Home About Network of subjects Linked subjects heatmap Book indices included Search by subject Search by reference Browse subjects Browse texts

Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



7996
Mishnah, Avodah Zarah, 1.8


וְאֵין עוֹשִׂין תַּכְשִׁיטִין לַעֲבוֹדָה זָרָה, קֻטְלָאוֹת וּנְזָמִים וְטַבָּעוֹת. רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר אוֹמֵר, בְּשָׂכָר מֻתָּר. אֵין מוֹכְרִין לָהֶם בִּמְחֻבָּר לַקַּרְקַע, אֲבָל מוֹכֵר הוּא מִשֶּׁיִּקָּצֵץ. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, מוֹכֵר הוּא לוֹ עַל מְנָת לָקוֹץ. אֵין מַשְׂכִּירִין לָהֶם בָּתִּים בְּאֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל, וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר שָׂדוֹת. וּבְסוּרְיָא מַשְׂכִּירִין לָהֶם בָּתִּים, אֲבָל לֹא שָׂדוֹת. וּבְחוּץ לָאָרֶץ מוֹכְרִין לָהֶם בָּתִּים וּמַשְׂכִּירִין שָׂדוֹת, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי מֵאִיר. רַבִּי יוֹסֵי אוֹמֵר, בְּאֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל מַשְׂכִּירִין לָהֶם בָּתִּים, אֲבָל לֹא שָׂדוֹת. וּבְסוּרְיָא מוֹכְרִין בָּתִּים וּמַשְׂכִּירִין שָׂדוֹת. וּבְחוּצָה לָאָרֶץ מוֹכְרִין אֵלּוּ וָאֵלּוּ:One should not make jewelry for an idol [such as] necklaces, ear-rings, or finger-rings. Rabbi Eliezer says, for payment it is permitted. One should not sell to idolaters a thing which is attached to the soil, but when cut down it may be sold. R. Judah says, one may sell it on condition that it be cut down. One should not let houses to them in the land of Israel; and it is not necessary to mention fields. In Syria houses may be let to them, but not fields. Outside of the land of Israel, houses may be sold and fields let to them, these are the words of Rabbi Meir. Rabbi Yose says: in the land of Israel, one may let to them houses but not fields; In Syria, we may sell them houses and let fields; Outside of the land of Israel, both may be sold.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

12 results
1. Dead Sea Scrolls, Damascus Covenant, 12.6-12.11 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

2. Dead Sea Scrolls, (Cairo Damascus Covenant) Cd-A, 12.6-12.11 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

3. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 2.409 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.409. At the same time Eleazar, the son of Aias the high priest, a very bold youth, who was at that time governor of the temple, persuaded those that officiated in the Divine service to receive no gift or sacrifice for any foreigner. And this was the true beginning of our war with the Romans; for they rejected the sacrifice of Caesar on this account;
4. Mishnah, Avodah Zarah, 1.1, 1.5-1.7, 2.4, 2.7, 3.1 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

1.1. On the three days preceding the festivals of idolaters, it is forbidden to conduct business with them, to lend articles to them or borrow from them, to lend or borrow any money from them, to repay a debt, or receive repayment from them. Rabbi Judah says: we should receive repayment from them, as this can only depress them; But they [the Rabbis] said to him: even though it is depressing at the time, they are glad of it subsequently." 1.5. The following things are forbidden to be sold to idolaters: iztroblin, bnoth-shuah with their stems, frankincense, and a white rooster. Rabbi Judah says: it is permitted to sell a white rooster to an idolater among other roosters; but if it be by itself, one should clip its spur and then sell it to him, because a defective [animal] is not sacrificed to an idol. As for other things, if they are not specified their sale is permitted, but if specified it is forbidden. Rabbi Meir says: also a “good-palm”, hazab and niklivas are forbidden to be sold to idolaters." 1.6. In a place where it is the custom to sell small domesticated animals to non-Jews, such sale is permitted; but where the custom is not to sell, such sale is not permitted. In no place however is it permitted to sell large animals, calves or foals, whether whole or maimed. Rabbi Judah permits in the case of a maimed one. And Ben Bateira permits in the case of a horse." 1.7. One should not sell them bears, lions or anything which may injure the public. One should not join them in building a basilica, a scaffold, a stadium, or a platform. But one may join them in building public or private bathhouses. When however he reaches the cupola in which the idol is placed he must not build." 2.4. Skin-bottles or flasks of non-Jews in which wine of a Jew is kept are forbidden and the prohibition extends to any benefit that may be derived from them, this is the opinion of Rabbi Meir. But the Sages say that the prohibition does not extend to deriving benefit. Grape seeds and grape-skins of non-Jews are forbidden, the prohibition extending to any benefit that may be derived from them, this is the opinion of Rabbi Meir. But the Sages say, when fresh they are forbidden but when dry they are permitted. Fish brine and Bithynian cheese of the non-Jews are forbidden, the prohibition extending to any benefit that may be derived from them, this is the opinion of Rabbi Meir. But the Sages say that the prohibition does not extend to deriving benefit." 2.7. The following are permitted to be eaten [by an israelite]:milk which a non-Jew milked with a Jew watching him; honey, grape-clusters even though these secrete moisture the law which renders food susceptible to defilement by a liquid does not apply to them preserves into which they are not accustomed to put wine or vinegar, pickled herring which has not been minced, brine containing fish, a leaf of asafoetida, and rolled olive-cakes. Rabbi Yose says: those olives having pits ready to drop out are prohibited. Locusts which come out of [a shopkeeper’s] basket are prohibited, but if from storage they are permitted. The same rule applies to terumah." 3.1. All images are prohibited because they are worshipped once a year, according to the opinion of Rabbi Meir; But the Sages say: [an image] is not prohibited except one that has a staff or bird or orb in its hand. Rabban Shimon b. Gamaliel says: any [image] which has anything in its hand [is prohibited]."
5. Mishnah, Gittin, 1.5 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

1.5. Any document which has upon it the signature of a Samaritan is invalid, except for bills of divorce or a writ of emancipation. It happened that a bill of divorce was once brought before Rabban Gamaliel at Kefar Otnai and its witnesses were Samaritan, and he declared it valid. All documents which are accepted in the courts of non-Jew, even if those who signed on the documents are non-Jews, are valid except bills of divorce and of writs of emancipation. Rabbi Shimon says: these also are valid; they were only pronounced [to be invalid] when done by ordinary persons."
6. Mishnah, Hulin, 2.7 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

2.7. If one slaughtered for a non-Jew, the slaughtering is valid. Rabbi Eliezer declares it invalid. Rabbi Eliezer said: even if one slaughtered a beast with the intention that a non-Jew should eat [only] its liver, the slaughtering is invalid, for the thoughts of a non-Jew are usually directed towards idolatry. Rabbi Yose said: is there not a kal vehomer argument? For if in the case of consecrated animals, where a wrongful intention can render invalid, it is established that everything depends solely upon the intention of him who performs the service, how much more in the case of unconsecrated animals, where a wrongful intention cannot render invalid, is it not logical that everything should depend solely upon the intention of him who slaughters!"
7. Mishnah, Peah, 4.6 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

4.6. A non-Jew who harvested his field and then converted, he is exempt from [leaving] gleanings, the forgotten sheaf and peah. Rabbi Judah makes him liable to leave the forgotten sheaf, since he becomes liable for the forgotten sheaf at the time of their binding."
8. Mishnah, Yevamot, 8.3 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

8.3. An Ammonite and a Moabite are forbidden [to enter into the congregation of the Lord] and their prohibition is for ever. However, their women are permitted at once. An Egyptian and an Edomite are forbidden only until the third generation, whether they are males or females. Rabbi Shimon permits their women immediately. Said Rabbi Shimon: This is a kal vehomer: if where the males are forbidden for all time the females are permitted immediately, where the males are forbidden only until the third generation how much more should the females be permitted immediately. They said to him: If this is a halakhah, we shall accept it; but if it is only a logical reference, there is a refutation. He replied: This is not so, I am in fact saying a halakhah. Mamzerim and nethinim are forbidden, and their prohibition is forever, whether they be males or females."
9. Mishnah, Zevahim, 4.5 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

4.5. The sacrifices of non-Jews: one is not liable on their account for piggul, remt, or defilement, and if [a priest] slaughters them outside [the Temple], he is not liable, the words of Rabbi Meir. But Rabbi Yose declares him liable. The things for which one is not liable on account of piggul, one is liable on account of remt and defilement except blood. Rabbi Shimon declares one liable for anything which is normally eaten, but for wood, frankincense and incense, one is not liable for [transgressions involving] defilement."
10. Mishnah, Shekalim, 7.6 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

7.6. Rabbi Shimon said: there were seven things that the court decree and that was one of them. [The others were the following:]A non-Jew who sent a burnt-offering from overseas and he sent with it its libation-offerings, they are offered out of his own; But if [he did] not [send its libation-offerings], they should be offered out of public funds. So too [in the case of] a convert who had died and left sacrifices, if he had also left its libation-offerings they are offered out of his own; But if not, they should be offered out of public funds. It was also a condition laid down by the court in the case of a high priest who had died that his minhah should be offered out of public funds. Rabbi Judah says: [it was offered out] of the property of his heirs, And had to be offered of the whole [tenth]."
11. Hippolytus, Refutation of All Heresies, 9.26 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

9.26. It now seems to us that the tenets of both all the Greeks and barbarians have been sufficiently explained by us, and that nothing has remained unrefuted either of the points about which philosophy has been busied, or of the allegations advanced by the heretics. And from these very explanations the condemnation of the heretics is obvious, for having either purloined their doctrines, or derived contributions to them from some of those tenets elaborately worked out by the Greeks, and for having advanced (these opinions) as if they originated from God. Since, therefore, we have hurriedly passed through all the systems of these, and with much labour have, in the nine books, proclaimed all their opinions, and have left behind us for all men a small viaticum in life, and to those who are our contemporaries have afforded a desire of learning (with) great joy and delight, we have considered it reasonable, as a crowning stroke to the entire work, to introduce the discourse (already mentioned) concerning the truth, and to furnish our delineation of this in one book, namely the tenth. Our object is, that the reader, not only when made acquainted with the overthrow of those who have presumed to establish heresies, may regard with scorn their idle fancies, but also, when brought to know the power of the truth, may be placed in the way of salvation, by reposing that faith in God which He so worthily deserves.
12. Babylonian Talmud, Avodah Zarah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

43a. הני אין צורת דרקון לא,אלא פשיטא במוצא וכדתנן המוצא כלים ועליהם צורת חמה,רישא וסיפא במוצא ומציעתא בעושה,אמר אביי אין רישא וסיפא במוצא ומציעתא בעושה,רבא אמר כולה במוצא ומציעתא רבי יהודה היא דתניא רבי יהודה מוסיף אף דמות מניקה וסר אפיס מניקה על שם חוה שמניקה כל העולם כולו סר אפיס על שם יוסף שסר ומפיס את כל העולם כולו והוא דנקיט גריוא וקא כייל והיא דנקטא בן וקא מניקה:,תנו רבנן איזהו צורת דרקון פירש רשב"א כל שיש לו ציצין בין פרקיו מחוי רבי אסי בין פרקי צואר אמר ר' חמא ברבי חנינא הלכה כר"ש בן אלעזר,אמר רבה בר בר חנה אמר רבי יהושע בן לוי פעם אחת הייתי מהלך אחר ר' אלעזר הקפר בריבי בדרך ומצא שם טבעת ועליה צורת דרקון ומצא עובד כוכבים קטן ולא אמר לו כלום מצא עובד כוכבים גדול ואמר לו בטלה ולא בטלה סטרו ובטלה,ש"מ תלת ש"מ עובד כוכבים מבטל עבודת כוכבים שלו ושל חבירו וש"מ יודע בטיב של עבודת כוכבים ומשמשיה מבטל ושאינו יודע בטיב עבודת כוכבים ומשמשיה אינו מבטל וש"מ עובד כוכבים מבטל בעל כרחו,מגדף בה רבי חנינא ולית ליה לרבי אלעזר הקפר בריבי הא דתנן המציל מן הארי ומן הדוב ומן הנמר ומן הגייס ומן הנהר ומזוטו של ים ומשלוליתו של נהר והמוצא בסרטיא ופלטיא גדולה ובכל מקום שהרבים מצוין שם הרי אלו שלו מפני שהבעלים מתייאשין מהן,אמר אביי נהי דמינה מייאש מאיסורא מי מייאש מימר אמר אי עובד כוכבים משכח לה מפלח פלח לה אי ישראל משכח לה איידי דדמיה יקרין מזבין לה לעובד כוכבים ופלח לה:,תנן התם דמות צורות לבנות היה לו לר"ג בעלייתו בטבלא בכותל שבהן מראה את ההדיוטות ואומר להן כזה ראיתם או כזה ראיתם,ומי שרי והכתיב (שמות כ, כג) לא תעשון אתי לא תעשון כדמות שמשי המשמשים לפני,אמר אביי לא אסרה תורה אלא שמשין שאפשר לעשות כמותן,כדתניא לא יעשה אדם בית תבנית היכל אכסדרה תבנית אולם חצר תבנית עזרה שולחן תבנית שולחן מנורה תבנית מנורה אבל הוא עושה של ה' ושל ו' ושל ח' ושל ז' לא יעשה אפילו של שאר מיני מתכות,רבי יוסי בר יהודה אומר אף של עץ לא יעשה כדרך שעשו בית חשמונאי,אמרו לו משם ראיה שפודין של ברזל היו וחופין בבעץ העשירו עשאום של כסף חזרו והעשירו עשאום של זהב,ושמשין שאי אפשר לעשות כמותן מי שרי והתניא לא תעשון אתי לא תעשון כדמות שמשי המשמשים לפני במרום,אמר אביי 43a. The Sages interpret this verse as referring to the heavenly constellations, which indicates that it bisprohibited to form only bthesefigures, but it is bnotprohibited to form ba figure of a dragon. /b, bRather,the Gemara concludes, it is bobviousthat this ihalakhais referring to a case bwhereone bfindsa vessel with the figure of a dragon, bandthis is bas we learnedin the mishna: In the case of bone who finds vessels, and upon them is a figure of the sun,a figure of the moon, or a figure of a dragon, he must take them and cast them into the Dead Sea.,The Gemara asks about the lack of consistency between the clauses of Rav Sheshet’s statement: Can it be that bthe first clause and the last clause arereferring to a case bwhere one findsvessels with the specified figures, band the middle clause isreferring to a case bwhere one formsthese figures?, bAbaye said: Indeed, the first clause and the last clause arereferring to cases bwhere one findsvessels with figures, band the middle clause isreferring to a case bwhere one formsfigures., bRava said: The entirestatement of Rav Sheshet is referring to a case bwhere one findsvessels with these figures, band the middle clause isin accordance with the opinion of bRabbi Yehuda. As it is taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Yehuda addsto the list of forbidden figures beven a figure of a nursing woman and iSar Apis /i.The figure of ba nursing womanis worshipped as it bsymbolizes Eve, who nurses the entire world.The figure of iSar Apis /iis worshipped as it bsymbolizes Joseph, who ruled over [ isar /i] and appeased [ imefis /i] the entire worldby distributing food during the seven years of famine (see Genesis, chapter 41). bButthe figure of iSar Apisis forbidden bonly when it is holding a dry measure and measuringwith it; bandthe figure of a nursing woman is forbidden bonly when she is holding a child and nursingit.,§ bThe Sages taught: What is a figure of a dragon? Rabbi Shimon ben Elazar explained:It is banyfigure bthat has scales between its joints. Rabbi Asi motionedwith his hands to depict scales bbetween the joints of the neck. Rabbi Ḥama, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, says:The ihalakha /iis bin accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Shimon ben Elazar. /b, bRabba bar bar Ḥana saysthat bRabbi Yehoshua ben Levi says: Once, I was following Rabbi Elazar HaKappar the Distinguished on the road, and he found a ring there, and there was a figure of a dragon on it. And hethen bencountered a minor gentile boy, but did not say anything to him. Hethen bencountered an adult gentile, and said to him: Revokethe ring’s idolatrous status. bButthe gentile bdid not revoke it.Rabbi Elazar HaKappar then bslapped himacross his face, whereupon the gentile succumbed band revokedits idolatrous status.,The Gemara comments: bLearn fromthis incident the following bthree ihalakhot /i: bLearn from itthat ba gentile can revokethe idolatrous status of both bhisobject of bidol worship and that of anothergentile. bAnd learn fromthe fact that Rabbi Elazar HaKappar waited to find an adult gentile, that only one who bis aware of the nature of idol worship and its accessories can revokethe idol’s status, bbutone bwho is not aware of the nature of idol worship and its accessories,such as a minor, bcannot revokethe idol’s status. bAndfinally, blearn from itthat ba gentile can revokethe status of an idol even bagainst his will. /b, bRabbi Ḥanina ridiculedthis ruling and asked: bButwhy was it necessary to have a gentile actively revoke the idolatrous status of the ring? bDoesn’t Rabbi Elazar HaKappar the Distinguished maintainin accordance with bthat which we learnedin a ibaraita /i: In the case of bone who savesan object bfrom a lion, or from a bear, or from a cheetah, or from a troopof soldiers, bor from a river, or from the tide of the sea, or from the flooding of a river, orsimilarly bone who findsan object bin a main thoroughfare orin ba large plaza, orfor that matter, banywhere frequented by the public,in all these cases, the objects belong bto him, because the owners despair ofrecovering bthem?Therefore, in the case of a lost ring with an idolatrous figure on it, its idolatrous status is automatically revoked, as its owner despairs of recovering it., bAbaye said: Granted,the owner bdespairs ofrecovering the object bitself, but does he despair ofits bforbidden [ ime’issura /i]idolatrous status? The owner does not assume that the object will never be worshipped again; rather, bhe saysto himself: bIf a gentile finds it, he will worship it. If a Jew finds it, since it is valuable, he will sell it to a gentile who willthen bworship it.Therefore, Rabbi Elazar HaKappar had to have the ring’s idolatrous status revoked.,§ bWe learnedin a mishna bthere( iRosh HaShana24a): bRabban Gamliel haddiagrams of the different bfigures of moonsdrawn bon a tabletthat hung bon the wall of his attic, which he would show to the ordinarypeople b[ ihahedyotot /i]who came to testify about sighting the new moon but who were unable to adequately describe what they had seen. bAnd he would say to them: Did you seean image blike this, or did you seean image blike that? /b,The Gemara asks: bAnd isit bpermittedto form these figures? bBut isn’t it written: “You shall not make with Megods of silver, or gods of gold” (Exodus 20:20), which is interpreted to mean: bYou shall not make figures of My attendants who serve before Me,i.e., those celestial bodies that were created to serve God, including the sun and the moon.,In answering, bAbaye said: The Torah prohibited onlythe figures of those battendants thatone can bpossibly reproducesomething that is truly bin their likeness.Since it is impossible to reproduce the sun and the moon, the prohibition does not apply to these entities., bAs it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bA person may not construct a housein the exact bimage of the Sanctuary,nor ba porticoin the exact bimage of the Entrance Hallof the Sanctuary, nor ba courtyard corresponding to the Temple courtyard,nor ba table corresponding to the Tablein the Temple, nor ba candelabrum corresponding to the Candelabrumin the Temple. bButone bmay fashiona candelabrum bof five or of six or of eightlamps. bAndone bmay not fashiona candelabrum bof sevenlamps bevenif he constructs it bfrom other kinds of metalrather than gold, as in extenuating circumstances the Candelabrum in the Temple may be fashioned from other metals.,The ibaraitacontinues: bRabbi Yosei bar Yehuda says: One may not fashion a candelabrum of wood either, in the manner thatthe kings of bthe Hasmonean monarchy fashionedit. When they first purified the Temple they had to fashion the Candelabrum out of wood as no other material was available. Since a wooden candelabrum is fit for the Temple, it is prohibited to fashion one of this kind for oneself.,The Rabbis bsaid toRabbi Yosei bar Yehuda: Do you seek to cite ba proof from there,i.e., from the Hasmonean era, that a candelabrum fashioned of wood is fit for the Temple? During that era the branches of the Candelabrum bwerefashioned from bspits [ ishappudin /i] of iron, and they coveredthem bwith tin [ ibeva’atz /i].Later, when bthey grew richerand could afford a Candelabrum of higher-quality material, bthey fashionedthe Candelabrum bfrom silver.When bthey grew even richer, they fashionedthe Candelabrum bfrom gold.In any event, Abaye proves from this ibaraitathat the prohibition against forming a figure applies only to items that can be reconstructed in an accurate manner. Since this is not possible in the case of the moon, Rabban Gamliel’s figures were permitted.,The Gemara asks: bAnd is itactually bpermittedto fashion figures of those battendantsof God concerning bwhich it is impossible to reproduce their likeness? But isn’t it taughtin a ibaraitathat the verse: b“You shall not make with Megods of silver” (Exodus 20:20), is interpreted to mean: bYou shall not make figures of My attendants who serve before Me on high?Apparently, this includes the sun and the moon., bAbaye said: /b


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abandoned child Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 154
added fifth Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 198
agricultural matters Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 198
aqiba Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 128, 150
art, idol vs. image Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 923
art, religious art manufactured by jews and christians Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 923
art Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 923
asherot Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 128
barber Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 154
bath-house Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 154, 198
ben bathyra Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 150
bread Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 154
buying and/or selling Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 154
canaanite slaves Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 154, 198
cheese Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 154
children Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 198
damages (injury) Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 154
eleazar Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 128
eleazar b. azariah Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 128
eliezer b. jacob Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 150
essenes (see also qumran) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 284
gentile christians / gentile churches Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 284
hillel the elder Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 284
historical tradition Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 284
idolatry Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 284
index of subjects, shammaite) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 284
oral or written ~ Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 284
oral tradition Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 284
paul (saul) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 284
pharisaic tradition/halakha Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 284
proselyte, proselytism Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 284
qumran documents Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 284
qumran halakha Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 284
r. eliezer shammaite Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 284
rabbinic tradition/literature, halakha Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 284
rabbis Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 923
shammai, school Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 284
shammai (see also subject index) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 284
slaughter Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 284
slavonic josephus, and mss. of greek josephus' Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 923
temple ~ Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 284