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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



7997
Mishnah, Avot, 2.1


הֵם אָמְרוּ שְׁלשָׁה דְבָרִים. רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר אוֹמֵר, יְהִי כְבוֹד חֲבֵרְךָ חָבִיב עָלֶיךָ כְּשֶׁלָּךְ, וְאַל תְּהִי נוֹחַ לִכְעֹס. וְשׁוּב יוֹם אֶחָד לִפְנֵי מִיתָתְךָ. וֶהֱוֵי מִתְחַמֵּם כְּנֶגֶד אוּרָן שֶׁל חֲכָמִים, וֶהֱוֵי זָהִיר בְּגַחַלְתָּן שֶׁלֹּא תִכָּוֶה, שֶׁנְּשִׁיכָתָן נְשִׁיכַת שׁוּעָל, וַעֲקִיצָתָן עֲקִיצַת עַקְרָב, וּלְחִישָׁתָן לְחִישַׁת שָׂרָף, וְכָל דִּבְרֵיהֶם כְּגַחֲלֵי אֵשׁ:Rabbi Said: which is the straight path that a man should choose for himself? One which is an honor to the person adopting it, and [on account of which] honor [accrues] to him from others. And be careful with a light commandment as with a grave one, for you did know not the reward for the fulfillment of the commandments. Also, reckon the loss [that may be sustained through the fulfillment] of a commandment against the reward [accruing] thereby, and the gain [that may be obtained through the committing] of a transgression against the loss [entailed] thereby. Apply your mind to three things and you will not come into the clutches of sin: Know what there is above you: an eye that sees, an ear that hears, and all your deeds are written in a book.


רַבִּי אוֹמֵר, אֵיזוֹהִי דֶרֶךְ יְשָׁרָה שֶׁיָּבֹר לוֹ הָאָדָם, כֹּל שֶׁהִיא תִפְאֶרֶת לְעוֹשֶׂיהָ וְתִפְאֶרֶת לוֹ מִן הָאָדָם. וֶהֱוֵי זָהִיר בְּמִצְוָה קַלָּה כְבַחֲמוּרָה, שֶׁאֵין אַתָּה יוֹדֵעַ מַתַּן שְׂכָרָן שֶׁל מִצְוֹת. וֶהֱוֵי מְחַשֵּׁב הֶפְסֵד מִצְוָה כְּנֶגֶד שְׂכָרָהּ, וּשְׂכַר עֲבֵרָה כְנֶגֶד הֶפְסֵדָהּ. וְהִסְתַּכֵּל בִּשְׁלשָׁה דְבָרִים וְאִי אַתָּה בָא לִידֵי עֲבֵרָה, דַּע מַה לְּמַעְלָה מִמְּךָ, עַיִן רוֹאָה וְאֹזֶן שׁוֹמַעַת, וְכָל מַעֲשֶׂיךָ בַסֵּפֶר נִכְתָּבִין:Rabbi Said: which is the straight path that a man should choose for himself? One which is an honor to the person adopting it, and [on account of which] honor [accrues] to him from others. And be careful with a light commandment as with a grave one, for you did know not the reward for the fulfillment of the commandments. Also, reckon the loss [that may be sustained through the fulfillment] of a commandment against the reward [accruing] thereby, and the gain [that may be obtained through the committing] of a transgression against the loss [entailed] thereby. Apply your mind to three things and you will not come into the clutches of sin: Know what there is above you: an eye that sees, an ear that hears, and all your deeds are written in a book.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

12 results
1. Septuagint, Tobit, 12.8-12.10 (10th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

12.8. Prayer is good when accompanied by fasting, almsgiving, and righteousness. A little with righteousness is better than much with wrongdoing. It is better to give alms than to treasure up gold. 12.9. For almsgiving delivers from death, and it will purge away every sin. Those who perform deeds of charity and of righteousness will have fulness of life; 12.10. but those who commit sin are the enemies of their own lives.
2. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 15.2, 19.18 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

15.2. דַּבְּרוּ אֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וַאֲמַרְתֶּם אֲלֵהֶם אִישׁ אִישׁ כִּי יִהְיֶה זָב מִבְּשָׂרוֹ זוֹבוֹ טָמֵא הוּא׃ 15.2. וְכֹל אֲשֶׁר תִּשְׁכַּב עָלָיו בְּנִדָּתָהּ יִטְמָא וְכֹל אֲשֶׁר־תֵּשֵׁב עָלָיו יִטְמָא׃ 19.18. לֹא־תִקֹּם וְלֹא־תִטֹּר אֶת־בְּנֵי עַמֶּךָ וְאָהַבְתָּ לְרֵעֲךָ כָּמוֹךָ אֲנִי יְהוָה׃ 15.2. Speak unto the children of Israel, and say unto them: When any man hath an issue out of his flesh, his issue is unclean." 19.18. Thou shalt not take vengeance, nor bear any grudge against the children of thy people, but thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself: I am the LORD."
3. Hebrew Bible, Ecclesiastes, 12.1 (5th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

12.1. בִּקֵּשׁ קֹהֶלֶת לִמְצֹא דִּבְרֵי־חֵפֶץ וְכָתוּב יֹשֶׁר דִּבְרֵי אֱמֶת׃ 12.1. וּזְכֹר אֶת־בּוֹרְאֶיךָ בִּימֵי בְּחוּרֹתֶיךָ עַד אֲשֶׁר לֹא־יָבֹאוּ יְמֵי הָרָעָה וְהִגִּיעוּ שָׁנִים אֲשֶׁר תֹּאמַר אֵין־לִי בָהֶם חֵפֶץ׃ 12.1. Remember then thy Creator in the days of thy youth, and the years draw nigh, when thou shalt say: 'I have no pleasure in them';"
4. Septuagint, Tobit, 12.8-12.10 (4th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

12.8. Prayer is good when accompanied by fasting, almsgiving, and righteousness. A little with righteousness is better than much with wrongdoing. It is better to give alms than to treasure up gold. 12.9. For almsgiving delivers from death, and it will purge away every sin. Those who perform deeds of charity and of righteousness will have fulness of life; 12.10. but those who commit sin are the enemies of their own lives.
5. Anon., Testament of Joseph, 4.3 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. CE)

4.3. Owing to all these things I lay upon the ground, and besought God that the Lord would deliver me from her deceit.
6. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 5.5-5.7, 17.22-17.29, 34.25-34.26, 45.15-45.16 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

5.5. Do not be so confident of atonement that you add sin to sin. 5.5. A pleasant voice multiplies friends,and a gracious tongue multiplies courtesies. 5.6. Do not say, "His mercy is great,he will forgive the multitude of my sins," for both mercy and wrath are with him,and his anger rests on sinners. 5.6. Let those that are at peace with you be many,but let your advisers be one in a thousand. 5.7. Do not delay to turn to the Lord,nor postpone it from day to day;for suddenly the wrath of the Lord will go forth,and at the time of punishment you will perish. 5.7. When you gain a friend, gain him through testing,and do not trust him hastily. 17.22. A mans almsgiving is like a signet with the Lord and he will keep a persons kindness like the apple of his eye. 17.23. Afterward he will arise and requite them,and he will bring their recompense on their heads. 17.24. Yet to those who repent he grants a return,and he encourages those whose endurance is failing. 17.25. Turn to the Lord and forsake your sins;pray in his presence and lessen your offenses. 17.26. Return to the Most High and turn away from iniquity,and hate abominations intensely. 17.27. Who will sing praises to the Most High in Hades,as do those who are alive and give thanks? 17.28. From the dead, as from one who does not exist,thanksgiving has ceased;he who is alive and well sings the Lords praises. 17.29. How great is the mercy of the Lord,and his forgiveness for those who turn to him! 34.25. If a man washes after touching a dead body,and touches it again,what has he gained by his washing? 34.26. So if a man fasts for his sins,and goes again and does the same things,who will listen to his prayer?And what has he gained by humbling himself? 45.15. Moses ordained him,and anointed him with holy oil;it was an everlasting covet for him and for his descendants all the days of heaven,to minister to the Lord and serve as priest and bless his people in his name. 45.16. He chose him out of all the living to offer sacrifice to the Lord,incense and a pleasing odor as a memorial portion,to make atonement for the people.
7. Mishnah, Avot, 2.16 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

2.16. He [Rabbi Tarfon] used to say: It is not your duty to finish the work, but neither are you at liberty to neglect it; If you have studied much Torah, you shall be given much reward. Faithful is your employer to pay you the reward of your labor; And know that the grant of reward unto the righteous is in the age to come."
8. Mishnah, Peah, 1.1 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

1.1. These are the things that have no definite quantity: The corners [of the field]. First-fruits; [The offerings brought] on appearing [at the Temple on the three pilgrimage festivals]. The performance of righteous deeds; And the study of the torah. The following are the things for which a man enjoys the fruits in this world while the principal remains for him in the world to come: Honoring one’s father and mother; The performance of righteous deeds; And the making of peace between a person and his friend; And the study of the torah is equal to them all."
9. Mishnah, Yoma, 8.8 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

8.8. The sin-offering and the certain guilt-offering effect atonement. Death and Yom HaKippurim effect atonement together with repentance. Repentance effects atonement for light transgressions: [the transgression of] positive commandments and negative commandments. And for severer transgressions [repentance] suspends [the divine punishment], until Yom HaKippurim arrives and effects atonement."
10. New Testament, James, 2.8 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.8. However, if you fulfill the royal law, according to the Scripture, "You shall love your neighbor as yourself," you do well.
11. New Testament, Luke, 16.1 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

16.1. He also said to his disciples, "There was a certain rich man who had a manager. An accusation was made to him that this man was wasting his possessions.
12. New Testament, Matthew, 6.1-6.6, 6.8, 6.16-6.18 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

6.1. Be careful that you don't do your charitable giving before men, to be seen by them, or else you have no reward from your Father who is in heaven. 6.2. Therefore when you do merciful deeds, don't sound a trumpet before yourself, as the hypocrites do in the synagogues and in the streets, that they may get glory from men. Most assuredly I tell you, they have received their reward. 6.3. But when you do merciful deeds, don't let your left hand know what your right hand does 6.4. so that your merciful deeds may be in secret, then your Father who sees in secret will reward you openly. 6.5. When you pray, you shall not be as the hypocrites, for they love to stand and pray in the synagogues and in the corners of the streets, that they may be seen by men. Most assuredly, I tell you, they have received their reward. 6.6. But you, when you pray, enter into your inner chamber, and having shut your door, pray to your Father who is in secret, and your Father who sees in secret will reward you openly. 6.8. Therefore don't be like them, for your Father knows what things you need, before you ask him. 6.16. Moreover when you fast, don't be like the hypocrites, with sad faces. For they disfigure their faces, that they may be seen by men to be fasting. Most assuredly I tell you, they have received their reward. 6.17. But you, when you fast, anoint your head, and wash your face; 6.18. so that you are not seen by men to be fasting, but by your Father who is in secret, and your Father, who sees in secret, will reward you.


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
akavya ben mehalalel, rabbi Fonrobert and Jaffee, The Cambridge Companion to the Talmud and Rabbinic Literature Cambridge Companions to Religion (2007) 325
almsgiving, charity Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 116
ascension of isaiah Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 69
atonement Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 116
avot tractate Samely, Rabbinic Interpretation of Scripture in the Mishnah (2002) 167
baumgarten, albert i. Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 73
ben azzai Sigal, The Halakhah of Jesus of Nazareth According to the Gospel of Matthew (2007) 22
bet shammai Sigal, The Halakhah of Jesus of Nazareth According to the Gospel of Matthew (2007) 50
biblical Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 116
body, human Fonrobert and Jaffee, The Cambridge Companion to the Talmud and Rabbinic Literature Cambridge Companions to Religion (2007) 325
boyarin, daniel Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 68, 73
consensus Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 73
damascus document Sigal, The Halakhah of Jesus of Nazareth According to the Gospel of Matthew (2007) 22
eleazar, son of yair Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 68, 69
epicureans Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 68, 69
eschatological prophet, non-eschatological Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 116
eschatological prophet, not yet eschatology Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 116
ethical Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 116
faith Wilson, The Sentences of Sextus (2012) 50
fasting Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 116
finkelstein, louis Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 73
fourth philosophy Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 69
grossberg, david m. Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 68
hazon gabriel Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 73
herr, moshe david Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 73
heschel, abraham joshua Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 68
hezser, catherine Bar Asher Siegal, Early Christian Monastic Literature and the Babylonian Talmud (2013) 77
intentionality Wilson, The Sentences of Sextus (2012) 50
jerusalem Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 116
jesus, divine status Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 116
jesus Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 116
lords prayer Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 116
martyrdom Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 69
masada Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 68, 69
meticulousness Wilson, The Sentences of Sextus (2012) 50
miller, stuart Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 68
minim Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 68
monasticism, and prayer Bar Asher Siegal, Early Christian Monastic Literature and the Babylonian Talmud (2013) 77
moses Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 73
passions Wilson, The Sentences of Sextus (2012) 50
perfection Wilson, The Sentences of Sextus (2012) 50
piety, deeds of Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 116
prayer, in rabbinic and christian sources Bar Asher Siegal, Early Christian Monastic Literature and the Babylonian Talmud (2013) 77
prayer Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 116
punishment Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 116
qumran, qumranic, anti-qumranic Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 116
rabbinic Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 116
rabbis, and prayer Bar Asher Siegal, Early Christian Monastic Literature and the Babylonian Talmud (2013) 77
repentance, return to god Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 116
reward Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 116
righteous, righteousness Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 116
rustow, marina Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 73
sadducees Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 68, 69
schiffman, lawrence h. Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 68
schremer, adiel Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 68
schäfer, peter Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 73
second temple period, jewry, tradition Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 116
segal, alan f. Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 68
seriousness Wilson, The Sentences of Sextus (2012) 50
shemesh, aharon Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 68
sicarii Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 68, 69
sin Wilson, The Sentences of Sextus (2012) 50
sinlessness Wilson, The Sentences of Sextus (2012) 50
sins, transgressions, sinners, forgiveness of Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 116
stoicism Wilson, The Sentences of Sextus (2012) 50
strictness Wilson, The Sentences of Sextus (2012) 50
taft, robert Bar Asher Siegal, Early Christian Monastic Literature and the Babylonian Talmud (2013) 77
temple, sacrificial cult (in jerusalem) Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 116
the faithful Wilson, The Sentences of Sextus (2012) 50
the soul Wilson, The Sentences of Sextus (2012) 50
tropper, amram Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 73
virtue' Wilson, The Sentences of Sextus (2012) 50
world to come Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 116