how the verse would present this idea. bIt should havestated: bHand from hand,as that is the term employed in the verse with regard to Moses., bRather Rabbi Yoḥa says: /b
33. Babylonian Talmud, Sukkah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

53a. אשה היתה בוררת חטים לאור של בית השואבה:,חסידים ואנשי מעשה כו': ת"ר יש מהן אומרים אשרי ילדותנו שלא ביישה את זקנותנו אלו חסידים ואנשי מעשה ויש מהן אומרים אשרי זקנותנו שכפרה את ילדותנו אלו בעלי תשובה אלו ואלו אומרים אשרי מי שלא חטא ומי שחטא ישוב וימחול לו,תניא אמרו עליו על הלל הזקן כשהיה שמח בשמחת בית השואבה אמר כן אם אני כאן הכל כאן ואם איני כאן מי כאן הוא היה אומר כן למקום שאני אוהב שם רגלי מוליכות אותי אם תבא אל ביתי אני אבא אל ביתך אם אתה לא תבא אל ביתי אני לא אבא אל ביתך שנאמר (שמות כ, כד) בכל המקום אשר אזכיר את שמי אבא אליך וברכתיך,אף הוא ראה גלגולת אחת שצפה על פני המים אמר לה על דאטפת אטפוך ומטיפיך יטופון אמר רבי יוחנן רגלוהי דבר איניש אינון ערבין ביה לאתר דמיתבעי תמן מובילין יתיה,הנהו תרתי כושאי דהוו קיימי קמי שלמה (מלכים א ד, ג) אליחרף ואחיה בני שישא סופרים דשלמה הוו יומא חד חזייה למלאך המות דהוה קא עציב א"ל אמאי עציבת א"ל דקא בעו מינאי הני תרתי כושאי דיתבי הכא מסרינהו לשעירים שדרינהו למחוזא דלוז כי מטו למחוזא דלוז שכיבו,למחר חזיא מלאך המות דהוה קבדח א"ל אמאי בדיחת א"ל באתר דבעו מינאי תמן שדרתינהו מיד פתח שלמה ואמר רגלוהי דבר איניש אינון ערבין ביה לאתר דמיתבעי תמן מובילין יתיה,תניא אמרו עליו על רבן שמעון בן גמליאל כשהיה שמח שמחת בית השואבה היה נוטל שמנה אבוקות של אור וזורק אחת ונוטל אחת ואין נוגעות זו בזו וכשהוא משתחוה נועץ שני גודליו בארץ ושוחה ונושק את הרצפה וזוקף ואין כל בריה יכולה לעשות כן וזו היא קידה,לוי אחוי קידה קמיה דרבי ואיטלע והא גרמא ליה והאמר רבי אלעזר לעולם אל יטיח אדם דברים כלפי מעלה שהרי אדם גדול הטיח דברים כלפי מעלה ואיטלע ומנו לוי הא והא גרמא ליה,לוי הוה מטייל קמיה דרבי בתמני סכיני שמואל קמיה שבור מלכא בתמניא מזגי חמרא אביי קמיה (דרבא) בתמניא ביעי ואמרי לה בארבעה ביעי,תניא אמר ר' יהושע בן חנניה כשהיינו שמחים שמחת בית השואבה לא ראינו שינה בעינינו כיצד שעה ראשונה תמיד של שחר משם לתפלה משם לקרבן מוסף משם לתפלת המוספין משם לבית המדרש משם לאכילה ושתיה משם לתפלת המנחה משם לתמיד של בין הערבים מכאן ואילך לשמחת בית השואבה,איני והאמר רבי יוחנן שבועה שלא אישן שלשה ימים מלקין אותו וישן לאלתר אלא הכי קאמר לא טעמנו טעם שינה דהוו מנמנמי אכתפא דהדדי:,חמש עשרה מעלות: אמר ליה רב חסדא לההוא מדרבנן דהוי קמסדר אגדתא קמיה א"ל שמיע לך הני חמש עשרה מעלות כנגד מי אמרם דוד א"ל הכי אמר רבי יוחנן בשעה שכרה דוד שיתין קפא תהומא ובעי למשטפא עלמא אמר דוד חמש עשרה מעלות והורידן אי הכי חמש עשרה מעלות יורדות מיבעי ליה,אמר ליה הואיל ואדכרתן (מלתא) הכי אתמר בשעה שכרה דוד שיתין קפא תהומא ובעא למשטפא עלמא אמר דוד מי איכא דידע אי שרי למכתב שם 53a. It was so bright that ba woman wouldbe able to bsort wheat by the light of theCelebration of the bPlace of the Drawingof the Water.,§ The mishna continues: bThe pious and the men of actionwould dance before the people who attended the celebration. bThe Sages taughtin the iToseftathat bsome of them would sayin their song praising God: bHappy is our youth,as we did not sin then, bthat did not embarrass our old age. These are the pious and the men of action,who spent all their lives engaged in Torah and mitzvot. bAnd some would say: Happy is our old age, that atoned for our youthwhen we sinned. bThese are the penitents.Both bthese and those say: Happy is he who did not sin; and he who sinned should repent andGod bwill absolve him. /b, bIt is taughtin the iTosefta /i: bThey said about Hillel the Elder that when he was rejoicing at the Celebration of the Place of the Drawingof the Water bhe said this: If I am here, everyone is here; and if I am not here, who is here?In other words, one must consider himself as the one upon whom it is incumbent to fulfill obligations, and he must not rely on others to do so. bHe wouldalso bsay this: To the place that I love, there my feet take me,and therefore, I come to the Temple. And the Holy One, Blessed be He, says: bIf you come to My house, I will come to your house; if you do not come to My house, I will not come to your house, as it is stated: “In every place that I cause My name to be mentioned, I will come to you and bless you”(Exodus 20:21).,The Gemara cites another statement of Hillel the Elder. bAdditionally, he saw one skull that was floating on the waterand bhe said to it: Because you drownedothers, bthey drowned you, and those that drowned you will be drowned.That is the way of the world; everyone is punished measure for measure. Apropos following one’s feet, bRabbi Yoḥa said: The feet of a person are responsible for him; to the place where he is in demand, there they lead him. /b,The Gemara relates with regard to bthese two Cushites who would stand before Solomon: “Elihoreph and Ahijah, the sons of Shisha”(I Kings 4:3), and bthey were scribes of Solomon. One daySolomon bsaw that the Angel of Death was sad. He said to him: Why are you sad? He said to him: They are asking meto take the lives of bthese two Cushites who are sitting here.Solomon bhanded them to the demonsin his service, band sent them to the district of Luz,where the Angel of Death has no dominion. bWhen they arrived at the district of Luz, they died. /b, bThe following day,Solomon bsaw that the Angel of Death was happy. He said to him: Why are you happy? He replied: In the place that they asked meto take them, bthere you sent them.The Angel of Death was instructed to take their lives in the district of Luz. Since they resided in Solomon’s palace and never went to Luz, he was unable to complete his mission. That saddened him. Ultimately, Solomon dispatched them to Luz, enabling the angel to accomplish his mission. That pleased him. bImmediately, Solomon beganto speak band said: The feet of a person are responsible for him; to the place where he is in demand, there they lead him. /b,§ bIt is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bThey said about Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel that when he would rejoice at the Celebration of the Place of the Drawingof the Water, bhe would take eight flaming torches and toss one and catch another,juggling them, band,though all were in the air at the same time, bthey would not touch each other. And when he would prostrate himself, he would insert his two thumbs into the ground, and bow, and kiss the floorof the courtyard band straighten, andthere was bnot anyother bcreaturethat bcould do thatdue to the extreme difficulty involved. bAnd this was theform of bowing called ikidda /iperformed by the High Priest.,The Gemara relates: bLevi demonstrated a ikiddabefore RabbiYehuda HaNasi and strained his thigh band came up lame.The Gemara asks: bAnd is that what caused himto be lame? bBut didn’t Rabbi Elazar say: One should never speak impertinently towardGod babove; as a great persononce bspoke impertinently towardGod babove,and even though his prayers were answered, he was still punished band came up lame. And whowas this great person? It was bLevi.Apparently his condition was not caused by his bow. The Gemara answers: There is no contradiction. Both bthis and that caused himto come up lame; because he spoke impertinently toward God, he therefore was injured when exerting himself in demonstrating ikidda /i.,Apropos the rejoicing of Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel at the Celebration of the Place of the Drawing of the Water, the Gemara recounts: bLevi would walk before RabbiYehuda HaNasi juggling bwith eight knives. Shmuelwould juggle bbefore King Shapur with eight glasses of winewithout spilling. bAbayewould juggle bbefore Rabba with eight eggs. Some sayhe did so bwith four eggs.All these were cited., bIt is taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Yehoshua ben Ḥaya said: When we would rejoicein bthe Celebration of the Place of the Drawingof the Water, bwe did not see sleep in our eyesthe entire Festival. bHow so?In the bfirst hourof the day, bthe daily morning offeringwas sacrificed and everyone came to watch. bFrom therethey proceeded btoengage in bprayerin the synagogue; bfrom there, towatch the sacrifice of bthe additional offerings; from there,to the synagogue btorecite bthe additional prayer. From therethey would proceed bto the study hallto study Torah; bfrom there to the eating and drinkingin the isukka /i; bfrom there to the afternoon prayer. From therethey would proceed bto the daily afternoon offeringin the Temple. bFrom thispoint bforward,they proceeded bto the Celebration of the Place of the Drawingof the Water.,The Gemara wonders: bIs that so? But didn’t Rabbi Yoḥa say:One who took ban oath that I will not sleep three days, one flogs himimmediately for taking an oath in vain, band hemay bsleep immediatelybecause it is impossible to stay awake for three days uninterrupted. bRather, this is whatRabbi Yehoshua bis saying: We did not experience the sense ofactual bsleep, because they wouldmerely bdoze on each other’s shoulders.In any case, they were not actually awake for the entire week.,§ The mishna continues: The musicians would stand on the bfifteen stairsthat descend from the Israelites’ courtyard to the Women’s Courtyard, corresponding to the fifteen Songs of the Ascents in Psalms. bRav Ḥisda said to one of the Sages who was organizing iaggadabefore him: Did you hearwith regard to bthese fifteenSongs of bAscentsin Psalms, bcorresponding to what did David say them? He said to himthat bthisis what bRabbi Yoḥa said: At the time that David dug the drainpipesin the foundation of the Temple, the waters of bthe depths rose and sought to inundate the world.Immediately, bDavid recited the fifteenSongs of the bAscents and caused them to subside.Rav Ḥisda asked: bIf so,should they be called bfifteenSongs of the bAscents? They should have beencalled Songs of the bDescents. /b,Rav Ḥisda continued and bsaid to him: Since you reminded meof this bmatter, this iswhat bwasoriginally bstated: At the time that David dug the drainpipes,the waters of bthe depths rose and sought to inundate the world. David said: Is there anyone who knows whether it is permitted to write thesacred bname /b
34. Anon., Exodus Rabbah, 33.1 (4th cent. CE - 9th cent. CE)

33.1. וְיִקְחוּ לִי תְּרוּמָה, הֲדָא הוּא דִּכְתִיב (משלי ד, ב): כִּי לֶקַח טוֹב נָתַתִּי לָכֶם תּוֹרָתִי אַל תַּעֲזֹבוּ, אַל תַּעֲזֹבוּ אֶת הַמִּקָּח שֶׁנָּתַתִּי לָכֶם, יֵשׁ לְךָ אָדָם שֶׁלּוֹקֵחַ מִקָּח, יֵשׁ בּוֹ זָהָב אֵין בּוֹ כֶסֶף, יֵשׁ בּוֹ כֶסֶף אֵין בּוֹ זָהָב, אֲבָל הַמִּקָּח שֶׁנָּתַתִּי לָכֶם יֵשׁ בּוֹ כֶסֶף, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים יב, ז): אִמְרוֹת ה' אֲמָרוֹת טְהֹרוֹת כֶּסֶף צָרוּף. יֵשׁ בּוֹ זָהָב, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים יט, יא): הַנֶּחֱמָדִים מִזָּהָב וּמִפָּז רָב. יֵשׁ אָדָם לוֹקֵחַ שָׂדוֹת אֲבָל לֹא כְרָמִים, כְּרָמִים וְלֹא שָׂדוֹת, אֲבָל הַמִּקָּח הַזֶּה יֵשׁ בּוֹ שָׂדוֹת וְיֵשׁ בּוֹ כְּרָמִים, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שיר השירים ד, יג): שְׁלָחַיִךְ פַּרְדֵּס רִמּוֹנִים. יֵשׁ לְךָ אָדָם לוֹקֵחַ מִקָּח וּבְנֵי אָדָם אֵינָן יוֹדְעִין מַהוּ, אֲבָל מִשְֹּׂכַר הַסַּרְסוּר נִתְוַדַּע מַה לָּקַח. כָּךְ הַתּוֹרָה אֵין אָדָם יוֹדֵעַ מַה הִיא, אֶלָּא מִשָֹּׂכָר שֶׁלָּקַח משֶׁה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות לד, כט): וּמשֶׁה לֹא יָדַע כִּי קָרַן עוֹר פָּנָיו בְּדַבְּרוֹ אִתּוֹ. וְיֵשׁ לְךָ מִקָּח שֶׁמִּי שֶׁמְּכָרוֹ נִמְכָּר עִמּוֹ, אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לְיִשְׂרָאֵל, מָכַרְתִּי לָכֶם תּוֹרָתִי, כִּבְיָכוֹל נִמְכַּרְתִּי עִמָּהּ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: וְיִקְחוּ לִי תְּרוּמָה, מָשָׁל לְמֶלֶךְ שֶׁהָיָה לוֹ בַּת יְחִידָה, בָּא אֶחָד מִן הַמְּלָכִים וּנְטָלָהּ, בִּקֵּשׁ לֵילֵךְ לוֹ לְאַרְצוֹ וְלִטֹּל לְאִשְׁתּוֹ. אָמַר לוֹ: בִּתִּי שֶׁנָּתַתִּי לְךָ יְחִידִית הִיא, לִפְרשׁ מִמֶּנָּה אֵינִי יָכוֹל, לוֹמַר לְךָ אַל תִּטְלָהּ אֵינִי יָכוֹל לְפִי שֶׁהִיא אִשְׁתֶּךָ, אֶלָּא, זוֹ טוֹבָה עֲשֵׂה לִי, שֶׁכָּל מָקוֹם שֶׁאַתָּה הוֹלֵךְ קִיטוֹן אֶחָד עֲשֵׂה לִי, שֶׁאָדוּר אֶצְלְכֶם, שֶׁאֵינִי יָכוֹל לְהַנִּיחַ אֶת בִּתִּי. כָּךְ אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לְיִשְׂרָאֵל, נָתַתִּי לָכֶם אֶת הַתּוֹרָה, לִפְרשׁ הֵימֶנָּה אֵינִי יָכוֹל, לוֹמַר לָכֶם אַל תִּטְלוּהָ אֵינִי יָכוֹל, אֶלָּא בְּכָל מָקוֹם שֶׁאַתֶּם הוֹלְכִים בַּיִת אֶחָד עֲשׂוּ לִי שֶׁאָדוּר בְּתוֹכוֹ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות כה, ח): וְעָשׂוּ לִי מִקְדָּשׁ.


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
akiva Rubin Time and the Life Cycle in Talmud and Midrash: Socio-Anthropological Perspectives (2008) 153
albeck, h. Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 69
animals Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 69, 232
aqiba Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 149
avi-yonah, m. Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 152
bar kokhba (revolt) Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 152
ben azzai Rubin Time and the Life Cycle in Talmud and Midrash: Socio-Anthropological Perspectives (2008) 153
blood Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 152
body and soul Rubin Time and the Life Cycle in Talmud and Midrash: Socio-Anthropological Perspectives (2008) 153
boethusians Sigal, The Halakhah of Jesus of Nazareth According to the Gospel of Matthew (2007) 54
brooks, r. Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 125
burial Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 232
buying and/or selling Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 69
carrion Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 69
cattle Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 232
change, in conception Rubin Time and the Life Cycle in Talmud and Midrash: Socio-Anthropological Perspectives (2008) 153
christianity Sigal, The Halakhah of Jesus of Nazareth According to the Gospel of Matthew (2007) 54
contact Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 153
crops Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 69
dama ben netinah Maccoby, Philosophy of the Talmud (2002) 86
danby, h. Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 69
divine presence, shekhinah related to Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 106, 107
divorce document Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 232
domitian Sigal, The Halakhah of Jesus of Nazareth According to the Gospel of Matthew (2007) 54
economy Nikolsky and Ilan, Rabbinic Traditions Between Palestine and Babylonia (2014) 283
egyptians Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 69
eleazar b. azariah Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 149
eliezer Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 149, 152; Sigal, The Halakhah of Jesus of Nazareth According to the Gospel of Matthew (2007) 54
eliezer b. arakh Sigal, The Halakhah of Jesus of Nazareth According to the Gospel of Matthew (2007) 54
ezra Maccoby, Philosophy of the Talmud (2002) 86
gerondi, nissim Flatto, The Crown and the Courts (2021) 339
glory, memra related to Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 106
glory, shekhinah related to Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 106
haflagah Maccoby, Philosophy of the Talmud (2002) 86
hanina ben hakhinai (rabbi) Balberg, Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture (2023) 175
hanina ben tradion (rabbi) Balberg, Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture (2023) 175
harvey, warren zev Flatto, The Crown and the Courts (2021) 339
heart Balberg, Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture (2023) 175
heaven Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 153
house Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 153
interpretation, rabbinic Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 217
ishmael ben yose Maccoby, Philosophy of the Talmud (2002) 215
israel Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 153
kavod Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 106
law, of fraud' Nikolsky and Ilan, Rabbinic Traditions Between Palestine and Babylonia (2014) 283
law, roman Nikolsky and Ilan, Rabbinic Traditions Between Palestine and Babylonia (2014) 283
levinas, emmanuel Maccoby, Philosophy of the Talmud (2002) 215
lorberbaum, menachem Flatto, The Crown and the Courts (2021) 339
memorization Balberg, Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture (2023) 175
memra, glory related to Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 106
memra, personified wisdom related to Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 106
midrash Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 217
moses, art Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 217
moses Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 153
nimrod Maccoby, Philosophy of the Talmud (2002) 86
personified wisdom, memra (and torah) related to Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 106
philos logos Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 106
piety, pious Balberg, Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture (2023) 175
pyeatainists Maccoby, Philosophy of the Talmud (2002) 215
recital, recitation Balberg, Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture (2023) 175
revelation, law Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 217
revelation Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 217
rhetorical devices Keener, First-Second Corinthians (2005) 231
roman, drive for conquest Nikolsky and Ilan, Rabbinic Traditions Between Palestine and Babylonia (2014) 283
sanctuary Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 153
sasanian, drive for conquest Nikolsky and Ilan, Rabbinic Traditions Between Palestine and Babylonia (2014) 283
sects, judean desert Rubin Time and the Life Cycle in Talmud and Midrash: Socio-Anthropological Perspectives (2008) 153
shefa, divine presence related to Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 106, 107
shefa, glory related to Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 106
shekhina Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 217
shekhinah Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 153
shimon (rabbi) Balberg, Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture (2023) 175
sinai Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 217; Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 153
splendour Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 153
synagogue Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 153
tabernacle Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 106, 107
torah, righteousness Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 217
torah, study Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 217
torah Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 153
tower of babel Maccoby, Philosophy of the Talmud (2002) 86
yaakov Rubin Time and the Life Cycle in Talmud and Midrash: Socio-Anthropological Perspectives (2008) 153