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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



7996
Mishnah, Avodah Zarah, 1.5-1.6


אֵלּוּ דְבָרִים אֲסוּרִים לִמְכֹּר לְגוֹיִם, אִצְטְרוֹבָּלִין, וּבְנוֹת שׁוּחַ וּפְטוֹטְרוֹתֵיהֶן, וּלְבוֹנָה, וְתַרְנְגוֹל הַלָּבָן. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, מֻתָּר לִמְכּוֹר לוֹ תַּרְנְגוֹל לָבָן בֵּין הַתַּרְנְגוֹלִין. וּבִזְמַן שֶׁהוּא בִפְנֵי עַצְמוֹ, קוֹטֵעַ אֶת אֶצְבָּעוֹ וּמוֹכְרוֹ לוֹ, לְפִי שֶׁאֵין מַקְרִיבִין חָסֵר לַעֲבוֹדָה זָרָה. וּשְׁאָר כָּל הַדְּבָרִים, סְתָמָן מֻתָּר, וּפֵרוּשָׁן אָסוּר. רַבִּי מֵאִיר אוֹמֵר, אַף דֶּקֶל טָב וַחֲצָב וְנִקְלִיבָם אָסוּר לִמְכֹּר לְגוֹיִם:The following things are forbidden to be sold to idolaters: iztroblin, bnoth-shuah with their stems, frankincense, and a white rooster. Rabbi Judah says: it is permitted to sell a white rooster to an idolater among other roosters; but if it be by itself, one should clip its spur and then sell it to him, because a defective [animal] is not sacrificed to an idol. As for other things, if they are not specified their sale is permitted, but if specified it is forbidden. Rabbi Meir says: also a “good-palm”, hazab and niklivas are forbidden to be sold to idolaters.


מְקוֹם שֶׁנָּהֲגוּ לִמְכֹּר בְּהֵמָה דַקָּה לְגוֹיִם, מוֹכְרִין. מְקוֹם שֶׁנָּהֲגוּ שֶׁלֹּא לִמְכֹּר, אֵין מוֹכְרִין. וּבְכָל מָקוֹם אֵין מוֹכְרִין לָהֶם בְּהֵמָה גַסָּה, עֲגָלִים וּסְיָחִים, שְׁלֵמִים וּשְׁבוּרִין. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה מַתִּיר בִּשְׁבוּרָה. וּבֶן בְּתֵירָה מַתִּיר בְּסוּס:In a place where it is the custom to sell small domesticated animals to non-Jews, such sale is permitted; but where the custom is not to sell, such sale is not permitted. In no place however is it permitted to sell large animals, calves or foals, whether whole or maimed. Rabbi Judah permits in the case of a maimed one. And Ben Bateira permits in the case of a horse.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

17 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 20.23-20.26 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

20.23. וְלֹא תֵלְכוּ בְּחֻקֹּת הַגּוֹי אֲשֶׁר־אֲנִי מְשַׁלֵּחַ מִפְּנֵיכֶם כִּי אֶת־כָּל־אֵלֶּה עָשׂוּ וָאָקֻץ בָּם׃ 20.24. וָאֹמַר לָכֶם אַתֶּם תִּירְשׁוּ אֶת־אַדְמָתָם וַאֲנִי אֶתְּנֶנָּה לָכֶם לָרֶשֶׁת אֹתָהּ אֶרֶץ זָבַת חָלָב וּדְבָשׁ אֲנִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם אֲשֶׁר־הִבְדַּלְתִּי אֶתְכֶם מִן־הָעַמִּים׃ 20.25. וְהִבְדַּלְתֶּם בֵּין־הַבְּהֵמָה הַטְּהֹרָה לַטְּמֵאָה וּבֵין־הָעוֹף הַטָּמֵא לַטָּהֹר וְלֹא־תְשַׁקְּצוּ אֶת־נַפְשֹׁתֵיכֶם בַּבְּהֵמָה וּבָעוֹף וּבְכֹל אֲשֶׁר תִּרְמֹשׂ הָאֲדָמָה אֲשֶׁר־הִבְדַּלְתִּי לָכֶם לְטַמֵּא׃ 20.26. וִהְיִיתֶם לִי קְדֹשִׁים כִּי קָדוֹשׁ אֲנִי יְהוָה וָאַבְדִּל אֶתְכֶם מִן־הָעַמִּים לִהְיוֹת לִי׃ 20.23. And ye shall not walk in the customs of the nation, which I am casting out before you; for they did all these things, and therefore I abhorred them." 20.24. But I have said unto you: ‘Ye shall inherit their land, and I will give it unto you to possess it, a land flowing with milk and honey.’ I am the LORD your God, who have set you apart from the peoples." 20.25. Ye shall therefore separate between the clean beast and the unclean, and between the unclean fowl and the clean; and ye shall not make your souls detestable by beast, or by fowl, or by any thing wherewith the ground teemeth, which I have set apart for you to hold unclean." 20.26. And ye shall be holy unto Me; for I the LORD am holy, and have set you apart from the peoples, that ye should be Mine."
2. Dead Sea Scrolls, Damascus Covenant, 11.10, 11.14, 12.6-12.11, 12.19-12.20 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

3. Dead Sea Scrolls, (Cairo Damascus Covenant) Cd-A, 11.10, 12.6-12.11, 12.19-12.20 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

4. Hebrew Bible, Daniel, 10.13, 10.21, 11.2-11.4, 12.1 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

10.13. וְשַׂר מַלְכוּת פָּרַס עֹמֵד לְנֶגְדִּי עֶשְׂרִים וְאֶחָד יוֹם וְהִנֵּה מִיכָאֵל אַחַד הַשָּׂרִים הָרִאשֹׁנִים בָּא לְעָזְרֵנִי וַאֲנִי נוֹתַרְתִּי שָׁם אֵצֶל מַלְכֵי פָרָס׃ 10.21. אֲבָל אַגִּיד לְךָ אֶת־הָרָשׁוּם בִּכְתָב אֱמֶת וְאֵין אֶחָד מִתְחַזֵּק עִמִּי עַל־אֵלֶּה כִּי אִם־מִיכָאֵל שַׂרְכֶם׃ 11.3. וּבָאוּ בוֹ צִיִּים כִּתִּים וְנִכְאָה וְשָׁב וְזָעַם עַל־בְּרִית־קוֹדֶשׁ וְעָשָׂה וְשָׁב וְיָבֵן עַל־עֹזְבֵי בְּרִית קֹדֶשׁ׃ 11.3. וְעָמַד מֶלֶךְ גִּבּוֹר וּמָשַׁל מִמְשָׁל רַב וְעָשָׂה כִּרְצוֹנוֹ׃ 11.4. וּכְעָמְדוֹ תִּשָּׁבֵר מַלְכוּתוֹ וְתֵחָץ לְאַרְבַּע רוּחוֹת הַשָּׁמָיִם וְלֹא לְאַחֲרִיתוֹ וְלֹא כְמָשְׁלוֹ אֲשֶׁר מָשָׁל כִּי תִנָּתֵשׁ מַלְכוּתוֹ וְלַאֲחֵרִים מִלְּבַד־אֵלֶּה׃ 11.4. וּבְעֵת קֵץ יִתְנַגַּח עִמּוֹ מֶלֶךְ הַנֶּגֶב וְיִשְׂתָּעֵר עָלָיו מֶלֶךְ הַצָּפוֹן בְּרֶכֶב וּבְפָרָשִׁים וּבָאֳנִיּוֹת רַבּוֹת וּבָא בַאֲרָצוֹת וְשָׁטַף וְעָבָר׃ 12.1. יִתְבָּרֲרוּ וְיִתְלַבְּנוּ וְיִצָּרְפוּ רַבִּים וְהִרְשִׁיעוּ רְשָׁעִים וְלֹא יָבִינוּ כָּל־רְשָׁעִים וְהַמַּשְׂכִּלִים יָבִינוּ׃ 12.1. וּבָעֵת הַהִיא יַעֲמֹד מִיכָאֵל הַשַּׂר הַגָּדוֹל הָעֹמֵד עַל־בְּנֵי עַמֶּךָ וְהָיְתָה עֵת צָרָה אֲשֶׁר לֹא־נִהְיְתָה מִהְיוֹת גּוֹי עַד הָעֵת הַהִיא וּבָעֵת הַהִיא יִמָּלֵט עַמְּךָ כָּל־הַנִּמְצָא כָּתוּב בַּסֵּפֶר׃ 10.13. But the prince of the kingdom of Persia withstood me one and twenty days; but, lo, Michael, one of the chief princes, came to help me; and I was left over there beside the kings of Persia." 10.21. Howbeit I will declare unto thee that which is inscribed in the writing of truth; and there is none that holdeth with me against these, except Michael your prince." 11.3. And a mighty king shall stand up, that shall rule with great dominion, and do according to his will." 11.4. And when he shall stand up, his kingdom shall be broken, and shall be divided toward the four winds of heaven; but not to his posterity, nor according to his dominion wherewith he ruled; for his kingdom shall be plucked up, even for others beside those." 12.1. And at that time shall Michael stand up, the great prince who standeth for the children of thy people; and there shall be a time of trouble, such as never was since there was a nation even to that same time; and at that time thy people shall be delivered, every one that shall be found written in the book."
5. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 15.395 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

15.395. and over these, but under the crown-work, was spread out a golden vine, with its branches hanging down from a great height, the largeness and fine workmanship of which was a surprising sight to the spectators, to see what vast materials there were, and with what great skill the workmanship was done.
6. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 2.409, 5.210 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.409. At the same time Eleazar, the son of Aias the high priest, a very bold youth, who was at that time governor of the temple, persuaded those that officiated in the Divine service to receive no gift or sacrifice for any foreigner. And this was the true beginning of our war with the Romans; for they rejected the sacrifice of Caesar on this account;
7. Mishnah, Avodah Zarah, 1.1, 1.3, 1.6-1.8, 2.4-2.5, 2.7, 3.1-3.3, 3.6 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

1.1. On the three days preceding the festivals of idolaters, it is forbidden to conduct business with them, to lend articles to them or borrow from them, to lend or borrow any money from them, to repay a debt, or receive repayment from them. Rabbi Judah says: we should receive repayment from them, as this can only depress them; But they [the Rabbis] said to him: even though it is depressing at the time, they are glad of it subsequently." 1.3. These are the festivities of the idolaters: Kalenda, Saturnalia, Kratesis, the anniversary of accession to the throne and birthdays and anniversaries of deaths, according to Rabbi Meir. But the Sages say: a death at which burning [of articles of the dead] takes place is attended by idolatry, but where there is not such burning there is no idolatry. But the day of shaving ones beard and lock of hair, or the day of landing after a sea voyage, or the day of release from prison, or if an idolater holds a banquet for his son the prohibition only applies to that day and that particular person." 1.6. In a place where it is the custom to sell small domesticated animals to non-Jews, such sale is permitted; but where the custom is not to sell, such sale is not permitted. In no place however is it permitted to sell large animals, calves or foals, whether whole or maimed. Rabbi Judah permits in the case of a maimed one. And Ben Bateira permits in the case of a horse." 1.7. One should not sell them bears, lions or anything which may injure the public. One should not join them in building a basilica, a scaffold, a stadium, or a platform. But one may join them in building public or private bathhouses. When however he reaches the cupola in which the idol is placed he must not build." 1.8. One should not make jewelry for an idol [such as] necklaces, ear-rings, or finger-rings. Rabbi Eliezer says, for payment it is permitted. One should not sell to idolaters a thing which is attached to the soil, but when cut down it may be sold. R. Judah says, one may sell it on condition that it be cut down. One should not let houses to them in the land of Israel; and it is not necessary to mention fields. In Syria houses may be let to them, but not fields. Outside of the land of Israel, houses may be sold and fields let to them, these are the words of Rabbi Meir. Rabbi Yose says: in the land of Israel, one may let to them houses but not fields; In Syria, we may sell them houses and let fields; Outside of the land of Israel, both may be sold." 2.4. Skin-bottles or flasks of non-Jews in which wine of a Jew is kept are forbidden and the prohibition extends to any benefit that may be derived from them, this is the opinion of Rabbi Meir. But the Sages say that the prohibition does not extend to deriving benefit. Grape seeds and grape-skins of non-Jews are forbidden, the prohibition extending to any benefit that may be derived from them, this is the opinion of Rabbi Meir. But the Sages say, when fresh they are forbidden but when dry they are permitted. Fish brine and Bithynian cheese of the non-Jews are forbidden, the prohibition extending to any benefit that may be derived from them, this is the opinion of Rabbi Meir. But the Sages say that the prohibition does not extend to deriving benefit." 2.5. Rabbi Judah said: Rabbi Ishmael put this question to Rabbi Joshua as they were walking on the way, “Why have they forbidden the cheese of non-Jews?” He replied, because they curdle it with the rennet of a nevelah (an animal that was not properly slaughtered.” He (Rabbi Ishmael) said: “but is not the rennet of a burnt-offering more strictly forbidden than the rennet of a nevelah? [and yet] it was said that a priest who is not fastidious may suck it out raw.” (Though the Sages disagreed with this opinion, and they said that no benefit may be derived from it, although one who consumed it did not trespass [temple property). Rabbi Joshua responded: “The reason then is because they curdle it with the rennet from calves sacrificed to idols.” He (Rabbi Ishmael) said to him: “if that be so, why do they not extend the prohibition to any benefit derived from it?” He (Rabbi Joshua) diverted him to another matter, saying: “Ishmael, how do you read for your [masc.] love is more delightful than wine” or “your [fem.] love etc. (Song of Songs 1:2” He replied: “your [fem.] love is better …” He said to him: this is not so, as it is proved by its fellow [-verse]: your ointments [masc.] have a goodly fragrance … [therefore do the maidens love you] (Song of Songs 1:3).”" 2.7. The following are permitted to be eaten [by an israelite]:milk which a non-Jew milked with a Jew watching him; honey, grape-clusters even though these secrete moisture the law which renders food susceptible to defilement by a liquid does not apply to them preserves into which they are not accustomed to put wine or vinegar, pickled herring which has not been minced, brine containing fish, a leaf of asafoetida, and rolled olive-cakes. Rabbi Yose says: those olives having pits ready to drop out are prohibited. Locusts which come out of [a shopkeeper’s] basket are prohibited, but if from storage they are permitted. The same rule applies to terumah." 3.1. All images are prohibited because they are worshipped once a year, according to the opinion of Rabbi Meir; But the Sages say: [an image] is not prohibited except one that has a staff or bird or orb in its hand. Rabban Shimon b. Gamaliel says: any [image] which has anything in its hand [is prohibited]." 3.2. One who finds fragments of images, behold they are permitted. If one found the figure of a hand or the figure of a foot, behold it is prohibited because such an object is worshipped." 3.3. If one finds utensils upon which is the figure of the sun or moon or a dragon, he casts them into the Dead Sea. Rabban Shimon ben Gamaliel says: if [one of these figures] is upon precious utensils they are prohibited, but if upon common utensils they are permitted. Rabbi Yose says: he may grind [an idol] to powder and scatter it to the wind or throw it into the sea. They said to him, even so it may then become manure, as it says, “let nothing that has been proscribed stick to your hand (Deuteronomy 13:18)”." 3.6. If [a Jew] has a house next to an idolatrous shrine and it collapsed, he is forbidden to rebuild it. What should he do? He withdraws a distance of four cubits into his own ground and build there. [If the wall] belonged both to him and the shrine, it is judged as being half and half. Its stones, timber and rubbish defile like a creeping thing, as it says, “you shall utterly detest it” (Deut. 7:26). ] Rabbi Akiba says: [it defiles] like a menstruous woman, as it says, “[and you will treat as unclean the silver overlay of your images and the golden plating of your idols]. You will cast them away like a menstruous woman. Out, you will call to them” (Isaiah 30:22), just as a menstruous woman impurifies [an object] by carrying it, so also an idolatrous object defiles by its being carried."
8. Mishnah, Gittin, 1.5 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

1.5. Any document which has upon it the signature of a Samaritan is invalid, except for bills of divorce or a writ of emancipation. It happened that a bill of divorce was once brought before Rabban Gamaliel at Kefar Otnai and its witnesses were Samaritan, and he declared it valid. All documents which are accepted in the courts of non-Jew, even if those who signed on the documents are non-Jews, are valid except bills of divorce and of writs of emancipation. Rabbi Shimon says: these also are valid; they were only pronounced [to be invalid] when done by ordinary persons."
9. Mishnah, Hulin, 2.7 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

2.7. If one slaughtered for a non-Jew, the slaughtering is valid. Rabbi Eliezer declares it invalid. Rabbi Eliezer said: even if one slaughtered a beast with the intention that a non-Jew should eat [only] its liver, the slaughtering is invalid, for the thoughts of a non-Jew are usually directed towards idolatry. Rabbi Yose said: is there not a kal vehomer argument? For if in the case of consecrated animals, where a wrongful intention can render invalid, it is established that everything depends solely upon the intention of him who performs the service, how much more in the case of unconsecrated animals, where a wrongful intention cannot render invalid, is it not logical that everything should depend solely upon the intention of him who slaughters!"
10. Mishnah, Peah, 4.6 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

4.6. A non-Jew who harvested his field and then converted, he is exempt from [leaving] gleanings, the forgotten sheaf and peah. Rabbi Judah makes him liable to leave the forgotten sheaf, since he becomes liable for the forgotten sheaf at the time of their binding."
11. Mishnah, Sanhedrin, 7.3 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

7.3. Slaying by the sword was performed thus: they would cut off his head by the sword, as is done by the civil authorities. R. Judah says: “This is a disgrace! Rather his head was laid on a block and severed with an axe. They said to him: “No death is more disgraceful than this.” Strangulation was performed thus: the condemned man was lowered into dung up to his armpits, then a hard cloth was placed within a soft one, wound round his neck, and the two ends pulled in opposite directions until he was dead."
12. Mishnah, Yevamot, 8.3 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

8.3. An Ammonite and a Moabite are forbidden [to enter into the congregation of the Lord] and their prohibition is for ever. However, their women are permitted at once. An Egyptian and an Edomite are forbidden only until the third generation, whether they are males or females. Rabbi Shimon permits their women immediately. Said Rabbi Shimon: This is a kal vehomer: if where the males are forbidden for all time the females are permitted immediately, where the males are forbidden only until the third generation how much more should the females be permitted immediately. They said to him: If this is a halakhah, we shall accept it; but if it is only a logical reference, there is a refutation. He replied: This is not so, I am in fact saying a halakhah. Mamzerim and nethinim are forbidden, and their prohibition is forever, whether they be males or females."
13. Mishnah, Zevahim, 4.5 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

4.5. The sacrifices of non-Jews: one is not liable on their account for piggul, remt, or defilement, and if [a priest] slaughters them outside [the Temple], he is not liable, the words of Rabbi Meir. But Rabbi Yose declares him liable. The things for which one is not liable on account of piggul, one is liable on account of remt and defilement except blood. Rabbi Shimon declares one liable for anything which is normally eaten, but for wood, frankincense and incense, one is not liable for [transgressions involving] defilement."
14. Mishnah, Shekalim, 7.6 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

7.6. Rabbi Shimon said: there were seven things that the court decree and that was one of them. [The others were the following:]A non-Jew who sent a burnt-offering from overseas and he sent with it its libation-offerings, they are offered out of his own; But if [he did] not [send its libation-offerings], they should be offered out of public funds. So too [in the case of] a convert who had died and left sacrifices, if he had also left its libation-offerings they are offered out of his own; But if not, they should be offered out of public funds. It was also a condition laid down by the court in the case of a high priest who had died that his minhah should be offered out of public funds. Rabbi Judah says: [it was offered out] of the property of his heirs, And had to be offered of the whole [tenth]."
15. Mishnah, Makhshirin, 2.8 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

2.8. If one found there lost property, If the majority [of the inhabitants] were non-Jews, he need not proclaim it; If the majority were Israelites, he must proclaim it; If they were half and half, he must [also] proclaim it. If one found bread there we must consider who form the majority of the bakers. If it was bread of clean flour, we must consider who form the majority of those who eat bread of pure flour. Rabbi Judah says: if it was coarse bread, we must consider who form the majority of those who eat coarse bread."
16. Tacitus, Histories, 5.5 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

5.5.  Whatever their origin, these rites are maintained by their antiquity: the other customs of the Jews are base and abominable, and owe their persistence to their depravity. For the worst rascals among other peoples, renouncing their ancestral religions, always kept sending tribute and contributions to Jerusalem, thereby increasing the wealth of the Jews; again, the Jews are extremely loyal toward one another, and always ready to show compassion, but toward every other people they feel only hate and enmity. They sit apart at meals, and they sleep apart, and although as a race, they are prone to lust, they abstain from intercourse with foreign women; yet among themselves nothing is unlawful. They adopted circumcision to distinguish themselves from other peoples by this difference. Those who are converted to their ways follow the same practice, and the earliest lesson they receive is to despise the gods, to disown their country, and to regard their parents, children, and brothers as of little account. However, they take thought to increase their numbers; for they regard it as a crime to kill any late-born child, and they believe that the souls of those who are killed in battle or by the executioner are immortal: hence comes their passion for begetting children, and their scorn of death. They bury the body rather than burn it, thus following the Egyptians' custom; they likewise bestow the same care on the dead, and hold the same belief about the world below; but their ideas of heavenly things are quite the opposite. The Egyptians worship many animals and monstrous images; the Jews conceive of one god only, and that with the mind alone: they regard as impious those who make from perishable materials representations of gods in man's image; that supreme and eternal being is to them incapable of representation and without end. Therefore they set up no statues in their cities, still less in their temples; this flattery is not paid their kings, nor this honour given to the Caesars. But since their priests used to chant to the accompaniment of pipes and cymbals and to wear garlands of ivy, and because a golden vine was found in their temple, some have thought that they were devotees of Father Liber, the conqueror of the East, in spite of the incongruity of their customs. For Liber established festive rites of a joyous nature, while the ways of the Jews are preposterous and mean.
17. Tosefta, Avodah Zarah, 1.21 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abandoned child Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 154
alexander the great Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 418
amphora Faßbeck and Killebrew, Viewing Ancient Jewish Art and Archaeology: VeHinnei Rachel - Essays in honor of Rachel Hachlili (2016) 176
antiochos Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 418
apocalyptic(ism) (see also dualism) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 418
apostates Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 121
aqiba Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 126, 128, 150
aramaic Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 45, 265
asherot Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 128
balnea Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 45
barber Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 154
bath-house Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 154
ben bathyra Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 150
beth shean (nysa-scythopolis) Faßbeck and Killebrew, Viewing Ancient Jewish Art and Archaeology: VeHinnei Rachel - Essays in honor of Rachel Hachlili (2016) 176
birds Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 246
bread Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 154
buying and/or selling Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 154, 246
canaanite slaves Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 154
cheese Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 154
christ, christian, christianity Faßbeck and Killebrew, Viewing Ancient Jewish Art and Archaeology: VeHinnei Rachel - Essays in honor of Rachel Hachlili (2016) 176
damages (injury) Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 154
dead sea scrolls Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 45
demetrios Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 418
demons Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 265
dionysos (dionysus), dionysiac Faßbeck and Killebrew, Viewing Ancient Jewish Art and Archaeology: VeHinnei Rachel - Essays in honor of Rachel Hachlili (2016) 176
dog-(food) Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 246
dualism, dualist(ic) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 418
dvorjetski, estēe Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 265
dēmosios (dēmosin) Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 45
eleazar Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 128
eleazar b. azariah Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 128
eliezer b. jacob Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 150
elmslie, w. Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 246
epstein, j. Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 126
essenes (see also qumran) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 284
fire Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 265
food laws Eckhardt, Jewish Identity and Politics Between the Maccabees and Bar Kokhba: Groups, Normativity, and Rituals (2011) 79
gamliel, rabban (also gamaliel) Fonrobert and Jaffee, The Cambridge Companion to the Talmud and Rabbinic Literature Cambridge Companions to Religion (2007) 247
gentile Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 418
gentile christians / gentile churches Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 284
gentiles Eckhardt, Jewish Identity and Politics Between the Maccabees and Bar Kokhba: Groups, Normativity, and Rituals (2011) 79; Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 121
greece Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 418
greek, ethnos Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 418
greek language Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 45
halbertal, m. Fonrobert and Jaffee, The Cambridge Companion to the Talmud and Rabbinic Literature Cambridge Companions to Religion (2007) 247
hebrew Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 45
hebrew bible Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 45
hellenism, hellenistic Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 418
herod, herodian Faßbeck and Killebrew, Viewing Ancient Jewish Art and Archaeology: VeHinnei Rachel - Essays in honor of Rachel Hachlili (2016) 176
hillel the elder Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 284
historical tradition Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 284
idolatry Eckhardt, Jewish Identity and Politics Between the Maccabees and Bar Kokhba: Groups, Normativity, and Rituals (2011) 79; Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 284
idols, food offered to Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 418
index of subjects, shammaite) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 284
interior and structure, names of Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 45
jerusalem Faßbeck and Killebrew, Viewing Ancient Jewish Art and Archaeology: VeHinnei Rachel - Essays in honor of Rachel Hachlili (2016) 176
jews, of babylonia Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 45
krauss, samuel Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 265
mesopotamia Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 45
mishnah Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 45
mixing Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 121
neusner, jacob Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 265
oral or written ~ Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 284
oral tradition Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 284
pagan, paganism Faßbeck and Killebrew, Viewing Ancient Jewish Art and Archaeology: VeHinnei Rachel - Essays in honor of Rachel Hachlili (2016) 176
palestine (syria palaestina) Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 265
passover haggada Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 45
paul (saul) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 284, 418
persia, parthians, sasanian Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 45, 265
pharisaic tradition/halakha Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 284
proselyte, proselytism Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 284
proselytes Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 121
purity/impurity Eckhardt, Jewish Identity and Politics Between the Maccabees and Bar Kokhba: Groups, Normativity, and Rituals (2011) 79
qumran documents Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 284, 418
qumran halakha Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 284
r. eliezer shammaite Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 284
rabbinic literature Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 45
rabbinic midrash Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 45
rabbinic tradition/literature, halakha Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 284
rabbis, coining new names and categories Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 45, 265
rabbis, multilinguals Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 45
sabbath Eckhardt, Jewish Identity and Politics Between the Maccabees and Bar Kokhba: Groups, Normativity, and Rituals (2011) 79
sacrifice Eckhardt, Jewish Identity and Politics Between the Maccabees and Bar Kokhba: Groups, Normativity, and Rituals (2011) 79
shammai, school Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 284
shammai (see also subject index) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 284
slaughter Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 284
synagogue' Faßbeck and Killebrew, Viewing Ancient Jewish Art and Archaeology: VeHinnei Rachel - Essays in honor of Rachel Hachlili (2016) 176
syria, syrian Faßbeck and Killebrew, Viewing Ancient Jewish Art and Archaeology: VeHinnei Rachel - Essays in honor of Rachel Hachlili (2016) 176
syriac Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 45
syrian Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 418
temple ~ Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 284
thermal baths Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 265
yerushalmi (palestinian talmud) Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 45