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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



7996
Mishnah, Avodah Zarah, 1.7


אֵין מוֹכְרִין לָהֶם דֻּבִּין וַאֲרָיוֹת וְכָל דָּבָר שֶׁיֶּשׁ בּוֹ נֵזֶק לָרַבִּים. אֵין בּוֹנִין עִמָּהֶם בָּסִילְקִי, גַּרְדּוֹם, וְאִצְטַדְיָא, וּבִימָה. אֲבָל בּוֹנִים עִמָּהֶם בִּימוֹסְיָאוֹת וּבֵית מֶרְחֲצָאוֹת. הִגִּיעוּ לַכִּפָּה שֶׁמַּעֲמִידִין בָּהּ עֲבוֹדָה זָרָה, אָסוּר לִבְנוֹת:One should not sell them bears, lions or anything which may injure the public. One should not join them in building a basilica, a scaffold, a stadium, or a platform. But one may join them in building public or private bathhouses. When however he reaches the cupola in which the idol is placed he must not build.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

29 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Esther, 1.1 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.1. בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי כְּטוֹב לֵב־הַמֶּלֶךְ בַּיָּיִן אָמַר לִמְהוּמָן בִּזְּתָא חַרְבוֹנָא בִּגְתָא וַאֲבַגְתָא זֵתַר וְכַרְכַּס שִׁבְעַת הַסָּרִיסִים הַמְשָׁרְתִים אֶת־פְּנֵי הַמֶּלֶךְ אֲחַשְׁוֵרוֹשׁ׃ 1.1. וַיְהִי בִּימֵי אֲחַשְׁוֵרוֹשׁ הוּא אֲחַשְׁוֵרוֹשׁ הַמֹּלֵךְ מֵהֹדּוּ וְעַד־כּוּשׁ שֶׁבַע וְעֶשְׂרִים וּמֵאָה מְדִינָה׃ 1.1. NOW IT came to pass in the days of Ahasuerus—this is Ahasuerus who reigned, from India to Ethiopia, over a hundred and seven and twenty provinces—"
2. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 1.1 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.1. אַשְׁרֵי־הָאִישׁ אֲשֶׁר לֹא הָלַךְ בַּעֲצַת רְשָׁעִים וּבְדֶרֶךְ חַטָּאִים לֹא עָמָד וּבְמוֹשַׁב לֵצִים לֹא יָשָׁב׃ 1.1. HAPPY IS the man that hath not walked in the counsel of the wicked, Nor stood in the way of sinners, nor sat in the seat of the scornful."
3. Dead Sea Scrolls, Damascus Covenant, 12.6-12.11 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

4. Dead Sea Scrolls, (Cairo Damascus Covenant) Cd-A, 12.6-12.11 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

5. Hebrew Bible, Daniel, 10.13, 10.21, 11.2-11.4, 12.1 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

10.13. וְשַׂר מַלְכוּת פָּרַס עֹמֵד לְנֶגְדִּי עֶשְׂרִים וְאֶחָד יוֹם וְהִנֵּה מִיכָאֵל אַחַד הַשָּׂרִים הָרִאשֹׁנִים בָּא לְעָזְרֵנִי וַאֲנִי נוֹתַרְתִּי שָׁם אֵצֶל מַלְכֵי פָרָס׃ 10.21. אֲבָל אַגִּיד לְךָ אֶת־הָרָשׁוּם בִּכְתָב אֱמֶת וְאֵין אֶחָד מִתְחַזֵּק עִמִּי עַל־אֵלֶּה כִּי אִם־מִיכָאֵל שַׂרְכֶם׃ 11.3. וּבָאוּ בוֹ צִיִּים כִּתִּים וְנִכְאָה וְשָׁב וְזָעַם עַל־בְּרִית־קוֹדֶשׁ וְעָשָׂה וְשָׁב וְיָבֵן עַל־עֹזְבֵי בְּרִית קֹדֶשׁ׃ 11.3. וְעָמַד מֶלֶךְ גִּבּוֹר וּמָשַׁל מִמְשָׁל רַב וְעָשָׂה כִּרְצוֹנוֹ׃ 11.4. וּכְעָמְדוֹ תִּשָּׁבֵר מַלְכוּתוֹ וְתֵחָץ לְאַרְבַּע רוּחוֹת הַשָּׁמָיִם וְלֹא לְאַחֲרִיתוֹ וְלֹא כְמָשְׁלוֹ אֲשֶׁר מָשָׁל כִּי תִנָּתֵשׁ מַלְכוּתוֹ וְלַאֲחֵרִים מִלְּבַד־אֵלֶּה׃ 11.4. וּבְעֵת קֵץ יִתְנַגַּח עִמּוֹ מֶלֶךְ הַנֶּגֶב וְיִשְׂתָּעֵר עָלָיו מֶלֶךְ הַצָּפוֹן בְּרֶכֶב וּבְפָרָשִׁים וּבָאֳנִיּוֹת רַבּוֹת וּבָא בַאֲרָצוֹת וְשָׁטַף וְעָבָר׃ 12.1. יִתְבָּרֲרוּ וְיִתְלַבְּנוּ וְיִצָּרְפוּ רַבִּים וְהִרְשִׁיעוּ רְשָׁעִים וְלֹא יָבִינוּ כָּל־רְשָׁעִים וְהַמַּשְׂכִּלִים יָבִינוּ׃ 12.1. וּבָעֵת הַהִיא יַעֲמֹד מִיכָאֵל הַשַּׂר הַגָּדוֹל הָעֹמֵד עַל־בְּנֵי עַמֶּךָ וְהָיְתָה עֵת צָרָה אֲשֶׁר לֹא־נִהְיְתָה מִהְיוֹת גּוֹי עַד הָעֵת הַהִיא וּבָעֵת הַהִיא יִמָּלֵט עַמְּךָ כָּל־הַנִּמְצָא כָּתוּב בַּסֵּפֶר׃ 10.13. But the prince of the kingdom of Persia withstood me one and twenty days; but, lo, Michael, one of the chief princes, came to help me; and I was left over there beside the kings of Persia." 10.21. Howbeit I will declare unto thee that which is inscribed in the writing of truth; and there is none that holdeth with me against these, except Michael your prince." 11.3. And a mighty king shall stand up, that shall rule with great dominion, and do according to his will." 11.4. And when he shall stand up, his kingdom shall be broken, and shall be divided toward the four winds of heaven; but not to his posterity, nor according to his dominion wherewith he ruled; for his kingdom shall be plucked up, even for others beside those." 12.1. And at that time shall Michael stand up, the great prince who standeth for the children of thy people; and there shall be a time of trouble, such as never was since there was a nation even to that same time; and at that time thy people shall be delivered, every one that shall be found written in the book."
6. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 17.151 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

17.151. for Herod had caused such things to be made which were contrary to the law, of which he was accused by Judas and Matthias; for the king had erected over the great gate of the temple a large golden eagle, of great value, and had dedicated it to the temple. Now the law forbids those that propose to live according to it, to erect images or representations of any living creature.
7. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 1.648, 2.409 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.648. 2. There also now happened to him, among his other calamities, a certain popular sedition. There were two men of learning in the city [Jerusalem], who were thought the most skillful in the laws of their country, and were on that account held in very great esteem all over the nation; they were, the one Judas, the son of Sepphoris, and the other Matthias, the son of Margalus. 2.409. At the same time Eleazar, the son of Aias the high priest, a very bold youth, who was at that time governor of the temple, persuaded those that officiated in the Divine service to receive no gift or sacrifice for any foreigner. And this was the true beginning of our war with the Romans; for they rejected the sacrifice of Caesar on this account;
8. Josephus Flavius, Life, 66-67, 65 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

9. Mishnah, Avodah Zarah, 1.5-1.6, 1.8, 3.6-3.7, 4.3 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

1.5. The following things are forbidden to be sold to idolaters: iztroblin, bnoth-shuah with their stems, frankincense, and a white rooster. Rabbi Judah says: it is permitted to sell a white rooster to an idolater among other roosters; but if it be by itself, one should clip its spur and then sell it to him, because a defective [animal] is not sacrificed to an idol. As for other things, if they are not specified their sale is permitted, but if specified it is forbidden. Rabbi Meir says: also a “good-palm”, hazab and niklivas are forbidden to be sold to idolaters." 1.6. In a place where it is the custom to sell small domesticated animals to non-Jews, such sale is permitted; but where the custom is not to sell, such sale is not permitted. In no place however is it permitted to sell large animals, calves or foals, whether whole or maimed. Rabbi Judah permits in the case of a maimed one. And Ben Bateira permits in the case of a horse." 1.8. One should not make jewelry for an idol [such as] necklaces, ear-rings, or finger-rings. Rabbi Eliezer says, for payment it is permitted. One should not sell to idolaters a thing which is attached to the soil, but when cut down it may be sold. R. Judah says, one may sell it on condition that it be cut down. One should not let houses to them in the land of Israel; and it is not necessary to mention fields. In Syria houses may be let to them, but not fields. Outside of the land of Israel, houses may be sold and fields let to them, these are the words of Rabbi Meir. Rabbi Yose says: in the land of Israel, one may let to them houses but not fields; In Syria, we may sell them houses and let fields; Outside of the land of Israel, both may be sold." 3.6. If [a Jew] has a house next to an idolatrous shrine and it collapsed, he is forbidden to rebuild it. What should he do? He withdraws a distance of four cubits into his own ground and build there. [If the wall] belonged both to him and the shrine, it is judged as being half and half. Its stones, timber and rubbish defile like a creeping thing, as it says, “you shall utterly detest it” (Deut. 7:26). ] Rabbi Akiba says: [it defiles] like a menstruous woman, as it says, “[and you will treat as unclean the silver overlay of your images and the golden plating of your idols]. You will cast them away like a menstruous woman. Out, you will call to them” (Isaiah 30:22), just as a menstruous woman impurifies [an object] by carrying it, so also an idolatrous object defiles by its being carried." 3.7. There are three types of shrines: A shrine originally built for idolatrous worship behold this is prohibited. If one plastered and tiled [an ordinary house] for idolatry and renovated it, one may remove the renovations. If he had only brought an idol into it and taken it out again, [the house] is permitted. There are three kinds of [idolatrous] stones: A stone which a man hewed originally to serve as a pedestal [for an idol] behold this is prohibited. If one plastered and tiled [a stone] for idolatry, one may remove the plaster and tile, and it is then permitted. If he set an idol upon it and took it off, behold [the stone] is permitted. There are three kinds of asherah: a tree which has originally been planted for idolatry behold this is prohibited. If he chopped and trimmed [a tree] for idolatry, and its sprouted afresh, he removes the new growth. If he only set [an idol] under it and took it away, behold the tree is permitted. What is an asherah? Any [tree] beneath which there is an idol. Rabbi Shimon says: any [tree] which is worshipped. It happened at Sidon that there was a tree which was worshipped and they found a heap of stones beneath it. Rabbi Shimon said to them, “examine this heap.” They examined it and discovered an image in it. He said to them, “since it is the image that they worship, we permit the tree for you.”" 4.3. If an idolatrous shrine has a garden or bathhouse, one may use either so long as it is not to the advantage [of the idolaters], But one may not use either if it is to its advantage. If [the garden or bathhouse] belonged jointly to it and to others, one may use them whether it be to the advantage [of idolatry] or not."
10. Mishnah, Hulin, 2.7 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

2.7. If one slaughtered for a non-Jew, the slaughtering is valid. Rabbi Eliezer declares it invalid. Rabbi Eliezer said: even if one slaughtered a beast with the intention that a non-Jew should eat [only] its liver, the slaughtering is invalid, for the thoughts of a non-Jew are usually directed towards idolatry. Rabbi Yose said: is there not a kal vehomer argument? For if in the case of consecrated animals, where a wrongful intention can render invalid, it is established that everything depends solely upon the intention of him who performs the service, how much more in the case of unconsecrated animals, where a wrongful intention cannot render invalid, is it not logical that everything should depend solely upon the intention of him who slaughters!"
11. Mishnah, Sanhedrin, 9.5 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

9.5. He who was flogged and then flogged again [for two transgressions, and then sinned again,] is placed by the court in a cell and fed with barley bread, until his stomach bursts. One who commits murder without witnesses is placed in a cell and [forcibly] fed with bread of adversity and water of affliction."
12. Mishnah, Shabbat, 9.1, 22.6 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

9.1. Rabbi Akiva said: From where do we know that an idol defiles by being carried like a menstruant? Because it is said, “You shall cast them [the idols] away as a menstruous woman. Out! You will say to them” (Isaiah 30:22): just as a menstruant defiles by being carried, so does an idol defile by being carried." 22.6. One may oil and [lightly] massage [the body] but not step on [the body] or scrape [the skin]. One may not go down to a piloma, And one may not drink an epiktvizin [to induce vomiting]; And one may not straighten an infant[‘s limbs]. And one may not set a broken bone. If one's hand or foot is dislocated, he must not agitate it violently in cold water but he may bathe it in the usual way, and if it heals, it heals."
13. Tosefta, Avodah Zarah, 2.5-2.7, 6.3 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

14. Anon., Qohelet Rabba, 1.7 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

15. Anon., Genesis Rabba, 63.10, 65.1, 67.3 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

65.1. וַיְהִי עֵשָׂו בֶּן אַרְבָּעִים שָׁנָה (בראשית כו, לד), הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (תהלים פ, יד): יְכַרְסְמֶנָּה חֲזִיר מִיָּעַר, רַבִּי פִּינְחָס בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי סִימוֹן, מִכָּל הַנְּבִיאִים לֹא פִּרְסְמוּהָ אֶלָּא שְׁנַיִם, משֶׁה וְאָסָף. משֶׁה אָמַר (דברים יד, ח): וְאֶת הַחֲזִיר כִּי מַפְרִיס פַּרְסָה הוּא. אָסָף אָמַר, יְכַרְסְמֶנָּה חֲזִיר מִיָּעַר. לָמָּה הוּא מוֹשְׁלָהּ בַּחֲזִיר, אֶלָּא מָה חֲזִיר הַזֶּה בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁהוּא רוֹבֵץ הוּא מְפַשֵׁט אֶת טְלָפָיו כְּלוֹמַר שֶׁאֲנִי טָהוֹר, כָּךְ מַלְכוּת הַזֹּאת הָרְשָׁעָה גּוֹזֶלֶת וְחוֹמֶסֶת נִרְאֵת כְּאִלּוּ מַצַּעַת אֶת הַבִּימָה. כָּךְ עֵשָׂו כָּל אַרְבָּעִים שָׁנָה צָד נְשֵׁי אֲנָשִׁים וּמְעַנֶּה אוֹתָם, וְכֵיוָן שֶׁהִגִּיעַ לְאַרְבָּעִים שָׁנָה דִּמָּה עַצְמוֹ לְאָבִיו, אָמַר מָה אַבָּא נָשָׂא אִשָּׁה בֶּן אַרְבָּעִים שָׁנָה אַף אֲנִי נוֹשֵׂא אִשָּׁה בֶּן אַרְבָּעִים שָׁנָה, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב: וַיְהִי עֵשָׂו בֶּן אַרְבָּעִים שָׁנָה. 65.1. וַתִּכְהֶיןָ עֵינָיו מֵרְאֹת (בראשית כז, א), אָמַר רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר בֶּן עֲזַרְיָה מֵרְאוֹת בְּרָע, מֵרְאוֹת בְּרָעָתוֹ שֶׁל רָשָׁע, אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא יִהְיֶה יִצְחָק יוֹצֵא לַשּׁוּק וִיהוֹן בְּרִיָּתָא אָמְרִין דֵּין אֲבוּהּ דְּהַהוּא רַשִׁיעָא, אֶלָּא הֲרֵינִי מַכְּהֶה אֶת עֵינָיו וְהוּא יוֹשֵׁב בְּתוֹךְ בֵּיתוֹ, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (משלי כח, כח): בְּקוּם רְשָׁעִים יִסָּתֵר אָדָם, מִכָּאן אָמְרוּ כָּל הַמַּעֲמִיד בֵּן רָשָׁע אוֹ תַּלְמִיד רָשָׁע סוֹף שֶׁעֵינָיו כֵּהוֹת. תַּלְמִיד רָשָׁע מֵאֲחִיָּה הַשִּׁילוֹנִי (מלכים א יד, ד): וַאֲחִיָּהוּ לֹא יָכֹל לִרְאוֹת כִּי קָמוּ עֵינָיו מִשֵֹּׂיבוֹ, שֶׁהֶעֱמִיד אֶת יָרָבְעָם תַּלְמִיד רָשָׁע. בֵּן רָשָׁע, מִיִּצְחָק, וַיְהִי כִּי זָקֵן יִצְחָק וַתִּכְהֶיןָ עֵינָיו. דָּבָר אַחֵר, מֵרְאֹת, מִכֹּחַ אוֹתָהּ רְאִיָּה, שֶׁבְּשָׁעָה שֶׁעָקַד אַבְרָהָם אָבִינוּ אֶת בְּנוֹ עַל גַּבֵּי הַמִּזְבֵּחַ בָּכוּ מַלְאֲכֵי הַשָּׁרֵת, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (ישעיה לג, ז): הֵן אֶרְאֶלָּם צָעֲקוּ חֻצָה וגו', וְנָשְׁרוּ דְּמָעוֹת מֵעֵינֵיהֶם לְתוֹךְ עֵינָיו, וְהָיוּ רְשׁוּמוֹת בְּתוֹךְ עֵינָיו, וְכֵיוָן שֶׁהִזְקִין כָּהוּ עֵינָיו, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב: וַיְהִי כִּי זָקֵן יִצְחָק, וגו' דָּבָר אַחֵר, מֵרְאֹת, מִכֹּחַ אוֹתָהּ הָרְאִיָּה, שֶׁבְּשָׁעָה שֶׁעָקַד אַבְרָהָם אָבִינוּ אֶת יִצְחָק בְּנוֹ עַל גַּבֵּי הַמִּזְבֵּחַ, תָּלָה עֵינָיו בַּמָּרוֹם וְהִבִּיט בַּשְּׁכִינָה. מוֹשְׁלִים אוֹתוֹ מָשָׁל לְמָה הַדָּבָר דּוֹמֶה, לְמֶלֶךְ שֶׁהָיָה מְטַיֵּל בְּפֶתַח פָּלָטִין שֶׁלּוֹ וְתָלָה עֵינָיו וְרָאָה בְּנוֹ שֶׁל אוֹהֲבוֹ מֵצִיץ עָלָיו בְּעַד הַחַלּוֹן, אָמַר אִם הוֹרְגוֹ אֲנִי עַכְשָׁו מַכְרִיעַ אֲנִי אֶת אוֹהֲבִי, אֶלָּא גּוֹזְרַנִי שֶׁיִּסָּתְמוּ חַלּוֹנוֹתָיו. כָּךְ בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁהֶעֱקִיד אַבְרָהָם אָבִינוּ אֶת בְּנוֹ עַל גַּבֵּי הַמִּזְבֵּחַ תָּלָה עֵינָיו וְהִבִּיט בַּשְּׁכִינָה, אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא אִם הוֹרְגוֹ אֲנִי עַכְשָׁו אֲנִי מַכְרִיעַ אֶת אַבְרָהָם אוֹהֲבִי, אֶלָּא גּוֹזֵר אֲנִי שֶׁיִּכְּהוּ עֵינָיו, וְכֵיוָן שֶׁהִזְקִין כָּהוּ עֵינָיו, וַיְהִי כִּי זָקֵן יִצְחָק וגו'. 67.3. אָמַר רַבִּי יִצְחָק בָּא לְקַלְּלוֹ, אָמַר לוֹ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא הִזָּהֵר שֶׁאִם אַתְּ מְקַלְּלוֹ לְנַפְשְׁךָ אַתְּ מְקַלֵּל, דַּאֲמַרְתְּ (בראשית כז, כט): אֹרְרֶיךָ אָרוּר. אָמַר רַבִּי לֵוִי שִׁשָּׁה דְבָרִים מְשַׁמְּשִׁין אֶת הָאָדָם, שְׁלשָׁה בִּרְשׁוּתוֹ וּשְׁלשָׁה אֵינָן בִּרְשׁוּתוֹ, הָעַיִן וְהָאֹזֶן וְחֹטֶם, שֶׁלֹא בִּרְשׁוּתוֹ, חָמֵי מַה דְּלָא בָעֵי, שְׁמַע מַה דְּלָא בָעֵי, מְרִיחַ מַה דְּלָא בָעֵי. הַפֶּה וְהַיָּד וְהָרֶגֶל, בִּרְשׁוּתוֹ, אִין בָּעֵי הוּא לָעֵי בְּאוֹרָיְיתָא, אִין בָּעֵי לִשָּׁנָא בִישָׁא, אִין בָּעֵי מְחָרֵף וּמְגַדֵּף. הַיָּד אִין בָּעֵי הוּא עָבֵיד מִצְוָתָא, אִין בָּעֵי הוּא גָנֵב, וְאִי בָּעֵי הוּא קָטֵיל. הָרֶגֶל אִי בָּעֵי הוּא אָזֵיל לְבָתֵּי טְרַטְסִיָאוֹת וּלְבָתֵּי קִרְקַסְיָאוֹת, וְאִין בָּעֵי הוּא אָזֵיל לְבָתֵּי כְנֵסִיּוֹת וּבָתֵּי מִדְרָשׁוֹת. וּבְשָׁעָה שֶׁהוּא זוֹכֶה הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא עוֹשֶׂה אוֹתָן שֶׁבִּרְשׁוּתוֹ שֶׁלֹא בִּרְשׁוּתוֹ, הַיָּד (מלכים א יג, ד): וַתִּיבַשׁ יָדוֹ אֲשֶׁר שָׁלַח עָלָיו. הַפֶּה, (בראשית כז, לג): גַּם בָּרוּךְ יִהְיֶה. הָרֶגֶל (משלי א, טו טז): בְּנִי אַל תֵּלֵךְ בַּדֶּרֶךְ אִתָּם, כִּי רַגְלֵיהֶם לָרַע יָרוּצוּ: 65.1. Thus it is written: \"When the wicked rise, men hide themselves\" (Prov. 28:28). Hence it was said: He who raises a wicked son or a wicked disciple eventually suffers dimness of sight. As for a wicked disciple, that follows from Ahijah the Shilonite, for he raised Jeroboam and his eyes grew dim, as it says: \"Now Ahijah could not see, for his eyes were set by reason of age\" (I Kings 14:4) – because he had raised up Jeroboam, a wicked disciple. As for a wicked son, that follows from Isaac." 67.3. Rabbi Isaac said: He [Isaac] was going to curse him [Jacob], but the Holy One, blessed be He, cautioned: \"Beware, for if you curse him, you curse your own soul, for you said: 'Cursed be they who curse you' (Genesis 27:29).\" Rabbi Levi said: six things serve a human - three are under one's control, and three are not under one's control. The eye, the ear and the nose are not under one's control, as one sees what is not wished for, one hears what is not desired, and one smells what is not wanted. The mouth, the hand, and the foot are under one's control. If one wishes to, one studies Torah, while if one wants to one speaks badly, and if one wants to one blasphemes and reviles. Regarding the hand, if one wishes one can offer charity, while if one wants one can rob, and if one desires one can murder. Regarding the feet, if one wishes one can go to the houses of theatre and the houses of circus, while if one wants one can go to the houses of assembly [synagogues] and the houses of study. And in the moment that one merits, the Holy One, blessed be He, makes those which one usually controls, no longer in one's control. The hand: \"but the hand that [Jeroboam] stretched out against him withered\" (Kings 13:4); The mouth: \"now he [Jacob] must remain blessed\" (Genesis 27:33); The foot: \"My son, do not set out with them...for their feet run to evil\" (Proverbs 1:15-6). "
16. Anon., Leviticus Rabba, 13.5, 23.12 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

13.5. אָמַר רַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל בַּר נַחְמָן כָּל הַנְּבִיאִים רָאוּ הַמַּלְכֻיּוֹת בְּעִסּוּקָן, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (בראשית ב, י): וְנָהָר יֹצֵא מֵעֵדֶן לְהַשְׁקוֹת וגו', רַבִּי תַּנְחוּמָא וְאַמְרֵי לָהּ רַבִּי מְנַחֲמָא בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בֶּן לֵוִי אָמַר עָתִיד הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לְהַשְׁקוֹת כּוֹס הַתַּרְעֵלָה לְאֻמּוֹת הָעוֹלָם לֶעָתִיד לָבוֹא, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב: וְנָהָר יֹצֵא מֵעֵדֶן, מָקוֹם שֶׁהַדִּין יוֹצֵא, (בראשית ב, י): וּמִשָּׁם יִפָּרֵד וְהָיָה לְאַרְבָּעָה רָאשִׁים, אֵלּוּ אַרְבָּעָה נְהָרוֹת, (בראשית ב, יא): שֵׁם הָאֶחָד פִּישׁוֹן, זֶה בָּבֶל, עַל שֵׁם (חבקוק א, ח): וּפָשׁוּ פָּרָשָׁיו. (בראשית ב, יא): הוּא הַסֹּבֵב אֵת כָּל אֶרֶץ הַחֲוִילָה, נְבוּכַדְנֶצַּר הָרָשָׁע שֶׁעָלָה וְהִקִּיף אֶת כָּל אֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁמְּיַחֶלֶת לְהַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (תהלים מב, ו): הוֹחִלִי לֵאלֹהִים. (בראשית ב, יא): אֲשֶׁר שָׁם הַזָּהָב, אֵלּוּ דִּבְרֵי תוֹרָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים יט, יא): הַנֶּחֱמָדִים מִזָּהָב וּמִפָּז רָב. (בראשית ב, יב): וּזֲהַב הָאָרֶץ הַהִוא טוֹב, מְלַמֵּד שֶׁאֵין תּוֹרָה כְּתוֹרַת אֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאֵין חָכְמָה כְּחָכְמַת אֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל, (בראשית ב, יב): שָׁם הַבְּדֹלַח וְאֶבֶן הַשֹּׁהַם, מִקְרָא מִשְׁנָה תַּלְמוּד הֲלָכוֹת וְאַגָּדוֹת. (בראשית ב, יג): וְשֵׁם הַנָּהָר הַשֵּׁנִי גִיחוֹן, זֶה מָדַי, שֶׁהֶעֱמִידָה אֶת הָמָן הָרָשָׁע שֶׁמָּשַׁךְ עִסָּה כַּנָּחָשׁ, עַל שׁוּם (בראשית ג, יד): עַל גְּחֹנְךָ תֵלֵךְ. (בראשית ב, יג): הוּא הַסּוֹבֵב אֶת כָּל אֶרֶץ כּוּשׁ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (אסתר א, א): מֵהוֹדוּ וְעַד כּוּשׁ. (בראשית ב, יד): וְשֵׁם הַנָּהָר הַשְּׁלִישִׁי חִדֶּקֶל, זוֹ יָוָן, שֶׁהִיא חַדָּה וְקַלָּה בִּגְזֵרוֹתֶיהָ עַל יִשְׂרָאֵל, וְאוֹמֵר לָהֶם כִּתְבוּ עַל קֶרֶן הַשּׁוֹר שֶׁאֵין לְיִשְׂרָאֵל חֵלֶק בֵּאלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל. (בראשית ב, יד): הַהֹלֵךְ קִדְמַת אַשּׁוּר, אָמַר רַב הוּנָא כָּל הַמַּלְכֻיּוֹת נִקְרְאוּ עַל שֵׁם אַשּׁוּר, שֶׁהָיוּ מְאַשְׁרִין עַצְמָן מִיִּשְׂרָאֵל. אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹסֵי בְּרַבִּי חֲנִינָא, כָּל הַמַּלְכֻיּוֹת נִקְרְאוּ עַל שֵׁם מִצְרַיִם, עַל שֵׁם שֶׁהָיוּ מְצֵירִין לְיִשְׂרָאֵל. (בראשית ב, יד): וְהַנָּהָר הָרְבִיעִי הוּא פְרָת, הוּא אֱדוֹם שֶׁפָּרָת וְרָבָת בִּתְפִלָּתוֹ שֶׁל זָקֵן. דָּבָר אַחֵר, שֶׁפָּרָת וְרָבָת וְהֵצֵירָה לְעוֹלָמוֹ שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל. דָּבָר אַחֵר, שֶׁפָּרָת וְרָבָת וְהֵצֵירָה לִבְנוֹ. דָּבָר אַחֵר, שֶׁפָּרָת וְרָבָת וְהֵצֵירָה לְבֵיתוֹ. דָּבָר אַחֵר, פָּרָת עַל שׁוּם סוֹפָהּ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ישעיה סג, ג): פּוּרָה דָרַכְתִּי לְבַדִּי. אַבְרָהָם רָאָה הַמַּלְכֻיּוֹת בְּעִסּוּקָן (בראשית טו, יב): וְהִנֵּה אֵימָה, זוֹ בָּבֶל עַל שֵׁם (דניאל ג, יט): נְבוּכַדְנֶצַּר הִתְמְלִי חֱמָא. (בראשית טו, יב): חֲשֵׁכָה, זוֹ מָדַי, שֶׁהֶחֱשִׁיכָה בִּגְזֵרוֹתֶיהָ אֶת יִשְׂרָאֵל, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (אסתר ג, יג): לְהַשְׁמִיד לַהֲרֹג וּלְאַבֵּד. (בראשית טו, יב): גְּדֹלָה, זוֹ יָוָן, אָמַר רַב נַחְמָן מְלַמֵּד שֶׁהָיְתָה מַלְכוּת יָוָן מַעֲמֶדֶת מֵאָה וְשִׁבְעִים וְאֶחָד אִפַּרְכִין, מֵאָה וְעֶשְׂרִים וְשִׁבְעָה אִסְטְרָטָלִיטוּן, וְרַבָּנָן אָמְרִין שִׁשִּׁים שִׁשִׁים, וְרַבִּי בֶּרֶכְיָה וְרַבִּי חָנִין עַל הֲדָא דְרַבָּנָן (דברים ח, טו): הַמּוֹלִיכְךָ בַּמִּדְבָּר הַגָּדֹל וְהַנּוֹרָא נָחָשׁ שָׂרָף וְעַקְרָב, נָחָשׁ זֶה בָּבֶל. שָׂרָף, זֶה מָדַי. עַקְרָב, זֶה יָוָן, מָה עַקְרָב זֶה מַשְׁרֶצֶת שִׁשִּׁים שִׁשִּׁים, כָּךְ הָיְתָה מַלְכוּת יָוָן מַעֲמֶדֶת שִׁשִּׁים שִׁשִּׁים. (בראשית טו, יב): נֹפֶלֶת, זוֹ אֱדוֹם, עַל שֵׁם (ירמיה מט, כא): מִקּוֹל נִפְלָם רָעֲשָׁה הָאָרֶץ. וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִים אֵימָה, זוֹ אֱדוֹם, עַל שֵׁם (דניאל ז, ז): דְּחִילָה וְאֵימְתָנִי. חֲשֵׁכָה, זוֹ יָוָן. גְּדֹלָה, זוֹ מָדַי, עַל שֵׁם (אסתר ג, א): גִּדַּל הַמֶּלֶךְ אֲחַשְׁוֵרוֹשׁ. נֹפֶלֶת, זוֹ בָּבֶל, עַל שֵׁם (ישעיה כא, ט): נָפְלָה נָפְלָה בָּבֶל. רָאָה דָּנִיֵּאל אֶת הַמַּלְכֻיּוֹת בְּעִסּוּקָן, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (דניאל ז, ב ג): חָזֵה הֲוֵית בְּחֶזְוִי עִם לֵילְיָא וַאֲרוּ אַרְבַּע רוּחֵי שְׁמַיָא מְגִיחָן לְיַמָּא רַבָּא, וְאַרְבַּע חֵיוָן רַבְרְבָן סָלְקָן מִן יַמָּא, אִם זְכִיתֶם מִן יַמָּא וְאִם לָאו מִן חוֹרְשָׁא, הֲדָא חֵיוְתָא דְיַמָּא כִּי סָלְקָא מִן יַמָּא הִיא מִמַּכְיָא, סָלְקָא מִן חוֹרְשָׁא לֵית הִיא מִמַּכְיָא, דְכַוָּותָא (תהלים פ, יד): יְכַרְסְמֶנָּה חֲזִיר מִיָּעַר, עַיִ"ן תְּלוּיָה, אִם זְכִיתֶם מִן הַיְאוֹר וְאִם לָאו מִן הַיַּעַר, הֲדָא חֵיוְתָא כִּי סָלְקָא מִן נַהֲרָא הִיא מִמַּכְיָא, סָלְקָא מִן חוֹרְשָׁא לֵית הִיא מִמַּכְיָא, (דניאל ז, ג): שָׁנְיָן דָּא מִן דָּא, אַל תִּקְרֵי שָׁנְיָן אֶלָּא סָנְיָן דָּא מִן דָּא, מְלַמֵּד שֶׁכָּל אֻמָּה שֶׁשּׁוֹלֶטֶת בָּעוֹלָם הִיא שׂוֹנְאָה לְיִשְׂרָאֵל וּמְשַׁעְבְּדָא בָּהֶן. (דניאל ז, ד): קַדְמָיְתָא כְאַרְיֵה, זוֹ בָּבֶל, יִרְמְיָה רָאָה אוֹתָהּ אֲרִי וְרָאָה אוֹתָהּ נֶשֶׁר, דִּכְתִיב (ירמיה ד, ז): עָלָה אַרְיֵה מִסֻּבְּכוֹ (ירמיה מט, כב): הִנֵּה כַנֶּשֶׁר יַעֲלֶה וְיִדְאֶה, אָמְרִין לְדָנִיֵּאל אַתּ מָה חָמֵית לְהוֹן, אָמַר לְהוֹן חָמֵיתִי אַפִּין כְּאַרְיֵה וְגַפִּין דִּי נְשַׁר, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (דניאל ז, ד): קַדְמָיְתָא כְאַרְיֵה וְגַפִּין דִּי נְשַׁר לַהּ חָזֵה הֲוֵית עַד דִּי מְּרִיטוּ גַּפֵּיהּ וּנְטִילַת מִן אַרְעָא. רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר וְרַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל בַּר נַחְמָן, רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר אוֹמֵר כָּל אוֹתוֹ אֲרִי לָקָה וְלִבּוֹ לֹא לָקָה, דִּכְתִיב (דניאל ז, ד): וּלְבַב אֱנָשׁ יְהִיב לַהּ. וְרַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל בַּר נַחְמָן אָמַר אַף לִבּוֹ לָקָה, דִּכְתִיב (דניאל ד, יג): לִבְבֵהּ מִן אֲנָשָׁא יְשַׁנּוֹן. חָזֵה הֲוֵית (דניאל ז, ה): וַאֲרוּ חֵיוָה אָחֳרֵי תִנְיָנָא דָמְיָא לְדֹב, לְדב כְּתִיב זֶה מָדַי, הוּא דַעְתֵּיהּ דְּרַבִּי יוֹחָנָן דְּאָמַר רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן (ירמיה ה, ו): עַל כֵּן הִכָּם אַרְיֵה מִיַּעַר, זוֹ בָּבֶל. (ירמיה ה, ו): זְאֵב עֲרָבוֹת יְשָׁדְדֵם, זוֹ מָדַי. (ירמיה ה, ו): נָמֵר שֹׁקֵד עַל עָרֵיהֶם, זוֹ יָוָן. (ירמיה ה, ו): כָּל הַיּוֹצֵא מֵהֵנָּה יִטָּרֵף, זוֹ אֱדוֹם, לָמָּה, (ירמיה ה, ו): כִּי רַבּוּ פִּשְׁעֵיהֶם עָצְמוּ מְשֻׁבוֹתֵיהֶם. (דניאל ז, ו): חָזֵה הֲוֵית וַאֲרוּ אָחֳרִי כִּנְמַר, זוֹ יָוָן, שֶׁהָיְתָה מַעֲמֶדֶת בִּגְזֵרוֹתֶיהָ וְאוֹמֶרֶת לְיִשְׂרָאֵל כִּתְבוּ עַל קֶרֶן הַשּׁוֹר שֶׁאֵין לָכֶם חֵלֶק לָעוֹלָם הַבָּא. (דניאל ז, ז): בָּאתַר דְּנָא חָזֵה הֲוֵית בְּחֶזְוֵי לֵילְיָא וַאֲרוּ חֵיוָה רְבִיעָאָה דְּחִילָה וְאֵימְתָנִי וְתַקִּיפָא יַתִּירָה, זוֹ אֱדוֹם, דָּנִיֵּאל רָאָה שְׁלָשְׁתָּן בְּלַיְלָה אֶחָד וְלָזוֹ בְּלַיְלָה אֶחָד, לָמָּה, רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן וְרַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן לָקִישׁ, רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן אָמַר שֶׁשְּׁקוּלָה כְּנֶגֶד שְׁלָשְׁתָּן, רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן לָקִישׁ אָמַר יַתִּירָה. מָתִיב רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן לְרַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן לָקִישׁ (יחזקאל כא, יט): בֶּן אָדָם הִנָּבֵא וְהַךְ כַּף אֶל כָּף, דָּא מָה עָבַד לָהּ רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן לָקִישׁ (יחזקאל כא, יט): וְתִכָּפֵל. משֶׁה רָאָה אֶת הַמַּלְכֻיּוֹת בְּעִסּוּקָן, (ויקרא יא, ד): אֶת הַגָּמָל, זוֹ בָּבֶל, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים קלז, ח): אַשְׁרֵי שֶׁיְשַׁלֶּם לָךְ אֶת גְּמוּלֵךְ שֶׁגָּמַלְתְּ לָנוּ. (ויקרא יא, ה): אֶת הַשָּׁפָן, זוֹ מָדַי. רַבָּנָן וְרַבִּי יְהוּדָה בְּרַבִּי סִימוֹן, רַבָּנָן אָמְרֵי מַה הַשָּׁפָן הַזֶּה יֵשׁ בּוֹ סִימָנֵי טֻמְאָה וְסִימָנֵי טָהֳרָה, כָּךְ הָיְתָה מַלְכוּת מָדַי מַעֲמֶדֶת צַדִּיק וְרָשָׁע. אָמַר רַבִּי יְהוּדָה בְּרַבִּי סִימוֹן דָּרְיָוֶשׁ הָאַחֲרוֹן בְּנָהּ שֶׁל אֶסְתֵּר הָיָה, טָהוֹר מֵאִמּוֹ וְטָמֵא מֵאָבִיו. (ויקרא יא, ו): וְאֶת הָאַרְנֶבֶת, זוֹ יָוָן, אִמּוֹ שֶׁל תַּלְמַי אַרְנֶבֶת שְׁמָהּ. (ויקרא יא, ז): וְאֶת הַחֲזִיר, זוֹ פָּרַס, משֶׁה נָתַן שְׁלָשְׁתָּם בְּפָסוּק אֶחָד, וְלָזוֹ בְּפָסוּק אֶחָד, וְלָמָּה, רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן וְרַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן לָקִישׁ, רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן אָמַר שֶׁשְּׁקוּלָה כְּנֶגֶד שְׁלָשְׁתָּן, רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן לָקִישׁ אָמַר (דניאל ז, ז): יַתִּירָה. מָתִיב רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן לְרַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן לָקִישׁ בֶּן אָדָם הִנָּבֵא וְהַךְ כַּף אֶל כָּף, דָּא מָה עָבַד לֵיהּ רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן לָקִישׁ וְתִכָּפֵל. רַבִּי פִּנְחָס וְרַבִּי חִלְקִיָּה בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי סִימוֹן מִכָּל הַנְּבִיאִים לֹא פִּרְסְמוּהָ אֶלָּא שְׁנַיִם אָסָף וּמשֶׁה, אָסָף אָמַר (תהלים פ, יד): יְכַרְסְמֶנָּה חֲזִיר מִיָּעַר. משֶׁה אָמַר (ויקרא יא, ז): וְאֶת הַחֲזִיר כִּי מַפְרִיס פַּרְסָה, לָמָּה נִמְשְׁלָה לַחֲזִיר, לוֹמַר לָךְ מָה חֲזִיר בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁהוּא רוֹבֵץ מוֹצִיא טְלָפָיו וְאוֹמֵר רְאוּ שֶׁאֲנִי טָהוֹר, כָּךְ מַלְכוּת אֱדוֹם מִתְגָּאָה וְחוֹמֶסֶת וְגוֹזֶלֶת וְנִרְאֵית כְּאִלּוּ מַצַּעַת בִּימָה. מַעֲשֶׂה בְּשִׁלְטוֹן אֶחָד שֶׁהָיָה הוֹרֵג הַגַּנָּבִים וְהַמְנָאֲפִים וְהַמְכַשְּׁפִים, גָּחִין וְאָמַר לַסַּנְקְלִיטִין, שְׁלָשְׁתָּן עָשִׂיתִי בְּלַיְלָה אֶחָד. דָּבָר אַחֵר, (ויקרא יא, ד): אֶת הַגָּמָל, זוֹ בָּבֶל, (ויקרא יא, ד): כִּי מַעֲלֶה גֵרָה הוּא, שֶׁמְקַלֶּסֶת לְהַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא. רַבִּי בֶּרֶכְיָה וְרַבִּי חֶלְבּוֹ בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי יִשְׁמָעֵאל בַּר נַחְמָן, כָּל מַה שֶּׁפָּרַט דָּוִד כָּלַל אוֹתוֹ רָשָׁע בְּפָסוּק אֶחָד, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דניאל ד, לד): כְּעַן אֲנָה נְבֻכַדְנֶצַּר מְשַׁבַּח וּמְרוֹמֵם וּמְהַדַּר לְמֶלֶךְ שְׁמַיָא. מְשַׁבַּח (תהלים קמז, יב): שַׁבְּחִי יְרוּשָׁלַיִם אֶת ה'. וּמְרוֹמֵם (תהלים ל, ב): אֲרוֹמִמְךָ ה'. וּמְהַדַּר (תהלים קד, א): ה' אֱלֹהַי גָדַלְתָּ מְאֹד הוֹד וְהָדָר לָבָשְׁתָּ. (דניאל ד, לד): דִּי כָל מַעֲבָדוֹהִי קְשֹׁט (תהלים קלח, ב): עַל חַסְדְּךָ וְעַל אֲמִתֶּךָ. (דניאל ד, לד): וְאֹרְחָתֵהּ דִּין (תהלים צו, י): יָדִין עַמִּים בְּמֵישָׁרִים. (דניאל ד, לד): וְדִי מַהְלְכִין בְּגֵוָה (תהלים צג, א): ה' מָלָךְ גֵּאוּת לָבֵשׁ. (דניאל ד, לד): יָכִל לְהַשְׁפָּלָה (תהלים עה, יא): וְכָל קַרְנֵי רְשָׁעִים אֲגַדֵּעַ. (ויקרא יא, ה): וְאֶת הַשָּׁפָן, זוֹ מָדַי, (ויקרא יא, ה): כִּי מַעֲלֵה גֵרָה הוּא, שֶׁמְקַלֶּסֶת לְהַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (עזרא א, ב): כֹּה אָמַר כֹּרֶשׁ מֶלֶךְ פָּרַס. (ויקרא יא, ו): וְאֶת הָאַרְנֶבֶת, זוֹ יָוָן, (ויקרא יא, ו): כִּי מַעֲלַת גֵּרָה הִוא, שֶׁמְּקַלֶּסֶת לְהַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא. אֲלֶכְּסַנְדְּרוֹס מוֹקְדוֹן כַּד הֲוָה חָמֵי לְרַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן הַצַּדִּיק, אוֹמֵר בָּרוּךְ ה' אֱלֹהֵי שֶׁל שִׁמְעוֹן הַצַּדִּיק. (ויקרא יא, ז): וְאֶת הַחֲזִיר, זֶה אֱדוֹם, (ויקרא יא, ז): וְהוּא גֵרָה לֹא יִגָּר, שֶׁאֵינָהּ מְקַלֶּסֶת לְהַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, וְלֹא דַּיָּן שֶׁאֵינָהּ מְקַלֶּסֶת אֶלָּא מְחָרֶפֶת וּמְגַדֶּפֶת וְאוֹמֶרֶת (תהלים עג, כה): מִי לִי בַשָּׁמָיִם. דָּבָר אַחֵר, אֶת הַגָּמָל, זוֹ בָּבֶל, כִּי מַעֲלֶה גֵרָה הוּא, שֶׁמְגַדֶּלֶת אֶת דָּנִיֵּאל, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דניאל ב, מט): וְדָנִיֵּאל בִּתְרַע מַלְכָּא. וְאֶת הַשָּׁפָן, זוֹ מָדַי, כִּי מַעֲלֵה גֵרָה הוּא, שֶׁמְגַדֶּלֶת אֶת מָרְדְּכַי, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (אסתר ב, יט): וּמָרְדֳּכַי ישֵׁב בְּשַׁעַר הַמֶּלֶךְ. וְאֶת הָאַרְנֶבֶת, זוֹ יָוָן, כִּי מַעֲלַת גֵּרָה הִוא, שֶׁמְגַדֶּלֶת הַצַּדִּיקִים. אֲלֶכְּסַנְדְּרוֹס כַּד הֲוָה חָמֵי לְשִׁמְעוֹן הַצַּדִּיק הֲוָה קָאֵים עַל רַגְלֵיהּ, אָמְרִין לֵיהּ מִינָאֵי, מִן קֳדָם יְהוּדָאי אַתְּ קָאֵים, אָמַר לָהֶם בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁאֲנִי יוֹצֵא לְמִלְחָמָה דְּמוּתוֹ אֲנִי רוֹאֶה וְנוֹצֵחַ. וְאֶת הַחֲזִיר, זוֹ אֱדוֹם, וְהוּא גֵרָה לֹא יִגָּר, שֶׁאֵינָה מְגַדֶּלֶת הַצַּדִּיקִים, וְלֹא דַי שֶׁאֵינָה מְגַדֶּלֶת אֶלָּא שֶׁהוֹרֶגֶת אוֹתָם. הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (ישעיה מז, ו): קָצַפְתִּי עַל עַמִּי חִלַּלְתִּי נַחֲלָתִי וגו', נַחֲלָתִי רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא וַחֲבֵרָיו. דָּבָר אַחֵר, אֶת הַגָּמָל, זוֹ בָּבֶל, כִּי מַעֲלֶה גֵרָה, שֶׁגָּרְרָה מַלְכוּת אַחֲרֶיהָ. וְאֶת הַשָּׁפָן, זוֹ מָדַי כִּי מַעֲלֵה גֵרָה הוּא, שֶׁגָּרְרָה מַלְכוּת אַחֲרֶיהָ, וְאֶת הָאַרְנֶבֶת, זוֹ יָוָן, כִּי מַעֲלַת גֵרָה הִוא, שֶׁגָּרְרָה מַלְכוּת אַחֲרֶיהָ. וְאֶת הַחֲזִיר, זוֹ אֱדוֹם, וְהוּא גֵרָה לֹא יִגָּר, שֶׁאֵינָה גוֹרֶרֶת מַלְכוּת אַחֲרֶיהָ, וְלָמָּה נִקְרָא שְׁמָהּ חֲזִיר, שֶׁמַּחֲזֶרֶת עֲטָרָה לִבְעָלֶיהָ, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (עובדיה א, כא): וְעָלוּ מוֹשִׁיעִים בְּהַר צִיּוֹן לִשְׁפֹּט אֶת הַר עֵשָׂו וְהָיְתָה לַה' הַמְּלוּכָה. 23.12. דָּבָר אַחֵר, (ויקרא יח, ג): כְּמַעֲשֵׂה אֶרֶץ מִִצְרַיִם, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (איוב כד, טו): וְעֵין נֹאֵף שָׁמְרָה נֶשֶׁף לֵאמֹר לֹא תְשׁוּרֵנִי עָיִן וְסֵתֶר פָּנִים יָשִׂים, אָמַר רֵישׁ לָקִישׁ שֶׁלֹּא תֹאמַר שֶׁכָּל מִי שֶׁהוּא בְּגוּפוֹ נִקְרָא נוֹאֵף, נוֹאֵף בְּעֵינָיו נִקְרָא נוֹאֵף, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: וְעֵין נֹאֵף, וְהַנּוֹאֵף הַזֶּה יוֹשֵׁב וּמְשַׁמֵּר אֵימָתַי נֶשֶׁף בָּא אֵימָתַי עֶרֶב בָּא, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (משלי ז, ט): בְּנֶשֶׁף בְּעֶרֶב יוֹם, וְהוּא אֵינוֹ יוֹדֵעַ שֶׁיּוֹשֵׁב בְּסִתְרוֹ שֶׁל עוֹלָם, זֶה הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא צָר כָּל קִטּוֹרִין שֶׁלּוֹ בִּדְמוּתוֹ בִּשְׁבִיל לְפַרְסְמוֹ, הוּא שֶׁאִיּוֹב אוֹמֵר (איוב י, ג): הֲטוֹב לְךָ כִּי תַעֲשֹׁק, זֶה זָן וּמְפַרְנֵס וְהוּא צָר כָּל קִטּוֹרִין שֶׁלּוֹ בִּדְמוּת אַחֵר, אֶלָּא (איוב י, ג): כִּי תִמְאַס יְגִיעַ כַּפֶּיךָ, וּמֵאַחַר שֶׁאַתָּה יָגֵעַ בּוֹ כָּל אַרְבָּעִים יוֹם אַתָּה חוֹזֵר וּמְקַלְקְלוֹ, אֶלָּא (איוב י, ג): וְעַל עֲצַת רְשָׁעִים הוֹפָעְתָּ, כָּךְ הוּא כְבוֹדְךָ לַעֲמֹד בֵּין נוֹאֵף לְנוֹאָפֶת. אָמַר לוֹ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא אִיּוֹב רָאוּי אַתָּה לְפַיֵּס אֶלָּא יְהִי אוֹמֵר כַּאֲשֶׁר אָמַרְתָּ (איוב י, ד): הַעֵינֵי בָשָׂר לָךְ, אֶלָּא אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא הֲרֵינִי צָר כָּל קִטּוֹרִין שֶׁלּוֹ בִּדְמוּת אָבִיו בִּשְׁבִיל לְפַרְסְמוֹ. אָמַר רַבִּי לֵוִי מָשָׁל לְתַלְמִידוֹ שֶׁל יוֹצֵר שֶׁגָּנַב בֵּיצַת יוֹצְרִים וְעָמַד רַבּוֹ עַל גְּנֵבָתוֹ, מֶה עָשָׂה עָמַד וַעֲשָׂאוֹ כְּלִי וְתָלוֹ בְּפָנָיו, וְכָל כָּךְ לָמָּה לְהוֹדִיעַ שֶׁעָמַד רַבּוֹ עַל גְּנֵבָתוֹ, אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא הֲרֵינִי צָר כָּל קִטּוֹרִין שֶׁלּוֹ בִּדְמוּתוֹ בִּשְׁבִיל לְפַרְסְמוֹ. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה בְּרַבִּי סִימוֹן בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי לֵוִי בֶּן פְּרָטָא כְּתִיב (דברים לב, יח): צוּר יְלָדְךָ תֶּשִׁי, הִתַּשְׁתֶּם כֹּחוֹ שֶׁל יוֹצֵר. מָשָׁל לְצַיָּר שֶׁהָיָה יוֹשֵׁב וְצָר אִיקוֹנִין שֶׁל מֶלֶךְ, מִשֶּׁהוּא גּוֹמְרָהּ בָּאוּ וְאָמְרוּ לוֹ נִתְחַלֵּף הַמֶּלֶךְ, מִיָּד תָּשׁוּ יָדָיו שֶׁל יוֹצֵר, אָמַר שֶׁל מִי אָצוּר שֶׁל רִאשׁוֹן אוֹ שֶׁל שֵׁנִי, כָּךְ כָּל אַרְבָּעִים יוֹם הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא עוֹסֵק בְּצוּרַת הַוָּלָד וּלְסוֹף אַרְבָּעִים יוֹם הִיא הוֹלֶכֶת וּמְקַלְקֶלֶת עִם אַחֵר, מִיָּד רָפוּ יָדָיו שֶׁל יוֹצֵר, אָמַר שֶׁל מִי אָצוּר שֶׁל רִאשׁוֹן אוֹ שֶׁל שֵׁנִי, הֱוֵי: צוּר יְלָדְךָ תֶּשִׁי, הִתַּשְׁתָּ כֹּחוֹ שֶׁל יוֹצֵר. יו"ד זְעֵירָא וְלֵית בִּקְרָיָה כַּוָּתָהּ, אָמַר רַבִּי יִצְחָק מָצִינוּ כָּל עוֹבְרֵי עֲבֵרוֹת הַגּוֹנֵב נֶהֱנֶה וְהַנִּגְנָב מַפְסִיד, הַגּוֹזֵל נֶהֱנֶה וְהַנִּגְזָל מַפְסִיד, בְּרַם הָכָא שְׁנֵיהֶם נֶהֱנִין מִי מַפְסִיד הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, הוּא מְאַבֵּד סַמָּנָיו.
17. Anon., Sifre Deuteronomy, 9, 343 (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

18. Palestinian Talmud, Avodah Zarah, None (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

19. Palestinian Talmud, Berachot, None (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

20. Palestinian Talmud, Sanhedrin, None (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

21. Palestinian Talmud, Kilayim, None (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

22. Tertullian, Apology, 42.4 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

23. Tertullian, On Idolatry, 15.6 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

24. Babylonian Talmud, Gittin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

47a. פירקן אמר ליה תנן המוכר עצמו ואת בניו לעובדי כוכבים אין פודין אותו אבל פודין את הבנים משום קלקולא וכ"ש הכא דאיכא קטלא,אמרו לי' רבנן לר' אמי האי ישראל מומר הוא דקא חזו ליה דקאכיל נבילות וטריפות אמר להו אימא לתיאבון הוא דקאכיל,אמרו ליה והא זמנין דאיכא היתירא ואיסורא קמיה ושביק היתירא ואכיל איסורא א"ל זיל לא קא שבקי לי דאפרקינך:,ריש לקיש זבין נפשיה ללודאי שקל בהדיה חייתא וגלגלתא אמר גמירי דיומא בתרא כל דבעי מינייהו עבדי ליה כי היכי דליחול אדמיה,יומא בתרא אמרו ליה מאי ניחא לך אמר להו בעינא אקמטינכו ואותבינכו וכל חד מינייכו אמחי' חייתא ופלגא קמטינהו ואותבינהו כל חד מינייהו כד מחייה חד חייתא נפק נשמתיה חרקיניה לשיניה א"ל אחוכי קא מחייכת בי אכתי פש לך גבי פלגא דחייתא קטלינהו כולהו,נפק ואתא יתיב קאכיל ושתי אמרה ליה ברתיה לא בעית מידי למזגא עליה אמר לה בתי כריסי כרי כי נח נפשיה שבק קבא דמוריקא קרא אנפשיה (תהלים מט, יא) ועזבו לאחרים חילם:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big המוכר את שדהו לעובד כוכבים לוקח ומביא ממנו בכורים מפני תיקון העולם:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big אמר רבה אע"פ שאין קנין לעובד כוכבים בארץ ישראל להפקיע מידי מעשר שנאמר (ויקרא כה, כג) כי לי הארץ לי קדושת הארץ אבל יש קנין לעובד כוכבים בא"י לחפור בה בורות שיחין ומערות שנאמר (תהלים קטו, טז) השמים שמים לה' והארץ נתן לבני אדם,ור"א אומר אע"פ שיש קנין לעובד כוכבים בא"י להפקיע מידי מעשר שנאמר דגנך ולא דגן עובד כוכבים אבל אין קנין לעובד כוכבים בא"י לחפור בה בורות שיחין ומערות שנאמר לה' הארץ,במאי קמיפלגי מ"ס דגנך ולא דגן עובד כוכבים ומר סבר דיגונך ולא דיגון עובד כוכבים,אמר רבה מנא אמינא לה דתנן הלקט והשכחה והפאה של עובד כוכבים חייבין במעשר אלא א"כ הפקיר,היכי דמי אילימא דישראל וליקטינהו עובד כוכבים אלא א"כ הפקיר הא מפקרי וקיימי אלא לאו דעובד כוכבים וליקטינהו ישראל,טעמא דהפקיר הא לא הפקיר חייב,לא לעולם דישראל וליקטינהו עובד כוכבים ודקא אמרת הא מפקרי וקיימי נהי דמפקרי אדעתא דישראל אדעתא דעובד כוכבים מי מפקרי,ת"ש ישראל שלקח שדה מעובד כוכבים עד שלא הביאה שליש וחזר ומכרה לו משהביאה שליש חייבת במעשר שכבר נתחייבה נתחייבה אין לא נתחייבה לא,הכא במאי עסקינן בסוריא וקסבר כיבוש יחיד לא שמיה כיבוש,תא שמע ישראל ועובד כוכבים שלקחו שדה בשותפות 47a. bRedeem me.Rabbi Ami bsaid to him: We learnedin a mishna: With regard to bone who sells himself and his childrenas slaves bto gentiles, he is not redeemed. However, his children are redeemed due to the harmof becoming assimilated among the gentiles, band all the more so here, where there isa concern that leaving him in bondage may lead to his bdeath,he should be redeemed., bThe Sages said to Rabbi Ami: Thisman bis a Jewish apostate, as they saw him when he was eatingunslaughtered banimal carcasses and animals with a wound that will cause them to die within twelve months [ itereifot /i]. He said to them: Saythat bhe was eatingthem bdue tohis bappetite,not because he is an apostate, but because he was overcome by temptation., bThey said to him: Butthere are btimes when there are permitted and forbiddenfoods bbefore him, and he sets aside the permittedfood band eats the forbiddenfood, indicating that it is not temptation alone that causes him to transgress. Once he heard this, Rabbi Ami bsaid tothat man: bGo,because bthey do not allow me to redeem you. /b,The Gemara recounts a related incident: bReish Lakish sold himself to gladiators. He took a bag and a round stoneinside of it bwith him. He said:There is ba tradition thaton bthe final dayof a captive’s life, before his captors kill him, bthey do for him anything that he requests of them, so that he would forgivethem for the spilling bof his blood. /b, bOn the final daybefore they were set to kill him bthey said to him: What is amenable to you? He said to them: I want to tie youup band have you sit, and I will strike each one of you one and a halftimes. bHe tied themup band had each one of them sit. When he struckeach of them with bone strikewith the stone in the bag, the one whom he struck bdied,because Reish Lakish was of great strength. Reish Lakish bgritted his teethin anger, and bsaid tothe one whom he killed, in order to prevent the others from realizing what was happening: bAre you laughing at me? You stillhave bhalf of a strike remainingwith bme,as I struck you only once. bHe killed them all,and Reish Lakish escaped his captors., bHe left and cameback home, and after some time had passed bhe was sitting, eating, and drinking,without concern for his livelihood. bHis daughter said to him: You don’t want something to lie upon? He said to her: My daughter, my belly is my pillow,and this is enough for me. bWhen he died he leftonly ba ikavof saffronas an inheritance, and even so bhe recitedthis verse babout himself: “And they leave their wealth for others”(Psalms 49:11), meaning that he was pained that he did not use all of his property. He exhibited his confidence that God would provide his needs by not saving money for the future., strongMISHNA: /strong bOne who sells his field to a gentile must purchase and bringthe bfirst fruits fromthe field that he sold, bfor the betterment of the world. /b, strongGEMARA: /strong bRabba says: Even though a gentile has nocapability of bacquisitionof land bin Eretz Yisrael tocause the babrogationof the sanctity of the land, thereby removing it bfromthe obligation to btitheits produce, bas it is stated: “For the land is Mine”(Leviticus 25:23), which teaches: bThe sanctity of the land is Mine,and it is not abrogated when the land is sold to a gentile; ba gentile does have, however,the capability of bacquisitionof land bin Eretz Yisraelto allow him bto dig pits, ditches, and cavesin the land he has purchased, bas it is stated: “The heavens are the heavens of the Lord; but the earth has He given to the children of men”(Psalms 115:16)., bAnd Rabbi Elazar says: Even though a gentile hasthe capability of bacquisitionof land bin Eretz Yisrael tocause the babrogationof the sanctity of the land, removing it bfromthe obligation to btitheits produce, bas it is statedwith regard to tithes: “The tithe of byour grain”(Deuteronomy 12:17), which teaches that it is only the grain of a Jew that is obligated in tithes band not the grain of a gentile; a gentile does not have, however,the capability of bacquisitionof land bin Eretz Yisraelto allow him bto dig pits, ditches, and caves,in the land he has purchased, bas it is stated: “The earth is the Lord’s”(Psalms 24:1).,The Gemara asks: bWith regard to whatprinciple bdoRabba and Rabbi Elazar bdisagree?The Gemara answers: One bSage,Rabbi Elazar, bholdsthat b“your grain”teaches that only grain grown in the field of a Jew is obligated in tithes, bbut not the graingrown in the field bof a gentile. Andone bSage,Rabba, bholdsthat “your grain” is not referring to the produce itself, but rather to byour accumulationof the produce binto a pile,which obligates the produce in tithes, band not the accumulationof the produce binto a pileby ba gentile,as Rabba holds that if a gentile harvests and gathers grain, the grain is not obligated in tithes., bRabba said: From where do I saythat a gentile’s acquisition of land in Eretz Yisrael does not cause the abrogation of the sanctity of the land with regard to tithes? bAs we learnedin a mishna ( iPe’a4:9): With regard to bthe gleaningsleft for the poor, band the forgottensheaves left for the poor, band the produce in the corner of the field, which is given to the poor [ ipe’a /i], of a gentile,one is bobligated to tithethem bunlessthe owner brendered them ownerless. /b,The Gemara discusses: bWhat are the circumstances? If we saythat this is referring to the gleanings, forgotten sheaves, and ipe’a bof a Jew, and a gentile collected themand sold them to a Jew, then how could the mishna write: bUnless he rendered them ownerless? But they are already ownerless,since gleanings, forgotten sheaves, and ipe’aare already ownerless, as anyone can take them. bRather, is it notthe case that the mishna is referring to produce bof a gentile,who then separated gleanings, forgotten sheaves, and ipe’a /i, and declared them to be ownerless, band a Jew gathered them. /b,Rabba explains his inference: bThe reasonthat this produce is exempt from tithes is specifically bbecausethe gentile brendered it ownerless, butif bhe did not render it ownerless,then it would be bobligatedin tithes. One can infer from this mishna that the acquisition of land by a gentile does not cause the abrogation of the sanctity of the land with regard to tithes.,The Gemara rejects this: bNo, actuallyit may be that these were gleanings, forgotten sheaves, and ipe’a bof a Jew, and a gentile collected them. And that which you said: But they are already ownerless,is incorrect. bLet it be that he rendered them ownerless with the intent that a Jewwould collect them, but bdid he render them ownerless with the intent that a gentilewould collect them? He did not in fact render them ownerless, as he expected only a Jew to collect them. Therefore, if a gentile collects them and sells them to a Jew, the Jew is obligated to tithe them.,The Gemara suggests: bComeand bhearanother proof from a ibaraita /i: If there was ba Jew who acquired a field from a gentile beforeits produce breached a thirdof its growth, at which point one is obligated to tithe the produce, band he then sold it tothe gentile bafterits produce breached a thirdof its growth, then the owner is bobligated to tithethe produce bbecausethe produce balready became obligatedin tithes when it reached a third of its growth while under Jewish ownership. The Gemara deduces from here: It is only when the produce bbecame obligatedin tithes while under Jewish ownership, that byes,the owner is obligated to tithe, but if the produce bdid not become obligatedin tithes while under Jewish ownership, then bno,the owner is not obligated to tithe. This teaches that produce that grows while the field is owned by a gentile is exempt from tithes, and a gentile’s acquisition in Eretz Yisrael abrogates the sanctity of the land with regard to tithes.,The Gemara rejects this: bWith what are we dealing here?We are not dealing with Eretz Yisrael proper, but with land bin Syria, andthis itanna bholdsthat bthe conquest of an individual is not called a conquest.Since Syria was conquered in battle by King David, and not by the Jewish people as a whole, it is not bound by all the same ihalakhotthat apply in Eretz Yisrael.,The Gemara suggests: bComeand bheara proof from a ibaraita( iTosefta /i, iTerumot2:10): If there were ba Jew and a gentile who purchased a field in partnership, /b
25. Babylonian Talmud, Megillah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

11a. (עזרא ט, ט) כי עבדים אנחנו ובעבדותנו לא עזבנו אלהינו ויט עלינו חסד לפני מלכי פרס אימתי בזמן המן,רבי חנינא בר פפא פתח לה פתחא להא פרשתא מהכא (תהלים סו, יב) הרכבת אנוש לראשנו באנו באש ובמים באש בימי נבוכדנצר הרשע ובמים בימי פרעה ותוציאנו לרויה בימי המן,רבי יוחנן פתח לה פתחא להא פרשתא מהכא (תהלים צח, ג) זכר חסדו ואמונתו לבית ישראל ראו כל אפסי ארץ את ישועת אלהינו אימתי ראו כל אפסי ארץ את ישועת אלהינו בימי מרדכי ואסתר,ריש לקיש פתח לה פתחא להא פרשתא מהכא (משלי כח, טו) ארי נוהם ודוב שוקק מושל רשע על עם דל ארי נוהם זה נבוכדנצר הרשע דכתיב ביה (ירמיהו ד, ז) עלה אריה מסובכו דוב שוקק זה אחשורוש דכתיב ביה (דניאל ז, ה) וארו חיוה אחרי תניינה דמיה לדוב ותני רב יוסף אלו פרסיים שאוכלין ושותין כדוב ומסורבלין בשר כדוב ומגדלין שער כדוב ואין להם מנוחה כדוב,מושל רשע זה המן על עם דל אלו ישראל שהם דלים מן המצות,ר' אלעזר פתח לה פתחא להא פרשתא מהכא (קהלת י, יח) בעצלתים ימך המקרה ובשפלות ידים ידלוף הבית בשביל עצלות שהיה להם לישראל שלא עסקו בתורה נעשה שונאו של הקב"ה מך ואין מך אלא עני שנאמר (ויקרא כז, ח) ואם מך הוא מערכך ואין מקרה אלא הקב"ה שנאמר (תהלים קד, ג) המקרה במים עליותיו,רב נחמן בר יצחק פתח לה פתחא להא פרשתא מהכא (תהלים קכד, א) שיר המעלות לולי ה' שהיה לנו יאמר נא ישראל לולי ה' שהיה לנו בקום עלינו אדם (תהלים קכד,ב) אדם ולא מלך,רבא פתח לה פתחא להא פרשתא מהכא (משלי כט, ב) ברבות צדיקים ישמח העם ובמשול רשע יאנח עם ברבות צדיקים ישמח העם זה מרדכי ואסתר דכתיב והעיר שושן צהלה ושמחה ובמשול רשע יאנח עם זה המן דכתיב והעיר שושן נבוכה,רב מתנה אמר מהכא (דברים ד, ז) כי מי גוי גדול אשר לו אלהים קרובים אליו רב אשי אמר מהכא (דברים ד, לד) או הנסה אלהים וגו',ויהי בימי אחשורוש אמר רב ויי והי הדא דכתיב (דברים כח, סח) והתמכרתם שם לאויביך לעבדים ולשפחות וגו',ושמואל אמר (ויקרא כו, מד) לא מאסתים ולא געלתים לכלותם לא מאסתים בימי יוונים ולא געלתים בימי נבוכדנצר לכלותם בימי המן להפר בריתי אתם בימי פרסיים כי אני ה' אלהיהם בימי גוג ומגוג,במתניתא תנא לא מאסתים בימי כשדים שהעמדתי להם דניאל חנניה מישאל ועזריה ולא געלתים בימי יוונים שהעמדתי להם שמעון הצדיק וחשמונאי ובניו ומתתיה כה"ג לכלותם בימי המן שהעמדתי להם מרדכי ואסתר להפר בריתי אתם בימי פרסיים שהעמדתי להם של בית רבי וחכמי דורות כי אני ה' אלהיהם לעתיד לבוא שאין כל אומה ולשון יכולה לשלוט בהם,רבי לוי אמר מהכא (במדבר לג, נה) ואם לא תורישו את יושבי הארץ,רבי חייא אמר מהכא (במדבר לג, נו) והיה כאשר דמיתי לעשות להם אעשה לכם,אחשורוש אמר רב אחיו של ראש ובן גילו של ראש אחיו של ראש אחיו של נבוכדנצר הרשע שנקרא ראש שנאמר (דניאל ב, לח) אנת הוא רישא די דהבא בן גילו של ראש הוא הרג הוא ביקש להרוג הוא החריב הוא ביקש להחריב שנאמר (עזרא ד, ו) ובמלכות אחשורוש בתחלת מלכותו כתבו שטנה על יושבי יהודה וירושלם,ושמואל אמר שהושחרו פניהם של ישראל בימיו כשולי קדרה ורבי יוחנן אמר כל שזוכרו אמר אח לראשו ורבי חנינא אמר שהכל נעשו רשין בימיו שנאמר (אסתר י, א) וישם המלך אחשורוש מס,הוא אחשורוש הוא ברשעו מתחילתו ועד סופו (בראשית לו, מג) הוא עשו הוא ברשעו מתחילתו ועד סופו (במדבר כו, ט) הוא דתן ואבירם הן ברשען מתחילתן ועד סופן (דברי הימים ב כח, כב) הוא המלך אחז הוא ברשעו מתחילתו ועד סופו,(דברי הימים א א, כז) אברם הוא אברהם הוא בצדקו מתחילתו ועד סופו (שמות ו, כו) הוא אהרן ומשה הן בצדקן מתחילתן ועד סופן (שמואל א יז, יד) ודוד הוא הקטן הוא בקטנותו מתחילתו עד סופו כשם שבקטנותו הקטין עצמו אצל מי שגדול ממנו בתורה כך במלכותו הקטין עצמו אצל מי שגדול ממנו בחכמה,המולך אמר רב שמלך מעצמו אמרי לה לשבח ואמרי לה לגנאי אמרי לה לשבח דלא הוה איניש דחשיב למלכא כוותיה ואמרי לה לגנאי דלא הוה חזי למלכותא וממונא יתירא הוא דיהב וקם,מהודו ועד כוש רב ושמואל חד אמר הודו בסוף העולם וכוש בסוף העולם וחד אמר הודו וכוש גבי הדדי הוו קיימי כשם שמלך על הודו וכוש כך מלך מסוף העולם ועד סופו,כיוצא בדבר אתה אומר (מלכים א ה, ד) כי הוא רודה בכל עבר הנהר מתפסח ועד עזה רב ושמואל חד אמר תפסח בסוף העולם ועזה בסוף העולם וחד אמר תפסח ועזה בהדי הדדי הוו קיימי כשם שמלך על תפסח ועל עזה כך מלך על כל העולם כולו,שבע ועשרים ומאה מדינה אמר רב חסדא בתחילה מלך על שבע ולבסוף מלך על עשרים ולבסוף מלך על מאה אלא מעתה (שמות ו, כ) ושני חיי עמרם שבע ושלשים ומאת שנה מאי דרשת ביה שאני הכא דקרא יתירא הוא מכדי כתיב מהודו ועד כוש שבע ועשרים ומאה מדינה למה לי ש"מ לדרשה:,תנו רבנן שלשה מלכו בכיפה ואלו הן אחאב ואחשורוש ונבוכדנצר אחאב דכתיב (מלכים א יח, י) חי ה' אלהיך אם יש גוי וממלכה אשר לא שלח אדוני שם לבקשך וגו' ואי לא דהוה מליך עלייהו היכי מצי משבע להו,נבוכדנצר דכתיב (ירמיהו כז, ח) והיה הגוי והממלכה אשר לא יתן את צוארו בעול מלך בבל אחשורוש הא דאמרן 11a. b“For we are bondmen; yet our God has not forsaken us in our bondage, but has extended mercy unto us in the sight of the kings of Persia”(Ezra 9:9). bWhendid this occur? bIn the time of Haman. /b, bRabbi Ḥanina bar Pappa introduced this passage with an introduction from here:The verse states: b“You have caused men to ride over our heads; we went through fire and through water;but You brought us out into abundance” (Psalms 66:12). b“Through fire”;this was bin the days of the wicked Nebuchadnezzar,who cast the righteous into the furnace. b“And through water”;this was bin the days of Pharaoh,who decreed that all newborn males be cast into the water. b“But You brought us out into abundance”;this was bin the days of Haman,where abundant feasts played a pivotal role in their peril and salvation., bRabbi Yoḥa introduced this passage with an introduction from here:The verse states: b“He has remembered His mercy and His faithfulness toward the house of Israel: All the ends of the earth have seen the salvation of our God”(Psalms 98:3). bWhen did all the ends of the earth see the salvation of our God? In the days of Mordecai and Esther,for their peril and salvation became known through the letters sent throughout the empire., bReish Lakish introduced this passage with an introduction from here: “As a roaring lion, and a ravenous bear, so is a wicked ruler over a poor people”(Proverbs 28:15). b“A roaring lion”; this is the wicked Nebuchadnezzar, as it is written about him: “The lion has come up from his thicket”(Jeremiah 4:7). b“A hungry bear”; this is Ahasuerus, as it is written about him: “And behold, another beast, a second one, like a bear”(Daniel 7:5). bAnd Rav Yosef taughtthat bthesewho are referred to as a bear in the verse bare the Persians.They are compared to a bear, bas they eat and drinkin large quantities blike a bear; and they are coated with flesh like a bear; and they grow their hairlong blike a bear; and they never rest like a bear,whose manner it is to move about from place to place., b“A wicked ruler”; this is Haman. “Over a poor people”; this is the Jewish people,who are referred to in this manner bbecause they are poor intheir observance of bthe mitzvot. /b, bRabbi Elazar introduced this passage with an introduction from here: “Through laziness the rafters [ ihamekare /i] sink in [ iyimakh /i]; and through idleness of the hands the house leaks”(Ecclesiastes 10:18). Rabbi Elazar interprets the verse homiletically: bThrough the laziness of the Jewish people, who did not occupy themselves with Torahstudy, bthe enemy of the Holy One, Blessed be He,a euphemism for God Himself, bbecame poor [ imakh /i],so that, as it were, He was unable to help them, bas imakh /iis bnothing other than poor, as it is stated: “But if he be too poor [ imakh /i] for the valuation”(Leviticus 27:8). bAndthe word imekare /iin the verse bis referringto bnoone bother than the Holy One, Blessed be He, as it is stated: “Who lays the beams [ ihamekare /i] of His chambers in the waters”(Psalms 104:3)., bRav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak introduced this passage with an introduction from here: “A song of ascentsof David. bIf not for the Lord Who was with us, let Israel now say; if not for the Lord who was with us, when a man rose up against us”(Psalms 124:1–2). The verse speaks of b“a man”who rose up against us band not a king.This occurred in the days of Haman, as he, and not King Ahasuerus, was the chief enemy of the Jewish people., bRava introduced this passage with an introduction from here: “When the righteous are on the increase, the people rejoice; but when the wicked man rules, the people mourn”(Proverbs 29:2). b“When the righteous are on the increase, the people rejoice”; this is Mordecai and Esther, as it is written: “And the city of Shushan rejoiced and was glad”(Esther 8:15). b“But when the wicked man rules, the people mourn”; this is Haman, as it is written: “But the city of Shushan was perplexed”(Esther 3:15)., bRav Mattana saidhis introduction bfrom here: “For what nation is there so great, that has God so near to them”(Deuteronomy 4:7), as to witness the great miracles in the days of Mordecai and Esther? bRav Ashi saidhis introduction bfrom here:The verse states: b“Or has God venturedto go and take Him a nation from the midst of another nation?” (Deuteronomy 4:34), as in the times of Esther, God saved the Jewish people who were scattered throughout the Persian Empire.,§ The Gemara returns to its interpretation of the book of Esther. The verse states: b“And it came to pass [ ivayhi /i] in the days of Ahasuerus”(Esther 1:1). bRav said:The word ivayhimay be understood as if it said ivaiand ihi /i,meaning bwoe and mourning. This is as it is written: “And there you shall sell yourselves to your enemies for bondsmen and bondswomen,and no man shall buy you” (Deuteronomy 28:68). The repetitive nature of the verse, indicating that no one will be willing to buy you for servitude, but they will purchase you in order to murder you, indicates a doubly horrific situation, which is symbolized by the dual term ivayhi /i, meaning woe and mourning., bAnd Shmuel saidhis introduction from here: “And yet for all that, when they are in the land of their enemies, bI will not reject them, nor will I abhor them,to destroy them utterly, and to break My covet with them; for I am the Lord their God” (Leviticus 26:44). Shmuel explains: b“I will not reject them”;this was bin the days of the Greeks. “Nor will I abhor them”;this was bin the days ofVespasian. b“To destroy them utterly”;this was bin the days of Haman. “To break My covet with them”;this was bin the days of the Persians. “For I am the Lord their God”;this is bin the days of Gog and Magog. /b,An alternative understanding bwas taught in a ibaraita /i: “I will not reject them”;this was bin the days of the Chaldeans, when I appointed for them Daniel, Haiah, Mishael, and Azariahto pray on their behalf. b“Nor will I abhor them”;this was bin the days of the Greeks, when I appointed Shimon HaTzaddik for them, andthe bHasmonean and his sons, and Mattithiah the High Priest. “To destroy them utterly”;this was bin the days of Haman, when I appointed for themthe righteous leaders bMordecai and Esther. “To break My covet with them”;this was bin the days of the Romans, when I appointed for themthe Sages of bthe house of RabbiYehuda HaNasi band the Sages ofother bgenerations. “For I am the Lord their God”;this will be bin the future, when no nation orpeople of a foreign btongue will be ableto bsubjugate themfurther., bRabbi Levi saidhis introduction bfrom here: “But if you will not drive out the inhabitants of the landfrom before you, then it shall come to pass, that those whom you allow to remain of them shall be as thorns in your eyes” (Numbers 33:55). King Saul’s failure to completely annihilate Amalek allowed for the existence of his descendant Haman, who acted as a thorn in the eyes of Israel during the Purim episode., bRabbi Ḥiyya saidhis introduction bfrom here,the continuation of the previously cited verse: b“And it shall come to pass, that as I thought to do unto them, so I shall do unto you”(Numbers 33:56). Prior to the miracle of Purim, the Jewish people were subject to the punishment that the Torah designated for its enemies, because they did not fulfill God’s commandments.,The Gemara continues with its explanation of the book of Esther, beginning with a discussion of the name bAhasuerus. Rav said:The name should be viewed as a contraction: bThe brother of the head [ iaḥiv shel rosh /i] and of the same character as the head [ iben gilo shel rosh /i].Rav explains: bThe brother of the head,i.e., bthe brother of the wicked Nebuchadnezzar, who is called “head,” as it is stated: “You are the head of gold”(Daniel 2:38). bof the same character as the head, for he,Nebuchadnezzar, bkilledthe Jews, and bhe,Ahasuerus, bsought to killthem. bHe destroyedthe Temple, and bhe sought to destroythe foundations for the Temple laid by Zerubbabel, bas it is stated: “And in the reign of Ahasuerus, in the beginning of his reign, they wrote to him an accusation against the inhabitants of Judah and Jerusalem”(Ezra 4:6), and he ordered that the construction of the Temple cease., bAnd Shmuel said:The name Ahasuerus should be understood in the sense of black [ ishaḥor /i], as bthe face of the Jewish people was blackened in his days like the bottom of a pot. And Rabbi Yoḥa saida different explanation: bEveryone who recalled him said: “Woe upon his head” [ iaḥ lerosho /i]. And Rabbi Ḥanina said:The name alludes to the fact bthat everyone became poor[irash /i] in his days, as it is stated: “And the king Ahasuerus laid a tributeupon the land” (Esther 10:1).,The Gemara continues: b“This is [ ihu /i] Ahasuerus”(Esther 1:1); the term ihu /i, this is, comes to teach that bheremained as he was bin his wickedness from beginning to end.Similarly, wherever the words “this is” appear in this manner, the verse indicates that the individual under discussion remained the same from beginning to end, for example: b“This is [ ihu /i] Esau”(Genesis 36:43); bheremained bin his wickedness from beginning to end. “This is [ ihu /i] Dathan and Abiram”(Numbers 26:9); btheyremained bin their wickedness from beginning to end. “This is [ ihu /i] the king Ahaz”(II Chronicles 28:22); bheremained bin his wickedness from beginning to end. /b,The Gemara continues: The word ihuis also used to recognize sustained righteousness. b“Abram, this is [ ihu /i] Abraham”(I Chronicles 1:27); this indicates that Abraham didn’t change, as bheremained bin his righteousness from beginning to end.Similarly, b“This is [ ihu /i] Aaron and Moses”(Exodus 6:26); bthey remained in their righteousness fromthe bbeginningof their life btothe bendof their life. Similarly, with respect to David: b“And David, this was [ ihu /i] the youngest”(I Samuel 17:14), indicates that bhe remained in his humility from beginning to end. Just as in his youth,when he was still an ordinary individual, bhe humbled himself before anyone who was greater than him in Torah, so too, in his kingship, he humbled himself before anyone who was greater than him in wisdom. /b,The next term in the opening verse: b“Who reigned”(Esther 1:1), is now interpreted. bRav said:This comes to teach bthat he reigned on his own,without having inherited the throne. bSome saythis btohis bcredit, and some say it tohis bdisgrace.The Gemara explains: bSome saythis btohis bcredit, that there was noother bman as fit as him to be king. And some say it tohis bdisgrace, that he was not fit to be king, but he distributed large amounts of money, andin that way broseto the throne.,The opening verse continues that Ahasuerus reigned b“from Hodu to Cush.” Rav and Shmueldisagreed about its meaning. bOne said: Hoduis a country bat one end of the world, and Cushis a country bat theother bend of the world. And one said: Hodu and Cush are situated next to each other,and the verse means to say as follows: bJust asAhasuerus breignedwith ease boverthe adjacent countries of bHodu and Cush, so too, he reignedwith ease bfrom one end of the world to the other. /b, bOn a similarnote, byou saywith regard to Solomon: b“For he had dominion over all the region on this side of the river, from Tiphsah even to Gaza”(I Kings 5:4), and also with regard to this bRav and Shmueldisagreed. bOne said: Tiphsah is at one end of the world, whereas Gaza is at the other end of the world. And one said: Tiphsah and Gaza are situated next to each other,and the verse means to say as follows: bJust asSolomon breignedwith ease boverthe adjacent bTiphsah and Gaza, so too, he reignedwith ease bover the entire world. /b,The opening verse continues, stating that Ahasuerus reigned “over bseven and twenty and a hundred provinces”(Esther 1:1). bRav Ḥisda said:This verse should be understood as follows: bAt first he reigned over sevenprovinces; band then he reigned over twentymore; band finally he reigned overanother bhundred.The Gemara asks: bHowever, ifthat is bso,with regard to the similarly worded verse: b“And the years of the life of Amram were seven and thirty and a hundred years”(Exodus 6:20), bwhat would you expoundfrom bit?The Gemara answers: bIt is different here,in the book of Esther, basthis part of bthe verse isentirely bsuperfluous. Since it isalready bwritten: “From Hodu to Cush,” whythen bdo I need “Seven and twenty and a hundred provinces”?Rather, blearn from herethat these words come bforthis bexposition,to teach that Ahasuerus did not begin to reign over all of them at the same time.,§ Apropos the discussion of the kingdoms of Ahasuerus and Solomon, the Gemara cites a ibaraitain which bthe Sages taught: Threemen bruled over theentire bworld, and they were Ahab, and Ahasuerus, and Nebuchadnezzar.The Gemara explains: bAhab, as it is writtenin the words of Obadiah, servant of Ahab, to Elijah: b“As the Lord your God lives, there is no nation or kingdom where my master has not sent to seek you,and they said: He is not there; and he made the kingdom and nation swear, that they had not found you” (I Kings 18:10). bAnd if he did not reign over them, how could he have made them swear?Apparently, then, he reigned over the entire world., bNebuchadnezzaralso ruled over the whole world, bas it is written: “And it shall come to pass, that the nation and the kingdomthat not serve this same Nebuchadnezzar, the king of Babylonia, and that bwill not put their neck under the yoke of the king of Babylonia,that nation will I visit, says the Lord, with the sword, and with the famine, and with the pestilence, until I have consumed them by his hand” (Jeremiah 27:8). bAhasuerusalso ruled the world, bas we have saidabove.
26. Augustine, Confessions, 9.12 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

9.12. 29. I closed her eyes; and there flowed a great sadness into my heart, and it was passing into tears, when my eyes at the same time, by the violent control of my mind, sucked back the fountain dry, and woe was me in such a struggle! But, as soon as she breathed her last the boy Adeodatus burst out into wailing, but, being checked by us all, he became quiet. In like manner also my own childish feeling, which was, through the youthful voice of my heart, finding escape in tears, was restrained and silenced. For we did not consider it fitting to celebrate that funeral with tearful plaints and groanings; for on such wise are they who die unhappy, or are altogether dead, wont to be mourned. But she neither died unhappy, nor did she altogether die. For of this were we assured by the witness of her good conversation, her faith unfeigned, 1 Timothy 1:5 and other sufficient grounds. 3o. What, then, was that which did grievously pain me within, but the newly-made wound, from having that most sweet and dear habit of living together suddenly broken off? I was full of joy indeed in her testimony, when, in that her last illness, flattering my dutifulness, she called me kind, and recalled, with great affection of love, that she had never heard any harsh or reproachful sound come out of my mouth against her. But yet, O my God, who made us, how can the honour which I paid to her be compared with her slavery for me? As, then, I was left destitute of so great comfort in her, my soul was stricken, and that life torn apart as it were, which, of hers and mine together, had been made but one. 31. The boy then being restrained from weeping, Evodius took up the Psalter, and began to sing - the whole house responding - the Psalm, I will sing of mercy and judgment: unto You, O Lord. But when they heard what we were doing, many brethren and religious women came together; and while they whose office it was were, according to custom, making ready for the funeral, I, in a part of the house where I conveniently could, together with those who thought that I ought not to be left alone, discoursed on what was suited to the occasion; and by this alleviation of truth mitigated the anguish known unto You - they being unconscious of it, listened intently, and thought me to be devoid of any sense of sorrow. But in Your ears, where none of them heard, did I blame the softness of my feelings, and restrained the flow of my grief, which yielded a little unto me; but the paroxysm returned again, though not so as to burst forth into tears, nor to a change of countece, though I knew what I repressed in my heart. And as I was exceedingly annoyed that these human things had such power over me, which in the due order and destiny of our natural condition must of necessity come to pass, with a new sorrow I sorrowed for my sorrow, and was wasted by a twofold sadness. 32. So, when the body was carried forth, we both went and returned without tears. For neither in those prayers which we poured forth unto You when the sacrifice of our redemption was offered up unto You for her - the dead body being now placed by the side of the grave, as the custom there is, prior to its being laid therein - neither in their prayers did I shed tears; yet was I most grievously sad in secret all the day, and with a troubled mind entreated You, as I was able, to heal my sorrow, but You did not; fixing, I believe, in my memory by this one lesson the power of the bonds of all habit, even upon a mind which now feeds not upon a fallacious word. It appeared to me also a good thing to go and bathe, I having heard that the bath [balneum] took its name from the Greek βαλανεῖον, because it drives trouble from the mind. Lo, this also I confess unto Your mercy, Father of the fatherless, that I bathed, and felt the same as before I had done so. For the bitterness of my grief exuded not from my heart. Then I slept, and on awaking found my grief not a little mitigated; and as I lay alone upon my bed, there came into my mind those true verses of Your Ambrose, for You are - Deus creator omnium, Polique rector, vestiens Diem decora lumine, Noctem sopora gratia; Artus solutos ut quies Reddat laboris usui, Mentesque fessas allevet, Luctusque solvat anxios. 33. And then little by little did I bring back my former thoughts of Your handmaid, her devout conversation towards You, her holy tenderness and attentiveness towards us, which was suddenly taken away from me; and it was pleasant to me to weep in Your sight, for her and for me, concerning her and concerning myself. And I set free the tears which before I repressed, that they might flow at their will, spreading them beneath my heart; and it rested in them, for Your ears were near me - not those of man, who would have put a scornful interpretation on my weeping. But now in writing I confess it unto You, O Lord! Read it who will, and interpret how he will; and if he finds me to have sinned in weeping for my mother during so small a part of an hour - that mother who was for a while dead to my eyes, who had for many years wept for me, that I might live in Your eyes - let him not laugh at me, but rather, if he be a man of a noble charity, let him weep for my sins against You, the Father of all the brethren of Your Christ.
27. Augustine, De Beata Vita, 1.6, 4.23 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

28. Augustine, De Ordine Libri Duo, 1.8.25, 2.11.31 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

29. Augustine, Letters, 46.14 (7th cent. CE - 7th cent. CE)



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abba b. kahana, r. Spielman, Jews and Entertainment in the Ancient World (2020) 204
acta martyrum Spielman, Jews and Entertainment in the Ancient World (2020) 137
admission fees, ceilings Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 63
admission fees, concerns and reservations about Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 190
admission fees, construction and costs Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 63
admission fees, facades, entrances, gates and Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 63
admission fees, furniture (e.g., benches) and equipment Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 63
ahab Segal, The Babylonian Esther Midrash: To the end of Esther chapter 1 (1994) 137
ahasuerus Segal, The Babylonian Esther Midrash: To the end of Esther chapter 1 (1994) 137
albeck, ch. Segal, The Babylonian Esther Midrash: To the end of Esther chapter 1 (1994) 137
alexander the great Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 418
alon, g. Fonrobert and Jaffee, The Cambridge Companion to the Talmud and Rabbinic Literature Cambridge Companions to Religion (2007) 263
amoraic literature, on gladiatorial combat Spielman, Jews and Entertainment in the Ancient World (2020) 204
animals, combat scenes featuring Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 230
animals, entertainment featuring Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 230
antioch Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 191
antiochos Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 418
apocalyptic(ism) (see also dualism) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 418
aqiba Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 115, 249
archaeology of roman palestine Rosen-Zvi, The Mishnaic Sotah Ritual: Temple, Gender and Midrash (2012) 220
augustine Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 130
bacher, w. Segal, The Babylonian Esther Midrash: To the end of Esther chapter 1 (1994) 137
bath-house Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 249
bath houses Spielman, Jews and Entertainment in the Ancient World (2020) 133, 137
bet shean mosaic Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 230
beth shearim Spielman, Jews and Entertainment in the Ancient World (2020) 204
bostra Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 191
children Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 249
christians Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 130, 190
cities, administration/councils, magistrates Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 191
cities Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 191
coins and currency Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 190
columns and capitals Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 63
conscription of colonials, roman Segal, The Babylonian Esther Midrash: To the end of Esther chapter 1 (1994) 137
damnatio memoriae Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 173
demetrios Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 418
domes Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 63, 190
dualism, dualist(ic) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 418
eggs Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 230
elephants Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 230
essenes (see also qumran) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 284
exoticized animals, as luxuries Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 230
families Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 173
gamaliel, rabban Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 190
gaul Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 63
gentile Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 418
gentile christians / gentile churches Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 284
gladiatorial combat Spielman, Jews and Entertainment in the Ancient World (2020) 204
greece Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 418
greek, ethnos Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 418
hebrew Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 312
hellenism, hellenistic Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 418
hellenistic drama Bloch, Ancient Jewish Diaspora: Essays on Hellenism (2022) 179
herod Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 190
herod antipas Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 190
hillel the elder Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 284
hippodromes Spielman, Jews and Entertainment in the Ancient World (2020) 132
historical tradition Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 284
house of the faun mosaic Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 230
hybridity, anxiety and ambivalence Hayes, The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning (2022) 354
idolatry Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 63, 130, 190, 191; Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 284
idols, food offered to Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 418
index of subjects, shammaite) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 284
interior and structure Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 63
israel (ancient) Bloch, Ancient Jewish Diaspora: Essays on Hellenism (2022) 179
jacob, biblical figure Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 63
jacobs, martin Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 312
jerusalem Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 190
jesus Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 63
jewish society, revolts against rome Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 190
jewish society, views of roman institutions and buildings Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 130
jews, neighbors Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 63, 190, 191
jews, of babylonia Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 312
joseph Bloch, Ancient Jewish Diaspora: Essays on Hellenism (2022) 179
josephus Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 190
judaea Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 190
judah Segal, The Babylonian Esther Midrash: To the end of Esther chapter 1 (1994) 137
kings Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 173
kippah Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 63
law, roman law Hayes, The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning (2022) 354
libations Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 130, 190
lieberman, s. Segal, The Babylonian Esther Midrash: To the end of Esther chapter 1 (1994) 137
lod mosaic Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 230
magic, miracles, and magicians Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 63
masks Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 173
meir, r. Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 190
militarization of roman east, roman military supremacy Hayes, The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning (2022) 354
mills Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 63
mishnah Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 63, 190, 191; Spielman, Jews and Entertainment in the Ancient World (2020) 132, 133, 136, 137
mongooses Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 230
mosaics Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 230
naḥum b. somai, r. Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 190
neapolis mosaic Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 230
nebuchadnezzar Segal, The Babylonian Esther Midrash: To the end of Esther chapter 1 (1994) 137
nehemiah Segal, The Babylonian Esther Midrash: To the end of Esther chapter 1 (1994) 137; Bloch, Ancient Jewish Diaspora: Essays on Hellenism (2022) 179
niches Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 63, 130, 190
nile scenes Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 230
nullification Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 191
operating hours, used for religious rituals Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 130, 190
oral or written ~ Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 284
oral tradition Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 284
papyri Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 63
paul (saul) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 284, 418
people of color, depictions of Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 230
persia, parthians, sasanian Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 312
pharisaic tradition/halakha Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 284
potiphar Bloch, Ancient Jewish Diaspora: Essays on Hellenism (2022) 179
potiphars wife Bloch, Ancient Jewish Diaspora: Essays on Hellenism (2022) 179
proselyte, proselytism Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 284
qumran documents Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 284, 418
qumran halakha Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 284
r. eliezer shammaite Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 284
rabbinic halakhah Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 63, 130, 190, 191
rabbinic literature, distinctiveness Spielman, Jews and Entertainment in the Ancient World (2020) 132
rabbinic literature, on theater attendance Spielman, Jews and Entertainment in the Ancient World (2020) 137
rabbinic tradition/literature, halakha Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 284
rabbis, and other jews Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 130
rabbis, as legal scholars Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 190, 191
rabbis, as romans Hayes, The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning (2022) 354
rabbis, condemning theater Bloch, Ancient Jewish Diaspora: Essays on Hellenism (2022) 179
rabbis, knowledge and perception of roman sculpture Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 63, 173, 190, 191
rabbis Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 130
rashi (rabbi solomon b. isaac) Segal, The Babylonian Esther Midrash: To the end of Esther chapter 1 (1994) 137
reish lakish Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 130
religion Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 130
religious ceremonies (processions, festivals, rituals) Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 130, 190
roman civil law Spielman, Jews and Entertainment in the Ancient World (2020) 136, 137
roman civilization, empire and emperors Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 173, 191
roman civilization, gods Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 130
roman civilization, government Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 173, 191
roman law, judicial system Hayes, The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning (2022) 354
roman provinces governors, magistrates, and provincials Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 191
romanization, impact and responses to Hayes, The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning (2022) 354
rome, military supremacy and military culture Hayes, The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning (2022) 354
rostovtzeff, m. Segal, The Babylonian Esther Midrash: To the end of Esther chapter 1 (1994) 137
saturnalia Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 130, 190
sculpture, ceremonies and rituals for Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 130, 190
sculpture, destruction of Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 190, 191
sculpture, in baths Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 63, 130, 190, 191
sculpture, in special niches Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 63
sculpture, inscriptions of Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 173
sculpture, messages, symbolism, and perceptions of Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 130, 190, 191
sculpture, of emperors and part of imperial cult Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 173
sculpture, of family members and ancestors Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 173
sculpture, of gods Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 190
sculpture Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 63, 130, 173, 190, 191
second temple Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 190
self-definition, perfect law as defining chosenness Hayes, The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning (2022) 354
self-definition, roman self-definition Hayes, The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning (2022) 354
seneca criticism of roman arena' Rosen-Zvi, The Mishnaic Sotah Ritual: Temple, Gender and Midrash (2012) 220
sepphoris house Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 230
shammai, school Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 284
shammai (see also subject index) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 284
shimon b. lakish, r. Spielman, Jews and Entertainment in the Ancient World (2020) 204
sidonius apollinaris Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 63
slaughter Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 284
stadia, in the mishnah Spielman, Jews and Entertainment in the Ancient World (2020) 133, 136, 137
synagogue Bloch, Ancient Jewish Diaspora: Essays on Hellenism (2022) 179
syrian Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 418
talmud, palestinian, on gladiatorial combat Spielman, Jews and Entertainment in the Ancient World (2020) 204
tannaitic literature Spielman, Jews and Entertainment in the Ancient World (2020) 204
temple ~ Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 284
temples and sanctuaries Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 130, 190
tertullian Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 130, 190
theater, as idolatry Spielman, Jews and Entertainment in the Ancient World (2020) 133
theater, jewish Bloch, Ancient Jewish Diaspora: Essays on Hellenism (2022) 179
theaters, in palestine Spielman, Jews and Entertainment in the Ancient World (2020) 132, 136
tiberias Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 63, 190
tora, as perfect Hayes, The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning (2022) 354
vault Segal, The Babylonian Esther Midrash: To the end of Esther chapter 1 (1994) 137
visual language Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 190, 191
wall paintings Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 230
weasels (huldah) Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 230
weiss, a. Segal, The Babylonian Esther Midrash: To the end of Esther chapter 1 (1994) 137
weiss, i. Segal, The Babylonian Esther Midrash: To the end of Esther chapter 1 (1994) 137
yerushalmi (palestinian talmud) Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 63, 191
yoḥanan, r. Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 63, 130, 191
άψις Segal, The Babylonian Esther Midrash: To the end of Esther chapter 1 (1994) 137