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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



7997
Mishnah, Avot, 1.1-1.2


משֶׁה קִבֵּל תּוֹרָה מִסִּינַי, וּמְסָרָהּ לִיהוֹשֻׁעַ, וִיהוֹשֻׁעַ לִזְקֵנִים, וּזְקֵנִים לִנְבִיאִים, וּנְבִיאִים מְסָרוּהָ לְאַנְשֵׁי כְנֶסֶת הַגְּדוֹלָה. הֵם אָמְרוּ שְׁלשָׁה דְבָרִים, הֱווּ מְתוּנִים בַּדִּין, וְהַעֲמִידוּ תַלְמִידִים הַרְבֵּה, וַעֲשׂוּ סְיָג לַתּוֹרָה:Moses received the torah at Sinai and transmitted it to Joshua, Joshua to the elders, and the elders to the prophets, and the prophets to the Men of the Great Assembly. They said three things: Be patient in [the administration of] justice, raise many disciples and make a fence round the Torah.


שְׁמַעְיָה וְאַבְטַלְיוֹן קִבְּלוּ מֵהֶם. שְׁמַעְיָה אוֹמֵר, אֱהֹב אֶת הַמְּלָאכָה, וּשְׂנָא אֶת הָרַבָּנוּת, וְאַל תִּתְוַדַּע לָרָשׁוּת:Moses received the torah at Sinai and transmitted it to Joshua, Joshua to the elders, and the elders to the prophets, and the prophets to the Men of the Great Assembly. They said three things: Be patient in [the administration of] justice, raise many disciples and make a fence round the Torah.


שִׁמְעוֹן הַצַּדִּיק הָיָה מִשְּׁיָרֵי כְנֶסֶת הַגְּדוֹלָה. הוּא הָיָה אוֹמֵר, עַל שְׁלשָׁה דְבָרִים הָעוֹלָם עוֹמֵד, עַל הַתּוֹרָה וְעַל הָעֲבוֹדָה וְעַל גְּמִילוּת חֲסָדִים:Shimon the Righteous was one of the last of the men of the great assembly. He used to say: the world stands upon three things: the Torah, the Temple service, and the practice of acts of piety.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

83 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 4.2, 5.16, 9.1, 17.14-17.20, 32.4 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

4.2. וְאֶתְכֶם לָקַח יְהוָה וַיּוֹצִא אֶתְכֶם מִכּוּר הַבַּרְזֶל מִמִּצְרָיִם לִהְיוֹת לוֹ לְעַם נַחֲלָה כַּיּוֹם הַזֶּה׃ 4.2. לֹא תֹסִפוּ עַל־הַדָּבָר אֲשֶׁר אָנֹכִי מְצַוֶּה אֶתְכֶם וְלֹא תִגְרְעוּ מִמֶּנּוּ לִשְׁמֹר אֶת־מִצְוֺת יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם אֲשֶׁר אָנֹכִי מְצַוֶּה אֶתְכֶם׃ 5.16. כַּבֵּד אֶת־אָבִיךָ וְאֶת־אִמֶּךָ כַּאֲשֶׁר צִוְּךָ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לְמַעַן יַאֲרִיכֻן יָמֶיךָ וּלְמַעַן יִיטַב לָךְ עַל הָאֲדָמָה אֲשֶׁר־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ נֹתֵן לָךְ׃ 9.1. שְׁמַע יִשְׂרָאֵל אַתָּה עֹבֵר הַיּוֹם אֶת־הַיַּרְדֵּן לָבֹא לָרֶשֶׁת גּוֹיִם גְּדֹלִים וַעֲצֻמִים מִמֶּךָּ עָרִים גְּדֹלֹת וּבְצֻרֹת בַּשָּׁמָיִם׃ 9.1. וַיִּתֵּן יְהוָה אֵלַי אֶת־שְׁנֵי לוּחֹת הָאֲבָנִים כְּתֻבִים בְּאֶצְבַּע אֱלֹהִים וַעֲלֵיהֶם כְּכָל־הַדְּבָרִים אֲשֶׁר דִּבֶּר יְהוָה עִמָּכֶם בָּהָר מִתּוֹךְ הָאֵשׁ בְּיוֹם הַקָּהָל׃ 17.14. כִּי־תָבֹא אֶל־הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ נֹתֵן לָךְ וִירִשְׁתָּהּ וְיָשַׁבְתָּה בָּהּ וְאָמַרְתָּ אָשִׂימָה עָלַי מֶלֶךְ כְּכָל־הַגּוֹיִם אֲשֶׁר סְבִיבֹתָי׃ 17.15. שׂוֹם תָּשִׂים עָלֶיךָ מֶלֶךְ אֲשֶׁר יִבְחַר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ בּוֹ מִקֶּרֶב אַחֶיךָ תָּשִׂים עָלֶיךָ מֶלֶךְ לֹא תוּכַל לָתֵת עָלֶיךָ אִישׁ נָכְרִי אֲשֶׁר לֹא־אָחִיךָ הוּא׃ 17.16. רַק לֹא־יַרְבֶּה־לּוֹ סוּסִים וְלֹא־יָשִׁיב אֶת־הָעָם מִצְרַיְמָה לְמַעַן הַרְבּוֹת סוּס וַיהוָה אָמַר לָכֶם לֹא תֹסִפוּן לָשׁוּב בַּדֶּרֶךְ הַזֶּה עוֹד׃ 17.17. וְלֹא יַרְבֶּה־לּוֹ נָשִׁים וְלֹא יָסוּר לְבָבוֹ וְכֶסֶף וְזָהָב לֹא יַרְבֶּה־לּוֹ מְאֹד׃ 17.18. וְהָיָה כְשִׁבְתּוֹ עַל כִּסֵּא מַמְלַכְתּוֹ וְכָתַב לוֹ אֶת־מִשְׁנֵה הַתּוֹרָה הַזֹּאת עַל־סֵפֶר מִלִּפְנֵי הַכֹּהֲנִים הַלְוִיִּם׃ 17.19. וְהָיְתָה עִמּוֹ וְקָרָא בוֹ כָּל־יְמֵי חַיָּיו לְמַעַן יִלְמַד לְיִרְאָה אֶת־יְהוָה אֱלֹהָיו לִשְׁמֹר אֶת־כָּל־דִּבְרֵי הַתּוֹרָה הַזֹּאת וְאֶת־הַחֻקִּים הָאֵלֶּה לַעֲשֹׂתָם׃ 32.4. כִּי־אֶשָּׂא אֶל־שָׁמַיִם יָדִי וְאָמַרְתִּי חַי אָנֹכִי לְעֹלָם׃ 32.4. הַצּוּר תָּמִים פָּעֳלוֹ כִּי כָל־דְּרָכָיו מִשְׁפָּט אֵל אֱמוּנָה וְאֵין עָוֶל צַדִּיק וְיָשָׁר הוּא׃ 4.2. Ye shall not add unto the word which I command you, neither shall ye diminish from it, that ye may keep the commandments of the LORD your God which I command you." 5.16. Honour thy father and thy mother, as the LORD thy God commanded thee; that thy days may be long, and that it may go well with thee, upon the land which the LORD thy God giveth thee." 9.1. Hear, O Israel: thou art to pass over the Jordan this day, to go in to dispossess nations greater and mightier than thyself, cities great and fortified up to heaven," 17.14. When thou art come unto the land which the LORD thy God giveth thee, and shalt possess it, and shalt dwell therein; and shalt say: ‘I will set a king over me, like all the nations that are round about me’;" 17.15. thou shalt in any wise set him king over thee, whom the LORD thy God shall choose; one from among thy brethren shalt thou set king over thee; thou mayest not put a foreigner over thee, who is not thy brother." 17.16. Only he shall not multiply horses to himself, nor cause the people to return to Egypt, to the end that he should multiply horses; forasmuch as the LORD hath said unto you: ‘Ye shall henceforth return no more that way.’" 17.17. Neither shall he multiply wives to himself, that his heart turn not away; neither shall he greatly multiply to himself silver and gold." 17.18. And it shall be, when he sitteth upon the throne of his kingdom, that he shall write him a copy of this law in a book, out of that which is before the priests the Levites." 17.19. And it shall be with him, and he shall read therein all the days of his life; that he may learn to fear the LORD his God, to keep all the words of this law and these statutes, to do them;" 17.20. that his heart be not lifted up above his brethren, and that he turn not aside from the commandment, to the right hand, or to the left; to the end that he may prolong his days in his kingdom, he and his children, in the midst of Israel." 32.4. The Rock, His work is perfect; For all His ways are justice; A God of faithfulness and without iniquity, Just and right is He. ."
2. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 19.21, 19.23, 19.24, 20.12, 21.16, 21.35, 24.7, 25.1-31.18, 25.2, 25.8, 25.9, 27.9, 32.1, 32.12 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

19.21. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה רֵד הָעֵד בָּעָם פֶּן־יֶהֶרְסוּ אֶל־יְהוָה לִרְאוֹת וְנָפַל מִמֶּנּוּ רָב׃ 19.21. And the LORD said unto Moses: ‘Go down, charge the people, lest they break through unto the LORD to gaze, and many of them perish."
3. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 1.1, 6.9, 17.1, 24.40 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.1. וַיִּקְרָא אֱלֹהִים לַיַּבָּשָׁה אֶרֶץ וּלְמִקְוֵה הַמַּיִם קָרָא יַמִּים וַיַּרְא אֱלֹהִים כִּי־טוֹב׃ 1.1. בְּרֵאשִׁית בָּרָא אֱלֹהִים אֵת הַשָּׁמַיִם וְאֵת הָאָרֶץ׃ 6.9. אֵלֶּה תּוֹלְדֹת נֹחַ נֹחַ אִישׁ צַדִּיק תָּמִים הָיָה בְּדֹרֹתָיו אֶת־הָאֱלֹהִים הִתְהַלֶּךְ־נֹחַ׃ 17.1. זֹאת בְּרִיתִי אֲשֶׁר תִּשְׁמְרוּ בֵּינִי וּבֵינֵיכֶם וּבֵין זַרְעֲךָ אַחֲרֶיךָ הִמּוֹל לָכֶם כָּל־זָכָר׃ 17.1. וַיְהִי אַבְרָם בֶּן־תִּשְׁעִים שָׁנָה וְתֵשַׁע שָׁנִים וַיֵּרָא יְהוָה אֶל־אַבְרָם וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלָיו אֲנִי־אֵל שַׁדַּי הִתְהַלֵּךְ לְפָנַי וֶהְיֵה תָמִים׃ 1.1. In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth." 6.9. These are the generations of Noah. Noah was in his generations a man righteous and wholehearted; Noah walked with God." 17.1. And when Abram was ninety years old and nine, the LORD appeared to Abram, and said unto him: ‘I am God Almighty; walk before Me, and be thou wholehearted." 24.40. And he said unto me: The LORD, before whom I walk, will send His angel with thee, and prosper thy way; and thou shalt take a wife for my son of my kindred, and of my father’s house;"
4. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 20.7, 20.19, 21.10, 26.46 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

20.7. וְהִתְקַדִּשְׁתֶּם וִהְיִיתֶם קְדֹשִׁים כִּי אֲנִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם׃ 20.19. וְעֶרְוַת אֲחוֹת אִמְּךָ וַאֲחוֹת אָבִיךָ לֹא תְגַלֵּה כִּי אֶת־שְׁאֵרוֹ הֶעֱרָה עֲוֺנָם יִשָּׂאוּ׃ 26.46. אֵלֶּה הַחֻקִּים וְהַמִּשְׁפָּטִים וְהַתּוֹרֹת אֲשֶׁר נָתַן יְהוָה בֵּינוֹ וּבֵין בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּהַר סִינַי בְּיַד־מֹשֶׁה׃ 20.7. Sanctify yourselves therefore, and be ye holy; for I am the LORD your God." 20.19. And thou shalt not uncover the nakedness of thy mother’s sister, nor of thy father’s sister; for he hath made naked his near kin; they shall bear their iniquity." 21.10. And the priest that is highest among his brethren, upon whose head the anointing oil is poured, and that is consecrated to put on the garments, shall not let the hair of his head go loose, nor rend his clothes;" 26.46. These are the statutes and ordices and laws, which the LORD made between Him and the children of Israel in mount Sinai by the hand of Moses."
5. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 16.11 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

16.11. לָכֵן אַתָּה וְכָל־עֲדָתְךָ הַנֹּעָדִים עַל־יְהוָה וְאַהֲרֹן מַה־הוּא כִּי תלונו [תַלִּינוּ] עָלָיו׃ 16.11. Therefore thou and all thy company that are gathered together against the LORD—; and as to Aaron, what is he that ye murmur against him?’"
6. Hebrew Bible, Proverbs, 24.30-24.31 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

24.31. וְהִנֵּה עָלָה כֻלּוֹ קִמְּשֹׂנִים כָּסּוּ פָנָיו חֲרֻלִּים וְגֶדֶר אֲבָנָיו נֶהֱרָסָה׃ 24.30. I went by the field of the slothful, And by the vineyard of the man void of understanding;" 24.31. And, lo, it was all grown over with thistles, The face thereof was covered with nettles, And the stone wall thereof was broken down."
7. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 45.1 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

45.1. בְּנוֹת מְלָכִים בְּיִקְּרוֹתֶיךָ נִצְּבָה שֵׁגַל לִימִינְךָ בְּכֶתֶם אוֹפִיר׃ 45.1. לַמְנַצֵּחַ עַל־שֹׁשַׁנִּים לִבְנֵי־קֹרַח מַשְׂכִּיל שִׁיר יְדִידֹת׃ 45.1. For the Leader; upon Shoshannim; [a Psalm] of the sons of Korah. Maschil. A Song of loves."
8. Hebrew Bible, 2 Kings, 23.2, 23.21 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

23.2. וַיִּזְבַּח אֶת־כָּל־כֹּהֲנֵי הַבָּמוֹת אֲשֶׁר־שָׁם עַל־הַמִּזְבְּחוֹת וַיִּשְׂרֹף אֶת־עַצְמוֹת אָדָם עֲלֵיהֶם וַיָּשָׁב יְרוּשָׁלִָם׃ 23.2. וַיַּעַל הַמֶּלֶךְ בֵּית־יְהוָה וְכָל־אִישׁ יְהוּדָה וְכָל־יֹשְׁבֵי יְרוּשָׁלִַם אִתּוֹ וְהַכֹּהֲנִים וְהַנְּבִיאִים וְכָל־הָעָם לְמִקָּטֹן וְעַד־גָּדוֹל וַיִּקְרָא בְאָזְנֵיהֶם אֶת־כָּל־דִּבְרֵי סֵפֶר הַבְּרִית הַנִּמְצָא בְּבֵית יְהוָה׃ 23.21. וַיְצַו הַמֶּלֶךְ אֶת־כָּל־הָעָם לֵאמֹר עֲשׂוּ פֶסַח לַיהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם כַּכָּתוּב עַל סֵפֶר הַבְּרִית הַזֶּה׃ 23.2. And the king went up to the house of the LORD, and all the men of Judah and all the inhabitants of Jerusalem with him, and the priests, and the prophets, and all the people, both small and great; and he read in their ears all the words of the book of the covet which was found in the house of the LORD." 23.21. And the king commanded all the people, saying: ‘Keep the passover unto the LORD your God, as it is written in this book of the covet.’"
9. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 29.13, 58.13 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

29.13. וַיֹּאמֶר אֲדֹנָי יַעַן כִּי נִגַּשׁ הָעָם הַזֶּה בְּפִיו וּבִשְׂפָתָיו כִּבְּדוּנִי וְלִבּוֹ רִחַק מִמֶּנִּי וַתְּהִי יִרְאָתָם אֹתִי מִצְוַת אֲנָשִׁים מְלֻמָּדָה׃ 58.13. אִם־תָּשִׁיב מִשַּׁבָּת רַגְלֶךָ עֲשׂוֹת חֲפָצֶיךָ בְּיוֹם קָדְשִׁי וְקָרָאתָ לַשַּׁבָּת עֹנֶג לִקְדוֹשׁ יְהוָה מְכֻבָּד וְכִבַּדְתּוֹ מֵעֲשׂוֹת דְּרָכֶיךָ מִמְּצוֹא חֶפְצְךָ וְדַבֵּר דָּבָר׃ 29.13. And the Lord said: Forasmuch as this people draw near, and with their mouth and with their lips do honour Me, But have removed their heart far from Me, And their fear of Me is a commandment of men learned by rote;" 58.13. If thou turn away thy foot because of the sabbath, From pursuing thy business on My holy day; And call the sabbath a delight, And the holy of the LORD honourable; And shalt honour it, not doing thy wonted ways, Nor pursuing thy business, nor speaking thereof;"
10. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 18.18 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

18.18. וַיֹּאמְרוּ לְכוּ וְנַחְשְׁבָה עַל־יִרְמְיָהוּ מַחֲשָׁבוֹת כִּי לֹא־תֹאבַד תּוֹרָה מִכֹּהֵן וְעֵצָה מֵחָכָם וְדָבָר מִנָּבִיא לְכוּ וְנַכֵּהוּ בַלָּשׁוֹן וְאַל־נַקְשִׁיבָה אֶל־כָּל־דְּבָרָיו׃ 18.18. Then said they: ‘Come, and let us devise devices against Jeremiah; For instruction shall not perish from the priest, Nor counsel from the wise, nor the word from the prophet. Come, and let us smite him with the tongue, And let us not give heed to any of his words.’"
11. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 38-48, 37 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

12. Hebrew Bible, 1 Chronicles, 25.8 (5th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

25.8. וַיַּפִּילוּ גּוֹרָלוֹת מִשְׁמֶרֶת לְעֻמַּת כַּקָּטֹן כַּגָּדוֹל מֵבִין עִם־תַּלְמִיד׃ 25.8. And they cast lots ward against [ward], as well the small as the great, the teacher as the scholar."
13. Hebrew Bible, 2 Chronicles, 17.7 (5th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

17.7. וּבִשְׁנַת שָׁלוֹשׁ לְמָלְכוֹ שָׁלַח לְשָׂרָיו לְבֶן־חַיִל וּלְעֹבַדְיָה וְלִזְכַרְיָה וְלִנְתַנְאֵל וּלְמִיכָיָהוּ לְלַמֵּד בְּעָרֵי יְהוּדָה׃ 17.7. Also in the third year of his reign he sent his princes, even Ben-hail, and Obadiah, and Zechariah, and Nethanel, and Micaiah, to teach in the cities of Judah;"
14. Hebrew Bible, Ecclesiastes, 1.1 (5th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.1. יֵשׁ דָּבָר שֶׁיֹּאמַר רְאֵה־זֶה חָדָשׁ הוּא כְּבָר הָיָה לְעֹלָמִים אֲשֶׁר הָיָה מִלְּפָנֵנוּ׃ 1.1. דִּבְרֵי קֹהֶלֶת בֶּן־דָּוִד מֶלֶךְ בִּירוּשָׁלִָם׃ 1.1. THE WORDs OF the Koheleth, the son of David, king in Jerusalem."
15. Hebrew Bible, Ezra, 7.10-7.11 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

7.11. וְזֶה פַּרְשֶׁגֶן הַנִּשְׁתְּוָן אֲשֶׁר נָתַן הַמֶּלֶךְ אַרְתַּחְשַׁסְתְּא לְעֶזְרָא הַכֹּהֵן הַסֹּפֵר סֹפֵר דִּבְרֵי מִצְוֺת־יְהוָה וְחֻקָּיו עַל־יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 7.10. For Ezra had set his heart to seek the law of the LORD, and to do it, and to teach in Israel statutes and ordices." 7.11. Now this is the copy of the letter that the king Artaxerxes gave unto Ezra the priest, the scribe, even the scribe of the words of the commandments of the LORD, and of His statutes to Israel:"
16. Hebrew Bible, Nehemiah, 8.1-8.8 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

8.1. וַיֹּאמֶר לָהֶם לְכוּ אִכְלוּ מַשְׁמַנִּים וּשְׁתוּ מַמְתַקִּים וְשִׁלְחוּ מָנוֹת לְאֵין נָכוֹן לוֹ כִּי־קָדוֹשׁ הַיּוֹם לַאֲדֹנֵינוּ וְאַל־תֵּעָצֵבוּ כִּי־חֶדְוַת יְהוָה הִיא מָעֻזְּכֶם׃ 8.1. וַיֵּאָסְפוּ כָל־הָעָם כְּאִישׁ אֶחָד אֶל־הָרְחוֹב אֲשֶׁר לִפְנֵי שַׁעַר־הַמָּיִם וַיֹּאמְרוּ לְעֶזְרָא הַסֹּפֵר לְהָבִיא אֶת־סֵפֶר תּוֹרַת מֹשֶׁה אֲשֶׁר־צִוָּה יְהוָה אֶת־יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 8.2. וַיָּבִיא עֶזְרָא הַכֹּהֵן אֶת־הַתּוֹרָה לִפְנֵי הַקָּהָל מֵאִישׁ וְעַד־אִשָּׁה וְכֹל מֵבִין לִשְׁמֹעַ בְּיוֹם אֶחָד לַחֹדֶשׁ הַשְּׁבִיעִי׃ 8.3. וַיִּקְרָא־בוֹ לִפְנֵי הָרְחוֹב אֲשֶׁר לִפְנֵי שַׁעַר־הַמַּיִם מִן־הָאוֹר עַד־מַחֲצִית הַיּוֹם נֶגֶד הָאֲנָשִׁים וְהַנָּשִׁים וְהַמְּבִינִים וְאָזְנֵי כָל־הָעָם אֶל־סֵפֶר הַתּוֹרָה׃ 8.4. וַיַּעֲמֹד עֶזְרָא הַסֹּפֵר עַל־מִגְדַּל־עֵץ אֲשֶׁר עָשׂוּ לַדָּבָר וַיַּעֲמֹד אֶצְלוֹ מַתִּתְיָה וְשֶׁמַע וַעֲנָיָה וְאוּרִיָּה וְחִלְקִיָּה וּמַעֲשֵׂיָה עַל־יְמִינוֹ וּמִשְּׂמֹאלוֹ פְּדָיָה וּמִישָׁאֵל וּמַלְכִּיָּה וְחָשֻׁם וְחַשְׁבַּדָּנָה זְכַרְיָה מְשֻׁלָּם׃ 8.5. וַיִּפְתַּח עֶזְרָא הַסֵּפֶר לְעֵינֵי כָל־הָעָם כִּי־מֵעַל כָּל־הָעָם הָיָה וּכְפִתְחוֹ עָמְדוּ כָל־הָעָם׃ 8.6. וַיְבָרֶךְ עֶזְרָא אֶת־יְהוָה הָאֱלֹהִים הַגָּדוֹל וַיַּעֲנוּ כָל־הָעָם אָמֵן אָמֵן בְּמֹעַל יְדֵיהֶם וַיִּקְּדוּ וַיִּשְׁתַּחֲוֻּ לַיהוָה אַפַּיִם אָרְצָה׃ 8.7. וְיֵשׁוּעַ וּבָנִי וְשֵׁרֵבְיָה יָמִין עַקּוּב שַׁבְּתַי הוֹדִיָּה מַעֲשֵׂיָה קְלִיטָא עֲזַרְיָה יוֹזָבָד חָנָן פְּלָאיָה וְהַלְוִיִּם מְבִינִים אֶת־הָעָם לַתּוֹרָה וְהָעָם עַל־עָמְדָם׃ 8.8. וַיִּקְרְאוּ בַסֵּפֶר בְּתוֹרַת הָאֱלֹהִים מְפֹרָשׁ וְשׂוֹם שֶׂכֶל וַיָּבִינוּ בַּמִּקְרָא׃ 8.1. all the people gathered themselves together as one man into the broad place that was before the water gate; and they spoke unto Ezra the scribe to bring the book of the Law of Moses, which the LORD had commanded to Israel." 8.2. And Ezra the priest brought the Law before the congregation, both men and women, and all that could hear with understanding, upon the first day of the seventh month." 8.3. And he read therein before the broad place that was before the water gate from early morning until midday, in the presence of the men and the women, and of those that could understand; and the ears of all the people were attentive unto the book of the Law." 8.4. And Ezra the scribe stood upon a pulpit of wood, which they had made for the purpose; and beside him stood Mattithiah, and Shema, and Anaiah, and Uriah, and Hilkiah, and Maaseiah, on his right hand; and on his left hand, Pedaiah, and Mishael, and Malchijah, and Hashum, and Hashbaddanah, Zechariah, and Meshullam." 8.5. And Ezra opened the book in the sight of all the people—for he was above all the people—and when he opened it, all the people stood up." 8.6. And Ezra blessed the LORD, the great God. And all the people answered: ‘Amen, Amen’, with the lifting up of their hands; and they bowed their heads, and fell down before the LORD with their faces to the ground." 8.7. Also Jeshua, and Bani, and Sherebiah, Jamin, Akkub, Shabbethai, Hodiah, Maaseiah, Kelita, Azariah, Jozabad, Ha, Pelaiah, even the Levites, caused the people to understand the Law; and the people stood in their place." 8.8. And they read in the book, in the Law of God, distinctly; and they gave the sense, and caused them to understand the reading."
17. Hebrew Bible, Zechariah, 10-14, 2-9, 1 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

18. Anon., 1 Enoch, 91.13, 93.7-93.8 (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

91.13. And at its close they shall acquire houses through their righteousness, And a house shall be built for the Great King in glory for evermore 93.7. And after that in the fifth week, at its close, The house of glory and dominion shall be built for ever. 93.8. And after that in the sixth week all who live in it shall be blinded, And the hearts of all of them shall godlessly forsake wisdom.And in it a man shall ascend; And at its close the house of dominion shall be burnt with fire, And the whole race of the chosen root shall be dispersed.
19. Anon., Jubilees, 1.19-1.21, 10.13 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.19. And they will forget all My law and all My commandments and all My judgments, and will go astray as to new moons, and sabbaths, and festivals, and jubilees, and ordices. 1.20. And after this they will turn to Me from amongst the Gentiles with all their heart and with all their soul and with all their strength 1.21. and I shall gather them from amongst all the Gentiles, and they will seek Me, so that I shall be found of them 10.13. for these are for corruption and leading astray before my judgment, for great is the wickedness of the sons of men.
20. Dead Sea Scrolls, Damascus Covenant, 5.2, 12.22, 15.9, 15.12, 16.2, 16.5, 20.6 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

21. Dead Sea Scrolls, (Cairo Damascus Covenant) Cd-A, 5.2, 15.9, 15.12, 16.2, 16.5 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

22. Dead Sea Scrolls, Community Rule, 3.20-3.21, 4.15, 5.8, 8.22 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

23. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 1.26, 19.20, 39.6-39.8 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.26. If you desire wisdom, keep the commandments,and the Lord will supply it for you. 39.6. If the great Lord is willing,he will be filled with the spirit of understanding;he will pour forth words of wisdom and give thanks to the Lord in prayer. 39.7. He will direct his counsel and knowledge aright,and meditate on his secrets. 39.8. He will reveal instruction in his teaching,and will glory in the law of the Lords covet.
24. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 3.6-3.7, 3.11-3.13, 3.16, 3.83-3.88, 3.308, 3.310, 4.14-4.15, 4.26, 4.28, 4.40-4.50, 4.194, 13.297-13.298, 20.197-20.203, 20.206 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.6. for they ran all of them to him, and begged of him; the women begged for their infants, and the men for the women, that he would not overlook them, but procure some way or other for their deliverance. He therefore betook himself to prayer to God, that he would change the water from its present badness, and make it fit for drinking. 3.6. So Moses offered sacrifices of thanksgiving to God, and built an altar, which he named The Lord the Conqueror. He also foretold that the Amalekites should utterly be destroyed; and that hereafter none of them should remain, because they fought against the Hebrews, and this when they were in the wilderness, and in their distress also. Moreover, he refreshed the army with feasting. 3.7. And when God had granted him that favor, he took the top of a stick that lay down at his feet, and divided it in the middle, and made the section lengthways. He then let it down into the well, and persuaded the Hebrews that God had hearkened to his prayers, and had promised to render the water such as they desired it to be, in case they would be subservient to him in what he should enjoin them to do, and this not after a remiss or negligent manner. 3.7. Make use of the method I suggest to you, as to human affairs; and take a review of the army, and appoint chosen rulers over tens of thousands, and then over thousands; then divide them into five hundreds, and again into hundreds, and into fifties; 3.11. The trees were too weak to bear fruit, for want of being sufficiently cherished and enlivened by the water. So they laid the blame on their conductor, and made heavy complaints against him; and said that this their miserable state, and the experience they had of adversity, were owing to him; for that they had then journeyed an entire thirty days, and had spent all the provisions they had brought with them; and meeting with no relief, they were in a very desponding condition. 3.11. Cords were also put through the rings, and were tied at their farther ends to brass nails of a cubit long, which, at every pillar, were driven into the floor, and would keep the tabernacle from being shaken by the violence of winds; but a curtain of fine soft linen went round all the pillars, and hung down in a flowing and loose manner from their chapiters, and enclosed the whole space, and seemed not at all unlike to a wall about it. 3.12. And by fixing their attention upon nothing but their present misfortunes, they were hindered from remembering what deliverances they had received from God, and those by the virtue and wisdom of Moses also; so they were very angry at their conductor, and were zealous in their attempt to stone him, as the direct occasion of their present miseries. 3.12. Now every one of the pillars had rings of gold affixed to their fronts outward, as if they had taken root in the pillars, and stood one row over against another round about, through which were inserted bars gilt over with gold, each of them five cubits long, and these bound together the pillars, the head of one bar running into another, after the nature of one tenon inserted into another; 3.13. 4. But as for Moses himself, while the multitude were irritated and bitterly set against him, he cheerfully relied upon God, and upon his consciousness of the care he had taken of these his own people; and he came into the midst of them, even while they clamored against him, and had stones in their hands in order to despatch him. Now he was of an agreeable presence, and very able to persuade the people by his speeches; 3.13. But the ten other curtains were four cubits in breadth, and twenty-eight in length; and had golden clasps, in order to join the one curtain to the other, which was done so exactly that they seemed to be one entire curtain. These were spread over the temple, and covered all the top and parts of the walls, on the sides and behind, so far as within one cubit of the ground. 3.16. He told them, it appeared they were not really good men, either in patience, or in remembering what had been successfully done for them, sometimes by condemning God and his commands, when by those commands they left the land of Egypt; and sometimes by behaving themselves ill towards him who was the servant of God, and this when he had never deceived them, either in what he said, or had ordered them to do by God’s command. 3.16. To the bottom of which garment are hung fringes, in color like pomegranates, with golden bells by a curious and beautiful contrivance; so that between two bells hangs a pomegranate, and between two pomegranates a bell. 3.83. 3. When they were under these apprehensions, Moses appeared as joyful and greatly exalted. When they saw him, they were freed from their fear, and admitted of more comfortable hopes as to what was to come. The air also was become clear and pure of its former disorders, upon the appearance of Moses; 3.84. whereupon he called together the people to a congregation, in order to their hearing what God would say to them: and when they were gathered together, he stood on an eminence whence they might all hear him, and said, “God has received me graciously, O Hebrews, as he has formerly done; and has suggested a happy method of living for you, and an order of political government, and is now present in the camp: 3.85. I therefore charge you, for his sake and the sake of his works, and what we have done by his means, that you do not put a low value on what I am going to say, because the commands have been given by me that now deliver them to you, nor because it is the tongue of a man that delivers them to you; but if you have a due regard to the great importance of the things themselves, you will understand the greatness of Him whose institutions they are, and who has not disdained to communicate them to me for our common advantage; 3.86. for it is not to be supposed that the author of these institutions is barely Moses, the son of Amram and Jochebed, but He who obliged the Nile to run bloody for your sakes, and tamed the haughtiness of the Egyptians by various sorts of judgments; he who provided a way through the sea for us; he who contrived a method of sending us food from heaven, when we were distressed for want of it; he who made the water to issue out of a rock, when we had very little of it before; 3.87. he by whose means Adam was made to partake of the fruits both of the land and of the sea; he by whose means Noah escaped the deluge; he by whose means our forefather Abraham, of a wandering pilgrim, was made the heir of the land of Canaan; he by whose means Isaac was born of parents that were very old; he by whose means Jacob was adorned with twelve virtuous sons; he by whose means Joseph became a potent lord over the Egyptians; he it is who conveys these instructions to you by me as his interpreter. 3.88. And let them be to you venerable, and contended for more earnestly by you than your own children and your own wives; for if you will follow them, you will lead a happy life you will enjoy the land fruitful, the sea calm, and the fruit of the womb born complete, as nature requires; you will be also terrible to your enemies for I have been admitted into the presence of God and been made a hearer of his incorruptible voice so great is his concern for your nation, and its duration.” 3.308. 4. But of the spies, there were Joshua the son of Nun, of the tribe of Ephraim, and Caleb of the tribe of Judah, that were afraid of the consequence, and came into the midst of them, and stilled the multitude, and desired them to be of good courage; and neither to condemn God, as having told them lies, nor to hearken to those who had affrighted them, by telling them what was not true concerning the Canaanites, but to those that encouraged them to hope for good success; and that they should gain possession of the happiness promised them 4.14. o far indeed that this transgression was already gone through the whole army of the young men, and they fell into a sedition that was much worse than the former, and into danger of the entire abolition of their own institutions; for when once the youth had tasted of these strange customs, they went with insatiable inclinations into them; and even where some of the principal men were illustrious on account of the virtues of their fathers, they also were corrupted together with the rest. 4.14. 2. Corah, a Hebrew of principal account both by his family and by his wealth, one that was also able to speak well, and one that could easily persuade the people by his speeches, saw that Moses was in an exceeding great dignity, and was uneasy at it, and envied him on that account (he was of the same tribe with Moses, and of kin to him), was particularly grieved, because he thought he better deserved that honorable post on account of his great riches, and not inferior to him in his birth. 4.15. 12. Now when Zimri had said these things, about what he and some others had wickedly done, the people held their peace, both out of fear of what might come upon them, and because they saw that their legislator was not willing to bring his insolence before the public any further, or openly to contend with him; 4.15. So he raised a clamor against him among the Levites, who were of the same tribe, and especially among his kindred, saying, “That it was a very sad thing that they should overlook Moses, while he hunted after, and paved the way to glory for himself, and by ill arts should obtain it, under the pretense of God’s command, while, contrary to the laws, he had given the priesthood to Aaron, not by the common suffrage of the multitude, but by his own vote 4.26. nor have I taken and given this office to my brother because he excelled others in riches, for thou exceedest us both in the greatness of thy wealth; nor indeed because he was of an eminent family, for God, by giving us the same common ancestor, has made our families equal: nay, nor was it out of brotherly affection, which another might yet have justly done; 4.26. 24. As to those young men that despise their parents, and do not pay them honor, but offer them affronts, either because they are ashamed of them or think themselves wiser than they,—in the first place, let their parents admonish them in words, (for they are by nature of authority sufficient for becoming their judges,) 4.28. But I am above such base practices: nor would God have overlooked this matter, and seen himself thus despised; nor would he have suffered you to be ignorant of what you were to do, in order to please him; but he hath himself chosen one that is to perform that sacred office to him, and thereby freed us from that care. 4.28. 35. He that maimeth any one, let him undergo the like himself, and be deprived of the same member of which he hath deprived the other, unless he that is maimed will accept of money instead of it for the law makes the sufferer the judge of the value of what he hath suffered, and permits him to estimate it, unless he will be more severe. 4.41. for no action or thought escapes thy knowledge; so that thou wilt not disdain to speak what is true, for my vindication, without any regard to the ungrateful imputations of these men. As for what was done before I was born, thou knowest best, as not learning them by report, but seeing them, and being present with them when they were done; but for what has been done of late, and which these men, although they know them well enough, unjustly pretend to suspect, be thou my witness. 4.42. When I lived a private quiet life, I left those good things which, by my own diligence, and by thy counsel, I enjoyed with Raguel my father-in-law; and I gave myself up to this people, and underwent many miseries on their account. I also bore great labors at first, in order to obtain liberty for them, and now in order to their preservation; and have always showed myself ready to assist them in every distress of theirs. 4.43. Now, therefore, since I am suspected by those very men whose being is owing to my labors, come thou, as it is reasonable to hope thou wilt; thou, I say, who showedst me that fire at mount Sinai, and madest me to hear its voice, and to see the several wonders which that place afforded thou who commandedst me to go to Egypt, and declare thy will to this people; 4.44. thou who disturbest the happy estate of the Egyptians, and gavest us the opportunity of flying away from our under them, and madest the dominion of Pharaoh inferior to my dominion; thou who didst make the sea dry land for us, when we knew not whither to go, and didst overwhelm the Egyptians with those destructive waves which had been divided for us; thou who didst bestow upon us the security of weapons when we were naked; 4.45. thou who didst make the fountains that were corrupted to flow, so as to be fit for drinking, and didst furnish us with water that came out of the rocks, when we were in the greatest want of it; thou who didst preserve our lives with [quails, which was] food from the sea, when the fruits of the ground failed us; thou who didst send us such food from heaven as had never been seen before; thou who didst suggest to us the knowledge of thy laws, and appoint to us a form of government,— 4.46. come thou, I say, O Lord of the whole world, and that as such a Judge and a Witness to me as cannot be bribed, and show how I have never admitted of any gift against justice from any of the Hebrews; and have never condemned a poor man that ought to have been acquitted, on account of one that was rich; and have never attempted to hurt this commonwealth. I am now here present, and am suspected of a thing the remotest from my intentions, as if I had given the priesthood to Aaron, not at thy command, but out of my own favor to him; 4.47. do thou at this time demonstrate that all things are administered by thy providence and that nothing happens by chance, but is governed by thy will, and thereby attains its end: as also demonstrate that thou takest care of those that have done good to the Hebrews; demonstrate this, I say, by the punishment of Abiram and Dathan, who condemn thee as an insensible Being, and one overcome by my contrivances. 4.48. This wilt thou do by inflicting such an open punishment on these men who so madly fly in the face of thy glory, as will take them out of the world, not in an ordinary manner, but so that it may appear they do not die after the manner of other men: let that ground which they tread upon open about them and consume them, with their families and goods. 4.49. This will be a demonstration of thy power to all men: and this method of their sufferings will be an instruction of wisdom for those that entertain profane sentiments of thee. By this means I shall be found a good servant, in the precepts thou hast given by me. 4.194. 3. When he had spoken thus, he gave them the laws and the constitution of government written in a book. Upon which the people fell into tears, and appeared already touched with the sense that they should have a great want of their conductor, because they remembered what a number of dangers he had passed through, and what care he had taken of their preservation: they desponded about what would come upon them after he was dead, and thought they should never have another governor like him; and feared that God would then take less care of them when Moses was gone, who used to intercede for them. 13.297. but of these matters we shall speak hereafter. What I would now explain is this, that the Pharisees have delivered to the people a great many observances by succession from their fathers, which are not written in the laws of Moses; and for that reason it is that the Sadducees reject them, and say that we are to esteem those observances to be obligatory which are in the written word, but are not to observe what are derived from the tradition of our forefathers. 13.298. And concerning these things it is that great disputes and differences have arisen among them, while the Sadducees are able to persuade none but the rich, and have not the populace obsequious to them, but the Pharisees have the multitude on their side. But about these two sects, and that of the Essenes, I have treated accurately in the second book of Jewish affairs. 20.197. 1. And now Caesar, upon hearing the death of Festus, sent Albinus into Judea, as procurator. But the king deprived Joseph of the high priesthood, and bestowed the succession to that dignity on the son of Aus, who was also himself called Aus. 20.198. Now the report goes that this eldest Aus proved a most fortunate man; for he had five sons who had all performed the office of a high priest to God, and who had himself enjoyed that dignity a long time formerly, which had never happened to any other of our high priests. 20.199. But this younger Aus, who, as we have told you already, took the high priesthood, was a bold man in his temper, and very insolent; he was also of the sect of the Sadducees, who are very rigid in judging offenders, above all the rest of the Jews, as we have already observed; 20.201. but as for those who seemed the most equitable of the citizens, and such as were the most uneasy at the breach of the laws, they disliked what was done; they also sent to the king [Agrippa], desiring him to send to Aus that he should act so no more, for that what he had already done was not to be justified; 20.202. nay, some of them went also to meet Albinus, as he was upon his journey from Alexandria, and informed him that it was not lawful for Aus to assemble a sanhedrim without his consent. 20.203. Whereupon Albinus complied with what they said, and wrote in anger to Aus, and threatened that he would bring him to punishment for what he had done; on which king Agrippa took the high priesthood from him, when he had ruled but three months, and made Jesus, the son of Damneus, high priest. 20.206. he also had servants who were very wicked, who joined themselves to the boldest sort of the people, and went to the thrashing-floors, and took away the tithes that belonged to the priests by violence, and did not refrain from beating such as would not give these tithes to them.
25. Josephus Flavius, Against Apion, 1.41 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.41. It is true, our history hath been written since Artaxerxes very particularly, but hath not been esteemed of the like authority with the former by our forefathers, because there hath not been an exact succession of prophets since that time;
26. Mishnah, Avot, 1.2-1.17, 2.4, 2.8, 2.10, 3.2-3.3, 3.5-3.6, 3.11, 4.13, 5.5 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

1.2. Shimon the Righteous was one of the last of the men of the great assembly. He used to say: the world stands upon three things: the Torah, the Temple service, and the practice of acts of piety." 1.3. Antigonus a man of Socho received [the oral tradition] from Shimon the Righteous. He used to say: do not be like servants who serve the master in the expectation of receiving a reward, but be like servants who serve the master without the expectation of receiving a reward, and let the fear of Heaven be upon you." 1.4. Yose ben Yoezer (a man) of Zeredah and Yose ben Yoha [a man] of Jerusalem received [the oral tradition] from them [i.e. Shimon the Righteous and Antigonus]. Yose ben Yoezer used to say: let thy house be a house of meeting for the Sages and sit in the very dust of their feet, and drink in their words with thirst." 1.5. Yose ben Yocha (a of Jerusalem used to say:Let thy house be wide open, and let the poor be members of thy household. Engage not in too much conversation with women. They said this with regard to one’s own wife, how much more [does the rule apply] with regard to another man’s wife. From here the Sages said: as long as a man engages in too much conversation with women, he causes evil to himself, he neglects the study of the Torah, and in the end he will inherit gehinnom." 1.6. Joshua ben Perahiah and Nittai the Arbelite received [the oral tradition] from them. Joshua ben Perahiah used to say: appoint for thyself a teacher, and acquire for thyself a companion and judge all men with the scale weighted in his favor." 1.7. Nittai the Arbelite used to say: keep a distance from an evil neighbor, do not become attached to the wicked, and do not abandon faith in [divine] retribution." 1.8. Judah ben Tabbai and Shimon ben Shetach received [the oral tradition] from them. Judah ben Tabbai said: do not [as a judge] play the part of an advocate; and when the litigants are standing before you, look upon them as if they were [both] guilty; and when they leave your presence, look upon them as if they were [both] innocent, when they have accepted the judgement." 1.9. Shimon ben Shetach used to say: be thorough in the interrogation of witnesses, and be careful with your words, lest from them they learn to lie." 1.10. Shemaiah and Abtalion received [the oral tradition] from them. Shemaiah used to say: love work, hate acting the superior, and do not attempt to draw near to the ruling authority." 1.11. Abtalion used to say: Sages be careful with your words, lest you incur the penalty of exile, and be carried off to a place of evil waters, and the disciples who follow you drink and die, and thus the name of heaven becomes profaned." 1.12. Hillel and Shammai received [the oral tradition] from them. Hillel used to say: be of the disciples of Aaron, loving peace and pursuing peace, loving mankind and drawing them close to the Torah." 1.13. He [also] used to say: one who makes his name great causes his name to be destroyed; one who does not add [to his knowledge] causes [it] to cease; one who does not study [the Torah] deserves death; on who makes [unworthy] use of the crown [of learning] shall pass away." 1.14. He [also] used to say: If I am not for myself, who is for me? But if I am for my own self [only], what am I? And if not now, when?" 1.15. Shammai used to say: make your [study of the] Torah a fixed practice; speak little, but do much; and receive all men with a pleasant countece." 1.16. Rabban Gamaliel used to say: appoint for thyself a teacher, avoid doubt, and do not make a habit of tithing by guesswork." 1.17. Shimon, his son, used to say: all my days I grew up among the sages, and I have found nothing better for a person than silence. Study is not the most important thing, but actions; whoever indulges in too many words brings about sin." 2.4. He used to say: do His will as though it were your will, so that He will do your will as though it were His. Set aside your will in the face of His will, so that he may set aside the will of others for the sake of your will. Hillel said: do not separate yourself from the community, Do not trust in yourself until the day of your death, Do not judge not your fellow man until you have reached his place. Do not say something that cannot be understood [trusting] that in the end it will be understood. Say not: ‘when I shall have leisure I shall study;’ perhaps you will not have leisure." 2.8. Rabban Yoha ben Zakkai received [the oral tradition] from Hillel and Shammai.He used to say: if you have learned much torah, do not claim credit for yourself, because for such a purpose were you created. Rabban Yoha ben Zakkai had five disciples and they were these: Rabbi Eliezer ben Hyrcanus, Rabbi Joshua ben Haiah, Rabbi Yose, the priest, Rabbi Shimon ben Nethaneel and Rabbi Eleazar ben Arach. He [Rabbi Joha] used to list their outstanding virtues: Rabbi Eliezer ben Hyrcanus is a plastered cistern which loses not a drop; Rabbi Joshua ben Haiah happy is the woman that gave birth to him; Rabbi Yose, the priest, is a pious man; Rabbi Simeon ben Nethaneel is one that fears sin, And Rabbi Eleazar ben Arach is like a spring that [ever] gathers force. He [Rabbi Yoha] used to say: if all the sages of Israel were on one scale of the balance and Rabbi Eliezer ben Hyrcanus on the other scale, he would outweigh them all. Abba Shaul said in his name: if all the sages of Israel were on one scale of the balance, and Rabbi Eliezer ben Hyrcanus also with them, and Rabbi Eleazar ben Arach on the other scale, he would outweigh them all." 2.10. They [each] said three things:Rabbi Eliezer said: Let the honor of your friend be as dear to you as your own; And be not easily provoked to anger; And repent one day before your death. And [he also said:] warm yourself before the fire of the wise, but beware of being singed by their glowing coals, for their bite is the bite of a fox, and their sting is the sting of a scorpion, and their hiss is the hiss of a serpent, and all their words are like coals of fire." 3.2. Rabbi Hanina, the vice-high priest said: pray for the welfare of the government, for were it not for the fear it inspires, every man would swallow his neighbor alive. R. Haiah ben Teradion said: if two sit together and there are no words of Torah [spoken] between them, then this is a session of scorners, as it is said: “nor sat he in the seat of the scornful…[rather, the teaching of the Lord is his delight]” (Psalms 1:1); but if two sit together and there are words of Torah [spoken] between them, then the Shekhinah abides among them, as it is said: “then they that feared the Lord spoke one with another; and the Lord hearkened and heard, and a book of remembrance was written before Him, for them that feared the Lord and that thought upon His name” (Malachi 3:16). Now I have no [scriptural proof for the presence of the Shekhinah] except [among] two, how [do we know] that even one who sits and studies Torah the Holy One, blessed be He, fixes his reward? As it is said: “though he sit alone and [meditate] in stillness, yet he takes [a reward] unto himself” (Lamentations 3:28)." 3.3. Rabbi Shimon said: if three have eaten at one table and have not spoken there words of Torah, [it is] as if they had eaten sacrifices [offered] to the dead, as it is said, “for all tables are full of filthy vomit, when the All-Present is absent” (Isaiah 28:8). But, if three have eaten at one table, and have spoken there words of Torah, [it is] as if they had eaten at the table of the All-Present, blessed be He, as it is said, “And He said unto me, ‘this is the table before the Lord’” (Ezekiel 41:2." 3.5. Rabbi Nehunia ben Hakkanah said: whoever takes upon himself the yoke of the Torah, they remove from him the yoke of government and the yoke of worldly concerns, and whoever breaks off from himself the yoke of the Torah, they place upon him the yoke of government and the yoke of worldly concerns." 3.6. Rabbi Halafta of Kefar Haia said: when ten sit together and occupy themselves with Torah, the Shechinah abides among them, as it is said: “God stands in the congregation of God” (Psalm 82:. How do we know that the same is true even of five? As it is said: “This band of His He has established on earth” (Amos 9:6). How do we know that the same is true even of three? As it is said: “In the midst of the judges He judges” (Psalm 82:1) How do we know that the same is true even of two? As it is said: “Then they that fear the Lord spoke one with another, and the Lord hearkened, and heard” (Malachi 3:16). How do we know that the same is true even of one? As it is said: “In every place where I cause my name to be mentioned I will come unto you and bless you” (Exodus 20:21)." 3.11. Rabbi Elazar of Modiin said: one who profanes sacred things, and one who despises the festivals, and one who causes his fellow’s face to blush in public, and one who annuls the covet of our father Abraham, may he rest in peace, and he who is contemptuous towards the Torah, even though he has to his credit [knowledge of the] Torah and good deeds, he has not a share in the world to come." 4.13. Rabbi Judah said: be careful in study, for an error in study counts as deliberate sin. Rabbi Shimon said: There are three crowns: the crown of torah, the crown of priesthood, and the crown of royalty, but the crown of a good name supersedes them all." 5.5. Ten wonders were wrought for our ancestors in the Temple: [1] no woman miscarried from the odor of the sacred flesh; [2] the sacred flesh never became putrid; [3] no fly was ever seen in the slaughterhouse; [4] no emission occurred to the high priest on the Day of Atonement; [5] the rains did not extinguish the fire of the woodpile; [6] the wind did not prevail against the column of smoke; [7] no defect was found in the omer, or in the two loaves, or in the showbread; [8] the people stood pressed together, yet bowed down and had room enough; [9] never did a serpent or a scorpion harm anyone in Jerusalem; [10] and no man said to his fellow: the place is too congested for me to lodge overnight in Jerusalem."
27. Mishnah, Beitzah, 2.6-2.7 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

2.6. In three cases Rabban Gamaliel was strict like the words of Beth Shammai.One may not cover up hot food on Yom Tov for Shabbat; And one may not join together a lamp on a festival; And one may not bake [on Yom] thick loaves but only wafer-cakes. Rabban Gamaliel said: “In all their days, my father’s house never baked large loaves but only wafer-cakes.” They said to him: “What can we do with regards to your father’s house, for they were strict in respect to themselves but were lenient towards Israel to let them bake both large loaves and even charcoal-roasted loaves.”" 2.7. Also he declared three decisions of a lenient character:One may sweep up [on a festival] between the couches, And put spices [on the coals] on a festival; And roast a kid whole on the night of Passover. But the sages forbid them."
28. Mishnah, Bikkurim, 3.2-3.7 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

3.2. How were the bikkurim taken up [to Jerusalem]? All [the inhabitants of] the cities of the maamad would assemble in the city of the maamad, and they would spend the night in the open street and they would not entering any of the houses. Early in the morning the officer would say: “Let us arise and go up to Zion, into the house of the Lord our God” (Jeremiah 31:5)." 3.3. Those who lived near [Jerusalem] would bring fresh figs and grapes, while those who lived far away would bring dried figs and raisins. An ox would go in front of them, his horns bedecked with gold and with an olive-crown on its head. The flute would play before them until they would draw close to Jerusalem. When they drew close to Jerusalem they would send messengers in advance, and they would adorn their bikkurim. The governors and chiefs and treasurers [of the Temple] would go out to greet them, and according to the rank of the entrants they would go forth. All the skilled artisans of Jerusalem would stand up before them and greet them saying, “Our brothers, men of such and such a place, we welcome you in peace.”" 3.4. The flute would play before them, until they reached the Temple Mount. When they reached the Temple Mount even King Agrippas would take the basket and place it on his shoulder and walk as far as the Temple Court. When he got to the Temple Court, the Levites would sing the song: “I will extol You, O Lord, for You have raised me up, and You have not let my enemies rejoice over me” (Psalms 30:2)." 3.5. The birds [tied to] the basket were [offered] as whole burnt-offerings, and those which they held in their hands they gave to the priests." 3.6. While the basket was still on his shoulder he recites from: \"I acknowledge this day before the LORD your God that I have entered the land that the LORD swore to our fathers to assign us” (Deuteronomy 26:3) until he completes the passage. Rabbi Judah said: until [he reaches] “My father was a fugitive Aramean” (v.. When he reaches, “My father was a fugitive Aramean”, he takes the basket off his shoulder and holds it by its edges, and the priest places his hand beneath it and waves it. He then recites from “My father was a fugitive Aramean” until he completes the entire passage. He then deposits the basket by the side of the altar, bow and depart." 3.7. Originally all who knew how to recite would recite while those who did not know how to recite, others would read it for them [and they would repeat the words]. But when they refrained from bringing, they decreed that they should read the words to both those who could and those who could not [recite so that they could repeat after them]."
29. Mishnah, Berachot, 5.5 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

5.5. One who is praying and makes a mistake, it is a bad sign for him. And if he is the messenger of the congregation (the prayer leader) it is a bad sign for those who have sent him, because one’s messenger is equivalent to one’s self. They said about Rabbi Hanina ben Dosa that he used to pray for the sick and say, “This one will die, this one will live.” They said to him: “How do you know?” He replied: “If my prayer comes out fluently, I know that he is accepted, but if not, then I know that he is rejected.”"
30. Mishnah, Hagigah, 2.2, 2.7 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

2.2. Yose ben Yoezer says that [on a festival] the laying of the hands [on the head of a sacrifice] may not be performed. Yosef ben Joha says that it may be performed. Joshua ben Perahia says that it may not be performed. Nittai the Arbelite says that it may be performed. Judah ben Tabai says that it may not be performed. Shimon ben Shetah says that it may be performed. Shamayah says that it may be performed. Avtalyon says that it may not be performed. Hillel and Menahem did not dispute. Menahem went out, Shammai entered. Shammai says that it may not be performed. Hillel says that it may be performed. The former [of each] pair were patriarchs and the latter were heads of the court." 2.7. The garments of an am haaretz possess midras-impurity for Pharisees. The garments of Pharisees possess midras-impurity for those who eat terumah. The garments of those who eat terumah possess midras-impurity for [those who eat] sacred things. The garments of [those who eat] sacred things possess midras-impurity for [those who occupy themselves with the waters of] purification. Yose ben Yoezer was the most pious in the priesthood, yet his apron was [considered to possess] midras-impurity for [those who ate] sacred things. Yoha ben Gudgada all his life used to eat [unconsecrated food] in accordance with the purity required for sacred things, yet his apron was [considered to possess] midras-impurity for [those who occupied themselves with the water of] purification."
31. Mishnah, Horayot, 3.8 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

3.8. A priest takes precedence over a levite, a levite over an israelite, an israelite over a mamzer, a mamzer over a natin, a natin over a convert, and a convert over a freed slave. When is this so? When all these were in other respects equal. However, if the mamzer was a scholar and the high priest an ignoramus, the scholar mamzer takes precedence over the ignorant high priest."
32. Mishnah, Megillah, 3.3 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

3.3. Rabbi Judah said further: a synagogue that has fallen into ruins, they may not eulogize in it, nor twist ropes, nor to spread nets [to trap animals], nor to lay out produce on its roof [to dry], nor to use it as a short cut, as it says, “And I will desolate your holy places” (Leviticus 26:3 their holiness remains even when they are desolate. If grass comes up in it, it should not be plucked, [in order to elicit] melancholy."
33. Mishnah, Negaim, 3.1, 14.1-14.2, 14.4-14.5, 14.8, 14.10 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

3.1. Everyone can become impure from negaim, except for a non-Jew and a resident alien. All are qualified to inspect negaim, but only a priest may declare them unclean or clean. He is told, \"Say: 'unclean,'\" and he repeats \"unclean,\" or \"Say: 'clean,'\" and he repeats \"clean.\" Two negaim may not be inspected simultaneously whether in one man or in two men; rather he inspects one first and isolates him, certifies him as unclean or pronounces him clean, and then he inspects the second. One who is isolated may not be isolated again nor may one who is certified unclean be certified unclean again. One who is certified unclean may not be isolated nor may one who is isolated be certified unclean. But in the beginning, or at the end of a week, he may isolate on account of the one nega and isolate him on account of another one; he may certify him unclean on account of one sign and also certify him unclean on account of another sign; he may isolated the one sign and declare the other clean, or certify the one unclean and declare the other clean." 14.1. How would they purify a metzora?A new earthenware flask and a quarter of a log of living water was put in it. Two undomesticated birds are also brought. One of these was slaughtered over the earthenware vessel and over the living water. A hole was dug and it was buried in his presence. Cedarwood, hyssop and scarlet wool were taken and bound together with the remaining ends of the strip of wool. Near to these were brought the tips of the wings and the tip of the tail of the second bird. All were dipped together, and sprinkled upon the back of the metzora's hand seven times. Some say that the sprinkling was done upon his forehead. In the same manner one would sprinkle on the lintel of a house from the outside. 14.2. He now comes to set free the living bird. He does not turn his face towards the sea or towards the city or towards the wilderness, for it is said, \"But he shall let the living bird go out of the city into the open field\" (Leviticus 14:53). He now comes to shave off the hair of the metzora. He passes a razor over the whole of his skin, and he [the metzora] washes his clothes and immerses himself. He is then clean so far as to not convey uncleanness by entrance, but he still conveys uncleanness as does a sheretz. He may enter within the walls [of Jerusalem], but must keep away from his house for seven days, and he is forbidden to have intercourse." 14.4. There are three who must shave their hair, and their shaving of it is a commandment: the nazirite, the metzora, and the Levites. If any of these cut their hair but not with a razor, or if they left even two remaining hairs, their act is of no validity." 14.5. With regard to the two birds: the commandment is that they be alike in appearance, in size and in price; and they must be purchased at the same time. But even if they are not alike they are valid; And if one was purchased on one day and the other the next they are also valid. If after one of the birds had been slaughtered it was found that it was not wild, a partner must be purchased for the second, and the first may be eaten. If after it had been slaughtered it was found to terefah, a partner must be purchased for the second and the first may be made use of. If the blood had been spilled out, the bird that was to be let go must be left to die. If the one that was to be let go died, the blood must be spilled out." 14.8. He comes to the guilt-offering and he puts his two hands on it. He then slaughters it. Two priests receive its blood, one in a vessel and the other in his hand. He who received it in the vessel proceeded to sprinkle it on the wall of the altar. The one who received it in his hand would approach the metzora. The metzora had in the meantime immersed himself in the chamber of the metzoraim. He would come and stand at the Nikanor gate. Rabbi Judah says: he did not require immersion." 14.10. [The priest] then took some [of the contents] of the log of oil and poured it into his colleague's hand; And if he poured it into his own hand, the obligation is fulfilled. He then dipped [his right forefinger] in the oil and sprinkled it seven times towards the Holy of Holies, dipping it for every sprinkling. He then approached the metzora, to the same places that he applied the blood he now applied the oil, as it is said, \"Over the same places as the blood of the guilt offering; 29 and what is left of the oil in his palm the priest shall put on the head of the one being cleansed, to make expiation for him before the Lord.\" (Leviticus 14:28-29). If he \"put upon,\" he has made atonement, but if he did not \"put upon,\" he did not make atonement, the words of Rabbi Akiba. Rabbi Yoha ben Nuri says: these are but the remainders of the mitzvah. Whether he \"put upon\" or did not \"put upon,\" atonement is made, only it is accounted to him as if he did not make atonement. If any oil was missing from the log before it was poured out it may be filled up again; if after it was poured out, other oil must be brought anew, the words of Rabbi Akiva. Rabbi Shimon says: if any oil was missing from the log before it was applied, it may be filled up; but if after it had been applied, other oil must be brought anew."
34. Mishnah, Parah, 3.1-3.8 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

3.1. Seven days before the burning of the [red] cow they would separate the priest who was to burn the cow from his house to a chamber that was facing the north-eastern corner of the birah, and which was called the Stone Chamber. They would sprinkle upon him throughout the seven days with [a mixture of] all the sin-offerings that were there. Rabbi Yose said: they sprinkled upon him only on the third and the seventh days. Rabbi Hanina the vice-chief of the priests said: on the priest that was to burn the cow they sprinkled all the seven days, but on the one that was to perform the service on Yom Kippur they sprinkled on the third and the seventh days only." 3.2. Courtyards were built in Jerusalem over rock, and beneath them there was a hollow which served as a protection against a grave in the depths. And they used to bring there pregt women, and there they gave birth to their children and there they raised them. And they brought oxen, upon whose backs were placed doors, and the children sat upon them with stone cups in their hands. When they reached the Shiloah spring they got down and filled the cups with water and then they ascended and sat again on the doors. Rabbi Yose said: each child used to let down his cup and fill it from his place." 3.3. They arrived at the Temple Mount and got down. Beneath the Temple Mount and the courts was a hollow which served as a protection against a grave in the depths. And at the entrance of the courtyard there was the jar of the ashes of the sin-offerings. They would bring a male from among the sheep and tie a rope between its horns, and a stick or a bushy twig was tied at the other end of the rope, and this was thrown into the jar. They then struck the male [sheep] was so that it started backwards. And [a child] took the ashes and put it [enough] so that it could be seen upon the water. Rabbi Yose said: do not give the Sadducees an opportunity to rule! Rather, [a child] himself took it and mixed it." 3.4. One may not bring a sin-offering by virtue of [the purifications made for] another sin-offering, nor one child by virtue of [the preparations made for] another. The children had to be sprinkle on each other, the words of Rabbi Yose the Galilean. Rabbi Akiva says: they did not need to sprinkle." 3.5. If they did not find the residue of the ashes of the seven [red cows] they performed the sprinkling with those of six, of five, of four, of three, of two or of one. And who prepared these? Moses prepared the first, Ezra prepared the second, and five were prepared from the time of Ezra, the words of Rabbi Meir. But the sages say: seven from the time of Ezra. And who prepared them? Shimon the Just and Yoha the high priest prepared two; Elihoenai the son of Ha-Kof and Hanamel the Egyptian and Ishmael the son of Piabi prepared one each." 3.6. They made a ramp from the Temple Mount to the Mount of Olives, being constructed of arches above arches, each arch placed directly above each foundation [of the arch below] as a protection against a grave in the depths, whereby the priest who was to burn the cow, the cow itself and all who aided in its preparation went forth to the Mount of olives." 3.7. If the cow refused to go out, they may not take out with it a black one lest people say, \"They slaughtered a black cow\" nor another red [cow] lest people say, \"They slaughtered two.\" Rabbi Yose says: it was not for this reason but because it is said \"And he shall bring her out\" by herself. The elders of Israel used to go first by foot to the Mount of Olives, where there was a place of immersion. The priest that was to burn the cow was (deliberately) made unclean on account of the Sadducees so that they should not be able to say, \"It can be done only by those on whom the sun has set.\"" 3.8. They laid their hands upon him and said, \"My Lord the high priest, perform immersion once.\" He went down and immersed himself and came up and dried himself. Different kinds of wood were set in order there: cedar wood, pine, spruce and the wood of smooth fig trees. They made it in the shape of a tower and opened air holes in it; and its foreside was turned towards the west."
35. Mishnah, Peah, 2.5-2.6 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

2.5. He who plants his field with one kind of seed, even though he makes up of it two threshing-floors, he gives only one peah [for the lot]. If he plants it of two kinds, even though he makes up of it one threshing-floor, he must give two peahs. One who plants his field with two species of wheat: If he makes up of it one threshing-floor, he gives only one peah; But if two threshing-floors, he gives two peahs." 2.6. It happened that Rabbi Shimon of Mitzpah planted his field [with two different kinds] and came before Rabban Gamaliel. They both went up to the Chamber of Hewn Stone and asked [about the law]. Nahum the scribe said: I have a tradition from Rabbi Meyasha, who received it from Abba, who received it from the pairs [of sage], who received it from the prophets, a halakhah of Moses from Sinai, that one who plants his field with two species of wheat, if he makes up of it one threshing-floor, he gives only one peah, but if two threshing-floors, he gives two peahs."
36. Mishnah, Sanhedrin, 2.2, 2.4-2.5, 4.3, 10.1, 11.2-11.3 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

2.2. The king can neither judge nor be judged, he cannot testify and others cannot testify against him. He may not perform halitzah, nor may others perform halitzah for his wife. He may not contract levirate marriage nor may his brothers contract levirate marriage with his wife. Rabbi Judah says: “If he wished to perform halitzah or to contract levirate marriage his memory is a blessing.” They said to him: “They should not listen to him.” None may marry his widow. Rabbi Judah says: “The king may marry the widow of a king, for so have we found it with David, who married the widow of Saul, as it says, “And I gave you my master’s house and my master’s wives into your embrace” (II Samuel 12:8)." 2.4. He may send forth the people to a battle waged of free choice by the decision of the court of seventy one. He may break through [the private domain of any man] to make himself a road and none may protest him. The king’s road has no limit. Whatsoever the people take in plunder they must place before him, and he may take first. “And he shall not have many wives” (Deut. 17:17) eighteen only. Rabbi Judah says: “He may take many wives provided they don’t turn his heart away [from worshipping God]. Rabbi Shimon says: “Even one that might turn his heart away, he should not marry. Why then does it say, “He shall not have many wives”, even if they are like Avigayil. “He shall not keep many horses” (Deut. 17:16) enough for his chariot only. “Nor shall he amass silver and gold to excess” (Deut. 17:17) enough to pay his soldier’s wages. He must write a Torah scroll for himself; when he goes forth to battle he shall take it with him, and when he returns he shall bring it back with him; when he sits in judgement it shall be with him, and when he sits to eat it shall be with him, as it says, “Let it remain with him and let him read it all his life” (Deut. 17:19)" 2.5. None may ride his horse and none may sit on his throne and none may make use of his scepter. No one may see him when his hair is being cut or when he is naked or when he is in the bath house, for it says, “You shall set a king upon yourself” (Deut. 17:15) that his awe should be over you." 4.3. The Sanhedrin was arranged like the half of a round threshing-floor so that they all might see one another. Before them stood the two scribes of the judges, one to the right and one to the left, and they wrote down the words of them that favored acquittal and the words of them that favored conviction. Rabbi Judah says: “There were three: one wrote down the words of them that favored acquittal, and one wrote down the words of them that favored conviction, and the third wrote down the words of both them that favored acquittal and them that favored conviction." 10.1. All Israel have a portion in the world to come, for it says, “Your people, all of them righteous, shall possess the land for ever; They are the shoot that I planted, my handiwork in which I glory” (Isaiah 60:2. And these are the ones who have no portion in the world to come: He who maintains that resurrection is not a biblical doctrine, that the torah was not divinely revealed, and an epikoros. Rabbi Akiva says: “Even one who reads non-canonical books and one who whispers [a charm] over a wound and says, “I will not bring upon you any of the diseases whichbrought upon the Egyptians: for I the lord am you healer” (Exodus 15:26). Abba Shaul says: “Also one who pronounces the divine name as it is spelled.”" 11.2. An elder rebelling against the ruling of the court [is strangled], for it says, “If there arise a matter too hard for you for judgement […you shall promptly repair to the place that the Lord your God will have chosen, and appear before the levitical priests, or the magistrate in charge at the time, and present your problem. When they have announced to you the verdict in the case, you shall carry out the verdict that is announced to you from that place that the Lord chose, observing scrupulously all their instructions to you. You shall act in accordance with the instructions given you and the ruling handed down to you; you must not deviate from the verdict that they announce to you either to the right or to the left. Should a man act presumptuously and disregard the priest charged with serving there the Lord your God, or the magistrate, that man shall die” (Deut. 17:8-13, JPS translation). Three courts of law were there, one situated at the entrance to the Temple mount, another at the door of the [Temple] court, and the third in the Chamber of Hewn Stone. They [first] went to the court which is at the entrance to the Temple mount, and he [the rebellious elder] stated, “Thus have I expounded and thus have my colleagues expounded; thus have I taught, and thus have my colleagues taught.” If [this first court] had heard [a ruling on the matter], they state it. If not, they go to the [second court] which is at the entrance of the Temple court, and he declares, “Thus have I expounded and thus have my colleagues expounded; thus have I taught, and thus have my colleagues taught.” If [this second court] had heard [a ruling on the matter] they state it; if not, they all proceed to the great court of the Chamber of Hewn Stone from whence instruction issued to all Israel, for it says, [you shall carry out the verdict that is announced to you] from that place that the Lord chose (Deut. 17:10). If he returned to his town and taught again as he did before, he is not liable. But if he gave a practical decision, he is guilty, for it says, “Should a man act presumptuously” (Deut. 17:12) he is liable only for a practical ruling. But if a disciple gave a practical decision [opposed to the court], he is exempt: thus his stringency is his leniency." 11.3. There is greater stringency in respect to the teachings of the scribes than in respect to the torah: [thus,] if [a rebellious elder] says, there is no commandment of tefillin, so that a biblical law may be transgressed, he is exempt. [But if he rules that the tefillin must contain] five compartments, thus adding to the words of the scribes, he is liable."
37. Mishnah, Shabbat, 12.3 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

12.3. He who writes two letters, whether with his right hand or with his left hand, whether the same letter or two different letters or in two pigments, in any language, is liable. Rabbi Jose said: they made one liable for writing two letters only because [he makes] a mark, since this is how they would write on each board of the tabernacle, to know which its companion was. Rabbi Judah said: we find a short name [forming part] of a long name: “Shem” as part of “Shimon” or “Shmuel”, “Noah” as part of “Nahor”, “Dan” as part of “Daniel”, “Gad” as part of “Gaddiel”."
38. Mishnah, Sotah, 3.1-3.3, 7.8 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

3.1. He takes her meal-offering out of the basket of palm-twigs and places it in a ministering vessel and sets it upon her hand. And the priest places his hand under hers and waves it." 3.2. He waves it, he brings it near [the altar], he takes a handful and he turns it into smoke, and then the remainder is eaten by the priests. He [first] gives [her the water] to drink, and then sacrifices her meal-offering. Rabbi Shimon says: he sacrifices her meal-offering and then gives her to drink, as it is said, “And afterward he shall make the woman drink the water” (Numbers 5:26), but if he gave her to drink and then sacrificed her meal-offering it is valid." 3.3. If before [the writing on] the scroll had been rubbed out, she said “I refuse to drink”, her scroll is stored away and her meal-offering is scattered over the ashes. And her scroll is not valid to be used in giving another sotah to drink. If [the writing on] the scroll has been rubbed out and she said “I am defiled”, the water is poured out and her meal-offering is scattered over the ashes. If [the writing on] the scroll had been rubbed out and she said “I refuse to drink”, they open her throat and make her drink by force." 7.8. How was the procedure in connection with the portion read by the king?At the conclusion of the first day of the festival (Sukkot) in the eighth [year], at the end of the seventh year, they erect a wooden platform in the Temple court, and he sits upon it, as it is said, “At the end of seven years, in the set time” etc (Deuteronomy 31:10). The synagogue attendant takes a Torah scroll and hands it to the head of the synagogue, the head of the synagogue hands it to the deputy and he hands it to the high priest, and the high priest hands it to the king and the king stands and receives it, but reads it while sitting. King Agrippa stood and received it and read standing, and the sages praised him. When he reached, “You shall not place a foreigner over you” (ibid 17:15) his eyes ran with tears. They said to him, “Fear not, Agrippas, you are our brother, you are our brother!” [The king] reads from the beginning of “These are the words” (ibid 1:1) until the Shema ((ibid 6:4-9), and the Shema, and “It will come to pass if you hear” (ibid 11:13-21 the second part of the Shema), and “You shall surely tithe” (ibid 14:22-29), and “When you have finished tithing” (ibid 26:12-15) and the portion of the king (ibid 17:14-20) and the blessings and curses (ibid, until he finishes all the section. The blessings that the high priest recites, the king recites, except that he substitutes one for the festivals instead of one for the pardon of sin."
39. Mishnah, Taanit, 2.1 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

2.1. What is the order [of service] for fast days?They take the ark out to the open space of the city. And they put ashes on the ark and on the head of the Nasi and on the head of the head of the court (av bet. And everyone [else] puts ashes on his own head. The elder among them says in front of them words of admonition, “Brothers, it does not say of the people of Nineveh, ‘And God saw their sackcloth and their fasting,’ but, ‘And God saw their deeds, for they turned from their evil way. (Jonah 3:10)’ And in the prophets it says, ‘And rend your heart and not your garments” (Joel 2:13)."
40. Mishnah, Yoma, 1.3 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

1.3. They delivered to him elders from the elders of the court and they read before him [throughout the seven days] from the order of the day. And they say to him, “Sir, high priest, you read it yourself with your own mouth, lest you have forgotten or lest you have never learned.” On the eve of Yom HaKippurim in the morning they place him at the eastern gate and pass before him oxen, rams and sheep, so that he may recognize and become familiar with the service."
41. Mishnah, Shekalim, 5.1-5.4, 5.6, 6.1-6.6 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

5.1. These were the officers in the Temple:Yoha the son of Pinchas was over the seals. Ahiyah over the libations. Mattityah the son of Shmuel over the lots. Petahiah over the bird-offering. (Petahiah was Mordecai. Why was his name called Petahiah? Because he ‘opened’ matters and expounded them, and he understood the seventy tongues). The son of Ahijah over the sickness of the bowels. Nehuniah, the digger of ditches. Gevini, the crier. The son of Gever over the locking of the gates. The son of Bevai over the strips [for lighting the menorah]. The son of Arza over the cymbal. Hugras the son of Levi over the song. The house of Garmu over the making of the showbread. The house of Avtinas over the preparing of the frankincense. Elazar over the curtains. And Pinchas over the priestly vestments." 5.2. They did not have less than three treasurers. Or less than seven superintendents. Nor create positions of authority over the public in matters of money [with] less than two [officers], except [in the case] of the son of Ahiyah who was over the sickness of the bowels and Elazar who was over the veil, for these had been accepted by the majority of the public." 5.3. There were four seals in the Temple, and on them was inscribed [respectively]: ‘calf’, ‘ram’, ‘kid’, ‘sinner’. Ben Azzai says: there were five and on them was inscribed in Aramaic [respectively]” ‘calf’, ‘ram’, ‘kid’, ‘poor sinner’, and ‘rich sinner’. [The seal inscribed] ‘calf’ served for the libations of cattle, both large and small, male and female. [The seal inscribed] ‘kid’ served for the libations of flock animals, both large and small, male and female, with the exception of rams. [The one inscribed] ‘ram’ served for the libations of rams alone. [The one inscribed] ‘sinner’ served for the libations of the three animals [offered] by lepers." 5.4. If one required libations he would go to Yoha who was the officer over the seals, and give him money and receive from him a seal. Then he would go to Ahiyah who was the officer over the libations, and give him the seal, and receive from him the libations. And in the evening these two [officers] would come together, and Ahiyah would bring out the seals and receive money for their value. And if there was more [than their value] the surplus belonged to the sanctuary, but if there was less [than their value] Yoha would pay [the loss] out of his own pocket; for the Temple has the upper hand." 5.6. There were two chambers in the Temple, one the chamber of secret gifts and the other the chamber of the vessels. The chamber of secret gifts: sin-fearing persons used to put their gifts there in secret, and the poor who were descended of the virtuous were secretly supported from them. The chamber of the vessels: whoever offered a vessel as a gift would throw it in, and once in thirty days the treasurers opened it; and any vessel they found in it that was of use for the repair of the temple they left there, but the others were sold and their price went to the chamber of the repair of the temple." 6.1. There were in the Temple thirteen chests, thirteen tables and thirteen prostrations. [Members] of the household of Rabban Gamaliel and of Rabbi Haiah the chief of the priests used would prostrate fourteen [times. And where was the additional [prostration]? In front of the wood storage yard, for they had a tradition from their forefathers that the Ark was hidden there." 6.2. It once happened that a priest who was busy [there] noticed that the floor [of the wood storage area] was different from the others. He went and told it to his friend but before he had time to finish his words his soul departed. Then they knew for certain that there the Ark was hidden." 6.3. And where did they make the prostrations? Four [times] in the north, four [times] in the south, three [times] in the east, and twice in the west, in front of the thirteen gates. The southern gates close to the west [side were]: the Upper Gate, the Fuel Gate, the Gate of the Firstborn [Animals], and the Water Gate. Why was it called the Water Gate? Because through it was brought in the flask of water for the libation on Sukkot. Rabbi Eliezer ben Yaakov says: through it the waters trickle forth and in the time to come “they will come forth from under the threshold of the Temple” (Ezekiel 47:1). On the opposite side in the north close to the west were: Jechoniah’ Gate, the Gate of the offerings, the Gate of the Women, and the Gate of Song. And why was it called the Jechoniah’ Gate? Because through it Jechoniah went out into his captivity. In the east was the Nicanor’s Gate, and it had two small gates, one to the right and one to the left. There were also two gates in the west which had no name." 6.4. There were thirteen tables in the Temple:Eight of marble in the place of slaughtering and on them they would rinse the entrails. And two to the west of the ramp [which ascends the altar], one of marble and one of silver; on that of marble they would place the limbs [of the offerings], and on that of silver the ministering vessels. And there were two tables in the Porch on the inside of the entrance to the Temple, one of marble and the other of gold; on that of marble they would place the showbread placed when it was brought in, and on that of gold [they would place the showbread] when it was taken out, because things sacred may be raised [in honor] but not lowered. And there was one [table] of gold on the inside of the Sanctuary on which the showbread lay continually." 6.5. There were thirteen chests in the Temple and on them was inscribed [respectively]:“new shekels”;“New shekels” those for each year; “old shekels”;“Old shekels” whoever has not paid his shekel in the past year may pay it in the coming year; “bird-offerings”;“Bird-offerings” these are turtle-doves; “young pigeons for burnt-offerings”;“Young pigeons for burnt-offerings” these are young pigeons. “wood”; “frankincense”; “gold for the kapporet”; and on six, “freewill offerings”. Both [these two chests] are for burnt-offerings, the words of Rabbi Judah. But the sages say: “bird-offerings” one [half] is for sin-offerings and the other [half] for burnt-offerings, but “young pigeons for burnt-offerings” all goes to burnt-offerings." 6.6. One who says: “Behold, I am obligated to bring wood”, he may not bring less than two logs. [If he says: “Behold, I am obligated to bring] frankincense”, he may not bring less than a handful of it. [If he says: “Behold, I am obligated to bring] gold”, he may not bring less than a gold denar. “On six [was inscribed] “for freewill-offerings”: What was done with the freewill-offerings? They would buy with them burnt-offerings, the flesh [of which] was for the name [of God] and the hides for the priests. The following is the midrash which was expounded by Yehoyada the high priest: “It is a guilt-offering; it is a guilt offering, it goes to the Lord” (Leviticus 5:19). This is the general rule: anything which is brought because of a sin or because of guilt, they should purchase with it burnt offerings, the flesh [of which] was for the name [of God] and the hides for the priests. Thus the two verses are fulfilled: a guilt offering for the Lord and a guilt offering for the priests, and it says: “Money brought as a guilt offering or as a sin offering was not deposited in the House of the Lord; it went to the priests” (II Kings 12:17)."
42. Mishnah, Yadayim, 4.6-4.8 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

4.6. The Sadducees say: we complain against you, Pharisees, because you say that the Holy Scriptures defile the hands, but the books of Homer do not defile the hands. Rabban Yoha ben Zakkai said: Have we nothing against the Pharisees but this? Behold they say that the bones of a donkey are clean, yet the bones of Yoha the high priest are unclean. They said to him: according to the affection for them, so is their impurity, so that nobody should make spoons out of the bones of his father or mother. He said to them: so also are the Holy Scriptures according to the affection for them, so is their uncleanness. The books of Homer which are not precious do not defile the hands." 4.7. The Sadducees say: we complain against you, Pharisees, that you declare an uninterrupted flow of a liquid to be clean. The Pharisees say: we complain against you, Sadducees, that you declare a stream of water which flows from a burial-ground to be clean? The Sadducees say: we complain against you, Pharisees, that you say, my ox or donkey which has done injury is liable, yet my male or female slave who has done injury is not liable. Now if in the case of my ox or my donkey for which I am not responsible if they do not fulfill religious duties, yet I am responsible for their damages, in the case of my male or female slave for whom I am responsible to see that they fulfill mitzvot, how much more so that I should be responsible for their damages? They said to them: No, if you argue about my ox or my donkey which have no understanding, can you deduce from there anything concerning a male or female slave who do have understanding? So that if I were to anger either of them and they would go and burn another person's stack, should I be liable to make restitution?" 4.8. A Galilean min said: I complain against you Pharisees, that you write the name of the ruler and the name of Moses together on a divorce document. The Pharisees said: we complain against you, Galilean min, that you write the name of the ruler together with the divine name on a single page [of Torah]? And furthermore that you write the name of the ruler above and the divine name below? As it is said, \"And Pharoah said, Who is the Lord that I should hearken to his voice to let Israel go?\" (Exodus 5:2) But when he was smitten what did he say? \"The Lord is righteous\" (Exodus 9:27)."
43. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 14 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

44. New Testament, 2 Corinthians, 1.4 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

45. New Testament, Acts, 4.6, 6.7, 12.24, 19.20, 23.9 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

4.6. Annas the high priest was there, with Caiaphas, John, Alexander, and as many as were relatives of the high priest. 6.7. The word of God increased and the number of the disciples multiplied in Jerusalem exceedingly. A great company of the priests were obedient to the faith. 12.24. But the word of God grew and multiplied. 19.20. So the word of the Lord was growing and becoming mighty. 23.9. A great clamor arose, and some of the scribes of the Pharisees part stood up, and contended, saying, "We find no evil in this man. But if a spirit or angel has spoken to him, let's not fight against God!
46. New Testament, Colossians, 1.15-1.20 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.15. who is the image of the invisible God, the firstborn of all creation. 1.16. For by him were all things created, in the heavens and on the earth, things visible and things invisible, whether thrones or dominions or principalities or powers; all things have been created through him, and for him. 1.17. He is before all things, and in him all things are held together. 1.18. He is the head of the body, the assembly, who is the beginning, the firstborn from the dead; that in all things he might have the preeminence. 1.19. For all the fullness was pleased to dwell in him; 1.20. and through him to reconcile all things to himself, having made peace through the blood of his cross. Through him, I say, whether things on the earth, or things in the heavens.
47. New Testament, Ephesians, 2.14-2.16, 2.21-2.22 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.14. For he is our peace, who made both one, and broke down the middle wall of partition 2.15. having abolished in the flesh the hostility, the law of commandments contained in ordices, that he might create in himself one new man of the two, making peace; 2.16. and might reconcile them both in one body to God through the cross, having killed the hostility thereby. 2.21. in whom the whole building, fitted together, grows into a holy temple in the Lord; 2.22. in whom you also are built together for a habitation of God in the Spirit.
48. New Testament, John, 18.13 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

18.13. and led him to Annas first, for he was father-in-law to Caiaphas, who was high priest that year.
49. New Testament, Luke, 3.2-3.3, 24.27 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.2. in the high priesthood of Annas and Caiaphas, the word of God came to John, the son of Zacharias, in the wilderness. 3.3. He came into all the region around the Jordan, preaching the baptism of repentance for remission of sins. 24.27. Beginning from Moses and from all the prophets, he explained to them in all the Scriptures the things concerning himself.
50. New Testament, Mark, 7.1-7.23, 9.5 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

7.1. Then the Pharisees, and some of the scribes gathered together to him, having come from Jerusalem. 7.2. Now when they saw some of his disciples eating bread with defiled, that is, unwashed, hands, they found fault. 7.3. (For the Pharisees, and all the Jews, don't eat unless they wash their hands and forearms, holding to the tradition of the elders. 7.4. They don't eat when they come from the marketplace, unless they bathe themselves, and there are many other things, which they have received to hold to: washings of cups, pitchers, bronze vessels, and couches.) 7.5. The Pharisees and the scribes asked him, "Why don't your disciples walk according to the tradition of the elders, but eat their bread with unwashed hands? 7.6. He answered them, "Well did Isaiah prophesy of you hypocrites, as it is written, 'This people honors me with their lips, But their heart is far from me. 7.7. But in vain do they worship me, Teaching as doctrines the commandments of men.' 7.8. For you set aside the commandment of God, and hold tightly to the tradition of men -- the washing of pitchers and cups, and you do many other such things. 7.9. He said to them, "Full well do you reject the commandment of God, that you may keep your tradition. 7.10. For Moses said, 'Honor your father and your mother;' and, 'He who speaks evil of father or mother, let him be put to death.' 7.11. But you say, 'If a man tells his father or his mother, "Whatever profit you might have received from me is Corban, that is to say, given to God;"' 7.12. then you no longer allow him to do anything for his father or his mother 7.13. making void the word of God by your tradition, which you have handed down. You do many things like this. 7.14. He called all the multitude to himself, and said to them, "Hear me, all of you, and understand. 7.15. There is nothing from outside of the man, that going into him can defile him; but the things which proceed out of the man are those that defile the man. 7.16. If anyone has ears to hear, let him hear! 7.17. When he had entered into a house away from the multitude, his disciples asked him about the parable. 7.18. He said to them, "Are you thus without understanding also? Don't you perceive that whatever goes into the man from outside can't defile him 7.19. because it doesn't go into his heart, but into his stomach, then into the latrine, thus making all foods clean? 7.20. He said, "That which proceeds out of the man, that defiles the man. 7.21. For from within, out of the hearts of men, proceed evil thoughts, adulteries, sexual sins, murders, thefts 7.22. covetings, wickedness, deceit, lustful desires, an evil eye, blasphemy, pride, and foolishness. 7.23. All these evil things come from within, and defile the man. 9.5. Peter answered Jesus, "Rabbi, it is good for us to be here. Let's make three tents: one for you, one for Moses, and one for Elijah.
51. New Testament, Matthew, 6.1-6.4, 15.1-15.20, 23.2-23.12 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

6.1. Be careful that you don't do your charitable giving before men, to be seen by them, or else you have no reward from your Father who is in heaven. 6.2. Therefore when you do merciful deeds, don't sound a trumpet before yourself, as the hypocrites do in the synagogues and in the streets, that they may get glory from men. Most assuredly I tell you, they have received their reward. 6.3. But when you do merciful deeds, don't let your left hand know what your right hand does 6.4. so that your merciful deeds may be in secret, then your Father who sees in secret will reward you openly. 15.1. Then Pharisees and scribes came to Jesus from Jerusalem, saying 15.2. Why do your disciples disobey the tradition of the elders? For they don't wash their hands when they eat bread. 15.3. He answered them, "Why do you also disobey the commandment of God because of your tradition? 15.4. For God commanded, 'Honor your father and your mother,' and, 'He who speaks evil of father or mother, let him be put to death.' 15.5. But you say, 'Whoever may tell his father or his mother, "Whatever help you might otherwise have gotten from me is a gift devoted to God 15.6. he shall not honor his father or mother.' You have made the commandment of God void because of your tradition. 15.7. You hypocrites! Well did Isaiah prophesy of you, saying 15.8. 'These people draw near to me with their mouth, And honor me with their lips; But their heart is far from me. 15.9. And in vain do they worship me, Teaching as doctrine rules made by men.' 15.10. He summoned the multitude, and said to them, "Hear, and understand. 15.11. That which enters into the mouth doesn't defile the man; but that which proceeds out of the mouth, this defiles the man. 15.12. Then the disciples came, and said to him, "Do you know that the Pharisees were offended, when they heard this saying? 15.13. But he answered, "Every plant which my heavenly Father didn't plant will be uprooted. 15.14. Leave them alone. They are blind guides of the blind. If the blind guide the blind, both will fall into a pit. 15.15. Peter answered him, "Explain the parable to us. 15.16. So Jesus said, "Do you also still not understand? 15.17. Don't you understand that whatever goes into the mouth passes into the belly, and then out of the body? 15.18. But the things which proceed out of the mouth come out of the heart, and they defile the man. 15.19. For out of the heart come forth evil thoughts, murders, adulteries, sexual sins, thefts, false testimony, and blasphemies. 15.20. These are the things which defile the man; but to eat with unwashed hands doesn't defile the man. 23.2. saying, "The scribes and the Pharisees sat on Moses' seat. 23.3. All things therefore whatever they tell you to observe, observe and do, but don't do their works; for they say, and don't do. 23.4. For they bind heavy burdens that are grievous to be borne, and lay them on men's shoulders; but they themselves will not lift a finger to help them. 23.5. But all their works they do to be seen by men. They make their phylacteries broad, enlarge the fringes of their garments 23.6. and love the place of honor at feasts, the best seats in the synagogues 23.7. the salutations in the marketplaces, and to be called 'Rabbi, Rabbi' by men. 23.8. But don't you be called 'Rabbi,' for one is your teacher, the Christ, and all of you are brothers. 23.9. Call no man on the earth your father, for one is your Father, he who is in heaven. 23.10. Neither be called masters, for one is your master, the Christ. 23.11. But he who is greatest among you will be your servant. 23.12. Whoever will exalt himself will be humbled, and whoever will humble himself will be exalted.
52. Ps.-Philo, Biblical Antiquities, 10.4-10.5 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

53. Tosefta, Eduyot, 1.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

1.1. When the Sages entered the Vineyard in Yavneh, they said, \"In the future, there will come an hour when a person seeks a teaching from the teachings of the Torah and he will not find it, or in the teachings of the Scribes, and he will not find it.\" As it says, \"Behold, days are coming, says the Lord, etc. they will seek out the word of God and they will not find it (Amos 8).\" 'The word of God' refers to prophecy. 'The word of God' refers to the End (of Days). 'The word of God', so that there shall not be one word of Torah similar to its fellow. They said, \"Let us begin from Hillel and Shammai!\"..."
54. Tosefta, Kiddushin, 1.11 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

1.11. One who does 1 mitzvah, it causes good for him, it lengthens his days and his years and he inherits the soil. Anyone who does one averah, it causes bad for him, it plucks off his days and he does not inherit the land. About this one it is said, \"One sinner can destroy much good\" (Kohelet 9:18)—with a single sin, this one destroyed for him many good things. A person should always see himself as if he is half innocent and half guilty. If he does one mitzvah, he is happy that he tipped his scale to the side of innocence. If he does one averah, woe to him! he tipped his scale to the side of guilt. About this one it is said, \"One sinner can destroy much good\"—with a single sin, this one destroyed for him many good things. Rabbi Shimon ben Elazar says in the name of Rabbi Meir: Because an individual is judged according to the majority [of his deeds] and the world is judged according to the majority [of the deeds performed in it], one who does one mitzvah is happy that he has tipped his scales and the scales of the world to the side of innocence; if he does one averah, woe to him! he tips his scale and the scale of the world to the side of guilt. About this one it is said, \"One sinner can destroy much good\"—with a single sin, this one destroyed for him many good things. Rabbi Shimon says: If someone was righteous their entire life, but in the end rebelled, he lost everything, as it is said, \"The righteousness of the righteous will not save him on the day of his wickedness\" (Yehezkel 33:12). If someone were wicked all their life and did teshuvah at the end, God receives him, as it is said, \"He will not trip on the wickedness of the wicked on the day he returns from his wickedness\" (Yehezkel 33:12). Anyone who is engaged in all three of them—in Scripture, Mishnah and an occupation—about this person it is said, \"The threefold cord will not be quickly broken\" (Kohelet 4:12)."
55. Tosefta, Megillah, 2.5 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

56. Tosefta, Menachot, 13.21 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

57. Tosefta, Parah, 3.7-3.8 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

58. Tosefta, Pesahim, 4.15 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

59. Tosefta, Sanhedrin, 4.1, 4.5 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

60. Tosefta, Sotah, 7.16, 13.4 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

61. Tosefta, Kippurim, 1.8 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

62. Tosefta, Yadayim, 2.16 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

63. Anon., Genesis Rabba, 1.1 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

1.1. רַבִּי הוֹשַׁעְיָה רַבָּה פָּתַח (משלי ח, ל): וָאֶהְיֶה אֶצְלוֹ אָמוֹן וָאֶהְיֶה שַׁעֲשׁוּעִים יוֹם יוֹם וגו', אָמוֹן פַּדְּגוֹג, אָמוֹן מְכֻסֶּה, אָמוֹן מֻצְנָע, וְאִית דַּאֲמַר אָמוֹן רַבָּתָא. אָמוֹן פַּדְּגוֹג, הֵיךְ מָה דְאַתְּ אָמַר (במדבר יא, יב): כַּאֲשֶׁר יִשָֹּׂא הָאֹמֵן אֶת הַיֹּנֵק. אָמוֹן מְכֻסֶּה, הֵיאַךְ מָה דְאַתְּ אָמַר (איכה ד, ה): הָאֱמֻנִים עֲלֵי תוֹלָע וגו'. אָמוֹן מֻצְנָע, הֵיאַךְ מָה דְאַתְּ אָמַר (אסתר ב, ז): וַיְהִי אֹמֵן אֶת הֲדַסָּה. אָמוֹן רַבָּתָא, כְּמָא דְתֵימָא (נחום ג, ח): הֲתֵיטְבִי מִנֹּא אָמוֹן, וּמְתַרְגְּמִינַן הַאַתְּ טָבָא מֵאֲלֶכְּסַנְדְּרִיָא רַבָּתָא דְּיָתְבָא בֵּין נַהֲרוֹתָא. דָּבָר אַחֵר אָמוֹן, אֻמָּן. הַתּוֹרָה אוֹמֶרֶת אֲנִי הָיִיתִי כְּלִי אֻמְנוּתוֹ שֶׁל הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, בְּנֹהַג שֶׁבָּעוֹלָם מֶלֶךְ בָּשָׂר וָדָם בּוֹנֶה פָּלָטִין, אֵינוֹ בּוֹנֶה אוֹתָהּ מִדַּעַת עַצְמוֹ אֶלָּא מִדַּעַת אֻמָּן, וְהָאֻמָּן אֵינוֹ בּוֹנֶה אוֹתָהּ מִדַּעַת עַצְמוֹ אֶלָּא דִּפְתְּרָאוֹת וּפִנְקְסָאוֹת יֵשׁ לוֹ, לָדַעַת הֵיאךְ הוּא עוֹשֶׂה חֲדָרִים, הֵיאךְ הוּא עוֹשֶׂה פִּשְׁפְּשִׁין. כָּךְ הָיָה הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא מַבִּיט בַּתּוֹרָה וּבוֹרֵא אֶת הָעוֹלָם, וְהַתּוֹרָה אָמְרָה בְּרֵאשִׁית בָּרָא אֱלֹהִים. וְאֵין רֵאשִׁית אֶלָּא תּוֹרָה, הֵיאַךְ מָה דְּאַתְּ אָמַר (משלי ח, כב): ה' קָנָנִי רֵאשִׁית דַּרְכּוֹ. 1.1. רַבִּי יוֹנָה בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי לֵוִי אָמַר, לָמָּה נִבְרָא הָעוֹלָם בְּב', אֶלָּא מַה ב' זֶה סָתוּם מִכָּל צְדָדָיו וּפָתוּחַ מִלְּפָנָיו, כָּךְ אֵין לְךָ רְשׁוּת לוֹמַר, מַה לְּמַטָּה, מַה לְּמַעְלָה, מַה לְּפָנִים, מַה לְּאָחוֹר, אֶלָּא מִיּוֹם שֶׁנִּבְרָא הָעוֹלָם וּלְהַבָּא. בַּר קַפָּרָא אָמַר (דברים ד, לב): כִּי שְׁאַל נָא לְיָמִים רִאשֹׁנִים אֲשֶׁר הָיוּ לְפָנֶיךָ, לְמִן הַיּוֹם שֶׁנִּבְרְאוּ אַתָּה דּוֹרֵשׁ, וְאִי אַתָּה דּוֹרֵשׁ לִפְנִים מִכָּאן. (דברים ד, לב): וּלְמִקְצֵה הַשָּׁמַיִם וְעַד קְצֵה הַשָּׁמָיִם, אַתָּה דּוֹרֵשׁ וְחוֹקֵר, וְאִי אַתָּה חוֹקֵר לִפְנִים מִכָּאן. דָּרַשׁ רַבִּי יְהוּדָה בֶּן פָּזִי בְּמַעֲשֵׂה בְרֵאשִׁית בַּהֲדֵיהּ דְּבַר קַפָּרָא, לָמָּה נִבְרָא הָעוֹלָם בְּב', לְהוֹדִיעֲךָ שֶׁהֵן שְׁנֵי עוֹלָמִים, הָעוֹלָם הַזֶּה וְהָעוֹלָם הַבָּא. דָּבָר אַחֵר, וְלָמָּה בְּב' שֶׁהוּא לְשׁוֹן בְּרָכָה, וְלָמָּה לֹא בְּאָלֶ"ף שֶׁהוּא לְשׁוֹן אֲרִירָה. דָּבָר אַחֵר, לָמָּה לֹא בְּאָלֶ"ף שֶׁלֹא לִתֵּן פִּתְחוֹן פֶּה לָאֶפִּיקוֹרְסִין לוֹמַר הֵיאַךְ הָעוֹלָם יָכוֹל לַעֲמֹד שֶׁהוּא נִבְרָא בִּלְשׁוֹן אֲרִירָה, אֶלָּא אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא הֲרֵי אֲנִי בּוֹרֵא אוֹתוֹ בִּלְשׁוֹן בְּרָכָה, וְהַלְּוַאי יַעֲמֹד. דָּבָר אַחֵר, לָמָּה בְּב' אֶלָּא מַה ב' זֶה יֵשׁ לוֹ שְׁנֵי עוֹקְצִין, אֶחָד מִלְּמַעְלָה וְאֶחָד מִלְּמַטָּה מֵאֲחוֹרָיו, אוֹמְרִים לַב' מִי בְּרָאֲךָ, וְהוּא מַרְאֶה בְּעוּקְצוֹ מִלְּמַעְלָה, וְאוֹמֵר זֶה שֶׁלְּמַעְלָה בְּרָאָנִי. וּמַה שְּׁמוֹ, וְהוּא מַרְאֶה לָהֶן בְּעוּקְצוֹ שֶׁל אַחֲרָיו, וְאוֹמֵר ה' שְׁמוֹ. אָמַר רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר בַּר חֲנִינָא בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי אֲחָא, עֶשְׂרִים וְשִׁשָּׁה דוֹרוֹת הָיְתָה הָאָלֶ"ף קוֹרֵא תִּגָּר לִפְנֵי כִסְאוֹ שֶׁל הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, אָמְרָה לְפָנָיו רִבּוֹנוֹ שֶׁל עוֹלָם, אֲנִי רִאשׁוֹן שֶׁל אוֹתִיּוֹת וְלֹא בָּרָאתָ עוֹלָמְךָ בִּי, אָמַר לָהּ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא הָעוֹלָם וּמְלוֹאוֹ לֹא נִבְרָא אֶלָּא בִּזְכוּת הַתּוֹרָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (משלי ג, יט): ה' בְּחָכְמָה יָסַד אָרֶץ וגו', לְמָחָר אֲנִי בָּא לִתֵּן תּוֹרָה בְּסִינַי וְאֵינִי פּוֹתֵחַ תְּחִלָה אֶלָּא בָּךְ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות כ, ב): אָנֹכִי ה' אֱלֹהֶיךָ. רַבִּי הוֹשַׁעְיָא אוֹמֵר לָמָּה נִקְרָא שְׁמוֹ אָלֶ"ף, שֶׁהוּא מַסְכִּים מֵאָלֶ"ף, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים קה, ח): דָּבָר צִוָּה לְאֶלֶף דּוֹר. 1.1. The great Rabbi Hoshaya opened [with the verse (Mishlei 8:30),] \"I [the Torah] was an amon to Him and I was a plaything to Him every day.\" Amon means \"pedagogue\" (i.e. ny). Amon means \"covered.\" Amon means \"hidden.\" And there is one who says amon means \"great.\" Amon means \"ny,\" as in (Bamidbar 11:12) “As a ny (omein) carries the suckling child.\" Amon means \"covered,\" as in (Eichah 4:5) \"Those who were covered (emunim) in scarlet have embraced refuse heaps.\" Amon means \"hidden,\" as in (Esther 2:7) \"He hid away (omein) Hadassah.\" Amon means \"great,\" as in (Nahum 3:8) \"Are you better than No-amon [which dwells in the rivers]?\" which the Targum renders as, \"Are you better than Alexandria the Great (amon), which dwells between the rivers?\" Alternatively, amon means \"artisan.\" The Torah is saying, \"I was the artisan's tool of Hashem.\" In the way of the world, a king of flesh and blood who builds a castle does not do so from his own knowledge, but rather from the knowledge of an architect, and the architect does not build it from his own knowledge, but rather he has scrolls and books in order to know how to make rooms and doorways. So too Hashem gazed into the Torah and created the world. Similarly the Torah says, \"Through the reishis Hashem created [the heavens and the earth],\" and reishis means Torah, as in \"Hashem made me [the Torah] the beginning (reishis) of His way\" (Mishlei 8:22)."
64. Anon., Sifre Deuteronomy, 41, 48, 157 (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

65. Anon., Sifre Numbers, 131 (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

66. Anon., Targum Neofiti, None (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

67. Palestinian Talmud, Hagigah, None (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

68. Babylonian Talmud, Berachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

53b. ואין מברכין על הנר עד שיאותו:,אמר רב יהודה אמר רב לא יאותו יאותו ממש אלא כל שאילו עומד בקרוב ומשתמש לאורה ואפילו ברחוק מקום וכן אמר רב אשי ברחוק מקום שנינו,מיתיבי היתה לו נר טמונה בחיקו או בפנס או שראה שלהבת ולא נשתמש לאורה או נשתמש לאורה ולא ראה שלהבת אינו מברך עד שיראה שלהבת וישתמש לאורה,בשלמא משתמש לאורה ולא ראה שלהבת משכחת לה דקיימא בקרן זוית אלא ראה שלהבת ולא נשתמש לאורה היכי משכחת לה לאו דמרחקא,לא כגון דעמיא ואזלא:,ת"ר גחלים לוחשות מברכין עליהן אוממות אין מברכין עליהן ה"ד לוחשות אמר רב חסדא כל שאילו מכניס לתוכן קיסם ודולקת מאיליה,איבעיא להו אוממות או עוממות,ת"ש דאמר רב חסדא בר אבדימי (יחזקאל לא, ח) ארזים לא עממוהו בגן אלהים,ורבא אמר יאותו ממש,וכמה אמר עולא כדי שיכיר בין איסר לפונדיון חזקיה אמר כדי שיכיר בין מלוזמא של טבריא למלוזמא של צפורי,רב יהודה מברך אדבי אדא דיילא רבא מברך אדבי גוריא בר חמא אביי מברך אדבי בר אבוה,אמר רב יהודה אמר רב אין מחזרין על האור כדרך שמחזרים על המצות א"ר זירא מריש הוה מהדרנא כיון דשמענא להא דרב יהודה אמר רב אנא נמי לא מהדרנא אלא אי מקלע לי ממילא מבריכנא:,מי שאכל וכו': אמר רב זביד ואיתימא רב דימי בר אבא מחלוקת בשכח אבל במזיד ד"ה יחזור למקומו ויברך,פשיטא ושכח תנן,מהו דתימא ה"ה אפילו במזיד והאי דקתני ושכח להודיעך כחן דב"ש קמ"ל,תניא אמרו להם ב"ה לב"ש לדבריכם מי שאכל בראש הבירה ושכח וירד ולא ברך יחזור לראש הבירה ויברך אמרו להן ב"ש לב"ה לדבריכם מי ששכח ארנקי בראש הבירה לא יעלה ויטלנה לכבוד עצמו הוא עולה לכבוד שמים לא כל שכן,הנהו תרי תלמידי חד עביד בשוגג כב"ש ואשכח ארנקא דדהבא וחד עביד במזיד כב"ה ואכליה אריא,רבה בב"ח הוה קאזל בשיירתא אכל ואשתלי ולא בריך אמר היכי אעביד אי אמינא להו אנשאי לברך אמרי לי בריך כל היכא דמברכת לרחמנא מברכת מוטב דאמינא להו אנשאי יונה דדהבא אמר להו אנטרו לי דאנשאי יונה דדהבא אזיל ובריך ואשכח יונה דדהבא,ומאי שנא יונה דמתילי כנסת ישראל ליונה דכתיב (תהלים סח, יד) כנפי יונה נחפה בכסף ואברותיה בירקרק חרוץ מה יונה אינה ניצולת אלא בכנפיה אף ישראל אינן ניצולין אלא במצות:,עד אימתי הוא וכו':,כמה שיעור עכול א"ר יוחנן כל זמן שאינו רעב וריש לקיש אמר כל זמן שיצמא מחמת אכילתו,א"ל רב יימר בר שלמיא למר זוטרא ואמרי לה רב יימר בר שיזבי למר זוטרא מי אמר ריש לקיש הכי והאמר רב אמי אמר ריש לקיש כמה שיעור עכול כדי להלך ארבע מילין,ל"ק כאן באכילה מרובה כאן באכילה מועטת:,בא להם יין וכו':,למימרא דישראל אע"ג דלא שמע כולה ברכה עונה וכי לא שמע היכי נפיק,אמר חייא בר רב בשלא אכל עמהן וכן אמר רב נחמן אמר רבה בר אבוה בשלא אכל עמהן א"ל רב לחייא בריה ברי חטוף ובריך וכן אמר רב הונא לרבה בריה חטוף ובריך,למימרא דמברך עדיף ממאן דעני אמן והתניא ר' יוסי אומר גדול העונה אמן יותר מן המברך,א"ל ר' נהוראי השמים כן הוא תדע שהרי גוליירין יורדין ומתגרין [במלחמה] וגבורים יורדין ומנצחין,תנאי היא דתניא אחד המברך ואחד העונה אמן במשמע אלא שממהרין למברך יותר מן העונה אמן,בעי מיניה שמואל מרב מהו לענות אמן אחר תינוקות של בית רבן אמר ליה אחר הכל עונין אמן חוץ מתינוקות של בית רבן הואיל ולהתלמד עשויין וה"מ בדלא עידן מפטרייהו אבל בעידן מפטרייהו עונין,ת"ר שמן מעכב את הברכה דברי רבי זילאי רבי זיואי אומר אינו מעכב רבי אחא אומר שמן טוב מעכב ר' זוהמאי אומר כשם שמזוהם פסול לעבודה כך ידים מזוהמות פסולות לברכה,אמר רב נחמן בר יצחק אנא לא זילאי ולא זיואי ולא זוהמאי ידענא אלא מתניתא ידענא דאמר רב יהודה אמר רב ואמרי לה במתניתא תנא (ויקרא כ, ז) והתקדשתם אלו מים ראשונים והייתם קדושים אלו מים אחרונים כי קדוש זה שמן אני יי' אלהיכם זו ברכה:, br br big strongהדרן עלך אלו דברים /strong /big br br
69. Babylonian Talmud, Eruvin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

54b. כל זמן שאדם ממשמש בה מוצא בה תאנים אף דברי תורה כל זמן שאדם הוגה בהן מוצא בהן טעם,א"ר שמואל בר נחמני מאי דכתיב (משלי ה, יט) אילת אהבים ויעלת חן וגו' למה נמשלו דברי תורה לאילת לומר לך מה אילה רחמה צר וחביבה על בועלה כל שעה ושעה כשעה ראשונה אף דברי תורה חביבין על לומדיהן כל שעה ושעה כשעה ראשונה,ויעלת חן שמעלת חן על לומדיה דדיה ירווך בכל עת למה נמשלו דברי תורה כדד מה דד זה כל זמן שהתינוק ממשמש בו מוצא בו חלב אף דברי תורה כל זמן שאדם הוגה בהן מוצא בהן טעם,באהבתה תשגה תמיד כגון רבי (אליעזר) בן פדת אמרו עליו על רבי (אליעזר) שהיה יושב ועוסק בתורה בשוק התחתון של ציפורי וסדינו מוטל בשוק העליון של ציפורי (תניא) א"ר יצחק בן אלעזר פעם אחת בא אדם ליטלו ומצא בו שרף,תנא דבי רב ענן מאי דכתיב (שופטים ה, י) רוכבי אתונות צחורות יושבי על מדין [והולכי על דרך שיחו] רוכבי אתונות אלו תלמידי חכמים שמהלכין מעיר לעיר וממדינה למדינה ללמוד (בו) תורה צחורות שעושין אותה כצהרים יושבי על מדין שדנין דין אמת לאמיתו והולכי אלו בעלי מקרא על דרך אלו בעלי משנה שיחו אלו בעלי תלמוד שכל שיחתן דברי תורה,אמר רב שיזבי משום רבי אלעזר בן עזריה מאי דכתיב (משלי יב, כז) לא יחרוך רמיה צידו לא יחיה ולא יאריך ימים צייד הרמאי,רב ששת אמר צייד הרמאי יחרוך,כי אתא רב דימי אמר משל לצייד שצד צפרים אם ראשון ראשון משבר כנפיו משתמר ואם לאו אין משתמר,אמר (רבה) אמר רב סחורה אמר רב הונא מאי דכתיב (משלי יג, יא) הון מהבל ימעט וקובץ על יד ירבה אם עושה אדם תורתו חבילות חבילות מתמעט ואם לאו קובץ על יד ירבה,אמר (רבה) ידעי רבנן להא מלתא ועברי עלה אמר רב נחמן בר יצחק אנא עבדתה ואיקיים בידאי:,ת"ר כיצד סדר משנה משה למד מפי הגבורה נכנס אהרן ושנה לו משה פירקו נסתלק אהרן וישב לשמאל משה נכנסו בניו ושנה להן משה פירקן נסתלקו בניו אלעזר ישב לימין משה ואיתמר לשמאל אהרן רבי יהודה אומר לעולם אהרן לימין משה חוזר נכנסו זקנים ושנה להן משה פירקן נסתלקו זקנים נכנסו כל העם ושנה להן משה פירקן נמצאו ביד אהרן ארבעה ביד בניו שלשה וביד הזקנים שנים וביד כל העם אחד,נסתלק משה ושנה להן אהרן פירקו נסתלק אהרן שנו להן בניו פירקן נסתלקו בניו שנו להן זקנים פירקן נמצא ביד הכל ארבעה,מכאן א"ר אליעזר חייב אדם לשנות לתלמידו ארבעה פעמים וקל וחומר ומה אהרן שלמד מפי משה ומשה מפי הגבורה כך הדיוט מפי הדיוט על אחת כמה וכמה,ר"ע אומר מניין שחייב אדם לשנות לתלמידו עד שילמדנו שנאמר (דברים לא, יט) ולמדה את בני ישראל ומניין עד שתהא סדורה בפיהם שנאמר שימה בפיהם,ומניין שחייב להראות לו פנים שנאמר (שמות כא, א) ואלה המשפטים אשר תשים לפניהם,וליגמרו כולהו ממשה כדי לחלוק כבוד לאהרן ובניו וכבוד לזקנים,וניעול אהרן וניגמר ממשה וליעיילו בניו וליגמרו מאהרן וליעיילו זקנים ולילפו מבניו וליזלו וליגמרינהו לכולהו ישראל כיון דמשה מפי הגבורה גמר מסתייעא מלתיה,אמר מר רבי יהודה אומר לעולם אהרן לימין משה חוזר כמאן אזלא הא דתניא שלשה שהיו מהלכין בדרך הרב באמצע וגדול בימינו וקטן בשמאלו לימא רבי יהודה היא ולא רבנן,אפילו תימא רבנן משום טירחא דאהרן,רבי פרידא הוה ליה ההוא תלמידא דהוה תני ליה ארבע מאה זימני וגמר יומא חד בעיוה למלתא דמצוה תנא ליה ולא גמר,א"ל האידנא מאי שנא א"ל מדההיא שעתא דא"ל למר איכא מילתא דמצוה אסחאי לדעתאי וכל שעתא אמינא השתא קאי מר השתא קאי מר א"ל הב דעתיך ואתני ליך הדר תנא ליה ד' מאה זימני [אחריני],נפקא בת קלא וא"ל ניחא ליך דליספו לך ד' מאה שני או דתיזכו את ודרך לעלמא דאתי אמר דניזכו אנא ודריי לעלמא דאתי אמר להן הקב"ה תנו לו זו וזו,אמר רב חסדא אין תורה נקנית אלא בסימנין שנאמר שימה בפיהם אל תקרי שימה אלא סימנה,שמעה רב תחליפא ממערבא אזל אמרה קמיה דר' אבהו אמר אתון מהתם מתניתו לה אנן מהכא מתנינן לה (ירמיהו לא, כא) הציבי לך ציונים שימי לך וגו' עשו ציונים לתורה ומאי משמע דהאי ציון לישנא דסימנא הוא דכתיב (יחזקאל לט, טו) וראה עצם אדם ובנה אצלו ציון,ר' אליעזר אמר מהכא (משלי ז, ד) אמור לחכמה אחותי את ומודע לבינה תקרא עשה מודעים לתורה רבא אמר עשה מועדים לתורה 54b. bwhenever a person searches itfor figs to eat, bhe finds figs in it,as the figs on a tree do not ripen all at once, so that one can always find a recently ripened fig, bsotoo, with bmatters of Torah. Whenever a person meditates upon them, he finds in themnew bmeaning. /b, bRabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani said: What isthe meaning of bthat which is written: “A loving hind and a graceful roe,let her breasts satisfy you at all times, and be you ravished always with her love” (Proverbs 5:19)? bWhy were matters of Torah compared to a hind? To tell youthat bjust aswith ba hind, its womb is narrow and it is cherished by its mate each and every hour like the first hour, sotoo, bmatters of Torah are cherished by those who study them each and every hour like the first hour. /b, b“And a graceful roe”is expounded as follows: bThatthe Torah bbestows grace upon those who study it. “Let her breasts satisfy you at all times”; why were matters of Torah compared to a breast? Just aswith ba breast, whenever a baby searches itfor milk to suckle, bhe finds milk in it, sotoo, with bmatters of Torah. Whenever a person meditates upon them, he findsnew bmeaning in them. /b, b“And be you ravished always with her love”;your love for Torah should always distract you from worldly matters, bas wasthe case with bRabbi Elazar ben Pedat. They said of him, of Rabbi Elazar, that he would sit and engage in Torahstudy bin the lower marketplace of Tzippori, and his cloak was lying in the upper marketplace of Tzippori.His mind was so focused on Torah study that he would act in this unusual manner. In this regard, the Gemara relates that bit was taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Yitzḥak ben Elazar said: One time a person came to takethis cloak for himself band found a serpent on itguarding it.,In further praise of the Torah and those who study it, a Sage bof the school of Rav A taught: What isthe meaning of bthat which is written: “You that ride on white donkeys, you that sit on rich cloths, and you that walk by the way, tell of it”(Judges 5:10)? b“You that ride on white donkeys”; these are Torah scholars, who travel from city to city and from province to province to study Torah. “White [ itzeḥorot /i]”are those bwho make itclear bas noon[itzahorayim/b], i.e., who make the Torah comprehensible. b“You that sit on couches [ imidin /i]”refers to those bwho judge [ idanin /i] an absolutely true judgment. “And you that walk”; these are the masters of Bible,who are the least important of the scholars. b“By the way”; these are themore important bmasters of Mishna. “Tell of it”; these are the masters of Talmud,the most important of all, bas all their conversation isabout bmatters of Torah. /b,The Gemara continues with this topic: bRav Sheizvi said in the name of Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya: What isthe meaning of bthat which is written: “The slothful man [ iremiyya /i] will not roast [ iyaḥarokh /i] his catch”(Proverbs 12:27)? bThe deceitful [ irammai /i] hunter will not live [ iyiḥyeh /i] a long life [ iya’arikh /i].A deceitful hunter continues to hunt more and more animals without holding on to the animals he has already caught. Similarly, someone who continues to study new material without reviewing what he has already learned will not be successful., bRav Sheshet said:Will ba deceitful hunterhave something to broast?One who acts in this way is a fool, but it is hard to describe him as deceitful., bWhen Rav Dimi camefrom Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia, bhe said: This is comparable to a hunter who is hunting birds; if he breaksthe bwingsof the birds bone by oneas he captures them so that they will be unable to fly off again, his prey bwill be secured, and if not,they bwill not be secured.According to this explanation, the word irammaiis interpreted as cunning rather than deceitful. A cunning hunter secures his prey; similarly, a cunning student reviews each lesson and thereby retains that which he learns.,Similarly, bRabba said that Rav Seḥora said that Rav Huna said: What isthe meaning of bthat which is written: “Wealth gotten through vanity[ihevel/b] bshall be diminished; but he that gathers little by little shall increase”(Proverbs 13:11)? bIf a person turns his Torah into bundles[iḥavilot /i,derived from the word ihevelby replacing the ihehwith a iḥet /i], studying large amounts at the same time, his Torah bwill diminish. And if not,i.e., if he learns little by little and reviews what he has learned, bhe that gathers little by little shall increase. /b, bRabba said: The Sages know this, butnevertheless btransgress it,i.e., they fail to heed this advice. bRav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said: I did this,learning little by little and regularly reviewing what I had learned, bandmy learning bhasindeed bendured. /b,The Gemara continues to discuss methods of Torah study. bThe Sages taughtthe following ibaraita /i: bWhat was the order of teachingthe Oral Law? How was the Oral Law first taught? bMoses learneddirectly bfrom the mouth of the Almighty. Aaron enteredand sat before him, band Moses taught him his lessonas he had learned it from God. bAaron movedaside band sat to the left of Moses.Aaron’s bsons entered, and Moses taught them their lessonwhile Aaron listened. Aaron’s bsons movedaside; bElazar sat to the right of Moses and Itamarsat bto the left of Aaron. Rabbi Yehudadisagreed with the first itannawith regard to the seating arrangements and bsaid: Actually, Aaron would return tosit to bthe right of Moses. The elders entered and Moses taught them their lesson. The elders movedaside, and bthe entire nation entered and Moses taught them their lesson. Therefore, Aaron hadheard the lesson bfour times, his sonsheard it bthreetimes, bthe eldersheard it btwice, and the entire nationheard it bonce. /b, bMosesthen bdepartedto his tent, band Aaron taughtthe others bhis lessonas he had learned it from Moses. bAaronthen bdepartedand bhis sons taughtthe others btheir lesson. His sonsthen bdepartedand bthe elders taughtthe rest of the people btheir lesson. Hence everyone,Aaron, his sons, the elders and all the people, heard the lesson taught by God bfour times. /b, bFrom here Rabbi Eliezer said: A person is obligated to teach his studenthis lesson bfour times. Andit follows by way of ban ia fortioriinference: If Aaron, who learned from Moseshimself, band Moseshad received the Torah directly bfrom the mouth of the Almighty,needed bthisregimen; ban ordinarystudent learning bfrom the mouth of an ordinaryteacher, bhow much more somust he review his studies four times., bRabbi Akiva says: From wheredo we derive bthat a person is obligated to teach his student until he learnsthe material and understands it? bAs it is stated:“Now therefore write this song for you, band teach it to the children of Israel;put it in their mouths, that this song may be a witness for me against the children of Israel” (Deuteronomy 31:19). This verse indicates that one must teach Torah to others. bAnd from wheredo we derive that one must teach his students buntilthe material bis organized in their mouths? As it is stated: “Put it in their mouths,”so that they should be capable of teaching it to others., bAnd from wheredo we derive bthata teacher bmust showhis students bthe reasonsfor the teachings? bAs it is stated: “Now these are the judgments which you shall set before them”(Exodus 21:1), which indicates that the lesson must be set out in logical fashion for the students.,With regard to the manner in which the Oral Law was taught, the Gemara asks: bThey should all have studied from Moseshimself four times. The Gemara answers: The teaching was divided in this manner bin order to give honor to Aaron and his sons, andalso to give bhonor to the elders. /b,The Gemara asks why a different method was not adopted, one which would have involved less trouble for Moses: bAaron should have entered and studied from Moses; his sons shouldthen bhave entered and studied from Aaron; the elders shouldthen bhave entered and studied fromAaron’s bsons; andthen bthey should have goneout band taught all of the Jewish people.The Gemara answers: bSince Moses had studieddirectly bfrom the mouth of the Almighty, it would bemore beffectivefor everyone to hear the Torah at least once from Moses himself., bThe Master saidin the ibaraitathat bRabbi Yehuda says: Actually, Aaron would return tosit to bthe right of Moses,i.e., no matter how many people were present Aaron always sat to Moses’ right. The Gemara asks: bIn accordance with whoseopinion bwas it taughtin a ibaraitadealing with the rules of etiquette: If bthreepeople bwere walking along the way, the teachershould walk bin the middle and the greaterof the two students should be bto his right and the lesserone should be bto his left? Shall we saythat bit isthe opinion of bRabbi Yehuda and notthat of bthe Sages?According to the Sages, the greater of the two students should be positioned to the left of the teacher so that the student’s right side faces his teacher.,The Gemara answers: You can beven saythat this ibaraitawas taught in accordance with the opinion of bthe Sages,and the reason they said that Aaron remained to Moses’ left even after the others entered is bdue to the trouble to Aaronif he would have to stand up and sit down again.,Having discussed the importance of reviewing one’s Torah study, the Gemara relates that bRabbi Perida had a certain student whom he wouldhave to bteach four hundred times, andonly then would he blearnthe material, as he was incapable of understanding it otherwise. bOne day they requestedRabbi Perida’s presence bfor a mitzva matterafter the lesson. Rabbi Perida btaughthis student four hundred times as usual, bbutthis time the student bdid notsuccessfully blearnthe material.,Rabbi Perida bsaid to him: What is different nowthat you are unable to grasp the lesson? bHe said to him: From the time that they said to the Masterthat bthere is a mitzva matterfor which he is needed, bmy mind was distractedfrom the lesson band every moment I said: Now the Master will get up, now the Master will get upto go and perform the mitzva and he will not complete the lesson. Rabbi Perida bsaid to him: Pay attentionthis time band I will teach you,and know that I will not leave until you have fully mastered the lesson. bHe taught him again an additional four hundred times. /b,Due to the merit of Rabbi Perida’s great devotion to his students, ba Divine Voice emerged and said to him:Is it bpreferable to you that four hundred years be addedto your life, bor that you andthe rest of byour generationwill bmerit the World-to-Come? He said:I prefer bthat I and my generation merit the World-to-Come. The Holy One, Blessed be He, saidto the angels: bGive him both;he shall live a very long life and he and the rest of his generation will merit the World-to-Come.,The Gemara continues its discussion with regard to methods of Torah study: bRav Ḥisda said: The Torah can be acquired only withmnemonic bsignsthat aid the memory, bas it is stated: “Put it in their mouths.” Do not readthe phrase as: bPut it [ isimah /i], butrather as: bIts sign [ isimanah /i],thus indicating that mnemonic signs aid in memorizing the material., bRav Taḥalifa of the West,i.e., from Eretz Yisrael, bheard thisstatement and bwentand bsaid it before Rabbi Abbahu,who bsaid: You learn thisidea bfrom there; we learn it from here,as the verse states: b“Set up signposts [ itziyyunim /i] for yourself; establish youmarkers” (Jeremiah 31:20), which is understood to mean: bEstablishmnemonic bsigns for the Torah. And from wheremay it be inferred bthat thisterm itziyyundenotes a sign? As it is writtenin a different verse: “And when they that pass through shall pass through the land, band any sees a human bone, he shall set up a sign[itziyyun/b] bby it”(Ezekiel 39:15), i.e., a sign that there is a source of ritual impurity at that spot., bRabbi Eliezer saidthat we learn this same idea bfrom here: “Say to wisdom, you are my sister, and call understanding, your kinswoman [ imoda /i]”(Proverbs 7:4), which means: bEstablish signs [ imoda’im /i]that convey knowledge of bthe Torah. Rava saidwith regard to this verse: bSet appointed times [ imo’adim /i] for Torahstudy.
70. Babylonian Talmud, Ketuvot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

111b. שאין בה סמיכה עמידה שיש בה סמיכה נוחה הימנה,וכן אמרו יצחק ושמעון ואושעיא אמרו דבר אחד הלכה כר' יהודה בפרדות דתניא רבי יהודה אומר פרדה שתבעה אין מרביעין עליה לא סוס ולא חמור אלא מינה,אמר רב נחמן בר יצחק יצחק זה רבי יצחק נפחא שמעון זה ר"ש בן פזי ואמרי לה ר"ל אושעיא זה רבי אושעיא ברבי,אמר ר' אלעזר עמי הארצות אינן חיים שנאמר (ישעיהו כו, יד) מתים בל יחיו וגו' תניא נמי הכי מתים בל יחיו יכול לכל ת"ל רפאים בל יקומו במרפה עצמו מדברי תורה הכתוב מדבר,א"ל ר' יוחנן לא ניחא למרייהו דאמרת להו הכי ההוא במרפה עצמו לעבודת כוכבים הוא דכתיב א"ל מקרא אחר אני דורש דכתיב (ישעיהו כו, יט) כי טל אורות טליך וארץ רפאים תפיל כל המשתמש באור תורה אור תורה מחייהו וכל שאין משתמש באור תורה אין אור תורה מחייהו,כיון דחזייה דקמצטער א"ל רבי מצאתי להן תקנה מן התורה (דברים ד, ד) ואתם הדבקים בה' אלהיכם חיים כולכם היום וכי אפשר לדבוקי בשכינה והכתיב (דברים ד, כד) כי ה' אלהיך אש אוכלה,אלא כל המשיא בתו לתלמיד חכם והעושה פרקמטיא לתלמידי חכמים והמהנה תלמידי חכמים מנכסיו מעלה עליו הכתוב כאילו מדבק בשכינה,כיוצא בדבר אתה אומר (דברים ל, כ) לאהבה את ה' אלהיך ולדבקה בו וכי אפשר לאדם לידבק בשכינה אלא כל המשיא בתו לתלמיד חכם והעושה פרקמטיא לתלמידי חכמים והמהנה תלמידי חכמים מנכסיו מעלה עליו הכתוב כאילו מדבק בשכינה,א"ר חייא בר יוסף עתידין צדיקים שמבצבצין ועולין בירושלים שנאמר (תהלים עב, טז) ויציצו מעיר כעשב הארץ ואין עיר אלא ירושלים שנאמר (מלכים ב יט, לד) וגנותי אל העיר הזאת,וא"ר חייא בר יוסף עתידים צדיקים שיעמדו במלבושיהן ק"ו מחטה מה חטה שנקברה ערומה יוצאה בכמה לבושין צדיקים שנקברו בלבושיהן על אחת כמה וכמה,וא"ר חייא בר יוסף עתידה א"י שתוציא גלוסקאות וכלי מילת שנאמר (תהלים עב, טז) יהי פסת בר בארץ,ת"ר יהי פסת בר בארץ בראש הרים אמרו עתידה חטה שתתמר כדקל ועולה בראש הרים ושמא תאמר יש צער לקוצרה תלמוד לומר (תהלים עב, טז) ירעש כלבנון פריו הקב"ה מביא רוח מבית גנזיו ומנשבה עליה ומשרה את סלתה ואדם יוצא לשדה ומביא מלא פיסת ידו וממנה פרנסתו ופרנסת אנשי ביתו,(דברים לב, יד) עם חלב כליות חטה אמרו עתידה חטה שתהא כשתי כליות של שור הגדול ואל תתמה שהרי שועל קינן בלפת ושקלוהו ומצאו בו ששים ליטרין בליטרא של צפורי,תניא אמר רב יוסף מעשה בשיחין באחד שהניח לו אביו שלשה בדי חרדל ונפשח אחד מהן ונמצאו בו תשעה קבין חרדל ועציו סיככו בו סוכת יוצרין: אמר ר"ש בן תחליפא קלח של כרוב הניח לנו אבא והיינו עולים ויורדים בו בסולם,(דברים לב, יד) ודם ענב תשתה חמר אמרו לא כעולם הזה העולם הבא העולם הזה יש בו צער לבצור ולדרוך העולם הבא מביא ענוה אחת בקרון או בספינה ומניחה בזוית ביתו ומספק הימנה כפטוס גדול ועציו מסיקין תחת התבשיל ואין לך כל ענבה וענבה שאין בה שלשים גרבי יין שנא' (דברים לב, יד) ודם ענב תשתה חמר אל תקרי חמר אלא חומר,כי אתא רב דימי אמר מאי דכתיב (בראשית מט, יא) אוסרי לגפן עירה אין לך כל גפן וגפן שבא"י שאין צריך עיר אחת לבצור (בראשית מט, יא) ולשורקה בני אתונו אין לך כל אילן סרק שבא"י שאינו מוציא משוי שתי אתונות ושמא תאמר אין בו יין ת"ל (בראשית מט, יא) כבס ביין לבושו ושמא תאמר אינו אדום ת"ל ודם ענב תשתה חמר,ושמא תאמר אינו מרוה ת"ל סותה ושמא תאמר אין בו טעם ת"ל חכלילי עינים מיין כל חיך שטועמו אומר לי לי ושמא תאמר לנערים יפה ולזקנים אינו יפה ת"ל ולבן שנים מחלב אל תיקרי לבן שינים אלא לבן שנים,פשטיה דקרא במאי כתיב כי אתא רב דימי אמר אמרה כנסת ישראל לפני הקב"ה רבונו של עולם רמוז בעיניך דבסים מחמרא ואחוי לי שיניך דבסים מחלבא,מסייע ליה לר' יוחנן דאמר ר' יוחנן טוב המלבין שינים לחבירו יותר ממשקהו חלב שנאמר ולבן שנים מחלב אל תקרי לבן שינים אלא לבון שינים,רב חייא בר אדא מקרי דרדקי דר"ל הוה איפגר תלתא יומי ולא אתא כי אתא א"ל אמאי איפגרת,א"ל דלית אחת הניח לי אבא ובצרתי ממנה יום ראשון ג' מאות אשכולות אשכול לגרב יום שני בצרתי ג' מאות אשכולות שתי אשכולות לגרב יום שלישי בצרתי ממנה ג' מאות אשכולות שלש אשכולות לגרב והפקרתי יותר מחציה א"ל אי לאו דאיפגרת הוה עבדא טפי,רמי בר יחזקאל איקלע לבני ברק חזנהו להנהו עיזי דקאכלן תותי תאיני וקנטיף דובשא מתאיני וחלבא טייף מנייהו ומיערב בהדי הדדי אמר היינו זבת חלב ודבש,א"ר יעקב בן דוסתאי מלוד לאונו שלשה מילין פעם אחת קדמתי בנשף והלכתי עד קרסולי בדבש של תאינים אמר ר"ל לדידי חזי לי זבת חלב ודבש של צפורי והוי שיתסר מילין אשיתסר מילין אמר רבה בר בר חנה לדידי חזי לי זבת חלב ודבש של כל ארץ ישראל 111b. bwithout support, standing with a support,i.e. an object against which one can lean, bis better than it. /b, bAnd so too,the brothers bsaidto Rabba: bYitzḥak, Shimon, and Oshayaall bsaid the same statement:The ihalakhais in accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Yehuda with regard to female mules. As it is taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Yehuda says:With regard to ba female mule in heat, onemay bnot mate a horse or a donkey with her,due to the prohibition against crossbreeding of livestock. bRather,one mates her with bone of her kind,another mule., bRav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said,in explanation of this last statement of Rabba’s brothers: bYitzḥak isto be identified with bRabbi Yitzḥak Nappaḥa; Shimon is Rabbi Shimon ben Pazi. And some saythat he is bReish Lakish,i.e., Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish. bOshaya is Rabbi Oshaya the Distinguished /b.,§ bRabbi Elazar said: The common, uneducated peoplewill bnotcome balivein the future, bas it is stated: “The dead live not”(Isaiah 26:14). In other words, those who were already considered dead in their lifetimes will not come back to life afterward either. bThisidea bis also taughtin a ibaraita /i: b“The dead live not”;one bmighthave thought that this is referring bto everyone,i.e., none of the dead will live again. Therefore, bthe verse states: “The shades [ irefa’im /i] rise not”(Isaiah 26:14). This teaches that bthe verse is speaking of one who weakens [ imerapeh /i] himself from matters of Torah. /b, bRabbi Yoḥa said toRabbi Elazar: bTheir master,i.e. God, bis not pleased that you say this ofordinary Jews. Rather, bthatverse bis written about one who weakens himselfand succumbs bto idol worship.Those who commit this great sin do not merit to be resurrected in the future. Rabbi Elazar bsaid to him: I teachit from ba different verse, as it is written: “For Your dew is as the dew of light, and the earth shall bring to life the shades”(Isaiah 26:19). Rabbi Elazar explains: bAnyone who uses the light of Torah,which is called the dew of light, bthe light of Torahwill brevive him; and anyone who does not use the light of Torah, the light of Torahwill bnot revive him. /b, bSinceRabbi Elazar bsaw thatRabbi Yoḥa bwas grievedover the distress of common, uneducated people, bhe said to him: My teacher, I have found for them a remedy from the Torahso that they will merit life in the World-to-Come, as it states: b“But You who cleave to the Lord your God, are alive every one of you this day”(Deuteronomy 4:4). bBut is it possible to cleave to the Divine Presence? Isn’t it written: For the Lord your God is a devouring fire”(Deuteronomy 4:24)?, bRather,this verse teaches that banyone who marries his daughter to a Torah scholar, and one who conducts business [ iperakmatya /i] on behalf of Torah scholars,by investing their money, band one whoutilizes his wealth bto benefit Torah scholars with his propertyin some other way, bthe verse ascribes himcredit bas though he is cleaving to the Divine Presence. /b, bOn a similar note, you say:The verse states: b“To love the Lord your God,to hearken to His voice, band to cleave to Him”(Deuteronomy 30:20). bBut is it possible for a person to cleave to the Divine Presence? Rather, anyone who marries his daughter to a Torah scholar, and one who conducts business on behalf of Torah scholars, and one whoutilizes his wealth bto benefit Torah scholars with his property, the verse ascribes himcredit bas though he is cleaving to the Divine Presence. /b,§ bRabbi Ḥiyya bar Yosef said: In the future,at the time of the resurrection of the dead, bthe righteous will burst forth and arise in Jerusalem, as it is stated: “And may they blossom out of the city like the grass of the earth”(Psalms 72:16), bandthe term b“city”means bnothing otherthan bJerusalem, as it is stated: “For I will defend this city”(II Kings 19:34)., bAnd Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Yosef said: In the future the righteous will standup from their graves bin their clothes.This is derived by an ia fortiori /iinference bfromthe example of bwheat: Just as wheat, which is buried naked,i.e., the seed alone is planted, and yet it bemergesfrom the ground bwith several layers of garb,including straw and chaff, in the case of bthe righteous, who are buriedfully bclothed, all the more sodo they come out of the ground properly dressed., bAnd Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Yoseffurther bsaid: In the future Eretz Yisrael will produce cakes [ igeluskaot /i] andfine bwool clothing [ imeilat /i]that will grow from the ground, bas it is stated: “Let abundant [ ipissat /i] grain [ ibar /i] be in the land”(Psalms 72:16). The term ipissatis interpreted in a similar manner to iketonet passim /i, Joseph’s valuable clothing of many colors, while ibarcan mean bread.,§ bThe Sages taughtthe following with regard to the verse b“Let abundant [ ipissat /i] grain be in the land upon the top of the mountains”(Psalms 72:16). bThey said: In the future, wheat will rise up, and growtall blike a palm tree, and ascend to the top of the mountains. And lest you saythat if wheat will grow this tall bits reaperwill suffer bdiscomfort, thesame bverse states: “May his fruit rustle like Lebanon.” The Holy One, Blessed be He,will bbring a wind from His treasury and blow across, andthis will thereby binduce the flourto fall from the stalks of wheat, band a person will go out to the field and bring back a palmful [ ipissat /i]of flour, bfrom which he willprovide bhis livelihood and the livelihood of the members of his household. /b,It is stated: b“With the kidney-fat of wheat”(Deuteronomy 32:14). The Sages bsaid: In the future,each and every kernel of bwheat will be asbig as bthe two kidneys of the large ox. And do not be surprisedthat this is possible, bas there wasan incident involving ba fox that nested inside a turnip, and they weighedthis turnip, band they discoveredthat even discounting the space dug out by the fox, bitstill weighed bsixty ilitra /i,as measured bby the ilitraof Tzippori. /b,Similarly, bit is taughtin a ibaraitathat bRav Yosef said:There was ban incidentwhich occurred binthe village of bShiḥin,in Eretz Yisrael, binvolving one whose father had left him three branches of mustard, one of which broke. And they discovered onthis one branch alone bnine ikavof mustard. Andwith the bwood of itslarge branches bthey roofed a booth for artisans.Similarly, bRabbi Shimon ben Taḥlifa said: Father left us a cabbage stalk and we would go up and down on it with a ladder,due to its great height.,§ It is stated: b“And from the blood of the grape you drank foaming wine”(Deuteronomy 32:14). The Sages bsaid: The World-to-Come is not like this world.In bthis world there is sufferinginvolved bin pickinggrapes bandin bpressingthem. By contrast, in the bWorld-to-Comeone will bbring one grape in a wagon or on a boat and set it down in a corner of his house and supply from it enoughto fill baboutthe amount of ba large jug [ ipitus /i], and with its wood one will kindlea fire bunder a cooked dish. And every grape you have will produce no lessthan bthirty full jugs of wine,each with the capacity of a ise’a /i. bAs it is stated: “And from the blood of the grape you drank foaming wine [ iḥamer /i].” Do not readthis term as iḥamer /i; rather,read it as iḥomer /i,which is a measure equaling thirty ise’a /i.,§ bWhen Rav Dimi camefrom Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia, bhe said: What isthe meaning of that bwhich is written: “Binding his foal to the vine”(Genesis 49:11), which is interpreted as a prophecy for the future? It means that bevery grapevine you have in Eretz Yisrael requires a foal tocarry the load of its bharvest.The verse continues: b“And his donkey’s colt to the choice vine [ isoreka /i].”The Gemara explains: bEvery barren [ iserak /i] tree you have in Eretz Yisrael will producesufficient fruit in the future bto loadupon btwo donkeys. And lest you saythat these trees bdo not contain wine, thesame bverse states: “He washes his garments in wine.” And lest you saythat the wine bis not red, the verse states: “And from the blood of the grape you drank foaming wine”(Deuteronomy 32:14)., bAnd lest you saythat this wine bdoes not inebriatethose who drink it, bthe verse states: “And his vesture [ isuto /i]in the blood of grapes” (Genesis 49:11). This verse indicates that these wines will induce [ imesit /i] a state of drunkenness. bAnd lest you saythat this wine bhas no flavor, the verse states: “His eyes shall be red [ iḥakhlili /i] with wine”(Genesis 49:12). This unusual term is read homiletically as follows: bEach palate [ iḥeikh /i] that tastes it says:This is bfor me, for me [ ili li /i]. And lest you saythat the wine bis good for the young but it is not good for the old, the verse states: “And his teeth white [ ileven shinayim /i] with milk”(Genesis 49:12). bDo not readthis expression as ileven shinayim /i; rather,read it as ileven shanim /i,one of years, i.e., an elderly person.,The Gemara asks: bTo what does the plain meaning ofthe aforementioned bverse refer? When Rav Dimi camefrom Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia, bhe said: The congregation of Israel said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe: Hint with Your eyesa love bthat is sweeter than wine, and show me Your teeththrough a smile bthat is sweeter than milk. /b,The Gemara comments: This interpretation bsupportsthe opinion bof Rabbi Yoḥa. As Rabbi Yoḥa said: One who whitens his teeth to his friendby smiling at him bis better than one who gives him milk to drink, as it is stated: “And his teeth white [ ileven shinayim /i] with milk”(Genesis 49:12). bDo not readthis expression as ileven shinayim /i; rather,read it as ilibbun shinayim /i,the whitening of teeth. Likewise, the phrase: With milk, can be read as: Than milk.,§ The Gemara relates further stories concerning the great bounty of Eretz Yisrael. bRav Ḥiyya bar Adda was a school teacher of Reish Lakish.On one occasion, Rav Ḥiyya bar Adda bwas delayed for three days and did not cometo teach the children. bWhen hefinally bcame,Reish Lakish bsaid to him: Why were you delayed? /b,Rav Ḥiyya bar Adda bsaid to him: Father left me one branchof a grape vine, band I harvested from iton the bfirst day three hundred grape clusters,and each bclusteryielded a quantity of wine enough btofill ba jug.On the bsecond day I harvestedanother bthree hundred grape clusters,and every btwo clustersyielded enough wine btofill ba jug.On bthe third day Ionce again bharvested three hundred grape clusters,and every bthree clustersyielded enough btofill ba jug, and I declared ownerless more than half of it.Reish Lakish bsaid to him: Had you not delayedand thereby disrupted the Torah study of children, each grape cluster bwould have produced morewine. Due to your cancellation of Torah study, each cluster yielded progressively less.,§ bRami bar Yeḥezkel happenedto come bto Benei Berak.He bsaw those goats that were grazing beneath a figtree, band there was honey oozing from the figs and milk dripping fromthe goats, bandthe two liquids bwere mixing together. He said: This isthe meaning of the verse “A land bflowing with milk and honey”(Exodus 3:8)., bRabbi Ya’akov ben Dostai said: There are three imilfrom Lud to Ono. Once I rose early in the morning and I walked in ankle-deep honeyoozing bfrom fig trees. Reish Lakish said: I myself sawa region called: The place bflowing with milk and honey by Tzippori, and it wasan area that covered bsixteen by sixteen imil /i,256 square imil /i. bRabba bar bar Ḥana said: I myself sawthe region bflowing with milk and honey of all Eretz Yisrael, /b
71. Babylonian Talmud, Megillah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

31b. ראש חדש אב שחל להיות בשבת מפטירין (ישעיהו א, יד) חדשיכם ומועדיכם שנאה נפשי היו עלי לטורח מאי היו עלי לטורח אמר הקב"ה לא דיין להם לישראל שחוטאין לפני אלא שמטריחין אותי לידע איזו גזירה קשה אביא עליהם,בתשעה באב גופיה מאי מפטרינן אמר רב (ישעיהו א, כא) איכה היתה לזונה מקרא מאי תניא אחרים אומרים (ויקרא כו, יד) ואם לא תשמעו לי ר' נתן בר יוסף אומר (במדבר יד, יא) עד אנה ינאצוני העם הזה ויש אומרים (במדבר יד, כז) עד מתי לעדה הרעה הזאת אמר אביי האידנא נהוג עלמא למיקרי (דברים ד, כה) כי תוליד בנים ומפטירין (ירמיהו ח, יג) אסוף אסיפם:,[במעמדות] במעשה בראשית וכו': מנהני מילי א"ר אמי אלמלא מעמדות לא נתקיימו שמים וארץ שנאמר (ירמיהו לג, כה) אם לא בריתי יומם ולילה חוקות שמים וארץ לא שמתי,וכתיב (בראשית טו, ב) ויאמר ה' אלהים במה אדע כי אירשנה אמר אברהם לפני הקב"ה רבש"ע שמא ח"ו ישראל חוטאים לפניך ואתה עושה להם כדור המבול וכדור הפלגה אמר לו לאו,אמר לפניו רבש"ע במה אדע אמר לו קחה לי עגלה משולשת וגו' אמר לפניו רבש"ע תינח בזמן שבית המקדש קיים בזמן שאין בית המקדש קיים מה תהא עליהם אמר לו כבר תקנתי להם סדר קרבנות כל זמן שקוראין בהן מעלה אני עליהן כאילו מקריבין לפני קרבן ומוחל אני על כל עונותיהם:,בתעניות ברכות וקללות ואין מפסיקין בקללות: מה"מ אמר ר' חייא בר גמדא אמר רבי אסי דאמר קרא (משלי ג, יא) מוסר ה' בני אל תמאס,ריש לקיש אמר לפי שאין אומרים ברכה על הפורענות אלא היכי עביד תנא כשהוא מתחיל מתחיל בפסוק שלפניהם וכשהוא מסיים מסיים בפסוק שלאחריהן,אמר אביי לא שנו אלא בקללות שבתורת כהנים אבל קללות שבמשנה תורה פוסק מאי טעמא הללו בלשון רבים אמורות ומשה מפי הגבורה אמרן והללו בלשון יחיד אמורות ומשה מפי עצמו אמרן,לוי בר בוטי הוה קרי וקא מגמגם קמיה דרב הונא בארורי אמר לו אכנפשך לא שנו אלא קללות שבתורת כהנים אבל שבמשנה תורה פוסק,תניא ר' שמעון בן אלעזר אומר עזרא תיקן להן לישראל שיהו קורין קללות שבתורת כהנים קודם עצרת ושבמשנה תורה קודם ר"ה מאי טעמא אמר אביי ואיתימא ריש לקיש כדי שתכלה השנה וקללותיה,בשלמא שבמשנה תורה איכא כדי שתכלה שנה וקללותיה אלא שבתורת כהנים אטו עצרת ראש השנה היא אין עצרת נמי ראש השנה היא דתנן ובעצרת על פירות האילן,תניא רבי שמעון בן אלעזר אומר אם יאמרו לך זקנים סתור וילדים בנה סתור ואל תבנה מפני שסתירת זקנים בנין ובנין נערים סתירה וסימן לדבר (מלכים א יב, כא) רחבעם בן שלמה,ת"ר מקום שמפסיקין בשבת שחרית שם קורין במנחה במנחה שם קורין בשני בשני שם קורין בחמישי בחמישי שם קורין לשבת הבאה דברי ר' מאיר ר' יהודה אומר מקום שמפסיקין בשבת שחרית שם קורין במנחה ובשני ובחמישי ולשבת הבאה,אמר רבי זירא הלכה מקום שמפסיקין בשבת שחרית שם קורין במנחה ובשני ובחמישי ולשבת הבאה ולימא הלכה כרבי יהודה 31b. When the bNew Moon of Av occurs on Shabbat, they read as the ihaftara /ithe portion that includes the verse b“Your New Moons and your Festivals, My soul hated; they were a burden to Me”(Isaiah 1:14). The Gemara asks: bWhat isthe meaning of: b“They were a burden to Me”?The Gemara explains: bThe Holy One, Blessed be He, said: It is not enough for the Jewish people that they sin before Me, butin addition, bthey burden Me to reconsider what harsh decree I shall bring upon them,for they are petitioning Me to annul those decrees.,The Gemara asks: bOnthe bNinth of Av itself, what do we read as the ihaftara /i? Rav said:The portion containing the verse b“Howdid the faithful city bbecome a harlot?”(Isaiah 1:21). The Gemara asks: bWhat Torah portiondo they read? bIt is taughtin a ibaraitathat bothers say:They read the portion containing the verse b“But if you will not hearken to me”(Leviticus 26:14). bRabbi Natan bar Yosef said:They read the portion containing the verse: b“How long will this people provoke me?”(Numbers 14:11). bAnd some say:They read the portion containing the verse: b“How long shall I bear with this evil congregation?”(Numbers 14:27). The Gemara comments that bAbaye said: Nowadays, everyone is accustomed to readthe portion of b“When you shall beget children”(Deuteronomy 4:25–40), band they read as the ihaftara /ithe portion of b“I will utterly consume them”(Jeremiah 8:13–9:23).,§ The mishna states: bIn thenon-priestly bwatchesthey read bthe act of Creation.The Gemara asks: bFrom where are these mattersderived, i.e., why do they read the account of Creation? bRabbi Ami said:To allude to the fact that bwere it not forthe non-priestly bwatches, heaven and earth would not endure, as it is stated: “Were it not for My covet day and night, I would not have set the statutes of heaven and earth”(Jeremiah 33:25). God’s covet is referring to the offerings sacrificed in the Temple, which sustain the world., bAndwith regard to Abraham bit is written: “And he said, O Lord God, by what shall I know that I shall inherit it?”(Genesis 15:8). bAbraham said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe, perhaps, Heaven forbid, the Jewish people will sin before You, and You will do to them asYou did to the bgeneration of the Flood and asYou did to the bgeneration of the Dispersion,i.e., You will completely destroy them? God bsaid to him: No,I will not do that.,Abraham then bsaid before Him: Master of the Universe: “By what shall I know this?”God bsaid to him: “Take Me a heifer of three years old”(Genesis 15:9). With this, God intimated to Abraham that even if his descendants will sin, they will be able to achieve atonement through sacrificing offerings. Abraham bsaid before Him: Master of the Universe,this bworks out well when the Temple is standingand offerings can be brought to achieve atonement, but bwhen the Temple will nolonger bbe standing, what will become of them?God bsaid to him: I have already established for them the order of offerings,i.e., the verses of the Torah pertaining to the ihalakhotof the offerings. bWhenever they read thoseportions, bI will deem it as if they sacrificed an offering before Me, and I will pardon them for all of their iniquities. /b,§ The mishna states: bOn fast daysthe congregation reads the portion of bblessings and curses(Leviticus, chapter 16), band one may not interruptthe reading of the bcursesby having two different people read them. Rather, one person reads all of them. The Gemara asks: bFrom where are these mattersderived? Why does one not interrupt the reading of the curses? bRabbi Ḥiyya bar Gamda saidthat bRabbi Asi said: For the verse states: “My son, do not despise the chastening of the Lord,nor be weary of His correction” (Proverbs 3:11). If one makes a break in the middle of the curses, it appears as if he loathes rebuke., bReish Lakish saida different answer: It is bbecause one does not say a blessing over a calamity.If a second person were to begin to read in the middle of the portion of the curses, the blessing upon his reading would be considered a blessing over a calamity. bRather,what bdoes one do?It is btaughtin a ibaraita /i: bWhen one beginsthe reading, bone begins with the verse beforethe curses, band when one concludesthe reading, bone concludes with the verse after them.In this way, neither the blessing before the reading nor after it relates directly to verses of calamity., bAbaye said: They taughtthis bonly with regard to the curses that arerecorded bin Leviticus, but with regard to the curses that arerecorded bin Deuteronomy, one may interruptthem by having two different people read them. bWhat is the reasonfor this distinction? bThesecurses in Leviticus bare stated in the plural, and Moses pronounced them from the mouth of the Almighty.As such, they are more severe. However, bthesecurses in Deuteronomy bare stated in the singular, and Moses said them on his own,like the rest of the book of Deuteronomy. They are therefore less harsh and may be interrupted.,It was related that bLevi bar Buti wasonce breading theportion of the bcurses before Rav Huna, and he was stammeringin his reading, as it was difficult for him to utter such harsh pronouncements. Rav Huna bsaid to him: If you wish,you may stop where you are and a different reader will continue, for bthey taughtone may not have two people read the curses bonly with regard to the curses that arerecorded bin Leviticus. But with regard to the curses that arerecorded bin Deuteronomy, one may interruptthem by having two different people read them., bIt is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bRabbi Shimon ben Elazar said: Ezra enacted for the Jewish people that they should readthe portion of bthe curses that arerecorded bin Leviticus before iShavuotandthe portion of the curses bthat arerecorded bin Deuteronomy before Rosh HaShana.The Gemara asks: bWhat is the reasonfor this? bAbaye said, and some saythat it was bReish Lakishwho said: bIn order that the year may concludetogether with bits curses,and the new year may begin without the ominous reading of the curses.,The Gemara asks: bGranted,with regard to the curses bthat arerecorded bin Deuteronomy, there isrelevance to the reason: bIn order that the year may concludetogether with bits curses,for Rosh HaShana is clearly the beginning of a new year. bHowever,with regard to the curses bthat arerecorded bin Leviticus,what relevance does that reason have? bIs that to say iShavuotis a new year?The Gemara answers: bYes,indeed, iShavuotis also a new year, as we learnedin a mishna ( iRosh HaShana16a): bAnd on iShavuot /i,divine judgment is made bconcerning the fruit of the trees,which indicates that iShavuotalso has the status of a new year., bIt is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bRabbi Shimon ben Elazar says: If old men say to you: Demolish, and childrensay to you: bBuild,then bdemolish and do not build, because the demolishing of old men isultimately as constructive as bbuilding,despite the fact that it appears destructive, band the building of children isas destructive as bdemolishing. An indication of this matteris bRehoboam, son of Solomon.He ignored the advice of the Elders and did not lower himself before his people, which ultimately led to the people rebelling against him., bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: With regard to bthe placein the Torah bwherethe congregation bconcludesthe reading bon Shabbat morning,it is from btherethat btheycontinue to bread in the afternoonservice on Shabbat. Where they conclude bin the afternoonservice on Shabbat, from bthere theycontinue to bread on Mondaymorning. Where they conclude bon Monday,from bthere theycontinue to bread on Thursdaymorning. Where they conclude bon Thursday,from bthere theycontinue to bread on the coming Shabbat.This is bthe statement of Rabbi Meir. Rabbi Yehuda says:With regard to bthe placein the Torah bwhere they concludethe reading bon Shabbat morning,it is from btherethat btheycontinue to bread in the afternoonservice on Shabbat. bAndfrom that same place btheycontinue to bread on Mondaymorning, band on Thursdaymorning, band on the coming Shabbat. /b,The Gemara notes that bRabbi Zeira said: The ihalakha /iis that with regard to bthe place where they concludethe reading bon Shabbat morning,it is from btherethat btheycontinue to bread in the afternoonservice on Shabbat. bAndfrom that same place btheycontinue to bread on Mondaymorning, band on Thursdaymorning, band on the coming Shabbat.The Gemara asks: If so, blet himsimply bsay: The ihalakhais in accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Yehuda.Why did he have to explicitly state the whole ihalakha /i?
72. Babylonian Talmud, Pesahim, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

57a. נימא תלתא תנאי הוו לא תרי תנאי הוו ותנא קמא דר' שמעון היינו ר' יוסי ותנא קמא דר' יוסי היינו ר' שמעון ומאי אף אקמייתא,ת"ר בן בוהיין נתן פיאה לירק ובא אביו ומצאן לעניים שהיו טעונין ירק ועומדין על פתח הגינה אמר להם בני השליכו מעליכם ואני נותן לכם כפליים במעושר לא מפני שעיני צרה אלא מפני שאמרו חכמים אין נותנין פיאה לירק,למה ליה למימרא להו לא מפני שעיני צרה כי היכי דלא לימרו דחויי קא מדחי לן,ת"ר בראשונה היו מניחין עורות קדשים בלשכת בית הפרוה לערב היו מחלקין אותן לאנשי בית אב והיו בעלי זרועות נוטלין אותן בזרוע התקינו שיהיו מחלקין אותן מערב שבת לע"ש דאתיין כולהו משמרות ושקלן בהדדי,ועדיין היו גדולי כהונה נוטלין אותן בזרוע עמדו בעלים והקדישום לשמים,אמרו לא היו ימים מועטים עד שחיפו את ההיכל כולו בטבלאות של זהב שהן אמה על אמה כעובי דינר זהב ולרגל היו מקפלין אותן ומניחין אותן על גב מעלה בהר הבית כדי שיהו עולי רגלים רואין שמלאכתם נאה ואין בה דלם,תנא אבא שאול אומר קורות של שקמה היו ביריחו והיו בעלי זרועות נוטלין אותן בזרוע עמדו בעלים והקדישום לשמים,עליהם ועל כיוצא בהם אמר אבא שאול בן בטנית משום אבא יוסף בן חנין אוי לי מבית בייתוס אוי לי מאלתן אוי לי מבית חנין אוי לי מלחישתן אוי לי מבית קתרוס אוי לי מקולמוסן אוי לי מבית ישמעאל בן פיאכי אוי לי מאגרופן שהם כהנים גדולים ובניהן גיזברין וחתניהם אמרכלין ועבדיהן חובטין את העם במקלות,תנו רבנן ארבע צווחות צוחה עזרה ראשונה צאו מכאן בני עלי שטימאו היכל ה' ועוד צווחה צא מיכן יששכר איש כפר ברקאי שמכבד את עצמו ומחלל קדשי שמים דהוה כריך ידיה בשיראי ועביד עבודה,ועוד צווחה העזרה שאו שערים ראשיכם ויכנס ישמעאל בן פיאכי תלמידו של פנחס וישמש בכהונה גדולה ועוד צווחה העזרה שאו שערים ראשיכם ויכנס יוחנן בן נרבאי תלמידו של פנקאי וימלא כריסו מקדשי שמים,אמרו עליו על יוחנן בן נרבאי שהיה אוכל ג' מאות עגלים ושותה ג' מאות גרבי יין ואוכל ארבעים סאה גוזלות בקינוח סעודה אמרו כל ימיו של יוחנן בן נרבאי לא נמצא נותר במקדש מאי סלקא ביה ביששכר איש כפר ברקאי אמרי מלכא ומלכתא הוו יתבי מלכא אמר גדיא יאי ומלכתא אמרה אימרא יאי אמרו מאן מוכח כהן גדול דקא מסיק קרבנות כל יומא אתא איהו 57a. bLet us saythat bthere are three itanna’im /iwho dispute this point: The two unattributed opinions, each of which is referring to two vegetables, and the opinion common to Rabbi Yosei and Rabbi Shimon that includes all three vegetables. The Gemara rejects this: bNo, there areonly btwo itanna’im /iwho dispute the point, band the first itanna /iwhose opinion appears before the opinion of bRabbi Shimon is Rabbi Yosei. And the first itanna /iwhose opinion appears before the opinion of bRabbi Yosei is Rabbi Shimon. And whatis the meaning of the word bevenin both their statements? They agree with regard to bthe firstvegetable, turnips; however, they disagree with regard to the second, and replace it with another vegetable.,The Gemara cites an episode from the iTosefta /i. bThe Sages taught: The sonof a man named bBohayan designatedfor the poor btheproduce in the bcornerin a garden bof vegetables, and his fatherBohayan bfound the poor ladenwith bvegetables and standing at the opening of the gardenon their way out. bHe said to them: My sons, castthe vegetables that you have gathered bfrom upon yourselves and I will give you twicethe amount in btithedproduce, and you will be no worse off. bNot because I begrudgeyou what you have taken. bRather, it is because the Sages say: One does not designatefor the poor btheproduce in the bcornerin a garden bof vegetables.Therefore, the vegetables that you took require tithing.,The Gemara asks: bWhywas it necessary bfor him to say to them: Not because I begrudgeyou what you have taken? It would have been sufficient to offer them tithed produce. The Gemara answers that he said it bso they would not say: He is putting us off,taking what we collected now, but later he will not fulfill his commitment.,Apropos the people of Jericho, the Gemara relates that powerful people would steal wood from them. bThe Sages taught: Initially,the priests bwould place the hidesthat were flayed from animals bconsecratedas offerings of the most sacred order, which were given to the priests, bin the Parva chamber. In the evening, they would distribute them to the members of the familyof priests serving in the Temple that day. bAnd the powerfulpriests among them would btake them by forcebefore they could be distributed. The Rabbis bdecreed that they would distribute them each Shabbat eve,because then ball thefamilies of both priestly bwatches came and tooktheir part btogether.All the families from both the watch that was beginning its service and the one ending its service were together when they divided the hides. The powerful priests were unable to take the hides by force., bYet still the prominent priestsby virtue of their lineage bwould take them by force.Due to their prominence, the members of the rest of the watch dared not challenge them. When they realized that there was no equitable distribution, bthe ownersof the sacrifices ( iMe’iri /i) barose and consecratedthe hides bto Heavenso the priests could not take them.,The Sages bsaid: Not a few days passed before they had plated the entire sanctuary with golden tabletswith the proceeds from the redemption and sale of the hides. These plates bwere one cubit by one cubit and as thick as a golden dinar. Andwhen the people assembled bfor theFestival bpilgrimage they would removethe tablets band place them on a stair of the Temple Mount so that the pilgrims would see that the craftsmanshipof the tablets bwas beautiful and without flaw [ idalam /i].Afterward they replaced the tablets in the Sanctuary., bIt wassimilarly btaughtthat bAbba Shaul says: There were sycamore tree trunks in Jericho, and powerful people would take themfrom their owners bby force. The owners stood and consecratedthese trunks bto Heaven.It was with regard to these trunks and the branches that grew from them that the residents of Jericho acted against the will of the Sages., bWith regard tothe prominent priests band those like them, Abba Shaul ben Batnit said in the name of Abba Yosef ben Ḥanin: Woe is me due tothe High Priests of bthe house of Baitos, woe is me due to their clubs. Woe is me due tothe High Priests of bthe house of Ḥanin; woe is me due to their whispersand the rumors they spread. bWoe is me due tothe High Priests of bthe house of Katros; woe is me due to their pensthat they use to write lies. bWoe is me due tothe servants of the High Priests of bthe house of Yishmael ben Piakhi; woe is me due to their fists.The power of these households stemmed from the fact bthatthe fathers bwere High Priests, and their sons werethe Temple btreasurers, and their sons-in-law wereTemple boverseers [ iamarkalin /i]. And their servants strike the people with clubs,and otherwise act inappropriately.,Apropos the critique of several prominent priests, the Gemara relates that bthe Sages taught:The people in btheTemple bcourtyardall bcried four cries,as they were in agreement over various issues ( iPardes Rimonim /i). The bfirstcry was: bLeave here, sons of Eli, who defiled God’s Sanctuary(see I Samuel 2:22). Subsequently the priesthood was transferred to the house of Zadok. bAnd an additional cry: Leave here, Yissakhar of Kfar Barkai, who honors himself and desecratesthe items bconsecratedto bHeaven.Due to his delicate nature and his disrespect for the Temple service, he would bwraphis hands bin silk [ ishirai /i] and perform the service.This would invalidate the service because the silk was an interposition between his hands and the Temple vessels. Furthermore, his conduct demeaned the Temple service, as he demonstrated that he was unwilling to dirty his hands for it., bAndthe people in btheTemple bcourtyard cried additionally: Lift your heads, O gates, and letthe righteous bYishmael ben Piakhi, the student of Pinehasben Elazar the priest, benter and serve as High Priest,although the members of this family were violent. bAndthe people in btheTemple bcourtyard cried additionally: Lift your heads, O gates, and let Yoḥa ben Narbbai, the student of Pinkai, enter and fill his belly withmeat bof offeringsconsecrated to bHeaven,as he is worthy to eat offerings., bThey said about Yoḥa ben Narbbai that heand his household bwould eat three hundred calves, and drink three hundred jugs of wine, and eat forty ise’aof doves for dessert. They said:Throughout ball the days of Yoḥa ben Narbbai there was no leftoversacrificial meat bin the Temple,as he would make certain that someone ate it. The Gemara asks: bWhatultimately bhappened to Yissakhar of Kfar Barkai? They said: The king and the queen were sittingand talking. bThe king saidthat bgoatmeat bis betterfood, band the queen said lambmeat is bbetterfood. bThey said: Who can provewhich one of us is correct? bThe High Priestcan, bas he offers sacrifices all dayand tastes their meat. The High Priest had the right to take a portion from any sacrifice offered in the Temple, and therefore was well acquainted with the tastes of different meat. Yissakhar of Kfar Barkai bcame,and when they asked him this question
73. Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

11a. במזומנין לה מעשה ברבן גמליאל שאמר השכימו לי שבעה לעלייה השכים ומצא שמונה אמר מי הוא שעלה שלא ברשות ירד,עמד שמואל הקטן ואמר אני הוא שעליתי שלא ברשות ולא לעבר השנה עליתי אלא ללמוד הלכה למעשה הוצרכתי אמר לו שב בני שב ראויות כל השנים כולן להתעבר על ידך אלא אמרו חכמים אין מעברין את השנה אלא במזומנין לה ולא שמואל הקטן הוה אלא איניש אחרינא ומחמת כיסופא הוא דעבד,כי הא דיתיב רבי וקא דריש והריח ריח שום אמר מי שאכל שום יצא עמד רבי חייא ויצא עמדו כולן ויצאו בשחר מצאו רבי שמעון בר' לרבי חייא אמר ליה אתה הוא שציערת לאבא אמר לו לא תהא כזאת בישראל,ורבי חייא מהיכא גמיר לה מרבי מאיר דתניא מעשה באשה אחת שבאתה לבית מדרשו של ר"מ אמרה לו רבי אחד מכם קדשני בביאה עמד רבי מאיר וכתב לה גט כריתות ונתן לה עמדו כתבו כולם ונתנו לה,ור"מ מהיכא גמיר לה משמואל הקטן ושמואל הקטן מהיכא גמיר לה משכניה בן יחיאל דכתיב (עזרא י, ב) ויען שכניה בן יחיאל מבני עילם ויאמר לעזרא אנחנו מעלנו באלהינו ונושב נשים נכריות מעמי הארץ ועתה יש מקוה לישראל על זאת,ושכניה בן יחיאל מהיכא גמר לה מיהושע דכתיב (יהושע ז, י) ויאמר ה' אל יהושע קום לך למה זה אתה נופל על פניך חטא ישראל אמר לפניו רבש"ע מי חטא אמר לו וכי דילטור אני לך הטל גורלות ואיבעית אימא ממשה דכתיב (שמות טז, כח) עד אנה מאנתם,ת"ר משמתו נביאים האחרונים חגי זכריה ומלאכי נסתלקה רוח הקודש מישראל ואף על פי כן היו משתמשין בבת קול פעם אחת היו מסובין בעליית בית גוריה ביריחו ונתנה עליהם בת קול מן השמים יש כאן אחד שראוי שתשרה עליו שכינה (כמשה רבינו) אלא שאין דורו זכאי לכך נתנו חכמים את עיניהם בהלל הזקן וכשמת אמרו עליו הי חסיד הי עניו תלמידו של עזרא,שוב פעם אחת היו מסובין בעליה ביבנה ונתנה עליהם בת קול מן השמים יש כאן אחד שראוי שתשרה עליו שכינה אלא שאין דורו זכאי לכך נתנו חכמים את עיניהם בשמואל הקטן וכשמת אמרו עליו הי חסיד הי עניו תלמידו של הלל אף הוא אמר בשעת מיתתו שמעון וישמעאל לחרבא וחברוהי לקטלא ושאר עמא לביזא ועקן סגיאן עתידן למיתי על עלמא,ועל יהודה בן בבא בקשו לומר כן אלא שנטרפה שעה שאין מספידין על הרוגי מלכות,ת"ר אין מעברין את השנה אלא אם כן ירצה נשיא ומעשה ברבן גמליאל שהלך ליטול רשות אצל שלטון אחד שבסוריא ושהה לבא ועיברו את השנה על מנת שירצה רבן גמליאל וכשבא ר"ג ואמר רוצה אני נמצאת שנה מעוברת,תנו רבנן אין מעברין את השנה אלא אם כן היתה צריכה מפני הדרכים ומפני הגשרים ומפני תנורי פסחים ומפני גליות ישראל שנעקרו ממקומן ועדיין לא הגיעו אבל לא מפני השלג ולא מפני הצינה ולא מפני גליות ישראל שלא עקרו ממקומן,ת"ר אין מעברין את השנה לא מפני הגדיים ולא מפני הטלאים ולא מפני הגוזלות שלא פירחו אבל עושין אותן סעד לשנה כיצד רבי ינאי אומר משום רבן שמעון בן גמליאל מהודעין אנחנא לכון דגוזליא רכיכין ואימריא דערקין וזימנא דאביבא לא מטא ושפרת מילתא באנפאי ואוסיפית על שתא דא תלתין יומין,מיתיבי כמה עיבור השנה שלשים יום רבן שמעון בן גמליאל אומר חדש אמר רב פפא רצו חדש רצו שלשים יום,תא חזי מאי איכא בין 11a. bbythose bwho were invitedby the iNasi /i, the president of the Great Sanhedrin, bfor thatpurpose. There was ban incident involving Rabban Gamliel, who saidto the Sages: bBring me sevenof the Sages bearlytomorrow morning bto the loftdesignated for convening a court to intercalate the year. He bwentto the loft bearlythe next morning band found eightSages there. Rabban Gamliel bsaid: Who is it who ascendedto the loft bwithout permission? He must descendimmediately., bShmuel HaKatan stoodup band said: I am he who ascended without permission; and I did not ascend toparticipate and be one of those to bintercalate the year, butrather bI neededto observe in order bto learn the practical ihalakha /i.Rabban Gamliel bsaid to him: Sit, my son, sit. It would be fitting for all of the years to be intercalated by you,as you are truly worthy. bBut the Sages said: The yearmay be bintercalated only bythose bwho were invited for thatpurpose. The Gemara notes: bAnd it was notactually bShmuel HaKatanwho had come uninvited, bbut another person. And due to the embarrassmentof the other, Shmuel HaKatan bdidthis, so that no one would know who had come uninvited.,The Gemara relates that the story about Shmuel HaKatan is bsimilarto an incident that occurred bwhen RabbiYehuda HaNasi was bsitting and teaching, andhe bsmelled the odor of garlic.Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi was very sensitive and could not tolerate this odor. He bsaid: Whoever ate garlicshould bleave. Rabbi Ḥiyya stood up and left.Out of respect for Rabbi Ḥiyya, ball of thosein attendance bstood up and left.The next day, bin the morning, Rabbi Shimon, son of RabbiYehuda HaNasi, bfound Rabbi Ḥiyya,and he bsaid to him:Are byou the one who disturbed my fatherby coming to the lecture with the foul smell of garlic? Rabbi Ḥiyya bsaid to him: There should not be suchbehavior bamong the Jewish people.I would not do such a thing, but I assumed the blame and left so that the one who did so would not be embarrassed., bAnd from where did Rabbi Ḥiyya learn thatcharacteristic of being willing to implicate himself in order to save someone else from being embarrassed? He learned it bfrom Rabbi Meir, as it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: There was ban incident involvinga certain bwoman who came to the study hall of Rabbi Meir. She said to him: My teacher, one of you,i.e., one of the men studying in this study hall, bbetrothed me through intercourse.The woman came to Rabbi Meir to appeal for help in identifying the man, so that he would either marry her or grant her a divorce. As he himself was also among those who studied in the study hall, bRabbi Meir arose and wrote her a bill of divorce, andhe bgave it to her.Following his example, ball thosein the study hall baroseand bwrotebills of divorce band gavethem bto her.In this manner, the right man also gave her a divorce, freeing her to marry someone else., bAnd from where did Rabbi Meir learn thatcharacteristic? bFrom Shmuel HaKatan,in the incident outlined above. bAnd from where did Shmuel HaKatan learn it? From Shecaniah ben Jehiel, as it is written: “And Shecaniah, the son of Jehiel, one of the sons of Elam, answered and said to Ezra: We have broken faith with our God, and have married foreign women of the peoples of the land; yet now there is hope for Israel concerning this”(Ezra 10:2). And although he confessed, Shecaniah is not listed among those who took foreign wives (Ezra 10:18–44). Evidently, he confessed only to spare the others from public embarrassment.,The Gemara continues: bAnd from where did Shecaniah ben Jehiel learn it? Froman incident involving bJoshua, as it is written: “And the Lord said to Joshua: Get yourself up; why do you fall upon your face? Israel has sinned”(Joshua 7:10–11). Joshua bsaid before Him: Master of the Universe, who sinned?God bsaid to him: And am I your informer?Rather, bcast lotsto determine who is guilty. In this way, God did not directly disclose the identity of the sinner to Joshua. bAnd if you wish, sayinstead that Shecaniah ben Jehiel learned this bfroman incident involving bMoses, as it is written:“And the Lord said to Moses: bHow long do you refuseto keep My mitzvot and My laws?” (Exodus 16:28). Although only a small number of people attempted to collect the manna on Shabbat, God spoke as though the entire nation were guilty, so as not to directly expose the guilty.,§ Since Shmuel HaKatan and his great piety were mentioned, the Gemara now relates several incidents that shed additional light on his personality. bThe Sages taught: After the last of the prophets, Haggai, Zechariah, and Malachi, died, the Divine Spiritof prophetic revelation bdeparted from the Jewish people. But nevertheless, they werestill butilizing a Divine Voice,which they heard as a kind of echo of prophecy. bOne time,a group of Sages bwere reclining in the loft of the house of Gurya in Jericho, and a Divine Voice was bestowed upon them from Heaven,saying: bThere is one here who is fit for the Divine Presence to rest upon him asit rested upon bMoses our teacher, but his generation is not deserving of thisdistinction. bThe Sages set their eyes upon Hillel the Elder,trusting that he was the one indicated by the Divine Voice. bAnd when he died,the Sages bsaid about him: Alas,the bpiousman, balas,the bhumbleman, ba disciple of Ezra. /b,The ibaraitacontinues: bAnother time,a group of Sages bwere reclining in the loft in Yavne, and a Divine Voice was bestowed upon them from Heaven,saying: bThere is one here who is fit for the Divine Presence to rest upon himin prophecy, bbut his generation is not deserving of thisdistinction. bThe Sages set their eyes upon Shmuel HaKatan. And whenhe bdied,the Sages bsaid about him: Alas,the bpiousman, balas,the bhumbleman, ba disciple of Hillel. Additionally, he said at the time of his death,under the influence of the Divine Spirit: Rabban bShimonben Gamliel, the iNasiof the Great Sanhedrin, bandRabbi bYishmael,the High Priest, will die bby the sword, and their friendswill die bbyother bexecutions, and the rest of the nationwill be bdespoiled, and great troubles will ultimately come upon the world. /b, bAndthey also bwished to say thus:Alas, the pious man, alas, the humble man, babout Yehuda ben Bava,in their eulogy for him, bbut the hour was torn,i.e., the opportunity was lost, basone bdoes not eulogize those executed by the government.As will be explained (14a), Yehuda ben Bava was executed by the government.,§ The Gemara returns to the discussion about intercalation of the year. bThe Sages taught: The yearmay be bintercalated only if the iNasi /iof the Sanhedrin bwantsto intercalate it. bAndthere was once ban incident involving Rabban Gamliel, who went to ask permissionfor some communal matter bfrom an officer [ ihegmon /i] in Syria, andhe btarried in returninguntil after it was too late to intercalate the year. bAndbecause they did not know what his opinion on the matter was, they bintercalated the year on the condition that Rabban Gamliel would wantto do so. bAnd when Rabban Gamliel cameback band said: I wantto intercalate the year, bthe year was foundto be retroactively bintercalated. /b, bThe Sages taught: The yearmay be bintercalated only if it is necessary due todamage to bthe roads,if the rain has damaged them in such a way that they are inaccessible for those ascending to Jerusalem for Passover; bor due to the bridgesthat are likewise in disrepair; bor due to the ovensfor the bPaschal offeringsthat are damaged and unfit for roasting the offerings; bor due to the Diaspora Jews who have left their homes and still have not arriveddue to delays in travel. bButthe year may bnotbe intercalated bdue to the snow, and not due to the cold, and not due to the Diaspora Jews who have notyet bleft from their homes,even if they no longer have enough time to reach Jerusalem for the Festival., bThe Sages taught: The year may notbe bintercalated due to the young goats and not due to the lambs,to allow them to grow larger before they are to be sacrificed as Paschal offerings; band not due to the fledglingdoves bwho have notyet developed sufficiently to bfly,so that there won’t be enough of them to supply all those who wish to bring bird offerings at the Festival. bButall btheseconsiderations may be bmade supportingfactors in the decision btointercalate bthe year.The Gemara asks: bHowso? bRabbi Yannai says in the name of Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel,i.e., this is the language Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel used in his declaration of the intercalation: bWe are notifying you that the fledglings are tender, and that the lambs are thin [ ide’arkin /i], and time for the spring has notyet barrived. Andconsequently, bthe matter is good in my eyes, and I havetherefore badded thirty days onto this year. /b,The Gemara braises an objectionto the report that Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel holds the intercalated month is thirty days long. It is taught in a ibaraita /i: bHow long isthe additional month in ban intercalatedleap byear?The Rabbis say: bThirty days. Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says:A standard bmonth,which is twenty-nine days long. What, then, does Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel hold? bRav Pappa said:Rabban Gamliel holds that if the court bwants,it may add a standard bmonth,and if it bwants,it may add a month of bthirty days. /b,Concerning the declaration of Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel, the Gemara observes: bComeand bsee whatdifference bthere is between /b
74. Babylonian Talmud, Shabbat, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

31a. שהמרו זה את זה אמרו כל מי שילך ויקניט את הלל יטול ד' מאות זוז אמר אחד מהם אני אקניטנו אותו היום ע"ש היה והלל חפף את ראשו הלך ועבר על פתח ביתו אמר מי כאן הלל מי כאן הלל נתעטף ויצא לקראתו אמר לו בני מה אתה מבקש א"ל שאלה יש לי לשאול א"ל שאל בני שאל מפני מה ראשיהן של בבליים סגלגלות א"ל בני שאלה גדולה שאלת מפני שאין להם חיות פקחות,הלך והמתין שעה אחת חזר ואמר מי כאן הלל מי כאן הלל נתעטף ויצא לקראתו אמר לו בני מה אתה מבקש א"ל שאלה יש לי לשאול א"ל שאל בני שאל מפני מה עיניהן של תרמודיין תרוטות אמר לו בני שאלה גדולה שאלת מפני שדרין בין החולות,הלך והמתין שעה אחת חזר ואמר מי כאן הלל מי כאן הלל נתעטף ויצא לקראתו א"ל בני מה אתה מבקש א"ל שאלה יש לי לשאול א"ל שאל בני שאל מפני מה רגליהם של אפרקיים רחבות א"ל בני שאלה גדולה שאלת מפני שדרין בין בצעי המים,אמר לו שאלות הרבה יש לי לשאול ומתירא אני שמא תכעוס נתעטף וישב לפניו א"ל כל שאלות שיש לך לשאול שאל א"ל אתה הוא הלל שקורין אותך נשיא ישראל א"ל הן א"ל אם אתה הוא לא ירבו כמותך בישראל א"ל בני מפני מה א"ל מפני שאבדתי על ידך ד' מאות זוז א"ל הוי זהיר ברוחך כדי הוא הלל שתאבד על ידו ד' מאות זוז וד' מאות זוז והלל לא יקפיד:,ת"ר מעשה בנכרי אחד שבא לפני שמאי אמר לו כמה תורות יש לכם אמר לו שתים תורה שבכתב ותורה שבעל פה א"ל שבכתב אני מאמינך ושבעל פה איני מאמינך גיירני ע"מ שתלמדני תורה שבכתב גער בו והוציאו בנזיפה בא לפני הלל גייריה יומא קמא א"ל א"ב ג"ד למחר אפיך ליה א"ל והא אתמול לא אמרת לי הכי א"ל לאו עלי דידי קא סמכת דעל פה נמי סמוך עלי:,שוב מעשה בנכרי אחד שבא לפני שמאי א"ל גיירני ע"מ שתלמדני כל התורה כולה כשאני עומד על רגל אחת דחפו באמת הבנין שבידו בא לפני הלל גייריה אמר לו דעלך סני לחברך לא תעביד זו היא כל התורה כולה ואידך פירושה הוא זיל גמור.,שוב מעשה בנכרי אחד שהיה עובר אחורי בית המדרש ושמע קול סופר שהיה אומר (שמות כח, ד) ואלה הבגדים אשר יעשו חושן ואפוד אמר הללו למי אמרו לו לכהן גדול אמר אותו נכרי בעצמו אלך ואתגייר בשביל שישימוני כהן גדול בא לפני שמאי אמר ליה גיירני על מנת שתשימני כהן גדול דחפו באמת הבנין שבידו בא לפני הלל גייריה,א"ל כלום מעמידין מלך אלא מי שיודע טכסיסי מלכות לך למוד טכסיסי מלכות הלך וקרא כיון שהגיע (במדבר א, נא) והזר הקרב יומת אמר ליה מקרא זה על מי נאמר א"ל אפי' על דוד מלך ישראל נשא אותו גר קל וחומר בעצמו ומה ישראל שנקראו בנים למקום ומתוך אהבה שאהבם קרא להם (שמות ד, כב) בני בכורי ישראל כתיב עליהם והזר הקרב יומת גר הקל שבא במקלו ובתרמילו על אחת כמה וכמה,בא לפני שמאי א"ל כלום ראוי אני להיות כהן גדול והלא כתיב בתורה והזר הקרב יומת בא לפני הלל א"ל ענוותן הלל ינוחו לך ברכות על ראשך שהקרבתני תחת כנפי השכינה לימים נזדווגו שלשתן למקום אחד אמרו קפדנותו של שמאי בקשה לטורדנו מן העולם ענוותנותו של הלל קרבנו תחת כנפי השכינה:,אמר ר"ל מאי דכתיב (ישעיהו לג, ו) והיה אמונת עתיך חוסן ישועות חכמת ודעת וגו' אמונת זה סדר זרעים עתיך זה סדר מועד חוסן זה סדר נשים ישועות זה סדר נזיקין חכמת זה סדר קדשים ודעת זה סדר טהרות ואפ"ה (ישעיהו לג, ו) יראת ה' היא אוצרו,אמר רבא בשעה שמכניסין אדם לדין אומרים לו נשאת ונתת באמונה קבעת עתים לתורה עסקת בפו"ר צפית לישועה פלפלת בחכמה הבנת דבר מתוך דבר ואפ"ה אי יראת ה' היא אוצרו אין אי לא לא משל לאדם שאמר לשלוחו העלה לי כור חיטין לעלייה הלך והעלה לו א"ל עירבת לי בהן קב חומטון א"ל לאו א"ל מוטב אם לא העליתה,תנא דבי ר"י מערב אדם קב חומטון בכור של תבואה ואינו חושש:,אמר רבה בר רב הונא כל אדם שיש בו תורה ואין בו 31a. bwho wagered with each otherand bsaid: Anyone who will go and aggravate Hillelto the point that he reprimands him, bwill take four-hundred izuz /i. bOne of them said: I will aggravate him. That daythat he chose to bother Hillel bwas Shabbat eve, and Hillel was washingthe hair on bhis head. He went and passed the entrance toHillel’s bhouseand in a demeaning manner bsaid: Who here is Hillel, who here is Hillel?Hillel bwrapped himselfin a dignified garment band went out to greet him. He said to him: My son, what do you seek? He said to him: I have a question to ask.Hillel bsaid to him: Ask, my son, ask.The man asked him: bWhy are the heads of Babylonians oval?He was alluding to and attempting to insult Hillel, who was Babylonian. bHe said to him: My son, you have asked a significant question.The reason is bbecause they do not have clever midwives.They do not know how to shape the child’s head at birth.,That man bwent and waited one hour,a short while, breturnedto look for Hillel, band said: Who here is Hillel, who here is Hillel?Again, Hillel bwrapped himself and went out to greet him.Hillel bsaid to him: My son, what do you seek?The man bsaid to him: I have a question to ask. He said to him: Ask, my son, ask.The man asked: bWhy are the eyes of the residents of Tadmor bleary [ iterutot /i]?Hillel bsaid to him: My son, you have asked a significant question.The reason is bbecause they live among the sandsand the sand gets into their eyes.,Once again the man bwent, waited one hour, returned, and said: Who here is Hillel, who here is Hillel?Again, bhe,Hillel, bwrapped himself and went out to greet him. He said to him: My son, what do you seek? He said to him: I have a question to ask. He said to him: Ask, my son, ask.The man asked: bWhy do Africans have wide feet?Hillel bsaid to him: You have asked a significant question.The reason is bbecause they live in marshlandsand their feet widened to enable them to walk through those swampy areas.,That man bsaid to him: I have manymore bquestions to ask, but I am afraid lest you get angry.Hillel bwrapped himself and sat before him,and bhe said to him: All ofthe bquestions that you have to ask, askthem. The man got angry and bsaid to him: Are you Hillel whom they callthe iNasiof Israel? He said to him: Yes. He said to him: Ifit bis you,then bmay there not be many like you in Israel.Hillel bsaid to him: My son, for whatreason do you say this? The man bsaid to him: Because I lost four hundred izuzbecause of you.Hillel bsaid to him: Be vigilant of your spiritand avoid situations of this sort. bHillel is worthy of having you lose four hundred izuzandanother bfour hundred izuzon his account, and Hillel will not get upset. /b, bThe Sages taught:There was ban incident involving one gentile who came before Shammai.The gentile bsaid to Shammai: How many Torahs do you have? He said to him: Two, the Written Torah and the Oral Torah.The gentile bsaid to him:With regard to bthe WrittenTorah, bI believe you, butwith regard to bthe OralTorah, bI do not believe you. Convert me on condition that you will teach meonly the bWritten Torah.Shammai bscolded him and cast him out with reprimand.The same gentile bcame before Hillel,who bconverted himand began teaching him Torah. bOn the first day, heshowed him the letters of the alphabet and bsaid to him: iAlef /i, ibet /i, igimmel /i, idalet /i. The next day he reversedthe order of the letters and told him that an ialefis a itavand so on. The convert bsaid to him: But yesterday you did not tell me that.Hillel bsaid to him:You see that it is impossible to learn what is written without relying on an oral tradition. bDidn’t you rely on me?Therefore, you should balso rely on mewith regard to the matter bof the OralTorah, and accept the interpretations that it contains.,There was banother incident involving one gentile who came before Shammaiand bsaid toShammai: bConvert me on condition that you teach me the entire Torah while I am standing on one foot.Shammai bpushed himaway bwith the builder’s cubit in his hand.This was a common measuring stick and Shammai was a builder by trade. The same gentile bcame before Hillel. He converted himand bsaid to him:That bwhich is hateful to you do not do to another; that is the entire Torah, and the rest is its interpretation. Go study. /b,There was banother incident involving one gentile who was passing behind the study halland bheard the voice of a teacher who wasteaching Torah to his students and bsayingthe verse: b“And these are the garments which they shall make: A breastplate, and an iefod, /iand a robe, and a tunic of checkered work, a mitre, and a girdle” (Exodus 28:4). bThe gentile said: Thesegarments, bfor whom are theydesignated? The students bsaid to him: For the High Priest. The gentile said to himself: I will go and convert so that they will install me as High Priest. He came before Shammaiand bsaid to him: Convert me on condition that you install meas High Priest. Shammai bpushed him with the builder’s cubit in his hand. He came before Hillel; he converted him. /b,Hillel bsaid to him,to the convert: bIs it notthe way of the world that bonly one who knows the protocols [ itakhsisei /i]of royalty bis appointed king? Goand blearn the royal protocolsby engaging in Torah study. bHe went and readthe Bible. bWhen he reachedthe verse which says: b“And the common man that draws near shall be put to death”(Numbers 1:51), the convert bsaid toHillel: bWith regard to whom is the verse speaking?Hillel bsaid to him: Even with regard to David, king of Israel. The convert reasoned an ia fortioriinference himself: If the Jewish people are called God’s children, and due to the love that God loved them he called them: “Israel is My son, My firstborn”(Exodus 4:22), and nevertheless bit is written about them: And the common man that draws near shall be put to death; a mere convert who camewithout merit, bwithnothing more than bhis staff and traveling bag, all the more sothat this applies to him, as well.,The convert bcame before Shammaiand btold himthat he retracts his demand to appoint him High Priest, saying: bAm I at all worthy to be High Priest? Is it not written in the Torah: And the common man that draws near shall be put to death? He came before Hilleland bsaid to him: Hillel the patient, may blessings rest upon your head as you brought me under the wings of the Divine Presence.The Gemara relates: bEventually, the threeconverts bgathered togetherin bone place,and bthey said: Shammai’s impatience sought to drive us from the world; Hillel’s patience brought us beneath the wings of the Divine Presence. /b,The Gemara continues discussing the conduct of the Sages, citing that bReish Lakish said: Whatis the meaning of bthat which is written: “And the faith of your times shall be a strength of salvation, wisdom, and knowledge,the fear of the Lord is his treasure” (Isaiah 33:6)? bFaith; that is the order of iZera /i’ iim /i, Seeds,in the Mishna, because a person has faith in God and plants his seeds (Jerusalem Talmud). bYour times; that is the order of iMoed /i, Festival,which deals with the various occasions and Festivals that occur throughout the year. bStrength; that is the order of iNashim /i, Women. Salvations; that is the order of iNezikin /i, Damages,as one who is being pursued is rescued from the hands of his pursuer. bWisdom; that is the order of iKodashim /i, Consecrated Items. And knowledge; that is the order of iTeharot /i, Purity,which is particularly difficult to master. bAnd evenif a person studies and masters all of these, b“the fear of the Lord is his treasure,”it is preeminent.,With regard to the same verse, bRava said:After departing from this world, bwhen a person is brought to judgmentfor the life he lived in this world, bthey say to himin the order of that verse: Did byou conduct business faithfully?Did byou designate times for Torahstudy? Did byou engage in procreation? Did you await salvation? Did you engagein the dialectics of bwisdomor understand bone matter from another? And, nevertheless,beyond all these, bif the fear of the Lord is his treasure, yes,he is worthy, and bif not, no,none of these accomplishments have any value. There is ba parablethat illustrates this. bA person who said to his emissary: Bring a ikorof wheat up to the attic for meto store there. The messenger bwent and brought it up for him. He said to the emissary:Did byou mix a ikavof iḥomton /i,a preservative to keep away worms, binto it for me? He said to him: No. He said to him:If so, it would have been bpreferable had you not brought it up.of what use is worm-infested wheat? Likewise, Torah and mitzvot without the fear of God are of no value.,On a related note, the Gemara cites a ihalakhathat was btaughtin bthe schoolof bRabbi Yishmael: A personwho sells wheat bmay, iab initio /i, bmix a ikavof iḥomtoninto a ikorof grain and need not be concernedthat by selling it all at the price of grain he will be guilty of theft, as the ikavof iḥomtonis essential for the preservation of the wheat., bRabba bar Rav Huna said: Any person who has Torah in him but does not have /b
75. Babylonian Talmud, Sotah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

41a. (נחמיה ח, ג) ויקרא בו לפני הרחוב אשר לפני שער המים אמר רב חסדא בעזרת נשים,וקורא אחרי מות ואך בעשור ורמינהי מדלגין בנביא ואין מדלגין בתורה,אמר אביי לא קשיא כאן בכדי שיפסוק התורגמן כאן בכדי שלא יפסוק התורגמן,והא עלה קתני מדלגין בנביא ואין מדלגין בתורה ועד כמה מדלגין עד כדי שלא יפסוק התורגמן מכלל דבתורה כלל כלל לא,אלא אמר אביי לא קשיא כאן בענין אחד כאן בשני עניינין,והתניא מדלגין בתורה בענין אחד ובנביא בשני עניינין וכאן וכאן בכדי שלא יפסוק התורגמן,ואין מדלגין מנביא לנביא ובנביא של שנים עשר מדלגין ובלבד שלא ידלג מסוף הספר לתחילתו,וגולל את התורה ומניחה בחיקו כו' וכל כך למה שלא להוציא לעז על ס"ת,ובעשור שבחומש הפקודים קורא על פה וליכרכיה לספר וליקרי א"ר הונא בר יהודה א"ר ששת לפי שאין גוללין ס"ת בצבור,וליתי ס"ת אחרינא וליקרי רב הונא בר יהודה אמר משום פגמו של ראשון ר"ש בן לקיש אמר לפי שאין מברכין ברכה שאינה צריכה,ומי חיישינן לפגמא והאמר רבי יצחק נפחא ר"ח טבת שחל להיות בשבת מביא שלש תורות וקורא אחת מעניינו של יום ואחת של ר"ח ואחת בשל חנוכה,תלתא גברי בתלתא סיפרי ליכא פגמא חד גברא בתרי סיפרי איכא פגמא,ומברך עליה שמנה ברכות כו' ת"ר [מברכין] על התורה כדרך שמברכין בבהכ"נ ועל העבודה ועל ההודאה ועל מחילת עון כתיקנן על המקדש בפני עצמו ועל הכהנים בפני עצמן על ישראל בפני עצמן ועל ירושלים בפני עצמה,והשאר תפלה ת"ר השאר תפלה תחנה רנה ובקשה שעמך ישראל צריכין ליוושע וחותם בשומע תפלה מכאן ואילך כל אחד ואחד מביא ספר תורה מתוך ביתו וקורא בו וכל כך למה כדי להראות חזותו לרבים, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big פרשת המלך כיצד מוצאי יו"ט הראשון של חג בשמיני במוצאי שביעית עושין לו בימה של עץ בעזרה והוא יושב עליה שנאמר (דברים לא, י) מקץ שבע שנים במועד וגו,חזן הכנסת נוטל ס"ת ונותנה לראש הכנסת וראש הכנסת נותנה לסגן והסגן נותנה לכהן גדול וכ"ג נותנה למלך והמלך עומד ומקבל וקורא יושב,אגריפס המלך עמד וקבל וקרא עומד ושבחוהו חכמים וכשהגיע (דברים יז, טו) ללא תוכל לתת עליך איש נכרי זלגו עיניו דמעות אמרו לו אל תתירא אגריפס אחינו אתה אחינו אתה,וקורא מתחילת (דברים א, א) אלה הדברים עד (דברים ו, ד) שמע ושמע והיה אם שמוע עשר תעשר כי תכלה לעשר ופרשת המלך וברכות וקללות עד שגומר כל הפרשה,ברכות שכהן גדול מברך אותן המלך מברך אותן אלא שנותן של רגלים תחת מחילת העון, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big בשמיני סלקא דעתך אימא בשמינית,וכל הני למה לי,צריכי דאי כתב רחמנא מקץ הוה אמינא נימנו מהשתא ואע"ג דלא מתרמי בשמיטה כתב רחמנא שמיטה,ואי כתב רחמנא שמיטה ה"א בסוף שמיטה כתב רחמנא במועד,ואי כתב במועד ה"א מריש שתא כתב רחמנא בחג הסוכות,ואי כתב רחמנא בחג הסוכות הוה אמינא אפי' יו"ט אחרון כתב רחמנא בבוא כל ישראל 41a. b“And he read there before the broad place that was before the Gate of the Water”(Nehemiah 8:3). According to this opinion, the High Priest would read from the Torah in the Temple courtyard. bRav Ḥisda saysin response: The ibaraitaalso means that the reading takes place bin the women’s courtyard. /b,§ It is taught in the mishna that the High Priest receives the Torah scroll band readsthe Torah portion beginning with the verse: b“After the death”(Leviticus 16:1), bandthe portion beginning with the verse: b“But on the tenth”(Leviticus 23:26). Since these two portions are not adjacent to each other, the High Priest skips the section between the two portions. The Gemara braises a contradictionfrom a mishna ( iMegilla24a): bOne may skipsections when reading the ihaftara bin the Prophets, but one may not skipsections when reading bin the Torah. /b, bAbaye said:This is bnot difficult. There,in the mishna in tractate iMegillathat teaches that one may not skip, the intention is that one should not skip if the sections are so far apart from one another that the delay caused by doing so will be bof such length that the translatorwho recites the Aramaic translation bwill concludehis translation before the next section is reached. However, in the case of the mishna bhere,it is permitted to skip verses because the two passages are in close proximity to one another. The delay caused is bof suchshort blength that the translator willstill bnot concludehis translation.,The Gemara challenges this resolution: bBut isn’t it taught aboutthis mishna in a ibaraita /i: bOne may skipsections when reading bin the Prophets, but one may not skipsections when reading bin the Torah. And how much may one skipfrom one passage to another bin the Prophets?One may skip when the section skipped is bof suchshort blength thatwhen the furling of the scroll is completed bthe translator willstill bnot have concludedhis translation. bBy inference,when reading bin the Torahone may bnotskip bat all. /b, bRather, Abaye saidanother explanation: This is bnot difficult.In the mishna bhere,it is permitted to skip because both passages pertain bto a single topic. There,in the mishna in tractate iMegillathat teaches that one may not skip, the ihalakhais referring to a case where the passages pertain bto twodifferent btopics. /b, bAndthis is bas it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bOne may skipsections when reading bin the Torahwhen both sections pertain bto a single topic, and in the Prophetsone may skip from one section to another even if they pertain bto twodifferent btopics. Andboth bhere and there,one may skip only bwhenthe section skipped is bof suchshort blength thatwhen the furling of the scroll is completed bthe translator willstill bnot have concludedhis translation., bAnd one may not skip fromone book of the bProphets toanother book of the bProphets,even if both pertain to the same topic. bBut amongthe books bof the Twelve Prophets one may skip, provided that one does not skip from the end of the book to its beginning.Rather, if one wishes to read from several of the Twelve Prophets, he must read the passages in the order that they are written.,§ It is taught in the mishna: bAnd he furls the Torahscroll, band places it on his bosom,and says: More than what I have read before you is written here. The Gemara comments: bAnd whymust he say ball of this?It is bso as to not cast aspersions onthe bTorah scroll,because people might think the portion that he read by heart is not written there.,It is stated in the mishna that bhe reads by heartthe portion beginning with: b“And on the tenth,” from the book of Numbers(29:7–11). The Gemara asks: bBut let him furl theTorah bscrollto that portion band readit from the text. bRav Huna bar Yehuda saysthat bRav Sheshet says:This is not done bbecause one may not furl a Torah scroll in public,out of respect for the congregation.,The Gemara asks: bButwhy not blet them bring another Torah scrollthat has previously been furled to that portion band readfrom it? bRav Huna bar Yehuda says:People might then mistakenly think that the second scroll was brought bdue to a flawthat was found binthe bfirstscroll. bRabbi Shimon ben Lakish says:Another scroll is not brought bbecausethen the High Priest will need to recite an additional blessing over it, and bone may not recite a blessing that is unnecessary. /b,The Gemara questions Rav Huna bar Yehuda’s answer: bBut are wereally bconcerned thatpeople will think that there is ba flawin the first scroll? bBut didn’t Rabbi Yitzḥak Nappaḥa say:When bthe New Moon of Tevet,which always occurs during Hanukkah, boccurs on Shabbat, one brings three Torahscrolls. bAnd he reads from onescroll bthe topic of the day,i.e., the weekly portion; bandfrom bonescroll the portion bof the New Moon; andfrom bonescroll the portion bof Hanukkah.It is apparent from the statement of Rabbi Yitzḥak Nappaḥa that many Torah scrolls may be used, and there is no concern that people will mistakenly think that one or more has a flaw.,The Gemara answers: When bthree menread bfrom three scrolls, there is noconcern that people will think that one of the scrolls has ba flaw,since people assume that it is befitting for each individual to read from his own scroll. However, when bone manreads bfrom twodifferent Torah bscrolls, there isa concern that people will think that the first scroll has ba flaw,and they will not realize that this was done only to avoid forcing the community to wait while the scroll is furled.,§ It is taught in the mishna: bAndafter the reading the High Priest brecites eight blessings. The Sages taughtthat these are the eight blessings: bHe recites a blessing concerning the Torah in theusual bway one recitesa blessing in bthe synagogue, andhe recites the three blessings bconcerning theTemple bservice, and concerning thanksgiving, and concerning forgiveness for iniquity,and all are recited bin accordance with their established formsin the iAmidaprayer. He recites the blessing bconcerning the Temple in and of itself,the blessing bconcerning the priests in and of itself,the blessing bconcerning the Jewish people in and of itself, andthe blessing bconcerning Jerusalem in and of itself. /b,With regard to the end of the mishna, which states: bAnd the rest of the prayer, the Sages taught: Thetext of bthe rest of the prayeris as follows: bA supplication, a song, and a request that Your people, Israel, are in need of redemption. And he concludesthe blessing bwith:Blessed are You, Lord, bthe One Who hears prayer. From thispoint bforward, each and every personpresent bbrings a Torah scroll from his home and reads from it. And whydo ball thesepeople bring their personal Torah scrolls? Everyone brings his own bin order to show itsbeautiful bappearance to the public,as a way of showing fondness for the mitzva., strongMISHNA: /strong bHowis bthe portion ofthe Torah that is read by bthe kingrecited at the assembly, when all the Jewish people would assemble? At bthe conclusion of the first day of the festivalof iSukkot /i, bon the eighth,after bthe conclusion of the Sabbatical Year, they make a wooden platform forthe king bin theTemple bcourtyard, and he sits on it, as it is stated: “At the end of every seven years, in the Festivalof the Sabbatical Year” (Deuteronomy 31:10)., bThe synagogue attendant takes a Torah scroll and gives it to the head of the synagoguethat stands on the Temple Mount. bAnd the head of the synagogue gives it to the deputyHigh Priest, band the deputyHigh Priest bgives it to the High Priest, and the High priest gives it to the king. And the king stands, and receivesthe Torah scroll, band readsfrom it while bsitting. /b, bKing Agrippa arose, and receivedthe Torah scroll, band readfrom it while bstanding, and the Sages praised himfor this. bAnd whenAgrippa barrived atthe verse in the portion read by the king that states: b“You may not appoint a foreigner over you”(Deuteronomy 17:15), btears flowed from his eyes,because he was a descendant of the house of Herod and was not of Jewish origin. The entire nation bsaid to him: Fear not, Agrippa. You are our brother, you are our brother. /b, bAndthe king breads from the beginning ofDeuteronomy, from the verse that states: b“And these are the words”(Deuteronomy 1:1), buntilthe words: b“Hear,O Israel” (Deuteronomy 6:4). bAndhe then reads the sections beginning with: b“Hear,O Israel” (Deuteronomy 6:4–9), b“And it shall come to pass, if you shall hearken”(Deuteronomy 11:13–21), b“You shall tithe”(Deuteronomy 14:22–29), b“When you have made an end of the tithing”(Deuteronomy 26:12–15), band the passage concerning theappointment of ba king(Deuteronomy 17:14–20), band the blessings and curses(Deuteronomy 28), buntil he finishes the entire portion. /b,The same bblessings that the High Priest reciteson Yom Kippur, bthe king recitesat this ceremony, bbut he deliversa blessing bconcerning the Festivals in place ofthe blessing concerning bforgiveness for iniquity. /b, strongGEMARA: /strong The mishna states that the assembly takes place on the eighth. The Gemara asks: Does it benter your mindthat the assembly takes place bon the eighthday of the festival of iSukkot /i? The mishna clearly states that the ceremony takes place at the conclusion of the first day of the Festival. Rather, bsaythat it takes place bduring the eighthyear of the Sabbatical cycle.,The verse describes in detail when the assembly takes place: “At the end of every seven years, in the Festival of the Sabbatical Year, in the festival of iSukkot /i, when all Israel comes to appear before the Lord your God” (Deuteronomy 31:10–11). The Gemara asks: bAnd why do Ineed ball thesedetails?,The Gemara answers: All of these details bare necessary, as, if the Merciful One had writtenonly b“at the endof every seven years” (Deuteronomy 31:10), bI would have saidthat bwe count from now,i.e., from when this was said, bandthat the tally of years begins from the fortieth year in the wilderness, beven thoughby this calculation the assembly bwould not occur in the Sabbatical Year.Therefore, bthe Merciful One writes: “The Sabbatical Year.” /b, bAnd if the Merciful One had writtenonly the phrase: At the end of every seven years of the b“Sabbatical Year,” I would have saidthat it takes place bat the end of the Sabbatical Year.Therefore, bthe Merciful One writes: “In the Festival,”and the first Festival following the Sabbatical Year is in the month of Tishrei., bAnd ifthe Torah bhad writtenonly: “At the end of every seven years bin the Festivalof the Sabbatical Year,” bI would have saidthat it takes place bonthe festival of bRosh Hashanah,which is on the first day of Tishrei. Therefore, bthe Merciful Onealso bwrites: “In the festival of iSukkot /i.” /b, bAnd if the Merciful One had writtenonly: b“In the festival of iSukkot /i,” I would have saidthat it could refer bevento bthe lastday of the bFestival.Therefore, bthe Merciful Onealso bwrites: “When all Israel comes”(Deuteronomy 31:11)
76. Babylonian Talmud, Sukkah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

53a. אשה היתה בוררת חטים לאור של בית השואבה:,חסידים ואנשי מעשה כו': ת"ר יש מהן אומרים אשרי ילדותנו שלא ביישה את זקנותנו אלו חסידים ואנשי מעשה ויש מהן אומרים אשרי זקנותנו שכפרה את ילדותנו אלו בעלי תשובה אלו ואלו אומרים אשרי מי שלא חטא ומי שחטא ישוב וימחול לו,תניא אמרו עליו על הלל הזקן כשהיה שמח בשמחת בית השואבה אמר כן אם אני כאן הכל כאן ואם איני כאן מי כאן הוא היה אומר כן למקום שאני אוהב שם רגלי מוליכות אותי אם תבא אל ביתי אני אבא אל ביתך אם אתה לא תבא אל ביתי אני לא אבא אל ביתך שנאמר (שמות כ, כד) בכל המקום אשר אזכיר את שמי אבא אליך וברכתיך,אף הוא ראה גלגולת אחת שצפה על פני המים אמר לה על דאטפת אטפוך ומטיפיך יטופון אמר רבי יוחנן רגלוהי דבר איניש אינון ערבין ביה לאתר דמיתבעי תמן מובילין יתיה,הנהו תרתי כושאי דהוו קיימי קמי שלמה (מלכים א ד, ג) אליחרף ואחיה בני שישא סופרים דשלמה הוו יומא חד חזייה למלאך המות דהוה קא עציב א"ל אמאי עציבת א"ל דקא בעו מינאי הני תרתי כושאי דיתבי הכא מסרינהו לשעירים שדרינהו למחוזא דלוז כי מטו למחוזא דלוז שכיבו,למחר חזיא מלאך המות דהוה קבדח א"ל אמאי בדיחת א"ל באתר דבעו מינאי תמן שדרתינהו מיד פתח שלמה ואמר רגלוהי דבר איניש אינון ערבין ביה לאתר דמיתבעי תמן מובילין יתיה,תניא אמרו עליו על רבן שמעון בן גמליאל כשהיה שמח שמחת בית השואבה היה נוטל שמנה אבוקות של אור וזורק אחת ונוטל אחת ואין נוגעות זו בזו וכשהוא משתחוה נועץ שני גודליו בארץ ושוחה ונושק את הרצפה וזוקף ואין כל בריה יכולה לעשות כן וזו היא קידה,לוי אחוי קידה קמיה דרבי ואיטלע והא גרמא ליה והאמר רבי אלעזר לעולם אל יטיח אדם דברים כלפי מעלה שהרי אדם גדול הטיח דברים כלפי מעלה ואיטלע ומנו לוי הא והא גרמא ליה,לוי הוה מטייל קמיה דרבי בתמני סכיני שמואל קמיה שבור מלכא בתמניא מזגי חמרא אביי קמיה (דרבא) בתמניא ביעי ואמרי לה בארבעה ביעי,תניא אמר ר' יהושע בן חנניה כשהיינו שמחים שמחת בית השואבה לא ראינו שינה בעינינו כיצד שעה ראשונה תמיד של שחר משם לתפלה משם לקרבן מוסף משם לתפלת המוספין משם לבית המדרש משם לאכילה ושתיה משם לתפלת המנחה משם לתמיד של בין הערבים מכאן ואילך לשמחת בית השואבה,איני והאמר רבי יוחנן שבועה שלא אישן שלשה ימים מלקין אותו וישן לאלתר אלא הכי קאמר לא טעמנו טעם שינה דהוו מנמנמי אכתפא דהדדי:,חמש עשרה מעלות: אמר ליה רב חסדא לההוא מדרבנן דהוי קמסדר אגדתא קמיה א"ל שמיע לך הני חמש עשרה מעלות כנגד מי אמרם דוד א"ל הכי אמר רבי יוחנן בשעה שכרה דוד שיתין קפא תהומא ובעי למשטפא עלמא אמר דוד חמש עשרה מעלות והורידן אי הכי חמש עשרה מעלות יורדות מיבעי ליה,אמר ליה הואיל ואדכרתן (מלתא) הכי אתמר בשעה שכרה דוד שיתין קפא תהומא ובעא למשטפא עלמא אמר דוד מי איכא דידע אי שרי למכתב שם 53a. It was so bright that ba woman wouldbe able to bsort wheat by the light of theCelebration of the bPlace of the Drawingof the Water.,§ The mishna continues: bThe pious and the men of actionwould dance before the people who attended the celebration. bThe Sages taughtin the iToseftathat bsome of them would sayin their song praising God: bHappy is our youth,as we did not sin then, bthat did not embarrass our old age. These are the pious and the men of action,who spent all their lives engaged in Torah and mitzvot. bAnd some would say: Happy is our old age, that atoned for our youthwhen we sinned. bThese are the penitents.Both bthese and those say: Happy is he who did not sin; and he who sinned should repent andGod bwill absolve him. /b, bIt is taughtin the iTosefta /i: bThey said about Hillel the Elder that when he was rejoicing at the Celebration of the Place of the Drawingof the Water bhe said this: If I am here, everyone is here; and if I am not here, who is here?In other words, one must consider himself as the one upon whom it is incumbent to fulfill obligations, and he must not rely on others to do so. bHe wouldalso bsay this: To the place that I love, there my feet take me,and therefore, I come to the Temple. And the Holy One, Blessed be He, says: bIf you come to My house, I will come to your house; if you do not come to My house, I will not come to your house, as it is stated: “In every place that I cause My name to be mentioned, I will come to you and bless you”(Exodus 20:21).,The Gemara cites another statement of Hillel the Elder. bAdditionally, he saw one skull that was floating on the waterand bhe said to it: Because you drownedothers, bthey drowned you, and those that drowned you will be drowned.That is the way of the world; everyone is punished measure for measure. Apropos following one’s feet, bRabbi Yoḥa said: The feet of a person are responsible for him; to the place where he is in demand, there they lead him. /b,The Gemara relates with regard to bthese two Cushites who would stand before Solomon: “Elihoreph and Ahijah, the sons of Shisha”(I Kings 4:3), and bthey were scribes of Solomon. One daySolomon bsaw that the Angel of Death was sad. He said to him: Why are you sad? He said to him: They are asking meto take the lives of bthese two Cushites who are sitting here.Solomon bhanded them to the demonsin his service, band sent them to the district of Luz,where the Angel of Death has no dominion. bWhen they arrived at the district of Luz, they died. /b, bThe following day,Solomon bsaw that the Angel of Death was happy. He said to him: Why are you happy? He replied: In the place that they asked meto take them, bthere you sent them.The Angel of Death was instructed to take their lives in the district of Luz. Since they resided in Solomon’s palace and never went to Luz, he was unable to complete his mission. That saddened him. Ultimately, Solomon dispatched them to Luz, enabling the angel to accomplish his mission. That pleased him. bImmediately, Solomon beganto speak band said: The feet of a person are responsible for him; to the place where he is in demand, there they lead him. /b,§ bIt is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bThey said about Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel that when he would rejoice at the Celebration of the Place of the Drawingof the Water, bhe would take eight flaming torches and toss one and catch another,juggling them, band,though all were in the air at the same time, bthey would not touch each other. And when he would prostrate himself, he would insert his two thumbs into the ground, and bow, and kiss the floorof the courtyard band straighten, andthere was bnot anyother bcreaturethat bcould do thatdue to the extreme difficulty involved. bAnd this was theform of bowing called ikidda /iperformed by the High Priest.,The Gemara relates: bLevi demonstrated a ikiddabefore RabbiYehuda HaNasi and strained his thigh band came up lame.The Gemara asks: bAnd is that what caused himto be lame? bBut didn’t Rabbi Elazar say: One should never speak impertinently towardGod babove; as a great persononce bspoke impertinently towardGod babove,and even though his prayers were answered, he was still punished band came up lame. And whowas this great person? It was bLevi.Apparently his condition was not caused by his bow. The Gemara answers: There is no contradiction. Both bthis and that caused himto come up lame; because he spoke impertinently toward God, he therefore was injured when exerting himself in demonstrating ikidda /i.,Apropos the rejoicing of Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel at the Celebration of the Place of the Drawing of the Water, the Gemara recounts: bLevi would walk before RabbiYehuda HaNasi juggling bwith eight knives. Shmuelwould juggle bbefore King Shapur with eight glasses of winewithout spilling. bAbayewould juggle bbefore Rabba with eight eggs. Some sayhe did so bwith four eggs.All these were cited., bIt is taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Yehoshua ben Ḥaya said: When we would rejoicein bthe Celebration of the Place of the Drawingof the Water, bwe did not see sleep in our eyesthe entire Festival. bHow so?In the bfirst hourof the day, bthe daily morning offeringwas sacrificed and everyone came to watch. bFrom therethey proceeded btoengage in bprayerin the synagogue; bfrom there, towatch the sacrifice of bthe additional offerings; from there,to the synagogue btorecite bthe additional prayer. From therethey would proceed bto the study hallto study Torah; bfrom there to the eating and drinkingin the isukka /i; bfrom there to the afternoon prayer. From therethey would proceed bto the daily afternoon offeringin the Temple. bFrom thispoint bforward,they proceeded bto the Celebration of the Place of the Drawingof the Water.,The Gemara wonders: bIs that so? But didn’t Rabbi Yoḥa say:One who took ban oath that I will not sleep three days, one flogs himimmediately for taking an oath in vain, band hemay bsleep immediatelybecause it is impossible to stay awake for three days uninterrupted. bRather, this is whatRabbi Yehoshua bis saying: We did not experience the sense ofactual bsleep, because they wouldmerely bdoze on each other’s shoulders.In any case, they were not actually awake for the entire week.,§ The mishna continues: The musicians would stand on the bfifteen stairsthat descend from the Israelites’ courtyard to the Women’s Courtyard, corresponding to the fifteen Songs of the Ascents in Psalms. bRav Ḥisda said to one of the Sages who was organizing iaggadabefore him: Did you hearwith regard to bthese fifteenSongs of bAscentsin Psalms, bcorresponding to what did David say them? He said to himthat bthisis what bRabbi Yoḥa said: At the time that David dug the drainpipesin the foundation of the Temple, the waters of bthe depths rose and sought to inundate the world.Immediately, bDavid recited the fifteenSongs of the bAscents and caused them to subside.Rav Ḥisda asked: bIf so,should they be called bfifteenSongs of the bAscents? They should have beencalled Songs of the bDescents. /b,Rav Ḥisda continued and bsaid to him: Since you reminded meof this bmatter, this iswhat bwasoriginally bstated: At the time that David dug the drainpipes,the waters of bthe depths rose and sought to inundate the world. David said: Is there anyone who knows whether it is permitted to write thesacred bname /b
77. Babylonian Talmud, Yoma, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

18a. ומאי ארבע או חמש לרבנן דאמרי נכנס נוטל שש ויוצא נוטל שש ושכר הגפת דלתות לא משתים עשרה בעי מיפלג בציר חדא מפלגא חמש שקיל,לר' יהודה דאמר נכנס נוטל שבע שתים בשכר הגפת דלתות ויוצא נוטל חמש מעשר בעי מיפלג בציר חדא מפלגא ושקיל ארבע,רבא אמר כולה רבי היא וסבר לה כר' יהודה ואלא מאי ארבע הא חמש בעי למשקל,לא קשיא הא דאיכא משמר המתעכב הא דליכא משמר המתעכב,אי איכא משמר המתעכב משמנה בעי למפלג ושקיל ארבע אי ליכא משמר המתעכב מעשר בעי למפלג ושקיל חמש,אי הכי מאי רבי אומר לעולם חמש קשיא, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big מסרו לו זקנים מזקני בית דין וקורין לפניו בסדר היום ואומרים לו אישי כהן גדול קרא אתה בפיך שמא שכחת או שמא לא למדת ערב יום כפורים שחרית מעמידין אותו בשער מזרח ומעבירין לפניו פרים ואילים וכבשים כדי שיהא מכיר ורגיל בעבודה כל שבעת הימים לא היו מונעין ממנו מאכל ומשתה ערב יוה"כ עם חשיכה לא היו מניחין אותו לאכול הרבה מפני שהמאכל מביא את השינה, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big בשלמא שמא שכח לחיי אלא שמא לא למד מי מוקמינן כי האי גוונא,והתניא (ויקרא כא, י) והכהן הגדול מאחיו שיהא גדול מאחיו בכח בנוי בחכמה ובעושר אחרים אומרים מנין שאם אין לו שאחיו הכהנים מגדלין אותו ת"ל והכהן הגדול מאחיו גדלהו משל אחיו,אמר רב יוסף לא קשיא כאן במקדש ראשון כאן במקדש שני דאמר ר' אסי תרקבא דדינרי עיילא ליה מרתא בת בייתוס לינאי מלכא על דאוקמיה ליהושע בן גמלא בכהני רברבי,ערב יום הכפורים שחרית וכו' תנא אף השעירים ותנא דידן מאי טעמא לא תנא שעירים כיון דעל חטא קא אתו חלשא דעתיה,אי הכי פר נמי על חטא הוא דאתי פר כיון דעליו ועל אחיו הכהנים הוא דאתי באחיו הכהנים אי איכא איניש דאית ביה מילתא מידע ידע ליה ומהדר ליה בתשובה בכולהו ישראל לא ידע,אמר רבינא היינו דאמרי אינשי אי בר אחתיך דיילא הוי חזי בשוקא קמיה לא תחליף,כל שבעת הימים לא היו מונעין וכו' תניא רבי יהודה בן נקוסא אומר מאכילין אותו סלתות וביצים כדי למסמסו אמרו לו כל שכן שאתה מביאו לידי חימום,תניא סומכוס אמר משום ר' מאיר אין מאכילין אותו לא אב"י ואמרי לה לא אבב"י ויש אומרים אף לא יין לבן לא אב"י לא אתרוג ולא ביצים ולא יין ישן ואמרי לה לא אבב"י לא אתרוג ולא ביצים ולא בשר שמן ולא יין ישן ויש אומרים אף לא יין לבן מפני שהיין לבן מביא את האדם לידי טומאה,תנו רבנן זב תולין לו במאכל וכל מיני מאכל אלעזר בן פנחס אומר משום רבי יהודה בן בתירא אין מאכילין אותו לא חגב"י ולא גב"ם ולא כל דברים המביאין לידי טומאה לא חגב"י לא חלב ולא גבינה ולא ביצה ולא יין ולא גב"ם מי גריסין של פול ובשר שמן ומרייס,ולא כל דברים המביאין לידי טומאה לאתויי מאי לאתויי הא דת"ר חמשה דברים מביאים את האדם לידי טומאה ואלו הן השום 18a. bAnd whatis the meaning of bfour or five;i.e., when does the High Priest take four loaves and when does he take five? According bto the Rabbis, who say:The priestly watch that is bincomingon Shabbat btakes sixof the loaves, bandthe boutgoingwatch btakes six, andthe incoming watch receives bnogreater portion as bpayment for closing the doors,it is bfrom twelveloaves that the High Priest bmust divideand take his share, but he receives bhalfof the loaves bless one,meaning that bhe takes five.According to the Rabbis, the High Priest receives less than half; however, since it is inappropriate to give him a piece of a loaf, less than half is five whole loaves.,According bto Rabbi Yehuda, who said:The priestly watch that is bincomingon Shabbat btakes sevenof the loaves, btwoof which bare payment for closing the doors;and the boutgoingwatch btakes fiveloaves, it is bfrom tenthat bhe must dividethe loaves. Those two of the twelve loaves are a separate payment and are not factored into the tally of those designated for distribution. bSubtract one from halfof that total, as subtracting less than one loaf would lead to a situation where the High Priest receives a piece of a loaf, which is inappropriate. bAndtherefore, the High Priest btakes four. /b, bRava saidthat the ibaraitashould be explained differently. The bentire ibaraita bisin accordance with the opinion of bRabbiYehuda HaNasi, band he holdsin accordance with the opinion of bRabbi Yehudathat only ten loaves are divided. bRather, whatthen is the meaning of the statement that the High Priest takes bfourloaves? According to Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi, bdoesn’t he need to take five? /b,The Gemara answers: This is bnot difficult. This ihalakhathat the High Priest takes four loaves is in a case bwhere there is a watch that is detained.When the start of a Festival occurs on a Sunday night and one of the priestly watches was forced to arrive before Shabbat to ensure that they would arrive in time for the Festival; or, alternatively, if the Festival ended on a Thursday and one of the priestly watches was detained until the conclusion of Shabbat and only then departed, that priestly watch takes two loaves. bThat ihalakhathat the High Priest takes five loaves is in a case bwhere there is not a watch that is detained,and the shewbread in divided only between the watch that concludes its service that Shabbat and the watch that begins its service that Shabbat., bIf there is a watch that is detained,that detained watch takes two loaves, and the outgoing watch takes two loaves as payment for closing the doors. Therefore, it is bfrom eightthat the High Priest bmust dividethe loaves, and he btakes four. If there is not a watch that is detained,it is bfrom tenthat bhe must dividethe loaves and the High Priest btakes five. /b,The Gemara asks: bIf so,that even the middle statement of the ibaraitais attributed to Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi and it is referring to a watch that is detained, bwhatis the meaning of the last clause in the ibaraita /i: bRabbiYehuda HaNasi bsays:The High Priest balwaystakes bfiveloaves? That statement indicates that Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi disagrees with the middle clause, while according to Rava’s interpretation Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi concedes that in certain circumstances the High Priest takes only four loaves. The Gemara concludes: Indeed, it is bdifficultto reconcile Rava’s interpretation with the language of the ibaraita /i., strongMISHNA: /strong The Sages bprovidedthe High Priest bwith Eldersselected bfrom the Elders of the court, and theywould bread before him the orderof the service bof the dayof Yom Kippur. bAnd theywould bsay to him: My Master, High Priest. Readthe order of the service bwith your own mouth,as bperhaps you forgotthis reading bor perhaps you did not learnto read. bOn Yom Kippur evein the bmorning,the Elders bstand him atthe beastern gateof the courtyard band pass before him bulls and rams and sheep so that he will be familiarwith the animals bandgrow baccustomed to the service,as these were the animals sacrificed on Yom Kippur. Throughout ball the seven daysthat the High Priest was in the iParhedrinchamber, bthey would not withhold from himany bfood or drinkthat he desired. However, bon Yom Kippur eve at nightfall, they would not allow him to eat a great deal because food induces sleepand they did not allow him to sleep, as will be explained., strongGEMARA: /strong The Gemara wonders about the depiction in the mishna of the Elders questioning the High Priest as to whether he forgot this reading or perhaps did not learn to read. bGranted, perhaps he forgot,that is bfine,as it is conceivable that he is not accustomed to reading the Torah and might have forgotten this portion. bHowever,is it conceivable that bperhapsthe High Priest bdid not learnto read? bDo we appointa High Priest bof that sortwho never learned the Bible?, bBut wasn’t it taughtin a ibaraitathat it is stated: b“And the priest who is greater than his brethren”(Leviticus 21:10); this teaches bthat hemust bbe greater than hispriestly bbrethren in strength, in beauty, in wisdom, and in wealth. iAḥerimsay:Wealth is not a prerequisite for selecting a High Priest, but bfrom whereis it derived bthat if he does not haveproperty of his own bthat his brethren the priests elevate himand render him wealthy from their own property? bThe verse states: “And the priest who is greater [ ihaggadol /i] than his brethren”; elevate him [ igaddelehu /i] fromthe property bof his brethren.In any event, there is a consensus that wisdom is a prerequisite for his selection., bRav Yosef said:This is bnot difficult. There,the ibaraitathat lists wisdom among the attributes of the High Priest is referring to bthe First Temple,where this ihalakhawas observed and the High Priests possessed those attributes listed. bHere,the mishna is referring to bthe Second Temple,where this ihalakhawas not observed, so a situation where the High Priest was not well-versed in the Bible was conceivable. bAs Rav Asi said:The wealthy bMarta, daughter of Baitos, brought a half- ise’aof dinars in to King Yannai forthe fact bthat he appointed Yehoshua ben Gamla as High Priest.This is an example of the appointment of High Priests by means of bribery and gifts. Since that was the practice, a totally ignorant High Priest could have been appointed.,§ It was taught in the mishna: bOn Yom Kippur evein the bmorning,the elders pass different animals before the High Priest. A itanna btaughtin the iTosefta /i: bEven goatswere brought before him. The Gemara asks: bAnd the itanna /iof bourmishna, bwhat is the reasonthat bhe did not teachthat bgoatswere among the animals that passed before the High Priest? The Gemara answers: bSincegoats bcomeas atonement bfor sins,passing them before the High Priest will evoke transgressions and he will bbecome distraught. /b,The Gemara asks: bIf so, a bullshould not be passed before him, bas it too comesto atone bfor sin.The Gemara answers that there is a difference in the case of ba bull, sinceit is to atone bfor hissins band forthe sins of bhis brethren the priests that it comes; among his brethren the priests, if there is a person who has asinful bmatter,the High Priest bwould knowabout it bandlead bhim back tothe path of righteousness bthrough repentance.Therefore, passing a bull before the High Priest will not render him distraught, as it will merely remind him of his responsibility toward his priestly brethren. On the other hand, bwith regard to the entire Jewish people, he does not knowof their sinful matters and is unable to facilitate their repentance. Passing goats before the High Priest will evoke their sins as well as his inability to correct the situation, leaving him distraught.,Apropos the High Priest being privy to the sinful behavior of his fellow priests, bRavina saidthat bthisexplains the folk saying bthat people say: Ifthe beloved bson of yourbeloved bsister becomes a policeman [ idayyala /i], seeto it that bin the marketplace you do not pass before him.Be wary of him because he knows your sins.,§ We learned in the mishna: Throughout ball the seven daysthat the High Priest was in the iParhedrinchamber, bthey would not withholdfrom him any food or drink that he desired. bIt was taughtin a ibaraita /i: bRabbi Yehuda ben Nekosa says:On Yom Kippur eve bthey feed him fine flour and eggs in order to loosen hisbowels, so that he will not need to relieve himself on Yom Kippur. bThey said toRabbi Yehuda ben Nekosa: In feeding him those foods, ball the more so that you bring him to a state of arousal.Feeding him those foods is antithetical to the efforts to prevent the High Priest from becoming impure, as they are liable to cause him to experience a seminal emission., bIt was taughtin a ibaraitathat bSumakhos said in the name of Rabbi Meir: One does not feed himfoods represented by the acrostic: iAlef /i, ibeit /i, iyod /i; and some saythat one does bnotfeed him foods represented by the acrostic: iAlef /i, ibeit /i, ibeit /i, iyod /i; and some say neitherdoes one feed him bwhite wine.The Gemara elaborates: bNot ialef /i, ibeit /i, iyod /imeans bneither ietrog /i, nor eggs [ ibeitzim /i], nor old wine [ iyayin /i]. And some say: Not ialef /i, ibeit /i, ibeit /i, iyod /imeans bneither ietrog /i, nor eggs [ ibeitzim /i], nor fatty meat [ ibasar /i], nor old wine [ iyayin /i]. And some say neitherdoes one feed him bwhite wine because white wine bringsa bman tothe bimpurityof a seminal emission.,Similarly, bthe Sages taught:If a man experienced an emission that could render him ba izav /i, one attributesthe emission not to his being a izavbut perhaps to a different cause, e.g., bto food, or to all kinds of food,i.e., he may have eaten too much food, which could have caused the emission. bElazar ben Pineḥas says in the name of Rabbi Yehuda ben Beteira:During the days that a izavis examining himself to determine whether or not he is impure, bone feeds him neitherfoods represented by the acrostic: iḤet /i, igimmel /i, ibeit /i, iyod /i, norfoods represented by the acrostic: iGimmel /i, ibeit /i, imem /i, nor anyfood bitems thatmight bbring him to impuritycaused by an emission. The Gemara explains: bNot iḥet /i, igimmel /i, ibeit /i, iyod /imeans bneither milk [ iḥalav /i], nor cheese [ igevina /i], nor egg [ ibeitza /i], nor wine [ iyayin /i]. And not igimmel /i, ibeit /i, imem /imeans bneither soup of pounded beans [ imei gerisin /i], nor fatty meat [ ibasar /i], norsmall bfishpickled bin brine [ imuryas /i]. /b,The Gemara asks about the phrase: bNor anyfood bitems thatmight bbring him to impurity; what does itcome bto include? Itcomes bto include that which the Sages taught: Fivefood bitems bringa bman toa state of bimpuritydue to emission. bAnd these are: Garlic, /b
78. Papyri, Papyri Graecae Magicae, 1.54, 2.46, 7.196, 7.199-7.201, 7.204-7.206, 7.208, 7.505-7.528, 7.540-7.578, 7.795 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

79. Anon., Exodus Rabbah, 33.1 (4th cent. CE - 9th cent. CE)

33.1. וְיִקְחוּ לִי תְּרוּמָה, הֲדָא הוּא דִּכְתִיב (משלי ד, ב): כִּי לֶקַח טוֹב נָתַתִּי לָכֶם תּוֹרָתִי אַל תַּעֲזֹבוּ, אַל תַּעֲזֹבוּ אֶת הַמִּקָּח שֶׁנָּתַתִּי לָכֶם, יֵשׁ לְךָ אָדָם שֶׁלּוֹקֵחַ מִקָּח, יֵשׁ בּוֹ זָהָב אֵין בּוֹ כֶסֶף, יֵשׁ בּוֹ כֶסֶף אֵין בּוֹ זָהָב, אֲבָל הַמִּקָּח שֶׁנָּתַתִּי לָכֶם יֵשׁ בּוֹ כֶסֶף, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים יב, ז): אִמְרוֹת ה' אֲמָרוֹת טְהֹרוֹת כֶּסֶף צָרוּף. יֵשׁ בּוֹ זָהָב, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים יט, יא): הַנֶּחֱמָדִים מִזָּהָב וּמִפָּז רָב. יֵשׁ אָדָם לוֹקֵחַ שָׂדוֹת אֲבָל לֹא כְרָמִים, כְּרָמִים וְלֹא שָׂדוֹת, אֲבָל הַמִּקָּח הַזֶּה יֵשׁ בּוֹ שָׂדוֹת וְיֵשׁ בּוֹ כְּרָמִים, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שיר השירים ד, יג): שְׁלָחַיִךְ פַּרְדֵּס רִמּוֹנִים. יֵשׁ לְךָ אָדָם לוֹקֵחַ מִקָּח וּבְנֵי אָדָם אֵינָן יוֹדְעִין מַהוּ, אֲבָל מִשְֹּׂכַר הַסַּרְסוּר נִתְוַדַּע מַה לָּקַח. כָּךְ הַתּוֹרָה אֵין אָדָם יוֹדֵעַ מַה הִיא, אֶלָּא מִשָֹּׂכָר שֶׁלָּקַח משֶׁה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות לד, כט): וּמשֶׁה לֹא יָדַע כִּי קָרַן עוֹר פָּנָיו בְּדַבְּרוֹ אִתּוֹ. וְיֵשׁ לְךָ מִקָּח שֶׁמִּי שֶׁמְּכָרוֹ נִמְכָּר עִמּוֹ, אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לְיִשְׂרָאֵל, מָכַרְתִּי לָכֶם תּוֹרָתִי, כִּבְיָכוֹל נִמְכַּרְתִּי עִמָּהּ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: וְיִקְחוּ לִי תְּרוּמָה, מָשָׁל לְמֶלֶךְ שֶׁהָיָה לוֹ בַּת יְחִידָה, בָּא אֶחָד מִן הַמְּלָכִים וּנְטָלָהּ, בִּקֵּשׁ לֵילֵךְ לוֹ לְאַרְצוֹ וְלִטֹּל לְאִשְׁתּוֹ. אָמַר לוֹ: בִּתִּי שֶׁנָּתַתִּי לְךָ יְחִידִית הִיא, לִפְרשׁ מִמֶּנָּה אֵינִי יָכוֹל, לוֹמַר לְךָ אַל תִּטְלָהּ אֵינִי יָכוֹל לְפִי שֶׁהִיא אִשְׁתֶּךָ, אֶלָּא, זוֹ טוֹבָה עֲשֵׂה לִי, שֶׁכָּל מָקוֹם שֶׁאַתָּה הוֹלֵךְ קִיטוֹן אֶחָד עֲשֵׂה לִי, שֶׁאָדוּר אֶצְלְכֶם, שֶׁאֵינִי יָכוֹל לְהַנִּיחַ אֶת בִּתִּי. כָּךְ אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לְיִשְׂרָאֵל, נָתַתִּי לָכֶם אֶת הַתּוֹרָה, לִפְרשׁ הֵימֶנָּה אֵינִי יָכוֹל, לוֹמַר לָכֶם אַל תִּטְלוּהָ אֵינִי יָכוֹל, אֶלָּא בְּכָל מָקוֹם שֶׁאַתֶּם הוֹלְכִים בַּיִת אֶחָד עֲשׂוּ לִי שֶׁאָדוּר בְּתוֹכוֹ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות כה, ח): וְעָשׂוּ לִי מִקְדָּשׁ.
80. Anon., Avot Derabbi Nathan A, 3, 40, 5-6, 8, 18 (6th cent. CE - 8th cent. CE)

81. Anon., Avot Derabbi Nathan B, 24, 23 (6th cent. CE - 8th cent. CE)

82. Anon., Challah, 2.9

83. Anon., Cairo Geniza Manuscripts, None



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
aaron Witter et al., Torah, Temple, Land: Constructions of Judaism in Antiquity (2021) 20
abot, additions to Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 560
abot, chain Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 560
abraham Secunda, The Iranian Talmud: Reading the Bavli in Its Sasanian Context (2014) 79; Secunda, The Talmud's Red Fence: Menstrual Impurity and Difference in Babylonian Judaism and its Sasanian Context (2020), 79; Swartz, The Mechanics of Providence: The Workings of Ancient Jewish Magic and Mysticism (2018) 92
abtalion Sigal, The Halakhah of Jesus of Nazareth According to the Gospel of Matthew (2007) 40, 47
academies (yeshivot) Hirshman, The Stabilization of Rabbinic Culture, 100 C (2009) 122
adversus judaeos Sigal, The Halakhah of Jesus of Nazareth According to the Gospel of Matthew (2007) 46
aesop Sigal, The Halakhah of Jesus of Nazareth According to the Gospel of Matthew (2007) 40
agency Eilberg-Schwartz, The Human Will in Judaism: The Mishnah's Philosophy of Intention (1986) 217
aggadah, as element of rabbinic curriculum Alexander, Gender and Timebound Commandments in Judaism (2013) 203
agrippa i Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 546
agrippa ii Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 546
albinus Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 546
alexander jannaeus Sigal, The Halakhah of Jesus of Nazareth According to the Gospel of Matthew (2007) 47
amidah Sigal, The Halakhah of Jesus of Nazareth According to the Gospel of Matthew (2007) 46
amoraim, babylonian, increasing palestinian influences Kalmin, The Sage in Jewish Society of Late Antiquity (1998) 148
amulets Janowitz, Magic in the Roman World: Pagans, Jews and Christians (2002) 49
ananus (annas) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 546
ananus son of ananus Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 546
ancient philosophy Bezzel and Pfeiffer, Prophecy and Hellenism (2021) 5
angels, and sacrifice Janowitz, Icons of Power: Ritual Practices in Late Antiquity (2002b) 103
angels, at mt. sinai Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 108
angels, cult by Dignas Parker and Stroumsa, Priests and Prophets Among Pagans, Jews and Christians (2013) 48
angels, mediators of revelation Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 108
angels Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 72; Janowitz, Magic in the Roman World: Pagans, Jews and Christians (2002) 49; Najman, The Significance of Sinai: Traditions about Sinai and Divine Revelation in Judaism and Christianity (2010) 135
antigonus of socho Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 560
antigonus of sokho Sigal, The Halakhah of Jesus of Nazareth According to the Gospel of Matthew (2007) 44, 45, 46
apocalyptic Bezzel and Pfeiffer, Prophecy and Hellenism (2021) 7; Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 207
apocalyptic thinking Bezzel and Pfeiffer, Prophecy and Hellenism (2021) 7
apology Veltri, Libraries, Translations, and 'Canonic' Texts: The Septuagint, Aquila and Ben Sira in the Jewish and Christian Traditions (2006) 10
apostleship Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 155
arabic Secunda, The Iranian Talmud: Reading the Bavli in Its Sasanian Context (2014) 182; Secunda, The Talmud's Red Fence: Menstrual Impurity and Difference in Babylonian Judaism and its Sasanian Context (2020), 182
aramaic, babylonian jewish Secunda, The Iranian Talmud: Reading the Bavli in Its Sasanian Context (2014) 79; Secunda, The Talmud's Red Fence: Menstrual Impurity and Difference in Babylonian Judaism and its Sasanian Context (2020), 79
aramaic Sigal, The Halakhah of Jesus of Nazareth According to the Gospel of Matthew (2007) 46
aristion and the elder john, papias as direct witness to Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 169
ark, of the covenant Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 108
art, priests Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 72
art, qumran Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 72
ascent to heaven Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 155
authoritative works Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 72, 207
authority, christian sources, early, role of non-intellectual authority in Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 169
authority, conferring strategies xviii Najman, The Significance of Sinai: Traditions about Sinai and Divine Revelation in Judaism and Christianity (2010) 135
authority, human vs. divine/scriptural Hayes, The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning (2022) 70
authority, interpretive strategies Najman, The Significance of Sinai: Traditions about Sinai and Divine Revelation in Judaism and Christianity (2010) 135
authority, jewish/rabbinic sources, role of oral-traditional authority in Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 169
authority, of elders Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 169
authority, of hearers Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 169
authority, of oral law Hayes, The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning (2022) 70
authority, of scripture Hayes, The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning (2022) 70
authority, oral-traditional Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 169
authority, pharisees Hayes, The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning (2022) 70
authority, rabbinic Jaffee, Torah in the Mouth: Writing and Oral Tradition in Palestinian Judaism 200 BCE - 400 CE (2001) 84
authority Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 169; Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 72, 207
authorship, rabbinic Fonrobert and Jaffee, The Cambridge Companion to the Talmud and Rabbinic Literature Cambridge Companions to Religion (2007) 4, 17
avot, focus on tora study Hayes, The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning (2022) 515
avot, ideological frame to mishna Hayes, The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning (2022) 515
avot, pirkei Simon-Shushan, Stories of the Law: Narrative Discourse and the Construction of Authority in the Mishna (2012) 88
avot Hayes, The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning (2022) 70
babylonia Sigal, The Halakhah of Jesus of Nazareth According to the Gospel of Matthew (2007) 37
barnabas Sigal, The Halakhah of Jesus of Nazareth According to the Gospel of Matthew (2007) 46
baruch Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 207
bauckham, r. Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 169
baum, armin d. Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 6
baumgarten, albert i. Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 5, 73
becker, adam Secunda, The Iranian Talmud: Reading the Bavli in Its Sasanian Context (2014) 79; Secunda, The Talmud's Red Fence: Menstrual Impurity and Difference in Babylonian Judaism and its Sasanian Context (2020), 79
ben azzai, on teaching daughters torah Alexander, Gender and Timebound Commandments in Judaism (2013) 203
ben sira Sigal, The Halakhah of Jesus of Nazareth According to the Gospel of Matthew (2007) 40
bernice (berenice) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 546
bertinoro Eilberg-Schwartz, The Human Will in Judaism: The Mishnah's Philosophy of Intention (1986) 217
bet shammai Sigal, The Halakhah of Jesus of Nazareth According to the Gospel of Matthew (2007) 50
bible, books Veltri, Libraries, Translations, and 'Canonic' Texts: The Septuagint, Aquila and Ben Sira in the Jewish and Christian Traditions (2006) 10
bible, canon Veltri, Libraries, Translations, and 'Canonic' Texts: The Septuagint, Aquila and Ben Sira in the Jewish and Christian Traditions (2006) 10
bible Secunda, The Iranian Talmud: Reading the Bavli in Its Sasanian Context (2014) 79; Secunda, The Talmud's Red Fence: Menstrual Impurity and Difference in Babylonian Judaism and its Sasanian Context (2020), 182
biblical allusions and language, in the rupture with the pharisees' Noam, Shifting Images of the Hasmoneans: Second Temple Legends and Their Reception in Josephus and Rabbinic Literature (2018) 99
birkat haminim Sigal, The Halakhah of Jesus of Nazareth According to the Gospel of Matthew (2007) 46
birnbaum, ellen, bitter waters, ritual of Alexander, Gender and Timebound Commandments in Judaism (2013) 203
bloom, harold Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 6
boaz Sigal, The Halakhah of Jesus of Nazareth According to the Gospel of Matthew (2007) 61
boethusians Cohn, The Memory of the Temple and the Making of the Rabbis (2013) 168
book of daniel Bezzel and Pfeiffer, Prophecy and Hellenism (2021) 5, 7
book of secrets, social context of Janowitz, Icons of Power: Ritual Practices in Late Antiquity (2002b) 103
book of secrets Janowitz, Icons of Power: Ritual Practices in Late Antiquity (2002b) 103
book of the twelve Bezzel and Pfeiffer, Prophecy and Hellenism (2021) 7
boyarin, daniel, border lines Cohn, The Memory of the Temple and the Making of the Rabbis (2013) 168
boyarin, daniel Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 5, 72, 73, 74
build/building activity, enclosure Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 108
caiaphas Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 546
cambyses Sigal, The Halakhah of Jesus of Nazareth According to the Gospel of Matthew (2007) 37
canon Veltri, Libraries, Translations, and 'Canonic' Texts: The Septuagint, Aquila and Ben Sira in the Jewish and Christian Traditions (2006) 10
chain of tradition Swartz, The Mechanics of Providence: The Workings of Ancient Jewish Magic and Mysticism (2018) 92
chair of moses Poorthuis and Schwartz, Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity (2014) 449
christianity Sigal, The Halakhah of Jesus of Nazareth According to the Gospel of Matthew (2007) 46, 47
christianity and christian texts Secunda, The Iranian Talmud: Reading the Bavli in Its Sasanian Context (2014) 79; Secunda, The Talmud's Red Fence: Menstrual Impurity and Difference in Babylonian Judaism and its Sasanian Context (2020), 79
christians Sigal, The Halakhah of Jesus of Nazareth According to the Gospel of Matthew (2007) 46
church Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 155, 602
cicero Bezzel and Pfeiffer, Prophecy and Hellenism (2021) 5
cohen, shaye j. d. Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 72
commandment/commandments Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 485
compared with orthodoxy Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 72
consensus Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 72, 73, 74
contact Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 153
conversion Secunda, The Iranian Talmud: Reading the Bavli in Its Sasanian Context (2014) 79; Secunda, The Talmud's Red Fence: Menstrual Impurity and Difference in Babylonian Judaism and its Sasanian Context (2020), 79
covenant, ark of Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 108
creation, creator Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 602
cross Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 602
dahāg Secunda, The Iranian Talmud: Reading the Bavli in Its Sasanian Context (2014) 79; Secunda, The Talmud's Red Fence: Menstrual Impurity and Difference in Babylonian Judaism and its Sasanian Context (2020), 79
daughters, learning torah Alexander, Gender and Timebound Commandments in Judaism (2013) 203
david Sigal, The Halakhah of Jesus of Nazareth According to the Gospel of Matthew (2007) 44
dead sea scrolls Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 72
dead sea scrolls (dss), biblical allusions Noam, Shifting Images of the Hasmoneans: Second Temple Legends and Their Reception in Josephus and Rabbinic Literature (2018) 99
democritus Janowitz, Magic in the Roman World: Pagans, Jews and Christians (2002) 49
deuteronomic Sigal, The Halakhah of Jesus of Nazareth According to the Gospel of Matthew (2007) 37
deuteronomist Eilberg-Schwartz, The Human Will in Judaism: The Mishnah's Philosophy of Intention (1986) 217
discipleship, as a means of transmission Fonrobert and Jaffee, The Cambridge Companion to the Talmud and Rabbinic Literature Cambridge Companions to Religion (2007) 41
discipline Hirshman, The Stabilization of Rabbinic Culture, 100 C (2009) 122
disputation Secunda, The Iranian Talmud: Reading the Bavli in Its Sasanian Context (2014) 182; Secunda, The Talmud's Red Fence: Menstrual Impurity and Difference in Babylonian Judaism and its Sasanian Context (2020), 182
divination Bezzel and Pfeiffer, Prophecy and Hellenism (2021) 5
divine, revelation Najman, The Significance of Sinai: Traditions about Sinai and Divine Revelation in Judaism and Christianity (2010) 135
divine names, secret Janowitz, Icons of Power: Ritual Practices in Late Antiquity (2002b) 103
ebner, david yechiel Alexander, Gender and Timebound Commandments in Judaism (2013) 203
ecstasy Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 155
education, age to begin Hirshman, The Stabilization of Rabbinic Culture, 100 C (2009) 122
education, goals of, jewish, history of Hirshman, The Stabilization of Rabbinic Culture, 100 C (2009) 122
educational curriculum, history of Hirshman, The Stabilization of Rabbinic Culture, 100 C (2009) 122
eichrodt Eilberg-Schwartz, The Human Will in Judaism: The Mishnah's Philosophy of Intention (1986) 217
elders, authority of Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 169
elders/council of elders Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 327, 485
elementary education Hirshman, The Stabilization of Rabbinic Culture, 100 C (2009) 122
elephantine Sigal, The Halakhah of Jesus of Nazareth According to the Gospel of Matthew (2007) 37
eli Sigal, The Halakhah of Jesus of Nazareth According to the Gospel of Matthew (2007) 44
eliezer (ben hyrcanus), rabbi Fonrobert and Jaffee, The Cambridge Companion to the Talmud and Rabbinic Literature Cambridge Companions to Religion (2007) 41
elijah Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 72
ephesians, letter to the Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 602
epicurean Bezzel and Pfeiffer, Prophecy and Hellenism (2021) 5
epiphanius Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 78
eschatology/eschatological Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 304
eschatology Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 207; Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 155
esra/ezra Bezzel and Pfeiffer, Prophecy and Hellenism (2021) 5
essenes Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 78
exegesis as basis for authority Hayes, The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning (2022) 70
ezekiel Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 72
ezra/esra Bezzel and Pfeiffer, Prophecy and Hellenism (2021) 5
festivals—see also calendar Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 304
festus Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 546
finkelstein, louis Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 73
flood/deluge, great/noahs Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 108
foreign nations Bezzel and Pfeiffer, Prophecy and Hellenism (2021) 7
former prophets Bezzel and Pfeiffer, Prophecy and Hellenism (2021) 7
fortschreibung Bezzel and Pfeiffer, Prophecy and Hellenism (2021) 7
fourth philosophy Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 72, 78
frames and framing stories, pirkei avot Simon-Shushan, Stories of the Law: Narrative Discourse and the Construction of Authority in the Mishna (2012) 88
galatians, letter to the Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 155
gaonic period Fonrobert and Jaffee, The Cambridge Companion to the Talmud and Rabbinic Literature Cambridge Companions to Religion (2007) 41
generations of rabbis and production of mishna, tradents of oral tora Hayes, The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning (2022) 70
globalization Bezzel and Pfeiffer, Prophecy and Hellenism (2021) 7
glory Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 108
gnosticism, gnostics Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 72
god Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 73
goshen-gottstein, a. Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 484
gospel of philip Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 602
greed, alleged of priests Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 178
grossberg, david m. Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 72
hagigah, tractate in mishna, tosefta and talmud Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 484
halakha, a halakha to moses from sinai Hayes, The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning (2022) 70
halakha, and scripture Hayes, The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning (2022) 70
halakhah, as element of rabbinic curriculum Alexander, Gender and Timebound Commandments in Judaism (2013) 203
halakhah, as modality of tradition Jaffee, Torah in the Mouth: Writing and Oral Tradition in Palestinian Judaism 200 BCE - 400 CE (2001) 48
halivni, david weiss Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 74
hammer, olav Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 6
harba de-moshe, aver(im) Fonrobert and Jaffee, The Cambridge Companion to the Talmud and Rabbinic Literature Cambridge Companions to Religion (2007) 318
hazon gabriel Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 72, 73, 74, 78
hearers, authority of Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 169
heaven Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 153
hebraism and hellenism Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 41
hebrew Bezzel and Pfeiffer, Prophecy and Hellenism (2021) 5
hebrew bible Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 214, 304, 327
hellenism, hellenistic Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 546
heresy, and orthodoxy Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 5, 72
heresy and heretics Secunda, The Iranian Talmud: Reading the Bavli in Its Sasanian Context (2014) 182; Secunda, The Talmud's Red Fence: Menstrual Impurity and Difference in Babylonian Judaism and its Sasanian Context (2020), 182
hermeneutics/hermeneutical—see also, interpretation Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 485
herr, moshe david Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 73
heschel, abraham joshua Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 5
heschel, avraham yoshua Poorthuis Schwartz and Turner, Interaction Between Judaism and Christianity in History, Religion, Art, and Literature (2009) 464
high priesthood Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 178
high priests of jerusalem Dignas Parker and Stroumsa, Priests and Prophets Among Pagans, Jews and Christians (2013) 48
hillel Jaffee, Torah in the Mouth: Writing and Oral Tradition in Palestinian Judaism 200 BCE - 400 CE (2001) 48, 84; Simon-Shushan, Stories of the Law: Narrative Discourse and the Construction of Authority in the Mishna (2012) 88
hillel and shammai, and extra-scriptural tradition Hayes, The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning (2022) 70
hippolytus Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 78
historical thinking historicism, memory in Neusner, The Idea of History in Rabbinic Judaism (2004) 204
holy man Janowitz, Icons of Power: Ritual Practices in Late Antiquity (2002b) 103
holy of holies Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 602
honor Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 304, 327
house, of instruction Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 73
house, temple Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 108
house Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 153
hyrcanus i Noam, Shifting Images of the Hasmoneans: Second Temple Legends and Their Reception in Josephus and Rabbinic Literature (2018) 99
identity marker / boundary marker Witter et al., Torah, Temple, Land: Constructions of Judaism in Antiquity (2021) 20
image xvi Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 602
immortality Janowitz, Magic in the Roman World: Pagans, Jews and Christians (2002) 49
imprecations Janowitz, Icons of Power: Ritual Practices in Late Antiquity (2002b) 103
innovation, claims and accusations separate from actual Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 6
innovation, definition of Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 6
interpretation, biblical Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 72
interpretation, rabbinic Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 207
interpretation Najman, The Significance of Sinai: Traditions about Sinai and Divine Revelation in Judaism and Christianity (2010) 135
interpretation—see also midrash Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 214, 304, 327, 485
irenaeus Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 78
isaiah Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 72
israel, nan Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 304
israel Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 153; Witter et al., Torah, Temple, Land: Constructions of Judaism in Antiquity (2021) 20
jacob Poorthuis and Schwartz, Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity (2014) 449
jaffee, martin s. Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 5, 6
james (brother of jesus) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 546
jerome Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 169
jerusalem, second temple of, importance of for jewish culture Dignas Parker and Stroumsa, Priests and Prophets Among Pagans, Jews and Christians (2013) 48
jerusalem, second temple of Dignas Parker and Stroumsa, Priests and Prophets Among Pagans, Jews and Christians (2013) 48
jerusalem Secunda, The Iranian Talmud: Reading the Bavli in Its Sasanian Context (2014) 79; Secunda, The Talmud's Red Fence: Menstrual Impurity and Difference in Babylonian Judaism and its Sasanian Context (2020), 79
jerusalem temple Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 73
jesus, view of, as gods emissary Kalmin, The Sage in Jewish Society of Late Antiquity (1998) 148
jesus Poorthuis and Schwartz, Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity (2014) 449
jewish-christians, didache and Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 5
jewish-christians Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 5
jews Poorthuis and Schwartz, Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity (2014) 449
jews and judaism, on oral-traditional authority Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 169
josephus, portrayal of role of god Kalmin, The Sage in Jewish Society of Late Antiquity (1998) 148
josephus Bezzel and Pfeiffer, Prophecy and Hellenism (2021) 5
joshua, r Simon-Shushan, Stories of the Law: Narrative Discourse and the Construction of Authority in the Mishna (2012) 88
joshua Poorthuis and Schwartz, Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity (2014) 449; Secunda, The Iranian Talmud: Reading the Bavli in Its Sasanian Context (2014) 79; Secunda, The Talmud's Red Fence: Menstrual Impurity and Difference in Babylonian Judaism and its Sasanian Context (2020), 79
joshua (biblical) Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 73
joshua ben nun Poorthuis Schwartz and Turner, Interaction Between Judaism and Christianity in History, Religion, Art, and Literature (2009) 464
judaea (roman province; see also yehud) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 546
judaism, memory and dream in Neusner, The Idea of History in Rabbinic Judaism (2004) 204
kahana, menahem Alexander, Gender and Timebound Commandments in Judaism (2013) 203
khusrau son of kawād (i), king Secunda, The Iranian Talmud: Reading the Bavli in Its Sasanian Context (2014) 182; Secunda, The Talmud's Red Fence: Menstrual Impurity and Difference in Babylonian Judaism and its Sasanian Context (2020), 182
king Poorthuis and Schwartz, Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity (2014) 449
kings, biblical Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 304, 327
knowledge Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 72
land, of israel Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 108
land, promised Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 108
latter prophets Bezzel and Pfeiffer, Prophecy and Hellenism (2021) 5, 7
law, biblical/rabbinic—see also, halakhah Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 214, 304
law, rabbinic Jassen, Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2014) 33
law, sanctification Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 207
law Najman, The Significance of Sinai: Traditions about Sinai and Divine Revelation in Judaism and Christianity (2010) 135
laws, ritual Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 48
laws Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 41
lewis, james r. Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 6
limmud torah Veltri, Libraries, Translations, and 'Canonic' Texts: The Septuagint, Aquila and Ben Sira in the Jewish and Christian Traditions (2006) 10
lishmor Veltri, Libraries, Translations, and 'Canonic' Texts: The Septuagint, Aquila and Ben Sira in the Jewish and Christian Traditions (2006) 10
liturgy Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 72; Janowitz, Magic in the Roman World: Pagans, Jews and Christians (2002) 49
love-rites Janowitz, Magic in the Roman World: Pagans, Jews and Christians (2002) 49
luke Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 546
lxx/septuagint/septuaginta Bezzel and Pfeiffer, Prophecy and Hellenism (2021) 5
magic, jewish, ideal figures in Swartz, The Mechanics of Providence: The Workings of Ancient Jewish Magic and Mysticism (2018) 92
magic, rabbinic permission to study Janowitz, Icons of Power: Ritual Practices in Late Antiquity (2002b) 103
malachi Bezzel and Pfeiffer, Prophecy and Hellenism (2021) 5, 7
mantic Bezzel and Pfeiffer, Prophecy and Hellenism (2021) 5
marcion Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 5
margalioth, m. Janowitz, Icons of Power: Ritual Practices in Late Antiquity (2002b) 103
marriage Lorberbaum, In God's Image: Myth, Theology, and Law in Classical Judaism (2015) 195
master narrative, competing claims Simon-Shushan, Stories of the Law: Narrative Discourse and the Construction of Authority in the Mishna (2012) 88
medicine Swartz, The Mechanics of Providence: The Workings of Ancient Jewish Magic and Mysticism (2018) 92
memory, as applied to scripture Neusner, The Idea of History in Rabbinic Judaism (2004) 204
men of great assembly Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 560
merchavya, ch. Janowitz, Icons of Power: Ritual Practices in Late Antiquity (2002b) 103
merkabah texts Janowitz, Icons of Power: Ritual Practices in Late Antiquity (2002b) 103
merkava xiii–xvi, xix Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 602
messiah Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 546
messianism Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 155, 602
methodology xvii–xix Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 484
midrash, as element of rabbinic curriculum Alexander, Gender and Timebound Commandments in Judaism (2013) 203
midrash/midrashim Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 327, 485
midrash (as a method) Jassen, Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2014) 33
minim Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 72
mishnah, and ethics Fonrobert and Jaffee, The Cambridge Companion to the Talmud and Rabbinic Literature Cambridge Companions to Religion (2007) 318
mishnah, scripture, relationship to Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 196
mishnah Witter et al., Torah, Temple, Land: Constructions of Judaism in Antiquity (2021) 20
mishnah (matnyta) Jaffee, Torah in the Mouth: Writing and Oral Tradition in Palestinian Judaism 200 BCE - 400 CE (2001) 84
moral defilement, of land or temple, in rabbinic literature Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 178
mosaic revelation at sinai Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 155
moses, art Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 72, 207
moses, as legal authority Jassen, Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2014) 33
moses, example Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 207
moses, prophet Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 72
moses Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 73; Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 72, 207; Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 214, 485; Jaffee, Torah in the Mouth: Writing and Oral Tradition in Palestinian Judaism 200 BCE - 400 CE (2001) 84; Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 5, 6, 72, 73, 74; Lorberbaum, In God's Image: Myth, Theology, and Law in Classical Judaism (2015) 195; Najman, The Significance of Sinai: Traditions about Sinai and Divine Revelation in Judaism and Christianity (2010) 135; Poorthuis and Schwartz, Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity (2014) 449; Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 153; Rosenblum, The Jewish Dietary Laws in the Ancient World (2016) 87; Simon-Shushan, Stories of the Law: Narrative Discourse and the Construction of Authority in the Mishna (2012) 88; Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 546; Witter et al., Torah, Temple, Land: Constructions of Judaism in Antiquity (2021) 20
mount sinai Poorthuis Schwartz and Turner, Interaction Between Judaism and Christianity in History, Religion, Art, and Literature (2009) 464
muhammad Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 73
munck, johannes Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 169
mystery Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 155
mysticism Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 155
names, angel Janowitz, Magic in the Roman World: Pagans, Jews and Christians (2002) 49
narrative, biblical Simon-Shushan, Stories of the Law: Narrative Discourse and the Construction of Authority in the Mishna (2012) 88
narrative, orality, ideological formulations of Jaffee, Torah in the Mouth: Writing and Oral Tradition in Palestinian Judaism 200 BCE - 400 CE (2001) 84
narrative Simon-Shushan, Stories of the Law: Narrative Discourse and the Construction of Authority in the Mishna (2012) 88
nature Bezzel and Pfeiffer, Prophecy and Hellenism (2021) 5
nehemiah Bezzel and Pfeiffer, Prophecy and Hellenism (2021) 5
nero Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 546
neusner, j. Janowitz, Icons of Power: Ritual Practices in Late Antiquity (2002b) 103
neusner, jacob Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 72, 74
noah Janowitz, Icons of Power: Ritual Practices in Late Antiquity (2002b) 103; Swartz, The Mechanics of Providence: The Workings of Ancient Jewish Magic and Mysticism (2018) 92