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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



7997
Mishnah, Avot, 1.11


אַבְטַלְיוֹן אוֹמֵר, חֲכָמִים, הִזָּהֲרוּ בְדִבְרֵיכֶם, שֶׁמָּא תָחוּבוּ חוֹבַת גָּלוּת וְתִגְלוּ לִמְקוֹם מַיִם הָרָעִים, וְיִשְׁתּוּ הַתַּלְמִידִים הַבָּאִים אַחֲרֵיכֶם וְיָמוּתוּ, וְנִמְצָא שֵׁם שָׁמַיִם מִתְחַלֵּל:Abtalion used to say: Sages be careful with your words, lest you incur the penalty of exile, and be carried off to a place of evil waters, and the disciples who follow you drink and die, and thus the name of heaven becomes profaned.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

11 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 25.14 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

25.14. סוֹד יְהוָה לִירֵאָיו וּבְרִיתוֹ לְהוֹדִיעָם׃ 25.14. The counsel of the LORD is with them that fear Him; And His covet, to make them know it."
2. Mishnah, Avot, 1.1-1.10, 1.12-1.16, 2.4, 2.8, 2.10, 4.4 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

1.1. Moses received the torah at Sinai and transmitted it to Joshua, Joshua to the elders, and the elders to the prophets, and the prophets to the Men of the Great Assembly. They said three things: Be patient in [the administration of] justice, raise many disciples and make a fence round the Torah." 1.2. Shimon the Righteous was one of the last of the men of the great assembly. He used to say: the world stands upon three things: the Torah, the Temple service, and the practice of acts of piety." 1.3. Antigonus a man of Socho received [the oral tradition] from Shimon the Righteous. He used to say: do not be like servants who serve the master in the expectation of receiving a reward, but be like servants who serve the master without the expectation of receiving a reward, and let the fear of Heaven be upon you." 1.4. Yose ben Yoezer (a man) of Zeredah and Yose ben Yoha [a man] of Jerusalem received [the oral tradition] from them [i.e. Shimon the Righteous and Antigonus]. Yose ben Yoezer used to say: let thy house be a house of meeting for the Sages and sit in the very dust of their feet, and drink in their words with thirst." 1.5. Yose ben Yocha (a of Jerusalem used to say:Let thy house be wide open, and let the poor be members of thy household. Engage not in too much conversation with women. They said this with regard to one’s own wife, how much more [does the rule apply] with regard to another man’s wife. From here the Sages said: as long as a man engages in too much conversation with women, he causes evil to himself, he neglects the study of the Torah, and in the end he will inherit gehinnom." 1.6. Joshua ben Perahiah and Nittai the Arbelite received [the oral tradition] from them. Joshua ben Perahiah used to say: appoint for thyself a teacher, and acquire for thyself a companion and judge all men with the scale weighted in his favor." 1.7. Nittai the Arbelite used to say: keep a distance from an evil neighbor, do not become attached to the wicked, and do not abandon faith in [divine] retribution." 1.8. Judah ben Tabbai and Shimon ben Shetach received [the oral tradition] from them. Judah ben Tabbai said: do not [as a judge] play the part of an advocate; and when the litigants are standing before you, look upon them as if they were [both] guilty; and when they leave your presence, look upon them as if they were [both] innocent, when they have accepted the judgement." 1.9. Shimon ben Shetach used to say: be thorough in the interrogation of witnesses, and be careful with your words, lest from them they learn to lie." 1.10. Shemaiah and Abtalion received [the oral tradition] from them. Shemaiah used to say: love work, hate acting the superior, and do not attempt to draw near to the ruling authority." 1.12. Hillel and Shammai received [the oral tradition] from them. Hillel used to say: be of the disciples of Aaron, loving peace and pursuing peace, loving mankind and drawing them close to the Torah." 1.13. He [also] used to say: one who makes his name great causes his name to be destroyed; one who does not add [to his knowledge] causes [it] to cease; one who does not study [the Torah] deserves death; on who makes [unworthy] use of the crown [of learning] shall pass away." 1.14. He [also] used to say: If I am not for myself, who is for me? But if I am for my own self [only], what am I? And if not now, when?" 1.15. Shammai used to say: make your [study of the] Torah a fixed practice; speak little, but do much; and receive all men with a pleasant countece." 1.16. Rabban Gamaliel used to say: appoint for thyself a teacher, avoid doubt, and do not make a habit of tithing by guesswork." 2.4. He used to say: do His will as though it were your will, so that He will do your will as though it were His. Set aside your will in the face of His will, so that he may set aside the will of others for the sake of your will. Hillel said: do not separate yourself from the community, Do not trust in yourself until the day of your death, Do not judge not your fellow man until you have reached his place. Do not say something that cannot be understood [trusting] that in the end it will be understood. Say not: ‘when I shall have leisure I shall study;’ perhaps you will not have leisure." 2.8. Rabban Yoha ben Zakkai received [the oral tradition] from Hillel and Shammai.He used to say: if you have learned much torah, do not claim credit for yourself, because for such a purpose were you created. Rabban Yoha ben Zakkai had five disciples and they were these: Rabbi Eliezer ben Hyrcanus, Rabbi Joshua ben Haiah, Rabbi Yose, the priest, Rabbi Shimon ben Nethaneel and Rabbi Eleazar ben Arach. He [Rabbi Joha] used to list their outstanding virtues: Rabbi Eliezer ben Hyrcanus is a plastered cistern which loses not a drop; Rabbi Joshua ben Haiah happy is the woman that gave birth to him; Rabbi Yose, the priest, is a pious man; Rabbi Simeon ben Nethaneel is one that fears sin, And Rabbi Eleazar ben Arach is like a spring that [ever] gathers force. He [Rabbi Yoha] used to say: if all the sages of Israel were on one scale of the balance and Rabbi Eliezer ben Hyrcanus on the other scale, he would outweigh them all. Abba Shaul said in his name: if all the sages of Israel were on one scale of the balance, and Rabbi Eliezer ben Hyrcanus also with them, and Rabbi Eleazar ben Arach on the other scale, he would outweigh them all." 2.10. They [each] said three things:Rabbi Eliezer said: Let the honor of your friend be as dear to you as your own; And be not easily provoked to anger; And repent one day before your death. And [he also said:] warm yourself before the fire of the wise, but beware of being singed by their glowing coals, for their bite is the bite of a fox, and their sting is the sting of a scorpion, and their hiss is the hiss of a serpent, and all their words are like coals of fire." 4.4. Rabbi Levitas a man of Yavneh said: be exceeding humble spirit, for the end of man is the worm. Rabbi Yoha ben Berokah said: whoever profanes the name of heaven in secret, he shall be punished in the open. Unwittingly or wittingly, it is all one in profaning the name."
3. Mishnah, Beitzah, 2.6-2.7 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

2.6. In three cases Rabban Gamaliel was strict like the words of Beth Shammai.One may not cover up hot food on Yom Tov for Shabbat; And one may not join together a lamp on a festival; And one may not bake [on Yom] thick loaves but only wafer-cakes. Rabban Gamaliel said: “In all their days, my father’s house never baked large loaves but only wafer-cakes.” They said to him: “What can we do with regards to your father’s house, for they were strict in respect to themselves but were lenient towards Israel to let them bake both large loaves and even charcoal-roasted loaves.”" 2.7. Also he declared three decisions of a lenient character:One may sweep up [on a festival] between the couches, And put spices [on the coals] on a festival; And roast a kid whole on the night of Passover. But the sages forbid them."
4. Mishnah, Hagigah, 2.2 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

2.2. Yose ben Yoezer says that [on a festival] the laying of the hands [on the head of a sacrifice] may not be performed. Yosef ben Joha says that it may be performed. Joshua ben Perahia says that it may not be performed. Nittai the Arbelite says that it may be performed. Judah ben Tabai says that it may not be performed. Shimon ben Shetah says that it may be performed. Shamayah says that it may be performed. Avtalyon says that it may not be performed. Hillel and Menahem did not dispute. Menahem went out, Shammai entered. Shammai says that it may not be performed. Hillel says that it may be performed. The former [of each] pair were patriarchs and the latter were heads of the court."
5. Mishnah, Megillah, 3.5 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

3.5. On Pesah we read from the portion of the festivals in Leviticus (Torat Kohanim) (Leviticus 23:4). On Shavuot, “Seven weeks” (Deuteronomy 16:9). On Rosh Hashanah “On the seventh day on the first of the month” (Leviticus 23:2. On Yom Hakippurim, “After the death” (Leviticus. On the first day of the Festival [of Sukkot] they read from the portion of the festivals in Leviticus, and on the other days of the Festival [of Sukkot] the [sections] on the offerings of the Festival."
6. Mishnah, Peah, 2.5-2.6 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

2.5. He who plants his field with one kind of seed, even though he makes up of it two threshing-floors, he gives only one peah [for the lot]. If he plants it of two kinds, even though he makes up of it one threshing-floor, he must give two peahs. One who plants his field with two species of wheat: If he makes up of it one threshing-floor, he gives only one peah; But if two threshing-floors, he gives two peahs." 2.6. It happened that Rabbi Shimon of Mitzpah planted his field [with two different kinds] and came before Rabban Gamaliel. They both went up to the Chamber of Hewn Stone and asked [about the law]. Nahum the scribe said: I have a tradition from Rabbi Meyasha, who received it from Abba, who received it from the pairs [of sage], who received it from the prophets, a halakhah of Moses from Sinai, that one who plants his field with two species of wheat, if he makes up of it one threshing-floor, he gives only one peah, but if two threshing-floors, he gives two peahs."
7. Mishnah, Sanhedrin, 6.4 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

6.4. The place of stoning was twice a man's height. One of the witnesses pushed him by the hips, [so that] he was overturned on his heart. He was then turned on his back. If that caused his death, he had fulfilled [his duty]; but if not, the second witness took a stone and threw it on his chest. If he died thereby, he had done [his duty]; but if not, he [the criminal] was stoned by all Israel, for it is says: “The hand of the witnesses shall be first upon him to put him to death, and afterwards the hand of all the people” (Deut. 17:7). All who are stoned are [afterwards] hanged, according to Rabbi Eliezer. But the sages say: “Only the blasphemer and the idolater are hanged.” A man is hanged with his face towards the spectators, but a woman with her face towards the gallows, according to Rabbi Eliezer. But the sages say: a man is hanged, but not a woman. Rabbi Eliezer said to them: “But did not Shimon ben Shetah hang women at ashkelon?” They said: “[On that occasion] he hanged eighty women, even though two must not be tried on the same day. How is he hanged? The post is sunk into the ground with a [cross-] piece branching off [at the top] and he brings his hands together one over the other and hangs him up [thereby]. R. Jose said: the post is leaned against the wall, and he hangs him up the way butchers do. He is immediately let down. If he is left [hanging] over night, a negative command is thereby transgressed, for it says, “You shall not let his corpse remain all night upon the tree, but you must bury him the same day because a hanged body is a curse against god” (Deut. 21:23). As if to say why was he hanged? because he cursed the name [of god]; and so the name of Heaven [God] is profaned."
8. Mishnah, Yadayim, 4.3 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

4.3. On that day they said: what is the law applying to Ammon and Moab in the seventh year? Rabbi Tarfon decreed tithe for the poor. And Rabbi Elazar ben Azariah decreed second tithe. Rabbi Ishmael said: Elazar ben Azariah, you must produce your proof because you are expressing the stricter view and whoever expresses a stricter view has the burden to produce the proof. Rabbi Elazar ben Azariah said to him: Ishmael, my brother, I have not deviated from the sequence of years, Tarfon, my brother, has deviated from it and the burden is upon him to produce the proof. Rabbi Tarfon answered: Egypt is outside the land of Israel, Ammon and Moab are outside the land of Israel: just as Egypt must give tithe for the poor in the seventh year, so must Ammon and Moab give tithe for the poor in the seventh year. Rabbi Elazar ben Azariah answered: Babylon is outside the land of Israel, Ammon and Moab are outside the land of Israel: just as Babylon must give second tithe in the seventh year, so must Ammon and Moab give second tithe in the seventh year. Rabbi Tarfon said: on Egypt which is near, they imposed tithe for the poor so that the poor of Israel might be supported by it during the seventh year; so on Ammon and Moab which are near, we should impose tithe for the poor so that the poor of Israel may be supported by it during the seventh year. Rabbi Elazar ben Azariah said to him: Behold, you are like one who would benefit them with gain, yet you are really as one who causes them to perish. Would you rob the heavens so that dew or rain should not descend? As it is said, \"Will a man rob God? Yet you rob me. But you: How have we robbed You? In tithes and heave-offerings\" (Malakhi 3:8). Rabbi Joshua said: Behold, I shall be as one who replies on behalf of Tarfon, my brother, but not in accordance with the substance of his arguments. The law regarding Egypt is a new act and the law regarding Babylon is an old act, and the law which is being argued before us is a new act. A new act should be argued from [another] new act, but a new act should not be argued from an old act. The law regarding Egypt is the act of the elders and the law regarding Babylon is the act of the prophets, and the law which is being argued before us is the act of the elders. Let one act of the elders be argued from [another] act of the elders, but let not an act of the elders be argued from an act of the prophets. The votes were counted and they decided that Ammon and Moab should give tithe for the poor in the seventh year. And when Rabbi Yose ben Durmaskit visited Rabbi Eliezer in Lod he said to him: what new thing did you have in the house of study today? He said to him: their votes were counted and they decided that Ammon and Moab must give tithe for the poor in the seventh year. Rabbi Eliezer wept and said: \"The counsel of the Lord is with them that fear him: and his covet, to make them know it\" (Psalms 25:14). Go and tell them: Don't worry about your voting. I received a tradition from Rabbi Yoha ben Zakkai who heard it from his teacher, and his teacher from his teacher, and so back to a halachah given to Moses from Sinai, that Ammon and Moab must give tithe for the poor in the seventh year."
9. Tosefta, Sukkah, 3.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

3.1. The lulav suspends the Sabbath in the beginning of its duty, and the willow in the end of its duty. There is a story that some Boethusians once hid the willows under some great stones on the Sabbath eve; but when this had become known to the common people they came and dragged them out from under the stones on the Sabbath, for the Boethusians do not acknowledge that the beating of the willow suspends the Sabbath."
10. Anon., Avot Derabbi Nathan A, 40, 6, 8, 3 (6th cent. CE - 8th cent. CE)

11. Anon., Avot Derabbi Nathan B, 24, 29, 23 (6th cent. CE - 8th cent. CE)



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abot, additions to Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 560
abot, chain Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 560
abtalion Sigal, The Halakhah of Jesus of Nazareth According to the Gospel of Matthew (2007) 47
alcimus Sigal, The Halakhah of Jesus of Nazareth According to the Gospel of Matthew (2007) 62
alexander jannaeus Sigal, The Halakhah of Jesus of Nazareth According to the Gospel of Matthew (2007) 47
ambiguity as focus of mishnaic rule Brooks, Support for the Poor in the Mishnaic Law of Agriculture: Tractate Peah (1983) 185
animal, birds Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 7
animal, snake Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 7
antigonus of socho Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 560
antigonus of sokho Sigal, The Halakhah of Jesus of Nazareth According to the Gospel of Matthew (2007) 45
authority, rabbinic Jaffee, Torah in the Mouth: Writing and Oral Tradition in Palestinian Judaism 200 BCE - 400 CE (2001) 80
bertinoro Brooks, Support for the Poor in the Mishnaic Law of Agriculture: Tractate Peah (1983) 185
bet shammai Sigal, The Halakhah of Jesus of Nazareth According to the Gospel of Matthew (2007) 50
body Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 7
canon (scriptural), canonical Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 393
carob trees Brooks, Support for the Poor in the Mishnaic Law of Agriculture: Tractate Peah (1983) 185
christianity Sigal, The Halakhah of Jesus of Nazareth According to the Gospel of Matthew (2007) 47
communities, rabbinic Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 7
court, the Cohn, The Memory of the Temple and the Making of the Rabbis (2013) 53
danby, herbert Brooks, Support for the Poor in the Mishnaic Law of Agriculture: Tractate Peah (1983) 185
danger Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 7
david Sigal, The Halakhah of Jesus of Nazareth According to the Gospel of Matthew (2007) 62
demon Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 7
dispute Brooks, Support for the Poor in the Mishnaic Law of Agriculture: Tractate Peah (1983) 185
eliezer Brooks, Support for the Poor in the Mishnaic Law of Agriculture: Tractate Peah (1983) 185
evil, water Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 7
gentile Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 7
graeco-roman (law/custom) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 393
halakhah, as modality of tradition Jaffee, Torah in the Mouth: Writing and Oral Tradition in Palestinian Judaism 200 BCE - 400 CE (2001) 80
halakhah, mosaic Jaffee, Torah in the Mouth: Writing and Oral Tradition in Palestinian Judaism 200 BCE - 400 CE (2001) 80
halakhah, pre-exilic Jaffee, Torah in the Mouth: Writing and Oral Tradition in Palestinian Judaism 200 BCE - 400 CE (2001) 80
halakhah, second temple period Jaffee, Torah in the Mouth: Writing and Oral Tradition in Palestinian Judaism 200 BCE - 400 CE (2001) 80
harba de-moshe, aver(im) Fonrobert and Jaffee, The Cambridge Companion to the Talmud and Rabbinic Literature Cambridge Companions to Religion (2007) 318
heaven Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 7
hillel Jaffee, Torah in the Mouth: Writing and Oral Tradition in Palestinian Judaism 200 BCE - 400 CE (2001) 80
hillel the elder Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 393
hillul ha-shem Avemarie, van Henten, and Furstenberg, Jewish Martyrdom in Antiquity (2023) 56
kaddish, non-martyrological use of term in tannaic literature Avemarie, van Henten, and Furstenberg, Jewish Martyrdom in Antiquity (2023) 56
kiddush ha-shem Avemarie, van Henten, and Furstenberg, Jewish Martyrdom in Antiquity (2023) 56
men of great assembly Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 560
mishnah, and ethics Fonrobert and Jaffee, The Cambridge Companion to the Talmud and Rabbinic Literature Cambridge Companions to Religion (2007) 318
moses Jaffee, Torah in the Mouth: Writing and Oral Tradition in Palestinian Judaism 200 BCE - 400 CE (2001) 80
mouth Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 7
murder Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 7
mysticism, mystical Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 393
nineteenth century (scholarship) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 393
oral or written ~ Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 393
oral tradition Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 393
papa, rav Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 7
paul (saul) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 393
pharisees Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 560
protestant Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 393
public aspect of kiddush ha-shem and hillul ha-shem Avemarie, van Henten, and Furstenberg, Jewish Martyrdom in Antiquity (2023) 56
public vs. private spheres Avemarie, van Henten, and Furstenberg, Jewish Martyrdom in Antiquity (2023) 56
rabban gamaliel (i and ii) Jaffee, Torah in the Mouth: Writing and Oral Tradition in Palestinian Judaism 200 BCE - 400 CE (2001) 80
rabban yohanan b. zakkai Jaffee, Torah in the Mouth: Writing and Oral Tradition in Palestinian Judaism 200 BCE - 400 CE (2001) 80
reformation (see also protestant) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 393
roman catholic Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 393
rudimentary motifs Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 560
sadducees, claim antigonus of socho as adherent Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 560
sages early rabbinic Jaffee, Torah in the Mouth: Writing and Oral Tradition in Palestinian Judaism 200 BCE - 400 CE (2001) 80
servant Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 7
shammai Jaffee, Torah in the Mouth: Writing and Oral Tradition in Palestinian Judaism 200 BCE - 400 CE (2001) 80
shammai (see also subject index) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 393
shechemites Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 560
simeon the just' Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 560
tannaic literature, kiddush ha-hashem as non-martyrological Avemarie, van Henten, and Furstenberg, Jewish Martyrdom in Antiquity (2023) 56
tannaitic Jaffee, Torah in the Mouth: Writing and Oral Tradition in Palestinian Judaism 200 BCE - 400 CE (2001) 80
text-interpretive, transmission of Jaffee, Torah in the Mouth: Writing and Oral Tradition in Palestinian Judaism 200 BCE - 400 CE (2001) 80
tora (see also pentateuch) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 393
torah, mosaic Jaffee, Torah in the Mouth: Writing and Oral Tradition in Palestinian Judaism 200 BCE - 400 CE (2001) 80
twentienth century (scholarship) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 393
water Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 7